OECD SIDS

BENZENE, C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES

FOREWORD

INTRODUCTION

Benzene, C10-C16 alkyl derivatives (123-01-3, 6742-54-7, 68648-87-3, 129813-58-7, 68442-69-3, 129813-59-8, 12813-60-1)

UNEP PUBLICATIONS

1

OECD SIDS

BENZENE, C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES

SIDS Initial Assessment Report for SIAM 3
(Williamsburg, USA, 13-15 February 1995)

Chemical Name:

Dodecylbenzene and undecylbenzene (isomers Benzenes, C10-C16 alkyl derivatives) 123-01-3 and 6742-54-7 (68648-87-3,129813-58-7, 68442-69-3, 12981359-8, 129813-60-1) United States

CAS No: Sponsor Country:

National SIDS Contact Point in Sponsor Country:
Oscar Hernandez, Director RAD (7403M) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Ave, Washington, DC 20460 Tel : 202 564-7641 Fax : 202 564-7430 E-mail hernandez.oscar@epa.gov

History:

This chemical was assigned to the United States and first discussed at SIAM 3. At the meeting, it was agreed that no further testing was needed. In addition, further information can be obtained from the EU risk assessment completed in 1997. no testing ( x ) testing ( _ ) The information in the report refers to various mixtures of linear alkylbenzenes, which may contain dodecylbenzene (123-01-3) and undecylbenzene (6742-54-7). Manufacturers do not produce dodecylbenzene and undecylbenzene in significant commercial quantity as pure materials. Instead, they produce various mixtures of long-chain linear alkylbenzenes with the alkyl group containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms.

Test:

Comments:

Date of Circulation:
Revised: May 2002

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UNEP PUBLICATIONS

OECD SIDS

BENZENE, C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES

SIDS INITIAL ASSESSMENT PROFILE
CAS No. Chemical Name 123-01-3 and 6742-54-7 Benzene, C10-C16 Alkyl derivatives
H Cx CH 3 Cy CH 3

Where x + y = 7 - 13 Structural Formula

and x=0-6

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This group of chemicals is currently of low priority for further work.

SHORT SUMMARY WHICH SUPPORTS THE REASONS FOR THE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Attention: This chemical is to be discussed with 6742-54-7, 68442-69-3, 68648-87-3, 129813-58-7, 129813-598 and 129813-60-1 as a group of Alkylbenzenes. Dodecylbenzene (123-01-3) and undecylbenzene (6742-54-7) are not produced in significant commercial quantity as pure materials. Manufacturers produce various mixtures of long-chain linear alkybenzenes with the alkyl group containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms. The production of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), a detergent surfactant, consumes greater that 98% of all linear alkylbenzenes. The potential for employee exposure is limited and infrequent. The low vapor pressure and controls utilized for other materials used in the process limits the emission of liner alkylbenzenes to air. Linear alkylbenzenes undergo rapid primary biodegradation in natural waters and complete mineralization by microorganisms under aerobic conditions and in sludge amended soils. Due to their metabolism, these materials possess little potential to bioconcentrate in fish. They do not appear to undergo direct photolysis or chemical change in the environment. Linear alkylbenzene, at various concentrations up to and exceeding their approximate water solubility limits, had no acute effects on all the species tested, except Daphnia magna. Linear alkylbenzene is 10 times more toxic to Daphnids than fish in acute tests. Linear alkylbenzenes are not acutely toxic. Data from repeat exposure, reproductive and genotoxicity studies also indicate a low potential for toxic effects. The levels of both consumer and occupational exposure are expected to be very low based on their physical and chemical properties, use and handling patterns.

NATURE OF FURTHER WORK RECOMMENDED
No need for further work.

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01 mg/L (Alkylate 230) NOEC > water sol.009 mg/L (Alkylate 225) EC50 = 0.12 Melting Point Boiling Point Density Vapour Pressure Partition Coefficient (Log Kow) Water Solubility pH pKa Oxidation: Reduction Potential Henry’s Law Constant ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND PATHWAY 3.1 Acute/Prolonged Toxicity to Fish Salmo gairdneri Pimephales promelas Lepomis macrochirus Daphnia magna 24-96 hr/ EPA 24-96 hr/EPA 24-96 hr/EPA 48 hr/EPA 48 hr/EPA 48 hr/EPA 48-hr/ECC 48 hr/ECC 48 hr /OECD 202.04 mg/L (C10-C13 LAB) NOEC > 0.1 mg/L (C10.041 mg/L at 25°C NA NA NA 7. 2.75 at 27°C 0.08 mg/L (Alkylate 215) EC50 = 0.5 3.87 x 10mmHg) 5.87 mg/kg in sediments downstream from sewage treatment plants Air = 3. (Alkylate 215) LC50 > water sol. Water = 38.2 2.5 x 10-5 kPa at 25°C (4.3 Transport and Distribution Biodegradation Bioaccumulation ECOTOXICOLOGY -- 3. C12. (Alkylate 215. B.1.72-5. (C10-C13 LAB) NOEC > 0.2 Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Invertebrates 4 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . Sediment = 3.OECD SIDS BENZENE.4 2. theoretical) BCF = 35 ----------ASTM D-86 --Calculated GC ---Measured < -45.9%. 230) LC50 > water sol.4%. part 1 LC50 > water sol. 225.7 Lepomis macrochirus Estimated/EPI WIN Level III fugacity model Measured/ EPA Measured/ ASTM 4.6 A. (Alkylate 215) EC50 = 0.34 x 10-4 atmm3/mol) 3. Soil = 54. C14 LAB) 4.4.5°C 251-320°C (various blends) NA 4 SPECIES PROTOCOL RESULTS 6.2 3.0 ug/L in water downstream from sewage treatment plants 0.5 2.1 2.1.2 Photodegradation Stability in Water Monitoring Data ---Measured/ EPA/TSCA Measured Measured <1% photodegradation in water after 14 days (Alkylate 215) Half-life 4-9 days (Alkylate 225) 1.3% 56-61% degradation (% CO2.3 2.1 x 102 torr-L/mole (9.1 3. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES FULL SIDS SUMMARY CAS NO: 123-01-3 and 6742-54-7 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL 2.

(Alkylate 215) LC50 > water sol.000 mg/kg (Nalkylene 600L) LD50 = >5.1. (Alkylate 215) NOEC = 0.2 Toxicity to Soil Dwelling Organisms Toxicity to Terrestrial Plants Toxicity to Other NonMammalian Terrestrial Species (Including Birds) TOXICOLOGY 5.) (Nalkylene 500) LD50 = >10.g.82 mg/L (Alkylate 215) LC50 = 71 mg/L (nom.8 µg/L (C10-C13 LAB) MATC = 0.1.080 mg/kg (Nalkylene 500) LD50 = >35.800 mg/kg (Nalkylene 600) LD50 = >5.000 mg/kg (Alkylate 215) LD50 = 28.(Alkylate 215) 48 hr/EPA 96 hr/ASTM 96-hr/ Printz assay 72 hr/OECD TG 201 LC50 > water sol.125 mg/L (Alkylate 225) No data No data 4.1 Acute Oral Toxicity Rat Rat Rat Rat Rat Rat Rat 5.05 mg/L (above water sol.000 mg/kg (Nalkylene 500) LD50 = >2.000 mg/kg (Nalkylene 550L) LC50 > 1.OECD SIDS CAS NO: 123-01-3 and 6742-54-7 SPECIES Mysidopsis bahia Gammarus fasciatus Paratanytarsus parthenogenetica Chironomus tentans Selenastrum capricornutum Scenedesmus subspicatus 4.200 mg/kg (Alkylate 230) LD50 = ~2. (Alkylate 215) No toxicity up to water sol.1.2 Toxicity to Microorganisms Chronic Toxicity to Fish Chronic Toxicity to Aquatic Invertebrates (Daphnia) BENZENE.3 Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit --- 4.200 mg/kg (Alkylate 225) LD50 = 20.6. Algae Brachydanio rerio Daphnia magna 84/449/EEC OECD TG 203 21 days/ EPA/ASTM 14 days --- Chironomus tentans 4.200 mg/kg (Alkylate 225) LD50 = >10.(C10-C13 LAB) NOEC > 57.3 Toxicity to Aquatic Plants e. LAB.3 -- -- No data Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality Acute lethality LD50 = 17.5.200 mg/kg (Alkylate 215) LD50 = >10.800 mg/kg (Alkylate 230) LD50 = >34.4 4.000 mg/kg (Nalkylene 600L) 5 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . C10-C13) No data NOEC > water sol.6.5.1 4.0075 mg/L (Alkylate 215) MATC = 0.2 Acute Inhalation Toxicity Acute Dermal Toxicity Rat Rat 5.) (Euro. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES PROTOCOL 96 hr/ASTM RESULTS LC50 > water sol.000 mg/kg (Nalkylene 500) LD50 = >5.1 4. Com. (Alkylate 225) EC50 > water sol.013 mg/L (Alkylate 230) MATC > 0.6.

slight. irritating (Alkylate 225) 11.4 (Nalkylene 600) 3. (Alkylate 215) 14. non-irritating (Nalkylene 550L) 0 of 205 sensitized (Alkylate 215) 0 of 20 sensitized (C10-C13 LAB) NOAEL = 100 mg/m3 (Alkylate 215) NOAEL = 102 mg/m3 (Alkylate 215) NOAEL < 2500 ppm (Alkylate 215) NOAEL = 29 mg/m3 (Alkylate 225) NOAEL < 32 mg/m3 (Alkylate 230) 5.8/110.6 (Nalkylene 500) 4. slight. irritating (Alkylate 230) 2.0. non-irritating (Nalkylene 600) 0. non-irritating (Nalkylene 500) 0.5 (Nalkylene 600L) 2.4 Skin Sensitization Repeated Dose Toxicity Human Guinea pig Rat BENZENE. mod. inhal.6 (Nalkylene 500) 2. slight. inhal.8/8. Non-Bacterial In Vitro Test Chinese hamster ovary cells Chinese hamster ovary cells Chinese hamster ovary cells 5. (Alkylate 215) 3.7.3./ EPA/TSCA 14 wk. bone marrow Rat. undiluted Draize (1 hr) Draize (1 hr) Draize (1 hr) Draize (1 hr) Draize (24 hr) Draize (3 hr) Draize NG OECD TG 406 4-wk. inhal. irritating (Alkylate 225) 3. slight./ EPA/TSCA RESULTS LD50 = >2. irritating (Alkylate 230) 3.4/110./ EPA/TSCA 4 wk. dietary/ EPA/TSCA 4 wk. mod. bone Negative (Alkylate 225) 6 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .6 (Nalkylene 550L) Primary irritant in 149/205 individuals (Alkylate 215) 20. irritating. irritating. inhal.2 Eye Irritation Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit 5. Genetic Toxicity In Vitro Bacterial Test (Gene mutation) Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella typhimurium Ames test/ EPA/TSCA Ames test/ EPA/TSCA Ames test/ EPA/TSCA Cytogenetic/ EPA/TSCA Cytogenetic/ EPA/TSCA Cytogenetic/ EPA/TSCA Chromosome aberration/ EPA/TSCA Chromosome Negative with and without activation (Alkylate 215) Negative with and without activation (Alkylate 225) Negative with and without activation (Alkylate 230) Negative with and without activation (Alkylate 215) Negative with and without activation (Alkylate 225) Negative with and without activation (Alkylate 230) Negative (Alkylate 215) B.8/110.0.6 Genetic Toxicity In Vivo Rat.2.6/8.0./ EPA/TSCA 4 wk.0.1 Skin Irritation SPECIES Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit Human 5. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES PROTOCOL Acute lethality Draize (72 hr) Draize (24 hr) Draize (24 hr) Draize (48 hr) Draize (24 hr) Draize (24 hr) Draize (24 hr) Draize (24 hr) 0.2 mL.5 A. non-irritating (Nalkylene 600L) 5.3 5.OECD SIDS CAS NO: 123-01-3 and 6742-54-7 5.000 mg/kg (Nalkylene 550L) 3.2.

8 Toxicity to Reproduction Rat Twogeneration/oral Other EPA/TSCA Enhanced mortality and severe skin irritation effects (hyperplasia and pigment leakage).11 Experience with Human Exposure Human No data UNEP PUBLICATIONS 7 . C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES PROTOCOL aberration/ EPA/TSCA Chromosome aberration/ EPA/TSCA 18 month skin painting study RESULTS Negative (Alkylate 230) 5. bone marrow 5. negative for complete carcinogenesis. but promoting effect reported (C12-C20 monosubstituted LAB) NOEL = 50 mg/kg (P generation) NOEL = 5 mg/kg (F1 generation) NOEL = 5 mg/kg (F2 generation) (Alkylate 215) NOEL = 125 mg/kg maternal toxicity NOEL = 125 mg/kg embryotoxicity (Alkylate 215) NOEL = 125 mg/kg maternal toxicity NOEL = 125 mg/kg embryotoxicity (Alkylate 230) 5.OECD SIDS CAS NO: 123-01-3 and 6742-54-7 SPECIES marrow Rat.7 Carcinogenicity Mice BENZENE.9 Developmental Toxicity/ Teratogenicity Rat GD 6-15/oral Other: EPA/TSCA Rat GD 6-15/oral Other: EPA/TSCA 5.

68442-69-3.94% pure. 129813-59-8. Various isomers are possible since the benzene ring may be positioned at all carbons of the alkyl chain except the terminal carbon. C10-C16 Alkyl derivatives CAS No. and 129813-60-1. 129813-60-1) 1.13 and x = 0-6 Physical State: Degree of Purity : Major Impurity : Essential Additives : liquid Linear alkylbenzene mixtures are typically 87. (isomers 68648-87-3. LAB. 129813-59-8. Alkylate 229. IDENTITY Commercially available LAB is a mixture of substances composed of a benzene ring attached to a single chain of carbon atoms. Impurities include dialkyltetralins and isoalkylbenzenes. manufacturers of these materials are: 68648-87-3. Molecular Formula : C6H5 CnH2n+1 (n = 10-16) Structural Formula : H (CH2)x H3C (CH2)y CH3 Where x + y = 7. Detergent Alkylate. Not applicable 8 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . C10-C16 Alkyl derivatives Linear alkylbenzenes. Nalkylene 600. Name : Synonyms: Benzene. NOTE: CAS Nos. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES SIDS INITIAL ASSESSMENT REPORT (SIAR) Benzene. Alkylate 215. Nalkylene 580L. 6742-54-7 (undecylbenzene). The CAS registry numbers used by U. Nalkylene 550L. Nalkylene 500L. 129813-59-8. Alkylate 230. The number of carbons per alkyl chain ranges for any given product from ten to sixteen. 129813-58-7. Nalkylene 575L. 68442-69-3.OECD SIDS BENZENE. Nalkylene 500. and Alkylate CAS Numbers: 123-01-3 (dodecylbenzene). 129813-58-7. 129813-58-7. 68442-69-3. Nalkylene 600L.S. 123013 and 6742547. Alkylate 225. 129813-60-1. for mixtures used by manufacturers are: 68648-87-3.

1%C13. 40%C12. 50%C13. 7. <1%C14) Alkylate 229 (<1%C9. unpub. <1%C14) 6.5°C Vista. <1%C10. 1%C14) N-600L (<1%C9. 16%C10. unpub. 7%C13. ABC 27560 5. 39%C11. Alkylate 225 (<1%C9. 1991 135. <1%C15) N-500 (1%C9. unpub.6% C11. ABC 27561 Water Solubility: Partition Coefficient (Log POW): Flash Point: Henry’s Law Constant 0. Monsanto. 25%C11. Vapour Pressure: Alkylate 215 (<1%C9.72-5. 2% C11. 16%C10. 1.5 x 10-5 kPa ( 25°C) (4.87 x 10 mmHg) -4 Monsanto Rept.6% C14.1%C10. 36. calc. 1%C13.C15) Alkylate 230 (1%C10. 23%C12. <1%. 25%C14. 7%C10.041 mg/L (25°C) Monsanto Rept. 43% C11.34 x 10-4 atm-m3/mol Monsanto.2%C13. 45. ES-81-SS-41 UNEP PUBLICATIONS 9 . 9.) Gledhill et al. 1991 279-295°C (101 kPa) 277-309°C (101 kPa) 279-292°C (101 kPa) 279-292°C (101 kPa) 289-307°C (101 kPa) Monsanto. 1% C15) 251-320°C (101 kPa) Huntsman.OECD SIDS Physical-chemical properties Melting Point: Boiling Point: Alkylate 215 (<1%C9. 19%C13. 16%C12..4%C12.75 (27°C. Dixie Services.137 °C Monsanto. 48%C12. 31%C12. <1%C14) BENZENE. 40%C12. 1%C11. unpub. 50%C13. 21%C10. 9. unpub. 1991 Dixie Services. 30%C14. 43%C11. 1991 Huntsman. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES <45.

OECD SIDS 2. Use of improved tower scrubbers assures that potential spray drying release is small. flooring and functional fluid industries. 1991)).S.2 Environmental Fate Using EPIWIN model version 3. Any wastes or spills generated during manufacture are collected and incinerated or placed in landfills.87 mg/kg for receiving waters and sediments. and soil partitioning measurements (2.3 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 1% C13. The low vapor pressure of LAB and the controls used in its manufacture limit its emission to air. that when equal distribution is assumed.5 x 10-5 kPa at 25°C. municipal wastewater treatment plants. respectively (Gledhill et al. all-purpose cleaners and industrial cleaners.1. LAB also finds minor use in the paper. Monsanto Report ABC 27560). Concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 1 µg/L and non-detectable to 0. a detergent surfactant.2 x 104. Aqueous solubility (0. 16% C10. Monsanto Report ABC 27561] suggests minimal environmental entry to the air from holding tanks and spray drying of powdered detergents. Monsanto Report ABC-27561).1 Environmental Exposure and Fate 2. heavy-duty liquid and powder laundry detergents. Monsanto Study ES-81-SS-41) indicate that linear alkylbenzenes are distributed in the air and adsorbed to soil or sediment.9 38. level III fugacity modeling was performed (U.1 Environmental Exposure Detergent manufacture and non-detergent-related usage releases minor amounts of linear alkylbenzene to water.4 54.10. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Greater than 98% of all LAB is used as an intermediate in the production of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The specific plants studied were chosen because they were situated on small streams that provided low dilution of plant effluents. 43% C11. The potential for employee exposure is limited and infrequent. the linear alkylbenzenes would distribute in the general environment in the following pattern: Compartment Air Water Soil Sediment 10 Percent Distribution 3.4 3. Model results estimated. LAS is used in light-duty liquid dishwashing compounds. 2.1. vapor pressure (6. GENERAL INFORMATION ON EXPOSURE BENZENE. Consumers may be exposed to small amounts of residual LAB in the LAS contained in these products. EPA..041 mg/l at 25°C. <1% C14). The low vapor pressure of linear alkylbenzene [6. LAB levels have been measured in receiving waters and sediments around selected U. 40% C12. 2002). 2.5 x 10-5 kPa at 25°C for Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.S.

Data from southern California. 40% C12. 1997... t1/2 values (air) = 6.1 days (Gledhill et al.34 x 10-4 atm-m3/mole. soil. 1991). UNEP PUBLICATIONS 11 . The average half lives for the conversion of LAB to CO2 were: activated sludge.. BP = 2790C (median range of LABs). soil and sludge amended soil rapidly and completely biodegrade LAB.. MP = –450C. Takada et al. 1992.7 and a Soil Koc = 22.) As a result. Grvbic and Vogel. Kuhn et al. = 246. is biodegradable (Schreiber and Winkler. It is also reasonable to assume that dialkytetralins and isoalkylbenzenes are biodegradable since the closely related chemical. Cavalli et al. Sikkema and de Bont. LAS.OECD SIDS BENZENE. Clearly the anaerobic biodegradation of commercial range LAB occurs but at a slow rate (Takada and Ishiwatari. This has been confirmed with a [14C] -benzene ring labeled model LAB compound. 1996a. Henry’s Law Constant = 9.. 1991) and the sulfonated forms of dialkytetralins and isoalkylbenzenes are also completely biodegradable (Nielsen et al. 1990).041 mg/L. that when using the EPIWIN model version 3. Less than 1% degradation occurred when acetonitrile solutions of Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. except desulfonation is not required for the complete mineralization of LAB (Bayona et al.. (water) = 96 hrs.44 in the range of all the LABs..5 days. Valls et al. default emission values of 1000 kg/hr were assumed for air. 1986). This pathway is based on the similarity of the aerobic pathways for LAB and its sulfonate. 1986. 1988. 1988. 1996b). 1989. Holt and Berstein.. Biodegradation Linear alkylbenzenes undergo rapid primary and complete biodegradation in natural waters. Average percent removals range from 69% to >98% for trickling filter and activated sludge plants. Cavalli et al. 1991).4 hrs. WS = 0. the western Mediterranean and to lesser extent... Sewage treatment plants remove most of the LAB that is released in sewage. Tokyo Bay.3. 1986.. Log Kow = 5. Microorganisms in sewage sludge. The average half-life in waters for commercial range LAB was 4. Photodegradation Linear alkylbenzenes do not appear to undergo direct photolysis or chemical change in the environment. Wilson et al. 1% C13. xylene and ethylbenzene has been shown (Zeyer et al. water.10 and entering the CAS number 123-01-3. 15 to 33 days (Holt. <1% C14) were exposed to direct sunlight for 14 days (Gledhill et al. wt. respectively (Gledhill et al. The anaerobic biodegradation of short chain alkylbenzenes such as toluene. show that LAB biodegrades and is not accumulating in coastal sediments (Eganhouse et al. and sludge amended soilThe aerobic biochemical pathway for the biodegradation of LAB is shown in Appendix 1. 1991)... 1983. 43% C11.6 hours. Major et al. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES It should be noted. (soil) = 96 hrs and (sediment) = 384 hrs.000.2. 1992). tetralin. The parameters used in the fugacity model were as follows: mol. 1987. and soil with 0 for sediment.2 to 4. the corresponding structure has the benzene ring on the terminal carbon which is inconsistent with the actual structure as defined in section 1 of the SIAR (the benzene ring is located on any carbon besides the terminal carbon. 1983... 16% C10. the CAS number input is not valid when using EPIWIN and the structure was input manually with the benzene ring being located on the third carbon. 1992). 1990). Cozzarelli et al.

C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Measured LAB possesses little potential to bioconcentrate in fish due to its rapid metabolism.9 x 10–4 mg/m3. 12 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .0 dermal exposure model and oral uptake model described in the ECETOC Technical Report #58. bioconcentration factors in fish range from 35 to 444 versus predicted values ranging from 6. Incidental exposure to LAB may occur during routine manufacturing activities that include: 1) sampling and equipment decontamination. European Union. AIS. 1987. 1995. 2) loading/unloading. Laboratory studies show that repeated exposure to LAB may be irritating to the skin. 1991).2 Public Exposure Detergent manufacturers sulfonate LAB to produce linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS). Inc.1 ..2. Inc.. 1997).OECD SIDS Bioaccumulation BENZENE. draining process vessels. Material Safety Data Sheets provide skin hazard warnings and recommendations for protective clothing for use during handling that reduces the potential for skin exposure. Inc.. 2) rail car or truck loading and unloading. are 45 kg/yr for fugitive emissions and 910 kg/yr for stack releases (Radian Corp. 1994). The low vapor pressure of LAB limits exposure by the inhalation route.2 Human Exposure 2. 1995). 1995). 2.2.000 (Werner and Kimerle. 1-8 hours/day for 100-250 days/year. pump repair and general maintenance.2 x 10–4 and 8. 0. 3. Significant dermatitis among workers handling LAB has not been reported. and Versar.l x 10-3 mg LAB/kg/day for consumer exposure to LAB was derived using the USES Version 1. 1995). Estimated annual air releases of LAB from three manufacturing facilities in the U.25-1 hour/day for 10100 days/year. and Versar. The combined oral and dermal dose was estimated (AIS. and Versar. which are used to formulate consumer products. Further details of this estimate are given in Appendix 2. including manipulating valves and measuring tank levels. respectively (Radian Corp.1 Occupational exposure LAB is manufactured and processed in systems that reduce direct contact with workers..1%) that remain in LAS (Takada and Ishiwatari.S. of approximately 6.. Burke et al. and 3) sample analysis. 1995). etc.300 to 2. Using conservative atmospheric dispersion models (USEPA. Estimated frequencies and durations per worker for such activities are as follows: 1) sampling. Consumer exposure to LAB may occur due to residual amounts of LAB (typical ranges estimated to be from 0.500. A “worst case” consumer dose estimate. 1-8 hours/day for 100-250 days/year (Radian Corp. Gloves and other protective equipment are typically used when handling LAB or process equipment. estimated environmental concentrations from these releases are 2. and 3) sample analysis. 1982.

metabolism and excretion of 1 mg/kg body weight of 2-(14C)-phenyldodecane (PD) was studied in male and female rats after intravenous (IV). Only tissues having a high lipid content displayed some accumulation of the compound and/or its metabolites. Acute toxicity of linear alkylbenzenes in experimental animals Route Species Value Type Reference Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 7% C10. 43% C11.1 Toxicokinetics and Metabolism The distribution. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES 3. oral and dermal administration (Hazelton Europe. Median lethal doses are presented in Table 1. 1994b.200 mg/kg LD50 LD50 Monsanto Report BT 65-3 Monsanto Report BT 65-3 13 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .82 mg/L (Monsanto Report ML-80-71A). PD was excreted principally via urine. Metabolism of PD was extensive with little or no unchanged test material present in the urine. 16% C10. Residual amounts of PD or its metabolites were observed in tissues with high lipid content. Dermally administered PD was absorbed slowly and eliminated principally via urine. Metabolism of PD was rapid and extensive. 1% C13. The results of these studies are summarized below. 48% C12. EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH BENZENE.82 mg/L >10. The LC50 value in rats after a four-hour inhalation exposure to Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.200 mg/kg LD50 LC50 LD50 Monsanto Report BT 65-2 Monsanto Report ML-80-71A Monsanto Report BT 65-2 Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 40% C12. 25% C11. Table 1. 43% C11.200 mg/kg >10.OECD SIDS 3. Orally administered PD was rapidly and extensively absorbed. 16% C10. Intravenously administered PD was rapidly eliminated. 40% C12. 19% C13. typically >2 g/kg) routes. Residual amounts of PD or its metabolites were observed in tissues with high lipid content.2 Acute Toxicity Animal Data LAB is practically non-toxic after a single dose by the oral (LD50 >5 g/kg) and dermal (LD50. but also to some extent in the bile. 3. dermal rat rat rabbit 17. principally in the urine. <1% C14) was greater than 1. 1% C14) oral dermal rat rabbit 28. 1994a. 1994c). <1% C14) oral inhal. 1% C13.000 mg/kg >1.

48% C12. 39% C11. 25% C14. 29% C12.000 mg/kg LD50 LD50 RT LAB No.A.000 mg/kg >5.800 mg/kg LD50 S.6/8. 25% C14. 50% C13. 925621 RT LAB. 25% C11. 23% C12. 925621 Nalkylene 550L (<1% C9. 19% C13. 1% C11. 31% C12. <1% C15) oral dermal rat rabbit >5. 6589-67 CSL No. 202093 Nalkylene 600L (<1% C9. 30% C14. <1% C15) oral rat >35. 7% C14. Draize scores for skin and eye irritation in rabbits are presented in Table 2.080 mg/kg 71 mg/L (nom) ~2.200 mg/kg LD50 LD50 Monsanto Report BT 65-4 Monsanto Report BT 65-4 Nalkylene 500 (1% C9.000 mg/kg >2.0 20. 30% C11.0 14. 20% C13.OECD SIDS BENZENE.000 mg/kg >2.000 mg/kg LD50 LD50 RT LAB No. No. <1% C14) skin eye rabbit rabbit 3. 50% C13.3 Irritation Animal data Linear alkylbenzenes are slightly irritating to the rabbit eye and slightly to moderately irritating to rabbit skin after single applications. 925620 RT LAB. 925620 3. No. 2% C11. 1% C11. time Reference Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. dermal dermal rat rat rabbit rabbit >34. 16% C12. 50% C13. 871188 Nalkylene 600 (<1% C9. 16% C10. 7% C13. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Alkylate 230 (1% C10. 21% C10.000 mg/kg LD50 LC50 LD50 LD50 CSL No. No.4/110 24 hr 1 hr Monsanto Report BT-65-3 Monsanto Report BT-65-3 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 40% C12. 6589-67 CSL No.8/110 72 hr 1 hr Monsanto Report BT-65-2 Monsanto Report BT-65-2 Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 7% C10. 6589-67 RT LAB.8/8. 1% C13. Skin and eye irritation from linear alkylbenzenes in experimental animals Route Species Draize Score Exp. <1% C14) oral inhal. <1% C10. 14% C10. Table 2.800 mg/kg >10. <1% C15) oral dermal rat rabbit >5. 23% C12. 43% C11. 1% C14) skin eye 14 rabbit rabbit 3. <1% C10. 1% C15) oral dermal rat rabbit 20.

No. intradermal injections of 0.4 Sensitization Animal data: Sensitization tests have been conducted on guinea pigs (Hüls. <1% C15) skin eye rabbit rabbit 2. 7% C13. 1% C11. and 1 ml of 20% or 40% test substance (benzene C10-C13 alkyl derivatives in paraffin oil). 2% C11. A second topical occluded challenge occurred about one week later (5% and 10% test solutions for 24 hours).4 5. No.0 11. 23% C12. 14% C10.A. <1% C10. 21% C10. 16% C12. Topical challenge occurred about 14 days later with 20% test substance (under occlusion). 25% C14. 1983). <1% C14) was a primary and cumulative irritant in 149 of 205 individuals tested (Monsanto Report SH-81-1). 43% C11. the test animals (20. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Alkylate 230 (1% C10. 25% C14. In the induction phase.6 0 24 hr RT LAB. 31% C12. 1% C11. 16% C10.6 2. 7% C14. No. 30% C14. 50% test solutions were applied (under occlusion) to the same areas for 48 hours. <1% C15) skin eye rabbit rabbit 2. 6589-67 RT LAB. test and control) received three pairs of simultaneous.A.0 48 hr 24 hr 1 hr CSL No. 925621 Nalkylene 550L (<1% C9. 202093 S.5 0. 50% C13. 30% C11. <1% C15) skin eye rabbit rabbit 3. 39% C11. 50% C13.6 4. 925621 RT LAB. 3.1 ml Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA). <1% C10. <1% C14) skin skin eye rabbit rabbit rabbit 3. 40% C12. 925620 RT LAB.8/110 24 hr 1 hr Monsanto Report BT-65-4 Monsanto Report BT-65-4 Nalkylene 500 (1% C9. 1% C15) skin eye rabbit rabbit 3. None of the test animals exhibited sensitization reactions.3 24 hr 3 hr S. 202093 Nalkylene 600L (<1% C9. No. 50% C13.OECD SIDS BENZENE. 1% C13.7 24 hr 24 hr RT LAB. No. 23% C12. UNEP PUBLICATIONS 15 . 6589-67 Nalkylene 600 (<1% C9. 925620 Human data A human repeat insult patch test found that undiluted Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 871188 CSL No. 20% C13. One week later. 29% C12.

Liver wt. Route Exp. 0. 3. 5000. 16% C10. 97.OECD SIDS Human data BENZENE. body wt. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES A human repeat insult patch test found that Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 40% C12. <1% C14) rat inhal. decreas. in diet for 4 wk Monsanto Rpt.5 Repeated Dose Toxicity The results of repeated dose toxicity studies are summarized in Table 3. 100. 580 mg/m3 6 hr/day. 1% C13. ML-80-58 16 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 43% C11. body wt. and 308 mg/m3) for 28 days. Rats exposed to Alkylate 215 showed similar signs of irritation and body weight changes in a 90-day inhalation study which resulted in a no-effect level of 0. 16% C10. Irrit. respir. exhibited eye and nose irritation. 1% C13. decreas.03-0. 40% C12. Irrit. 20. Reduced body wt gain and food consumption at all doses Monsanto Rpt. 298. at higher exposures. 14 wk NOAEL = 100 mg/m3. Alkylate 225 (105 and 293 mg/m3) or Alkylate 230 (32. of eyes and nose. ML-82-1 rat oral/in diet 0. and changes in organ wts. No-effect levels in these studies ranged from 0. problems. Exposure of rats to dietary levels of 2500-7500 ppm Alkylate 215 (equivalent to dose levels of about 200 to 2500 mg/kg) for 28 days resulted in reductions in body weight gain and food consumption. Repeated dose toxicity of linear alkylbenzenes in experimental animals Sp. ML-80-71 Monsanto Rpt. 7500. gains at higher exposures.l0 mg/L (Monsanto Report ML-82-1). Table 3. 43% C11. No adverse microscopic effects were seen in the test animals. No histopathological changes NOAEL= <2500 ppm. 340.000 ppm. 5 days/wk.1 mg/L. 2500. Monsanto Report BD84-315). 3 Rodents exposed to vapor concentrations of Alkylate 215 (340 and 830 mg/m ). Monsanto Report BD-84-277. <1% C14) was not a sensitizer in any of the 205 individuals tested (Monsanto Report SH-81-1). decreased body weight gains and organ weight changes (Monsanto Report ML-80-71. protocol Critical Effects Reference Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 4 wk rat inhal 0. and enzymes elevated in high-dose females. 830 mg/m3 6 hr/day. No histopathological changes NOAEL = 102 mg/m3. 5 days/wk. 102. of skin and mucous membranes.

. decreas. 48% C12. typh. of males and increas. 7% C10. BD-84315 3. Red nasal discharge at higher conc. 50% C13. 0. 1992 Robinson and Nair. TA1537) CHO (in vitro) Rat bone marrow (in vivo) Negative with and without metabolic activation Negative with and without metabolic activation Negative Robinson and Nair. 5 days/wk. 1% C14) rat inhal. 16% C10. 1992 Robinson and Nair. 19% C13. 2% C11. body wt. (strains TA98. 32. 2% C11. 1992 Robinson and Nair. Table 4. 30% C14. 25% C11.6 Genetic Toxicity Linear alkylbenzenes did not exhibit mutagenic activity in the Ames bacterial assay or in the CHO/HGPRT mammalian cell forward gene mutation assay. TA1535.OECD SIDS BENZENE.. TA1537) CHO (in vitro) Rat bone marrow (in vivo) Negative with and without metabolic activation Negative with and without metabolic activation Negative Robinson and Nair. 97. of males at all conc. 1992 Alkylate 230 (1% C10. 50% C13. TA100. No adverse histopathological changes Monsanto Rpt. 16% C12. 48% C12. TA1535. liver wts in females at 293 mg/m3. TA1535. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 29. 1% C13. 40% C12. 30% C14. Results of genetic toxicity tests with linear alkylbenzenes Test Test System Result Reference Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 105. 308 mg/m3 6 hr/day. 4 wk Nasal discharge and lacrimation at all conc. 1% C15) Ames HGPRT S. 16% C12. 1992 Robinson and Nair. 1992 Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. TA100. A summary of the results of these studies is presented in Table 4. 5 days/wk. 1992 Robinson and Nair. body wt. <1% C14) Ames HGPRT Chromosome aberration S. (strains TA98. (strains TA98. 19% C13. 43% C11. TA1537) CHO (in vitro) Negative with and without metabolic activation Negative with and without metabolic activation Robinson and Nair. Monsanto Rpt. 1% C14) Ames HGPRT Chromosome aberration S. 25% C11. 4 wk NOAEL = 29 mg/m3. 1% C15) rat inhal. BD-84277 Alkylate 230 (1% C10. 293 mg/m3 6 hr/day. typh. 0. typh. 1992 17 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . decreas. 7% C10. TA100. LAB exhibited no clastogenic activity in a rat bone marrow cytogenetics assay.

40% C12. Thus. 1992) and Alkylate 230 (1% C10. the use of high dermal concentrations of LAB. No abnormalities were found in rats in two developmental studies conducted on Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. The test substances were administered orally in corn oil at dose levels of 0. 3. cleaning products is extremely low. 2% C11. The human health significance of a reported tumor promoting effect for a LAB is unclear. 1985). 43% C11.8 Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Depressed weight gains in parental animals and decreases in litter size. 50% C13. <1% C14) at dose levels of 0. The basis of this conclusion is unclear. 30% C14. which would cause severe chronic injury to the skin such as ulceration and chronic dermatitis. 500.OECD SIDS Chromosome aberration Rat bone marrow (in vivo) BENZENE. 1992 3. 43% C11. 40% C12. pup viability. Exposure of consumers via particularly. and pup weight gains were observed in a two-generation reproduction study in which rats were exposed orally to Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. Manufacturers warn workers against dermal contact and provide protective clothing to limit exposure. Furthermore. particularly since the investigator combined different histological types of lymphoma. 1% C13. 5. 16% C10. Prolonged epidermal hyperplasia has been shown to promote skin tumors in mice (Argyris. LAB is unlikely to be a tumor initiator. 1990). LAB is not teratogenic and does not produce selective reproductive toxicity.7 Carcinogenicity One investigator has reported that a linear alkylbenzene (described as a C12-C20 monosubstituted LAB composed primarily of C9 and C10 substituted components) promoted the production of lymphomas in a chronic skin painting study of dimethylbenzanthracene pre-treated mice (Iverson. 50 and 500 mg/kg/day (Robinson and Schroeder. 1% C15) (Monsanto Report BD-84-315). 1992). or 2000 mg/kg on days 6 through 15 of gestation. The NOEL for reproductive effects in offspring was 5 mg/kg. Several short-term assays have found LAB to be non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic. also complicates the interpretation of this study. and not at the low dose level of 125 mg/kg. 16% C12. The only effect observed was a depression of maternal weight gain which was statistically significant at the mid and high dose levels. 16% C10. The NOEL for developmental toxicity was 125 mg/kg. 3. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Negative Robinson and Nair. and the NOEL for parental toxicity was 50 mg/kg. pup survival. The use of excessive concentrations of skin irritants in chronic dermal bioassays is questionable. 125. <1% C14) (Robinson and Schroeder. Comparison of the 5 mg/kg NOEL from the reproduction study 18 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .9 Initial Assessment for Human Health Linear alkyl benzenes do not present any significant acute or subchronic health effects by various exposure routes. 1% C13. in face of the uncertainties introduced by the design of the study.

OECD SIDS BENZENE.1 x 10-3 mg/kg/day (AIS. 1997) yields a substantial safety margin of approximately 820. 1992) with the consumer exposure estimate of 6. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES (Robinson and Schroeder. European Union. 1995. UNEP PUBLICATIONS 19 .

it is highly unlikely that fish would be more sensitive than daphnids in chronic tests.. exposed to Alkylate 225 (<1% C9.. Gammarus fasciatus.. 1991). Chironomus tentans.. The 48-hour EC50 values for Daphnia magna ranged from 9 to 80 µg/L over the molecular weight range of commercial LAB’s sold in the U. The lowest reported MATC for Daphnia magna is 7. Paratanytarsus parthenogenetica. 48% C12. European Commercial LAB (Enichem Augusta Ind. at concentrations up to and exceeding their water solubility limits. Scenedesmus subspicatus) except Daphnia magna (Gledhill et al. EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT BENZENE. Based on the results of acute toxicity tests (Table 5). 1% C14) at concentrations up to 125 µg/L (Gledhill et al. (Gledhill et al.. 43% C11. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES 4. Burke et al. 16% C10.OECD SIDS 4. had no acute effects on all the species tested (Pimphales promelas. In a partial chronic study (14 day duration). 1991). Linear alkylbenzenes are also probably more potent on a chronic basis to Daphnia magna than they are to the other species.1 Aquatic Effects Linear alkylbenzenes.S. 1% C13. Salmo gairdneri. 1991). linear alkylbenzenes are more than l0 times as toxic to daphnids as they are to fish.. Selenastrum capricornutum. 25% C11. In tests conducted on fish (Brachydanio rerio). 40% C12. investigators observed no adverse effects in a study on chronimids. the reported NOEC values for 14 and 21 day exposures were above the water solubility limits of the test substance. 20 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 19% C13. 7% C10. 2001). 1982. 1991). Results of chronic toxicity tests are shown in Table 6. 1991). Mysidopsis bahia.5 µg/L for a 21-day exposure to Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. a typical sediment dwelling species. <1% C14) (Gledhill et al. Lepomis macrochirus. and because they are readily metabolized and eliminated by fish (Werner and Kimerle.

. 1% C14) Fish: Pimephales promelas Daphnia magna 24-96 hr 48 hr 96 hr LC50 > water sol. Gledhill et al. 1991 Gledhill et al. 30% C14.. LC50 > water sol.. 25% C11.. 2% C11. 1991 Gledhill et al... EC50 = 0. 1991 Gledhill et al. 1991 Gledhill et al. 1991 Gledhill et al. 43% C11. NOEC > 40 µg/L... 2001 UNEP PUBLICATIONS 21 . 2001 Enichem Augusta Ind. 1991 Mysid crustacean: bahia Amphipod crustacean: Gammarus fasciatus Insects: Paratanytarsus parthenogenetica Algae: Selenastrum capricornutum Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 1% C13. 1991 Gledhill et al. 40% C12. 1991 Gledhill et al. 1991 Gledhill et al. 1991 Daphnids : Insects: Chironomus tentans Alkylate 230 (1% C10.01 mg/L Gledhill et al. 48% C12. 50% C13. EC50 > water sol. 1991 Gledhill et al..08 mg/L LC50 > water sol.009 mg/L LC50 > water sol.. Summary of acute effects on aquatic organisms Species Exposure duration Results Reference Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 2001 Algae: Scenedesmus subspicatus 72 hr NOEC 50 µg/L Enichem Augusta Ind.. 16% C10. Gledhill et al.. 1% C15) Fish: Pimephales promelas Daphnia magna 24-96 hr 48 hr LC50 > water sol.. EC50 = 0. EC50 = 0. 7% C10. 16% C12. <1% C14) Fish: Salmo gairdneri Pimephales promelas Lepomis macrochirus Daphnids: Daphnia magna Mysidopsis 24-96 hr 24-96 hr 24-96 hr 48 hr 96 hr LC50 > water sol.OECD SIDS BENZENE. 19% C13.. 1991 Gledhill et al. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Table 5.. LC50 > water sol. Enichem Augusta Ind. No toxicity up to water solubility 48 hr 96 hr LC50 > water sol. 1991 Daphnids: European Commercial LAB (C10-C13) Daphnids: Daphnia magna 48 hr 48 hrr NOEC > water sol..

43% C11. if chronic data are available for the most sensitive species tested in acute tests. 1991) are based on commercial range LAB that consists of a mixture of homologs and isomers. 1% C15) Daphnids : magna Daphnia 21 days MATC = 13 µg/L Gledhill et al. <1% C14) Daphnids: magna Daphnia 21 day MATC= 7. 30% C14. If toxicity profiles for homologs of commercial LAB are estimated from water solubility and octanol/water partition coefficients information. 1991 European Commercial LAB (C10-C13) Fish: Brachydanio rerio 14 days 21 days NOEC > water sol.1 Maximum Tolerated Concentration (MTC) According to the provisional OECD guidelines. NOEC > 57. 1991 Alkylate 230 (1% C10. 1995)... 4.5 µg/L Gledhill et al.. 1% C14) Insects: tentans Chironomus 14 day MATC = 125 µg/L Gledhill et al. 1991 Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 1% C13..4.. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Table 6.2 Terrestrial Effects No information is available. Summary of chronic effects on aquatic organisms Species Exposure duration Results Reference Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 2001 The aquatic toxicity data in the literature (Gledhill et al.8 µg/L Enichem Augusta Ind. 50% C13. 19% C13.4 Initial Assessment for the Environment 4.3 Other Environmental Effects No information is available 4. 7% C10. 48% C12. 25% C11. 40% C12.OECD SIDS BENZENE. then the Maximum Tolerated Concentration (MTC) is estimated by applying an 22 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . remarkably good agreement with the observed values occurs (Nabholz.. 2001 Enichem Augusta Ind. 4. 16% C10. 16% C12. 2% C11.

1991)..000).7 to 5 in the activated sludge treatment locations (Gledhill et al.87 ppm/22. Applying these criteria to linear alkylbenzenes.87 ppm (Gledhill et al.075 ppb is used. 1991) exceeded one at all but two of the nine locations. If a very conservative assessment factor of 100 is used.075 ppb MTC is used.1 µg/L) to 1 µg/L.4. 4..00075 mg/L = 0. The highest measured concentration of LAB in sediments near such plants was 0. activated sludge systems.4.000). yields an estimated worst-case interstitial water concentration of 4. the ratios of MTC to the measured receiving water concentrations (Gledhill et al. the ratios of MTC to receiving water concentrations exceeded one in three of the nine locations and ranged from 2.0075 mg per liter/10 = 0. For this worst-case situation. the MTC = 0.75 ppb. If the MTC of 0.2 Aquatic Assessment The highest concentration of LAB in the environment would be expected in the receiving waters of sewage treatment plants whose effluents go into small streams that provide the lowest dilutions.. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES assessment factor of 10 to the chronic value.9 if the excessively conservative 0. or 1.75 ppb/4 x 10-2 ppb = 19. UNEP PUBLICATIONS 23 .0 x 10-2 ppb (0. the ratio of the MTC to the interstitial water concentration 0. LAB concentrations in such waters were shown to range from non-detectable (< 0. 1991).3 Sedimentary Assessment The highest concentrations of LAB are expected in the sediments of small streams that provide very low dilutions for the effluents of wastewater treatment plants.075 ppb.OECD SIDS BENZENE. The total BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) discharged at these plants would result in oxygen-depleted environments that are incompatible with aquatic life despite the presence of LAB. Even if the excessively conservative MTC of 0. 4.0 x 10-5 ppm or 4. These values suggest a low level of concern for organisms in sediments even in situations in which poorly treated wastewater goes into small streams that provide little dilution. These two locations use trickling filter wastewater treatment systems that are much less efficient in removing organics than the more widely used. the MTC = 0.75 ppb is used. Dividing the sediment concentration by the measured soil partition coefficient normalized for soil organic carbon content (Koc = 22.

5. no additional data is needed to sufficiently characterize the health and environmental effects of LAB. use and handling patterns. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BENZENE. reproductive and genotoxicity studies also suggest a low potential for toxic effects. In addition. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES 5. Based on these considerations.OECD SIDS 5.1 Conclusions Linear alkyl benzenes are very unlikely to present a risk to human health. Data from repeat exposure. the low potential for release. results in estimated low levels of LAB in the environment that are of little concern for any adverse impact. LAB undergoes complete aerobic biodegradation and has little potential to bioconcentrate in fish due to its rapid metabolism. LAB is not acutely toxic.2 Recommendations Linear alkylbenzenes are of low priority for further study 24 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . therefore a low concern for both consumers and workers exposed to these materials. The levels of both consumer and occupational exposure are expected to be very low based on their physical and chemical properties.

Moreno. Huckly and D. Transformation of toluene and benzene by mixed methanogenic cultures. 4. I. C. CAS-No.W. distribution (whole body autoradiography). Enichem Augusta Ind.S. and T. 1990. REFERENCES BENZENE. G. 1991 Eganhouse..Saeger. Brussels..178 Grvbic-Galic. 1990. 10:1467-1477. UNEP PUBLICATIONS 25 . 1994a. metabolism and excretion following intravenous administration to the rat. Appl. Lazzarin. Environ. Report No.R. 1997.R.H. J. 2001. Biodegradation study of two standard-models. Cozzarelli. September. Toxicol. 1991. Maraschin.B.M. 1983. CAS No. Grifol... 267-051-0.. D. Cavalli.P Eganhouse and M. Microbiol. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES AIS 1995. Iso-branching of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). Water. Valtorta. 1991. L. 17:523-530. CSL Report No.M. Environ. 6774-74-7. 14(3): 211-258. CRC Crit. Iso-branching of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). Report No. D. EINECS-No. 1985. K.J. Long-chain alkylbenzenes as molecular tracers of domestic wastes in the marine environment. Environ. Rev. European Union. Sci. Bayona. J. Nucci and L. R. European Union.. (now Sasol Italy). Transformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons to organic acids in anoxic groundwater environment. Toxicol. and Chem.E. A. 6589-67 Dixie Services.and M. Inc. Blumfield and I. Hazelton Europe. V. J. Uptake and elimination from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following exposure to [14C-ring]-2-phenyldodecane. Environ. Tox.W. Risk Assessment Report. Cassani. L. Sci. Det. Hutson. Tenside Surf. Regeneration and the mechanism of epidermal tumor promotion. 1991. Chem. P. Argyris. Benzene C10-13 Alkyl derivs. G. Millburn.OECD SIDS 6. T. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. Benzene. Env. Toxicol. Chemosphere 15:595-598. 1995. 1996a. "Alkylbenzenes Summary of Safety Assessment". C10-13 Alkyl Derivs. 16(2): 135-141. Dec. 54142. M.Berna and A.M. Technol. Cavalli. Kaplan. A.L. Gledhill. 1987.M... 53(2): 254-260. 1996b.L. 1986. Solanas and M. Trehy. Consumer Exposure to LAB. 33:393-398. HEDSET Data Sheet. Association Internationale de la Savonnerie (AIS). June 1997. 67774-74-7. Chem. Environ Geol. Vogel. Baedecker. Cassani. R. G.P. Albaiges. 2-(14C)-Phenyldodecane: Phase 2. 54: 167-186. Selective aerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzenes by pure microbial cultures. Burke. last updated 22/03/01.. 1990. Council of LAB/LAS Environmental Research. 10:169 . 1016/2-1011.

Russell. “Prüfung auf hautsensibilisierende Wirkung am Meerschweinchen von Marlican. 1988. Anaerobic degradation of alkylated benzenes in denitrifying laboratory aquifer columns. Hazelton Europe. T.P. Appl.P.I. P. Monsanto Report ABC-27561 Monsanto Report BD-84-277 Monsanto Report BD-84-315 Monsanto Report BT-65-2 Monsanto Report BT-65-3 Monsanto Report BT-65-4 Monsanto Report HL-84-290 Monsanto Report ML-80-58 Monsanto Report ML-80-71 Monsanto Report ML-80-71A 26 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 26(5): 613-624. 1431983. Zeyer. Holt. Mayfield and J. E. M. M. 1994b. pp 3-60. and S. Water Res. Groundwater 26(l): 8-14. C. Britton. Kuhn. Hazelton Europe. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES autoradiography). 1992. 1992. Linear alkylbenzenes in sewage sludges and sludge amended soils.OECD SIDS BENZENE.Environment. Schwarzenbach.L. Turmorigenesis and Carcinogenesis studies of a number of insulation oils and fluids and hairless and SENCAR mice with special reference to skin tumors and malignant lymphomas. 98. Hüls.P.N. Technol.A World Market. 1997.S. Biotransformation of benzene by denitrification in aquifer sand. 2-(14C)-Phenyldodecane: Phase 3. Major.S.L.W. C.” Hüls Report No. Iversen. 1016/3-1011. L. 1994c. metabolism and excretion following dermal application to the rat. Report No. 2-(14C)-Phenyldodecane: Phase 4. Report No. Section E . 3rd CESIO International Surfactants Congress and Exhibition . 1016/4-1011.M.H.F. Vol. Berstein. 1983. Barker. 95-103.Eicher and R. McCormick and G.E. London. 1990. D. June 1-5 1992. Mineralisation of linear alkylbenzenes in soils and sludges. Environ. 54(2): 490-496. 1988.. Sci. pp. distribution (whole body autoradiography).. Holt.. J. distribution (whole body metabolism and excretion following oral administration to the rat. APMIS Suppl. Environ. Nielsen. 13. 31(12): 3397-3404. O. Biodegradation of Coproducts of Commercial Linear alkylbenzene Sulfonate. Microbiol. A. Beall.

RT LAB No. Biodegradation 2:15-23. H. U. Distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates(LAS) in Tokyo bay sediments. Letter from Dr. UNEP PUBLICATIONS 27 . Fund.K. Linear alkylbenzenes in urban riverine environments in Tokyo: distribution.de Bont. available on the Internet at www. E. Appl. J. 24(l): 86-91. Ishiwatari. Acute Toxicity of Alkylate 215 to the Midge (Paratanytarsus parthenogenetica). U. Microbiol. Coastal and Shelf Sci.gov/opptintr/sids/lin_alk/usexposure. Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of a linear alkylbenzene mixture in rats. March 1. Appl. Guidelines for Completing the Initial Review Exposure Report. Ishiwatari. Environ. A.A.V. 540-548. J and J. 1995.Environmental Protection Agency. Vista Chemical Company. 1994.M. J. Estuarine.A. 1990. 15 March 1995.epa. Environmental Protection Agency by Radian Corporation and Versar. Technol.E. 1994. Radian Corp. 1991. May 1. 18:6-10.wpd. R. Isolation and initial characterization of bacteria growing on tetralin. Nabholz. Biotechnol. Environmental Exposure Branch. and R.F. Based on Monsanto Report DA-79-367 Robinson. Toxicol 18.S. Nielsen. Monsanto Report SH-81-1 Monsanto Study ES-81-SS-41 Nabholz. Environmental Protection Agency. and U. USEPA. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Monsanto Report MO-810174. source and behavior.C. Takada. 925620 RT LAB No.OECD SIDS Monsanto Report ML-82-1 BENZENE.S. Takada. and R.. Technol. Toxicol. Sci. 925621 S. Inc. Transformation of tetralin by whole cells of Pseudomonas stutzeri AS39. H. Linear Alkylbenzenes. Sci. 1983. 1995. 21: 875-883. Fund. and R.M. Winkler.S. 1987.C. Schroeder. A. Takada. 871188 RT LAB No. and R. to Dr. E.S. Appl. Biodegradation experiments of linearalkybenzenes (LABs): isomeric composition of C12 LABs as an indicator of the degree of LAB degradation in the aquatic environment. 35: 141-156. Inc. Sikkema. Report 202093 Schreiber. Environ. Nair. Robinson. Ishiwatari and N. Final Draft. 1995. J. and Versar.. 1992. 1992. Eur. H. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery. Final Report submitted to the U.V. Preliminary Exposure Profile. Ogura. 1992. 18: 549-556.

Chem. Toxicol. 20(10): 997-1002.OECD SIDS BENZENE. 1982. Sci.H. Nature 337:722-724. Use of trialkylamines as an indicator of urban sewage in sludges. Bayona and J. Uptake and distribution of C12 alkylbenzene in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Kimerle. 1986. Werner. Environ.. 28 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .. 1991. Kimerle. Kuhn and R. Zeyer. 1:143-6.A. 1982. and R. Vista Analytical Report Vista Chemical Company.F. Environ. coastal waters and sediments.P. E. 1991 (unpublished). M. 1989. J.. 1:143-146. December 4. 1986. Werner. Environ. J.P. Appl. 52(4): 944-947. Report 5412. F. A. G. Uptake and distribution of C12 alkylbenzene in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Microbiol. Toxicol. Biotransformations of selected alkylbenzenes and halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons in methanogenic aquifer material: a microcosm study. Environ. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Valls. Albaiges.A. and R. Smith and J. Rapid microbial mineralization of toluene and 1.F. B.M. Chem. Rees. Schwarzenbach.3dimethylbenzene in the absence of molecular oxygen. Technol.B. Wilson.

C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES UNEP PUBLICATIONS 29 .OECD SIDS BENZENE.

average solution concentration = concentration of LAS in wash solution (1.01 cm x 1980 cm2 x 1 x 2/70 kg x cm3 = 2. dermal uptake = 4. dermal uptake = 1.OECD SIDS Appendix 2 BENZENE. The models used were those suggested in the EU Technical Guidance Document.01) = 1.5 x 10-3 mg LAB/kg body weight/day.0 model) The concentration of LAB in the solutions that consumers are exposed to is calculated as follows: Hand dishwashing. 30 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . Handwashing of Laundry.4 x 10-3 mg LAB/kg body weight/day.5 x 10-3 mg LAB/cm3. These models provide “worst-case” estimates. hand washing of clothing and the use of dishes or other cooking utensils after dishwashing were considered in this assessment because these are the activities that provide the greatest chance of consumer exposure to LAB. Total dermal exposure (1 + 2) = 5.01 cm x 1980 cm2 x l x 1/70 kg x cm3= 3. Dermal exposure assessment during hand dishwashing and hand washing of laundry (USES Version 1. assuming 100% oral or dermal uptake and using the highest values within a range of possible values for each exposure factor. 1) For hand dishwashing. average solution concentration = amount of product used (15 g) x fraction of LAB in product (0. 2) For hand washing of laundry.5 x 10-3 mg LAB x 0.2 x 10-2 mg LAB x 0.9 x 10-3 mg/kg body weight/day. Dermal uptake = Average solution concentration x thickness of film layer x area of exposed skin x dermal uptake fraction x number of events per period/body weight.2 g/L) x fraction of LAB in LAS (0.2 x 10-2 mg LAB/cm3. typical events such as rinsing and wiping which would reduce the level of exposure were not taken into account. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Consumer Exposure to LAB Hand dishwashing. Furthermore.0015) x end volume of dishwashing solution (5000 cm-3) = 4. I.

UNEP PUBLICATIONS 31 .003 g/cm3) = 4. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Appendix 2 (continued) Consumer Exposure to LAB II. 2) Amount deposited per unit area = concentration of LAB in wash solution (4.5 x 10-3 mg/cm3.5 x 10-6 mg LAB/cm2) x fraction of deposited substance ingested (1) x utensils used per day (12) x area of dishes in contact with substance (450 cm2) x body weight-1 (70 kg) = 1. Oral exposure due to deposits on dishes.1 x 10-3 mg/kg body weight/day.5 x 10-6 mg LAB/cm2. Consequently..5 x 10-3 mg/cm3) x wash solution volume remaining on plate (0.25 cm3) / the area of one side of a plate (450 cm2) = 2. cooking utensils. 1) Concentration of LAB in wash solution = maximum fraction of LAB in LAS (0. The assumes that all the residue remaining on the dish is reabsorbed during re-use of the dish and that the substance is then completely bioavailable once ingested by the consumer. deposited per unit area (2. the calculation is very conservative. III.3% = 0. Amount of substance ingested = amt. etc.OECD SIDS BENZENE.9 x 10-4 mg LAB/kg body weight/day) = 6.01) x fraction of LAS in a dishwashing product (0.15) x maximum product use concentration for dishwash (0. Total Consumer exposure estimate = Total dermal exposure estimate (5.9 x 10-3 mg/kg body weight/day) + oral exposure estimate (1.9 x 10-4 mg LAB/kg body weight/day. after dishwashing: A model in the ECETOC Technical Report #58 was used to estimate oral exposure to LAB.

mid (C11-C13). C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Appendix 3 Linear Alkylbenzenes Test Plan Category Rationale/Justification: The linear alkylbenzene (LAB) category is comprised of nine different commercial formulations found in Table 1.(CH2)y .CH3 Where x + y = 7-13 and x = 0-7.CH .OECD SIDS BENZENE. Each formulation is a mixture containing various proportions of individual LABs with the following formulae: CH3 . 2 The proportion of C15 and C16 is < 1% in all formulations except for an incidence of 1% C15 in Alkylate 230. giving a linear carbon range of C10 to C16. and high (C13-C14) proportion of carbon chain lengths. This category uses the “family of mixtures” approach and may further be subdivided into three subcategories based on the percentage of alkyl substituents with a low (C10-C11). Table 1 Assignment of LAB SubCategories1 LAB Formulation C10 Nalkylene 500 Nalkylene 500L Alkylate 215 Nalkylene 550L Alkylate 225 Nalkylene 575L Nalkylene 600 Nalkylene 600L Alkylate 230 21 20 16 14 7 9 <1 <1 1 Carbon Chain Length for Substituted Alkyl Group (Numbers represent percent of total) C11 39 44 43 30 25 17 1 1 2 C12 31 31 40 29 48 20 23 23 16 C13 7 5 1 20 19 30 50 50 50 C14(2) <1 <1 <1 7 1 15 25 25 30 1 The shaded regions create three subcategories by presenting two ends of the spectrum in terms of a higher proportion (>50%) of shorter carbon chains (upper left) and a higher proportion (>50%) of longer carbon chains (lower right). 32 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .(CH2)x . Bolded formulations had available data in all SIDS categories.

The matrix provided in Table 2 is an analysis of the key available data (not all data) on the linear alkyl benzenes. and they each represent one of the three subcategories presented in Table 1. “-“ denotes data are either not available. and Alkylate 230) had data available in each of the major SIDS classes (environmental fate. or are available and are judged inadequate. and health effects). Human Health Effects Daphnid Chronic Acute 4 Daphnid Acute Repeated Dose5 Mutagenicity6 - Developmental7 - - UNEP PUBLICATIONS 33 . Table 3 indicates actual data to support the category rationale.OECD SIDS BENZENE. Shaded areas mark the three subcategories identified in Table B-1. Note that three LAB formulations (Alkylate 215. Alkylate 225. Study details for each required SIDS endpoint may be found in the dossier. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Matrix of SIDS endpoints indicating available/adequate data. Table 2 STEP 4: Matrix of Available and Adequate Data on LAB CategoryMembers1 LAB Formulation Environmental Fate Ecological Effects Fish Acute Nalkylene 500 Nalkylene 500L Alkylate 215 Nalkylene 550L Alkylate 225 Nalkylene 575L Nalkylene 600 Nalkylene 600L Alkylate 230 1 “ ” denotes data are available and adequate. ecotoxicity.

rats. 7 Developmental toxicity study (oral. as well as the repeated dose toxicity tests in mammals suggest a pattern of increasing toxicity with an increase in the proportion of higher length carbon chains in the substituted alkyl group that appears to hold for each of these SIDS endpoints. 6 Negative in vitro (bacteria . and 2000 mg/kg/d). 48-hour LC50s. 3 21-Day No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). Adequate data are available for most endpoints for the three LAB formulations mentioned in Table 1. 34 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . doses of 0. Evaluation of data matrix patterns. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Table 3 Evaluation of Matrix Data Patterns for LAB Category LAB Formulation Environmental Fate Fish Acute Ecological Effects Acute4 Human Health Effects Mutagenicity6 Daphnid Acute Daphnid Chronic Repeated Dose5 Developmental7 Nalkylene 500 Nalkylene 500L Alkylate 215 Nalkylene 550L Alkylate 225 Nalkylene 575L Nalkylene 600 Nalkylene 600L Alkylate 230 1 2 >34 g/kg Not tested Not tested Not tested 56%1 80 ppb2 100 mg/m3 Not tested > Water solubility 7.Ames.61% of parent material evolved as carbon dioxide after a 35 day incubation period). 500. the acute daphnid toxicity results.Chinese hamster ovary cells) and in vivo (chromosomal aberration study in rats) tests. 4 Oral LD50s in rodents. mammalian . values represent NOECs for the following effects: irritation of the eyes and nose and decreased body weight. 5 Four week inhalation studies in rats.OECD SIDS BENZENE.5 to 15 ppb3 17 g/kg Negative 125 mg/kg Not tested 61%1 Not tested 9 ppb2 >5 g/kg 29 mg/m3 Not tested > Water solubility Not tested 28 g/kg Negative Not tested Not tested Not tested Not tested >35 g/kg Not tested Not tested >5 g/kg 56%1 10 ppb2 13 to 23 ppb3 <32 mg/m3 Not tested > Water solubility 21 g/kg Negative 125 mg/kg Percent of parent material evolved as carbon dioxide after 35 days in an aerobic biodegradation test. reproductive/developmental toxicity. acute mammalian toxicity. chronic daphnid toxicity. Similarly. However. Numbers in column represent no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for both maternal (weight gain) and developmental (ossification variations) endpoints. Table 3 presents the data values to validate the acceptability of the category rationale for each endpoint. 125. the acute fish toxicity. Table 3 indicates a consistent pattern of no discernible difference in aerobic degradation among the three LAB formulations tested (range of 56% . and mutagenicity data do not show differences across the tested formulations.

3 Avian INFO AVAIL GLP OECD STUDY OTHER STUDY ESTIM.6.2 Monitoring Data Envir.2 Non-mammalian species 4. METHODS ACCEPTABLE SIDS TESTING REQD Y/N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y/N N N Y N Y N Y/N N N N N N N Y/N Y Y Y N Y Y Y/N N N N Y N N Y/N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y/N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N N Y Y N N N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y Y N N N Y N Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N Y Y Y N Y N N N Y N Y -Y ---- N N N -N ---- Y Y Y -Y ---- N N N -N ---- Y Y Y -Y ---- N N N N N N N N OTHER STUDIES RECEIVED TOXICOLOGY Acute Oral 5.1. 151911-57-8 and 129813-60-1 PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL Melting Point 2.5 Bioaccumulation 3. 123-01-3 and 6742-54-7. As a result. 139813-58-7.4 5.Daphnia 4.Algae 4.7 OTHER STUDIES RECEIVED ECOTOXICOLOGY Acute Toxicity .5 Repeated Dose Genetic Toxicity “ Gene Mutation “ Chromosomal Aberrations Genetic Toxicity In Vivo Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N 35 5.2 3.3 5. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Based on the data evaluation. 68442-693.1 “ .2 “ .6 OTHER STUDIES RECEIVED ENVIRONMENTAL FATE/ BIODEGRADATION Photodegradability 3. 129813-59-8.3 Bacterial 4.3 Biodegradation 3.6 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .Fish 4.5 Water solubility 2. Fate/Distribution 3. Existing data are sufficient for a screening level hazard assessment.5 Soil dwelling Organisms 4. Conclusions/Recommendations BENZENE.1 Stability in Water 3.4 Partition Coefficient 2. we believe that no further testing is necessary under the SIDS programme.2 Acute Dermal 5. it was determined that the available data adequately represents the three separate formulations within the category boundaries. STUDY CAS NO.1 Terrestrial Plants 4.1.1 Acute Inhalation 5.6.1. (isomers: 68648-87-3.2 Vapor Pressure 2.OECD SIDS 5.1.6.1 Boiling Point 2.1.4 Chronic aquatic organisms 4.

9 5.8 5.OECD SIDS 5. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Y Y Y N N N Y Y --N N N --Y Y Y --N N N --Y Y Y --N N N N N 36 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .10 5.11 Carcinogenicity Reproductive Toxicity Developmental toxicity Toxicokinetics Human Experience BENZENE.7 5.

129813-60-1 This information is submitted to fulfill the data submission requirements for the two materials designated by the CAS registry numbers. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES SIDS DOSSIER Existing Chemical : Id. 129813-60-1 Chemical Name : undecylbenzene and dodecylbenzene. 68442-69-3. UNEP PUBLICATIONS 37 . 68442-69-3. 129813-59-8. 6742-54-7 and 123-01-3. The attached Table I of the Appendix details the product composition of the various mixtures which represent the information presented in this submission. 129813-58-7. C10-C16 alkyl derivative isomers Molecular Formula : C6H5CnH2n+1 where n= 10-16. 129813-59-8.OECD SIDS BENZENE. 129813-58-7. Note : The information provided in this form refers to various mixtures of linear alkylbenzenes which are identified by the following CAS registry numbers: 68648-87-3.________ CAS No. : 123-01-3. 6742-54-7 (isomers 68648-87-3. and Benzene.

01 SUBSTANCE INFORMATION : : : : BENZENE.12. DC 20460 Tel : 202 564-7641 Fax : 202 564-7430 E-mail hernandez.1.0 DETAILS ON TEMPLATE 1.1.S. 6742-54-7 (isomers 68648-87-3.1 SPECTRA 1. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.13 and x = 0-6 1. 129813-58-7. (CH2)y CH3 Where x + y = 7. Director RAD (7403M) U. Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. Washington. 129813-59-8.02 OECD INFORMATION : : : United States Environmental Protection Agency Oscar Hernandez. Waite Research Chemist Huntsman Corporation (successor to Monsanto Company LAB business) David Penney Senior Toxicologist Sasol North America Inc (formerly Vista Chemical Company) Sponsor Country Lead Organization Contact Name of Responder : 1.129813-60-1 Benzene.GENERAL INFORMATION 1. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.gov Scott W. 151911-57-8.1 GENERAL SUBSTANCE INFORMATION Substance Type : liquid Physical state : Purity : 87-99% Source : organic 1.2 SYNONYMS Linear alkylbenzene LAB Alkylate Alkylate 215 Alkylate 225 Alkylate 229 Alkylate 230 Detergent alkylate 38 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .OECD SIDS 1.2001 CAS Number Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula H (CH2)x H3C 123-01-3. C10-C16 alkyl derivative C6H5CnH2n+1 where n= 10-16.oscar@epa. 68442-69-3.

GENERAL INFORMATION Nalkylene 550L Nalkylene 600L Nalkylene 500 Nalkylene 500L Nalkylene 600 Nalkylene 575L Nalkylene 580L BENZENE.6. Council of LAB/LAS Environmental Research.9 SOURCE OF EXPOSURE Remarks : The potential for exposure to linear alkylbenzenes in the real world is very limited. or immediate effects in laboratory tests. September. use of linear alkylbenzene would be categorized as essentially all industrial use in closed systems.1 LABELLING 1.12.8 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMIT VALUES 1.2001 1. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.1 TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION/USE 1.7 USE PATTERN Remarks : By far.10. the major category of use for linear alkylbenzene is as an intermediate for the production of detergent surfactants. "Alkylbenzenes Summary of Reference : Safety Assessment". Low vapor pressure helps to diminish inhalation exposure and proper use of protective clothing for industrial workers limits potential for any skin or eye irritation. or placed on the skin for a short period of time. a detergent surfactant. it is very unlikely that linear alkylbenzenes would produce serious injury or harmful effect.OECD SIDS 1. Relatively high doses are required to induce acute. 1990. Workers manufacturing linear alkylbenzene or other products containing linear alkylbenzenes have very low exposure.6. although the substance can irritate the eyes and skin.7.3 IMPURITIES Dialkyltetralin Isoalkylbenzene 1. especially for consumers because only small amounts of LAB are present in final consumer products.2 CLASSIFICATION 1. As such. (1) 1.5 QUANTITY 1.1 RECOMMENDATIONS/PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES UNEP PUBLICATIONS 39 . 6742-54-7 Date: 25. Even if small quantities are swallowed accidentally.4 ADDITIVES Not applicable 1. 1. Estimates of greater than 98% of all LAB produced is consumed in the production of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

12. These wastes or spills are generally collected and incinerated using approved Incinerator operators.2001 1. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.14.13 STATEMENTS CONCERNING WASTE Remarks : Due to its nearly exclusive use as an industrial intermediate.15 ADDITIONAL REMARKS 1. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.1 WATER POLLUTION 1.G.16 LAST LITERATURE SEARCH 1.18 LISTING E. OF RENDERING SUBST HARMLESS 1.11 PACKAGING 1.14.14. disposal practices are limited to wastes or spills from industrial processing which are minor in nature.12 POSSIB.10.17 REVIEWS 1.2 EMERGENCY MEASURES 1.3 AIR POLLUTION 1.2 MAJOR ACCIDENT HAZARDS 1. CHEMICAL INVENTORIES 40 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .GENERAL INFORMATION BENZENE. 1.OECD SIDS 1.

303°C (90%). 25% C11. 40% C12. 43% C11. Inc. 19% C13.12. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DATA 2. 16% C10. 291°C (90%). The melting point is even lower Dixie Services. 283°C (10%). 295°C (endpoint) Decomposition Method : : Year GPL : Test Substance : Remarks : Source : Reference Monsanto unpublished data Flag : Cited in SIAR Value : : ASTM D-86 277°C (first drop). 7% C10.2001 < -45. 293°C (10%). 6742-54-7 Date: 25.OECD SIDS 2. 297°C (50%).2 BOILING POINT Value : : ASTM D-86 no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 1991(3) 2. 48% C12. <1% C14) At 101 kPa : (21) 279°C (first drop). 4. Dec.1 MELTING POINT Value : Sublimation : Method Year : GPL : Test Substance: Remarks : Source : Reference : Flag : : Value Sublimation Method : : Year GPL : Test Substance Remarks Source : Reference: Flag : BENZENE. 1% C14) At 101 kPa Monsanto unpublished data Cited in SIAR 279-292°C : ASTM D-86 (21) UNEP PUBLICATIONS 41 .5°C : no Freezing Point not attained Monsanto unpublished data Cited in SIAR < -65°C : ASTM(D-97) 1991 no : This is actually pour point temperature determination. 287°C (50%). C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 309°C (endpoint) Decomposition Method : : Year GPL : Test Substance Remarks : Source : Reference: Flag : : Value Decomposition Method : : Year no : Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 54142. 1% C13. Report No.

1.6% C11. 30% C14. 54142.2% C13. Inc. and N-500 (1% C9. 31% C12. 1% C13.5 x 10-5 kPa at 25°C (4. 1% C11.OECD SIDS 2.325 kPa (1 atm) Dixie Services. <1% C14) Vapor pressure reported as 4. 23% C12.1% C10.6% C14. 4. 2% C11. <1% C15). 50% C13. 40% C12. 7. <1% C10.1 2. 16% C12. Report No. <1% C14) At 101. <1%C15) At 101 kPa Huntsman unpublished data Updated April 2002 251-320°C : ASTM D-86 no : Alkylate 230 (1% C10. Report No.87 x 10-4 mmHg) : Measured 1991 yes : Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.4% C12.9 x 10-4 mm Hg Monsanto Report ABC-27561 Cited in SIAR <0. 43% C11. 54142. 1991 (3) 42 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 39% C11. 45. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 21% C10. 16% C10. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. 7% C13. Dec. 36.3. 9.067-0. 1991 (For N600L and N-500 only) (3) Cited in SIAR 289-307°C : ASTM D-86 no : Alkylate 229 (<1%C9. Inc. 25% C14.2001 no :N-600L (<1% C9. 1% C15) At 101 kPa Huntsman unpublished data Updated April 2002 Remarks : : Source Reference: Flag : Value : Decomposition Method : Year : : GPL Test Substance Remarks : Source : Reference: : Flag Value : Decomposition Method : Year : : GPL Test Substance Remarks : Source : Reference: Flag : 2.174 kPa at 21°C : Reid Method-ASTM(D323) 1991 no : (7) Dixie Services.4 DENSITY GRANULOMETRY VAPOR PRESSURE Value : Decomposition : Method Year : GPL : Test Substance Remarks : : Source Reference: Flag : : Value Decomposition Method : : Year GPL : Test Substance Remarks : Source : Reference: 6.12. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DATA GPL : Test Substance BENZENE. 50% C13.3 2. 4. Dec.

2 2. 10:169-178 (4) Cited in SIAR Source : Reference: Flag 2.7 SURFACE TENSION FLASH POINT : Value : : Method Year : GPL : Test Substance Remarks : : Source Reference: Flag : Value : Method : : Year GPL : Test Substance Remarks : Source : Reference: Flag : 135-137°C Cleveland Open Cup no : Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 1% C15) Monsanto unpublished data (21) UNEP PUBLICATIONS 43 . 1% C13. 40% C12. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. 16% C10.L.72-5. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. V. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DATA Flag 2.6.W. W.L. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.68 log (solubility)] 1991 : Flag : Gledhill. and Chem. W. 50% C13. and Trehy. and Chem.E. 16% C12.12. <1% C14) Gas chromatographic determination: aqueous solubility was reported as the sum of the linear C9-13 alkylbenzene GC peak areas.OECD SIDS 2. V. Env. 40% C12.0.1991.. Env.W.041 mg/l at 25°C Monsanto method yes : Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 1% C13.. 30% C14. M.2 . 43% C11. Tox.5 PARTITION COEFFICIENT log Pow : : Method Year : GPL : Test Substance Remarks : Source : Reference: : BENZENE.E. and Trehy.1 WATER SOLUBILITY Value : : Method Year : GPL : Test Substance Remarks : 0.6. 16% C10. Saeger. 43% C11. <1% C14) Monsanto unpublished data (21) 138-157°C Cleveland Open Cup no : Alkylate 230 (1% C10. Monsanto Report ABC-27560 (6) Gledhill. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 1991. Saeger.75 at 27°C calculated [log Kow = 5. 10:169 – 178 (4) Cited in SIAR 2. 2% C11. M. Tox.2001 5.

Tox. and Trehy. closed cup no : Vista Analytical Report (27) 2.11 2. Env.1 x 102 torr-L/mole (9.W.10 2.L.2001 143-156°C Pensky-Martens (D-73).9 2.W. 1991.L. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. V. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. and Trehy.OECD SIDS 2. Saeger.E. Env.12. and Chem.34 x 10-4 atm-m3/mol) for C12 linear alkylbenzene Henry's Law Constant Monsanto Study ES-81-SS-41 (20) Gledhill. Tox.. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DATA Value : Method : : Year GPL : Test Substance Remarks : Source : Reference: : Flag BENZENE.2 x 104 Flag : : Value Method : Year : : GPL Test Substance Remarks : : Source Reference: : for C12 linear alkylbenzene Soil/Water Partition Coefficient (Koc) Monsanto Study ES-81-SS-41 (20) Gledhill. V. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. and Chem. M.12 AUTOFLAMMABILITY FLAMMABILITY EXPLOSIVE PROPERTIES OXIDIZING PROPERTIES ADDITIONAL REMARKS Value : Method : : Year GPL : Test Substance: Remarks : Source : Reference: 7.E. M. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. Saeger. 1991.8 2.. 10:169-178 (4) Cited in SIAR 2. W. 10:169-178 (4) Cited in SIAR Flag : 44 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . W.

Fed.E. 7% C10.1 STABILITY IN SOIL UNEP PUBLICATIONS 45 . 1991 Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. Saeger. Tox.E. Env.1. 25% C11..2 STABILITY IN WATER : Type Rate : Half-life : Concentration Deg. Reg.170/day 4-9 days 100. Saeger. and Trehy. Premanufacturing Testing of New Chemicals.W. (4) Cited in SIAR Flag : 3. and Chem.W. product Method : : Year GPL : Test Substance Remarks : Source : Reference: : : 0. (4) Cited in SIAR : Year GPL : Test Substance Remarks : : Source : Reference: Flag : 3. Toxic Substances Control Act. <1% C14) Photochemical transformation studies of acetonitrile solutions of Alkylate 215 in direct sunlight indicated no significant direct photolysis or chemical transformation. 16% C10.12. Tox.. Environmental Protection Agency. Gledhill. M. 48% C12. 1% C13. 1979.076-0. 19% C13. 1991. 1991.OECD SIDS 3. Greater than 99% of the original material remained at the end of the 14-day test period in both the sunlight-exposed and dark control tubes. and Trehy. 500 ppb 1991 : Alkylate 225 (<1% C9.L. W. 10:169178. V. product : Method : BENZENE. Env.1.L. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. M. 44:16240-16292. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 1% C14) Loss attributed to microbial degradation Gledhill. : Rate constant : : Degradation Deg. W. Guidance for premanufacture testing.2001 direct sunlight <1% after 14 days U. Rel. 43% C11. 40% C12. intensity : Indirect photolysis : Sensitizer : Conc. and Chem. of sens. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. V.1 PHOTODEGRADATION : Type Light source : : Light spect. 10:169178.S. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND PATHWAYS 3.1. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene.

M. upstream and downstream from sewage treatment plants sediment United States 1987-89 (collection date) undetectable (<0.4 Sediment 3. sediment calculated 1000 (kg/hr) for air. (soil) = 96 hrs and (sediment) = 384 hrs 2002 Distribution (%) Air 3.12. (4) Cited in SIAR Flag Type of measurement Medium Location Year Method Concentration Substance Remarks : : : : : : : : Source Reference : : Flag : 3.4 Soil 54. air. V. t1/2 values (air) = 6.. Tox. the CAS number Type Media Method Environ.4 hrs.000. Tox. undetectable to 1. upstream and downstream from sewage treatment plants water United States undetectable (<0. Log Kow = 5. Env. wt. undetectable to 0. that when using the EPIWIN model version 3. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND PATHWAYS 3.34 x 10-4 atm-m3/mol.0 µg/l (downstream) 1987-89 (collection date) 10 typical sewage plants throughout the United States were monitored Gledhill.2 TRANSPORT BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARTMENTS DISTRIBUTION : : : : : Fugacity model using EPIWIN v 3.L. 10:169-178. (4) Cited in SIAR receiving waters.1 3. MP = –45C.. = 246.61 mg/kg (upstream).5 µg/l (upstream). C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. and soil (0 for sediment) mol.E.W.10 and entering the CAS number 123-01-3. and Chem.2 MONITORING DATA : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE. and Trehy. Saeger. Saeger. W.87 mg/kg (downstream) 10 typical sewage plants throughout the United States were monitored. (water) = 96 hrs. BP = 279 C (median range of LABs). soil. Env.OECD SIDS 3. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.10 (level III) water. V. water.9 Water 38.1 mg/kg) to 0. 1991. Gledhill. 1991. M.3. and Trehy. WS = 0.E.7 and Soil partition coefficient = 22.W.L.44.2001 Type of measurement Medium Location Method Concentration Substance Year Remarks Source Reference receiving waters. and Chem. 10:169-178.041 mg/L. the corresponding structure has the benzene ring on the terminal carbon which is inconsistent with the actual structure as defined in section 1 of the SIAR (the benzene ring is located on any carbon besides the terminal carbon.1 µg/l) to 0. W. emissions Parameters Year Test Substance Result : : : Remarks : 46 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. The plants were selected because their effluents receive low dilution in receiving waters (worst case in terms of final LAB concentrations in receiving water). Henry’s Law Constant = 9.3 It should be noted.) As a result. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene.3.

and Trehy. 1991. W. W. (4) Flag Type Inoculum : : : Aerobic UNEP PUBLICATIONS 47 .. and Trehy.2 mg/l 35-day test 56 ±8% (% CO2 of theory evolved) EPA 40 CFR 796. Env. 10:169-178.3100: Aerobic aquatic biodegradation 1991 no Alkylate 225 (<1% C9.L. May. (30) Cited in SIAR.2001 input is not valid when using EPIWIN and the structure was input manually with the benzene ring being located on the third carbon.W.E. 43% C11. Gledhill. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND PATHWAYS BENZENE. Tox. (4) Type Inoculum Concentration Contact time Degradation Result Deg..S.E.12. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 10:169-178. V. 1% C13. 40% C12. V. Tox. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. 2002. 1991..W. model run using EPIWIN (SRC) version 3. (4) Cited in SIAR Flag : 3. Reference Flag 3.10. product Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Inoculum Concentration Contact time Degradation Result Deg. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 48% C12. W. 7% C10.OECD SIDS 3. and Trehy. <1% C14) tested in water Gledhill. M. Saeger.W. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.3 mg/l 35-day test 61 ±8% (% CO2 of theoretical evolved) EPA 40 CFR 796. product Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Aerobic 18. and Chem.L. 16% C10. M. V. 19% C13. M. Tox. 1% C14) tested in water Gledhill.4 : : U. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene.5 BIODEGRADATION : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Aerobic 18. Saeger. MODE OF DEGRADATION IN ACTUAL USE : : : : : : : Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Microbial metabolism is thought to be the primary degradation process for LAB in nature.3100: Aerobic aquatic biodegradation 1991 no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.E. Env. 25% C11. and Chem. 1991. EPA. Env. 10:169-178. Saeger. and Chem.L.

Chem. Environ.E. (4) Cited in SIAR Trickling filter sewage treatment plant Average percent removal 69%.A. F.L. 40 p. Gledhill. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. and Trehy. Env. 9. 50% C13. ASTM Committee E-35. 1982.W. 1991. 1979. V.L. and R.E. product Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE. April 13. Draft No. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 30% C14. 2% C11. 1982 yes 96. 1991. Gledhill. V.5% pure C12 Alkylbenzene Bioconcentration factor was measured as 35 but was calculated from the water solubility to be 6250-6600. and Chem. and Trehy. 1% C15) tested in water Gledhill.E. Saeger. M. Kimerle.092 mg/L flow-through 35 K1 = 12 L/mg/day K2 = 0.. Saeger. V.2001 19. Env. Tox. 1979. 1:143-6.7 mg/l 35-day test 56 ±9% (% CO2 of theory evolved) EPA 40 CFR 796. and Chem. The much smaller actual versus calculated value due apparently to LAB being metabolized and eliminated. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. Tox. W.7 BIOACCUMULATION : : : : : : : : : Lepomis macrochirus 96 hr 0. Saeger. Uptake and distribution of C12 alkylbenzene in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).OECD SIDS 3. (4) Cited in SIAR Flag Type Result: Reference : : : : Flag : 3.34/day ASTM. (28) Cited in SIAR Species Exposure period Concentration Type of test BCF Uptake Elimination Country Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : Source Reference : : Flag : 48 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 16% C12. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 10:169-178.L. 10:169-178. 10:169-178. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.3100: Aerobic aquatic biodegradation 1991 no Alkylate 230 (1% C10. W. Env. and Chem. (4) Flag Type Result: Reference : : : : Activated sludge sewage treatment plant Average percent removal >98%.W.12. Werner. 1991. M. Tox.. and Trehy. Toxicol.21.. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND PATHWAYS Concentration Contact time Degradation Result Deg. W. M.W. Proposed standard practice for conducting bioconcentration tests with fishes and saltwater bivalve molluscs.

61p. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. 10:169-178. 43% C11. W. (4) Cited in SIAR static Pimephales promelas 24-96 hr Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24hr.2001 Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks 24hr. <1% C14) 24. Saeger. Gledhill. Env.L. 1991 yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.1 ACUTE/PROLONGED TOXICITY TO FISH : : : : : : : : : : : static Salmo gairdneri 24-96 hr BENZENE. 1975. 1% C13.. All values are nominal concentrations. 25% C11. April 1975. 16% C10. 61p. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 19% C13. 40% C12. and Trehy. 7% C10. 10:169-178. 72hr. Saeger. 1975. 48 hr values calculated using the probit method. Gledhill. 96 hr LC50 > water solubility EPA.W. 1991.E. 1991. Env. M. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 72 hr and 96 hr values calculated using the binomial method. 96 hr LC50 > water solubility EPA.E.W. 1991 yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. Env. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. April 1975. (4) Cited in SIAR static Flag Type : : UNEP PUBLICATIONS 49 . 48% C12.W. and Chem. 48hr.L. Tox.L. M. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians.12. and Trehy. 48hr. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. 1% C14) All values calculated using the binomial method. V. V. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. V.E. and Chem. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 40% C12. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. Saeger. 1975.. EPA-660/3-75-009. 61p. 72hr. 48hr. Tox. 1% C13. All values are nominal concentrations. ECOTOXICITY 4. (4) Cited in SIAR static Pimephales promelas 24-96 hr Source Reference : : Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24hr. 1991 yes Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. <1% C14) All values calculated using the binomial method. 1991. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. 96hr LC50 > water solubility EPA. 10:169-178. W. All values are nominal concentrations. 16% C10. 43% C11. April 1975. Gledhill.OECD SIDS 4. W.. EPA-660/3-75-009. M. and Trehy. and Chem. EPA-660/3-75-009. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. 72hr. Tox.

A decrease in the test substance concentration was observed within 24 hours (day 1 and day 14). this was stirred for 24 hours and then transferred to a separatory funnel and allowed to stand 4 hours. The lower portion was slowly filtered (0. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. W. Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring NOEC Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : : : : : : : : : Source 50 : UNEP PUBLICATIONS .1 1999 yes European Commercial LAB (C10-C13 LAB. 1991. All values are nominal concentrations. 72hr. Saeger. 1975.L..8) Results: No effects were observed for the concentrations tested. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. 48hr.L. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. 43% C11. April 1975. 72hr. 10:169-178. average alkyl chain length 11. 1975. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. V..2001 24hr. 1991 yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. ECOTOXICITY Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : Pimephales promelas 24-96 hr BENZENE. 61p. Gledhill. April 1975. Gledhill. Tox. but the daily renewal of test solutions guaranteed the exposure to the test substance. EPA-660/3-75-009. and Trehy. 50% C13. 96 hr LC50 > water solubility EPA. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 10:169-178. 61p. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. (4) Cited in SIAR static Lepomis macrochirus 24-96 hr Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24hr.W. Env. Tox. 30% C14. Env. 1991.E. 96 hr LC50 > water solubility EPA. All values are nominal concentrations. Test conditions: 1 g/L of LAB was added to reconstituted water. EPA-660/3-75-009. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. Analytical determinations were performed by GC at t=0 and t=24 on day 1 and day 14.12.111. 1991 yes Alkylate 230 (1% C10. The test was performed with duplicate test vessels and a control in semi-static conditions with daily renewal of test and control solutions. and Trehy. 48hr. 16% C10. 1% C15) All values calculated using the binomial method. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. 2% C11. V. C.OECD SIDS 4. 1% C13. 40% C12. and Chem.E. Saeger. <1% C14) All values calculated using the moving average method.45 um HV Millipore) and used for testing and for dilutions (2:1 and 1:1). M. (4) Cited in SIAR semi-static Brachydanio rerio 14 days yes > water solubility European Directive 84/449/EEC. M. and Chem. W. 16% C12. Both the LOEC and NOEC were higher than the solubility concentration.W.

6774-74-7. Benzene C10-13 Alkyl derivs. EPA-660/3-75-009. Results: No effects were observed for C10-C13 LAB or the other test substances within 21 days at the concentrations tested.2001 HEDSET Data Sheet.. The method selected is determined by the characteristics of the database. W.2 ACUTE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES : : : : : : : : : : : static Daphnia magna 48 hr mg/L based on nominal concentration 0. 6774-74-7. Test conditions: Acetone was used as a solvent (final concentration < 100 ug/L). EINECS-No. which were far above or close (pheny-C18) to the solubility limits. Tox. Mean concentrations (ug/L) were: C10-C13 LAB. In order of preference: moving average angle analysis. (now Sasol Italy). and binomial probability. Benzene C10-13 Alkyl derivs. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. EINECS-No.E. Env. (now Sasol Italy). Analytical determinations were performed daily by GCMS. and Trehy. V. HEDSET Data Sheet. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. probit analysis..08 mg/L (48 hr). April 1975. Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring EC50 Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring EC50 : : : : : : : UNEP PUBLICATIONS 51 . phenyl-C18. 1991. Saeger. M. CAS-No. CAS-No. average alkyl chain length 11. 78. phenyl-C12 (C12-LAB). 6742-54-7 Date: 25. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. and Chem.7. (4) Cited in SIAR static Daphnia magna 48 hr mg/L based on nominal concentration 0.L. Prepared by Enichem Augusta Ind. 43% C11.OECD SIDS 4. and phenyl-C18. 1% C13.009 mg/L (48 hr).12. Duplicate vessels for test solutions and solvent controls were used in a flow through test. The computer identifies which is the most preferred statistical method and performs the analysis.8).8. 57. 16% C10.W. ECOTOXICITY Reference : BENZENE. EPA. 10:169-178. 61p. 267-051-0.7. 1975.111. 40% C12.8 ug/L OECD Guideline 203 2000 yes European Commercial LAB (C10-C13 LAB. last updated 22/03/01 Updated April 2002 Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring NOEC Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : : : : : : : : : Source Reference : : Flag : 4. 7.. last updated 22/03/01 Updated April 2002 flow through Brachydanio rerio 21 days micrograms per liter yes > 57. phenyl-C10 (C10-LAB). 353. phenyl-C10 (C10-LAB). 1991 no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.8. 267-051-0. phenyl-C12 (C12-LAB). Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. <1% C14) A computer program was used to calculate the LC50 through three options. Gledhill. Prepared by Enichem Augusta Ind.

.L. Tox. and Trehy. and Trehy. M. W.W.E. The method selected is determined by the characteristics of the database. 1975. and Chem. 1991. ECOTOXICITY Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : : BENZENE. 19% C13. The method selected is determined by the characteristics of the database. 43% C11. Gledhill. 10:169-178. April 1975.L. 1% C13. 1991. Env. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.12. <1% C14) Gledhill. and Trehy. 1991 yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. Env. 30% C14. 1991 no Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 10:169-178. and Chem.W. In order of preference: moving average angle analysis. Tox. 7% C10. and Chem. Macroinvetebrates and Amphibians. 1980. The computer identifies which is the most preferred statistical method and performs the analysis. and binomial probability.01 mg/L (48 hr) EPA. 1991 no Alkylate 230 (1% C10. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. Saeger.E. W. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. 61p. M. 61p. 25% C11. W. 16% C12. 2% C11. 1975. (4) Cited in SIAR static Mysidopsis bahia (Crustacea) Source Reference : : Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring EC50 Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : : : : : : : : : Source Reference : : Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 MATC Method : : : : : : : : : 96 hr LC50 > water solubility ASTM E-35 on Pesticides. and binomial probability. Saeger. M. 48% C12. 16% C10. probit analysis. Standard Practice for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests with Fishes. 10:169-178. Saeger. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.. The computer identifies which is the most preferred statistical method and performs the analysis. In order of preference: moving average angle analysis. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene.2001 EPA. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene.E. V.L.W. EPA-660/3-75-009. (4) Cited in SIAR static Gammarus fasciatus (Crustacea) Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : Flag Type Species Exposure period 52 : : : : UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 1991.. EPA-660/3-75-009. 1% C14) A computer program was used to calculate the LC50 through three options. 50% C13. probit analysis. Gledhill. April 1975. 40% C12. V. 1% C15) A computer program was used to calculate the LC50 through three options. 25p. Standard Practice E729-80. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. (4) Cited in SIAR static Daphnia magna 48 hr mg/L based on nominal concentration 0. Env. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. V.OECD SIDS 4. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. Tox.

E. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. 16% C10. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 1975. Env. (18) Cited in SIAR static Chironomus tentans (Insecta) 96 hr LC50 > water solubility ASTM E-35 on Pesticides. <1% C14) Gledhill. <1% C14) Monsanto Report # MO810174. W. M. and Trehy. and Chem. 1991. and Chem. 1980. 16% C10.W. UNEP PUBLICATIONS 53 ..E.OECD SIDS 4. 1991. 43% C11. Standard Practice E729-80. 10:169-178. 61p. W. 16% C10. V. 40% C12. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish.W. Saeger. 25p.L. no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. (4) Cited in SIAR static Paratanytarsus parthenogenetica (Insecta) Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 MATC Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 MATC Method : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 48 hr LC50 > water solubility EPA. V. 40% C12. Standard Practice for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests with Fishes. 43% C11. Tox. Acute Toxicity of Alkylate 215 to the Midge (Paratanytarsus parthenogenetica).L. 1% C13. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.12. M. Env. 1% C13. Macroinvetebrates and Amphibians. 43% C11. ECOTOXICITY Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 MATC Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE.2001 No toxicity up to water solubility 1991 yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. April 1975. Tox. Saeger. 40% C12. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. (4) Cited in SIAR static Paratanytarsus parthenogenetica (Insecta) Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 MATC Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 48 hr LC50 > water solubility 1991 yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. EPA-660/3-75-009. 10:169-178.. 1% C13. <1% C14) Gledhill. and Trehy.

9. last updated 22/03/01 Updated April 2002 static Daphnia magna 48 hours no > 0. 10:169-178. The n-hexane extracts were combined and analyzed by GC-MS. and Chem. After this time. Test conditions: 1 g/L of LAB was added to reconstituted water. 2 yes European commercial LAB (<1% <C10.E. 127-129. 32. a 2-L aliquot was removed and the solubilized LAB extracted 3 times with nhexane.. 2 1997 yes European Commercial LAB (C10-C13 LAB.. average alkyl chain length 11. 1% C14) Gledhill. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene.9% C13. 1999. 0. M. and 12. ECOTOXICITY Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : BENZENE.04 mg/L (water-soluble concentration) European Directive 84/449/EEC.2001 1991 no Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. Acute toxicity of linear alkylbenzene (LAB) to Daphnia magna. Det. The LAB concentrations tested were: 100.12.7% C12. The lower portion was slowly filtered (0. Analytical determinations were performed by GC at t=0 and t=48.9% C14) Results: No effects of immobilization were observed at the water-soluble concentration.2 L of deionized water and slowly stirred with a magnetic bar for 96 h.8) Results: No effects of immobilization were found at the solubility concentration. 15. C. EINECS-No. V. 48% C12. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.45 um HV Millipore) and used for testing and for dilutions (2:1 and 1:1). 50. (now Sasol Italy). 25. 7% C10. 40. 1991. Benzene C10-13 Alkyl derivs. Test conditions: 4 ml of the test substance was added to 3. W. HEDSET Data Sheet. C. Env. (4) Cited in SIAR static Daphnia magna 48 hours yes > water soluble concentration European Directive 84/449/EEC. Four replicates of each concentration were tested.W.111.4% C10.2% C11. C. 36 (2). 75. Tox. this was stirred for 24 hours and then transferred to a separatory funnel and allowed to stand 4 hours.L.5% of the saturated LAB solution (0. The test was performed with duplicate vessels and a control. 267-051-0. 6774-74-7. CAS-No.04 mg/L). Tenside Surf. Saeger. Prepared by Enichem Augusta Ind. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 25% C11.. 19% C13. Updated April 2002 semi-static Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring NOEC Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : : : : : : : : : Source Reference : : Flag Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring NOEC Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : : : : : : : : : Source Reference Flag Type 54 : : : : UNEP PUBLICATIONS . Verge et al. and Trehy.OECD SIDS 4.

Corvallis Environmental Reasearch Laboratories. Saeger. Benzene C10-13 Alkyl derivs. and Trehy. phenyl-C18 Results: EC50 values were calculated using Probit analysis. EC50 values at 48 hours for all the tested substances were above 100 ug/L..W. 25. 16% C10. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. W. phenyl-C16. EINECS-No. 1978.S. The test and control media were replaced every two days. ALGAE : : : : : : Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring EC50 Method 96 hr EC50 > water solubility Miller.. EC50 values at 144 hours were above 100 ug/L for the phenylC4 and C8 materials. Duplicate vessels for test solutions (12. 6774-74-7. Environmental Protection Agency. C16 and C18 materials and below the estimated water solubility concentrations for the other test materials. (now Sasol Italy). 267-051-0. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. and Shiroyama. <1% C14) Gledhill. E.C. phenyl-C10 (C10-LAB). last updated 22/03/01 Updated April 2002 Source Reference : : Flag : 4. 43% C11.3 TOXICITY TO AQUATIC PLANTS.L. (4) Cited in SIAR static Scenedesmus subspicatus growth rate 72 hours micrograms per liter yes >/= 50 ug/L 100 ug/L >100 ug/L OECD Guideline 201 2000 yes Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : Flag Type Species Endpoint Exposure period Units Analytical monitoring NOEC LOEC EC50 Method Year GPL : : : : : : : : : : : : : UNEP PUBLICATIONS 55 . phenyl-C12 (C12-LAB). yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. Tox. phenyl-C14 (C14-LAB). ECOTOXICITY Species Exposure period Units Analytical monitoring NOEC Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE. 1991. part 1 2000 yes Phenyl-C4. CAS-No. OR.G. Prepared by Enichem Augusta Ind. M. V. 40% C12. U.E. T..5. phenyl-C8. J. EC50 values at 96 hours were above 100 ug/L for the phenyl-C4 and C8 materials and above the estimated water solubility concentrations for the other test materials. Corvallis.. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. HEDSET Data Sheet. The Selenastrum capricornutum Printz algal assay. 1% C13. W. 50 and 100 ug/L). above the estimated water solubility concentrations for the phenyl-C14. Test conditions: Acetone was used as a solvent (final test concentrations <100 ug/L). Greene. and Chem.12.E. controls and solvent controls were used. 10:169-178. Env.OECD SIDS 4.2001 Daphnia magna 144 hours micrograms per liter yes >100 ug/L (48 hours) OECD Guideline 202. EPA 600/9-78-018.

Triplicate vessels for test solutions (25. Proposed Standard Practice for Conducting Renewal Life Cycle Toxicity Tests with Daphnids.5.OECD SIDS 4. Proposed Standard Practice for Conducting Renewal Life Cycle Toxicity Tests with Daphnids. 56 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . phenyl-C10 (C10-LAB).L. EPA-660/3-75-009. ASTM Committee E-35..5 µg/L MATC Method : ASTM. 5. 1991. 1% C13.G. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. EC50 values were above 100 ug/L for all the tested substances.21.1 CHRONIC TOXICITY TO FISH 4.111. Env. 16% C10. BACTERIA 4.5. 61p. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. average alkyl chain length 11. <1% C14) : reproduction and growth affected at concentration of 15 µg/L Remarks Source : Reference : Gledhill.4 TOXICITY TO MICROORGANISMS E. (4) Flag : Cited in SIAR Type Species Age Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 MATC Method : : : : : : : : : flow-through Daphnia magna first instar (<24 hr old) 21 days µg/L All values are measured concentrations. Prepared by Enichem Augusta Ind. V. 10:169-178. 1979. 5. 4 p. which is above the water solubility limit of 37. and Chem.W.6 ug/L. Measured test concentrations (ug/L) were determined for phenyl-C12: Nominal Measured 25 23 50 25 100 48.2 CHRONIC TOXICITY TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES Type : flow-through Species : Daphnia magna : First instar (< 24 hr old) Age Exposure period : 21 days : µg/L Unit Analytical monitoring : LC50 : 12 µg/L : 7. 267-051-0. EPA. September. W. 13 µg/L ASTM.E. 1975. M. 1979. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. and phenyl-C14 (C14-LAB) Test conditions: Acetone was used as a solvent (final test concentrations 1mL/L).2001 European Commercial LAB (C10-C13 LAB. ASTM Committee E-35. Saeger.8). 50 and 100 ug/L) and 2-5 controls were used. HEDSET Data Sheet.21. 1979. and Trehy. EINECS-No.12. 43% C11. 1979. last updated 22/03/01 Updated April 2002 Remarks : Source Reference : : Flag : 4. Benzene C10-13 Alkyl derivs. Draft No. Tox. 6774-74-7. 4 p. (now Sasol Italy). September. Results: No effects were found for C10-C13 LAB at 50 ug/L. Draft No. phenyl-C12 (C12-LAB). : 1991 Year GPL : yes Test Substance : Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. April 1975. ECOTOXICITY Test Substance : BENZENE. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. 40% C12. CAS-No.

Missouri.L. 30% C14.W.6. V. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene.OECD SIDS 4. TERRESTRIAL SPECIES BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS MONITORING : : : LABs Receiving water and sediments near 10 sewage treatment plants A safety assessment of LAB indicates that it has little potential to bioconcentrate in fish due to rapid metabolism. and Chem.12. 1991. Monsanto Environmental Sciences Report No. true bioavailability (soluble LAB) was not established by separate determination of adsorbed and soluble material for effluent and receiving water samples. M. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. and Trehy. Louis. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 1975. Aerobic biodegradation and sediment partitioning further downstream would continue to lessen the bioavailabiltiy of LAB. Methods for Acute Toxicity Tests with Fish. R. R. St.L.J. 50% C13.6. 1% C15) reproduction and growth affected at concentration of 23 µg/L Gledhill. W. 10:169-178.3 4. Test Substance System studied Remarks Source : UNEP PUBLICATIONS 57 . April 1975.W.. MIC Environmental Assessment Method for Conducting 14-day Water Exposure Partial Life Cycle Toxicity Tests With the Midge Chironomus tentans. Gledhill.2 TOXICITY TO TERRESTRIAL PLANTS 4. W. 2% C11.6. Env. 10:169-178.7 TOXICITY TO OTHER NON-MAMM. Safety margins were calculated for all of the monitored sites. and Chem. Kimerle. M. and Trehy. Tox. (4) Cited in SIAR Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : Flag : 4. (4) Cited in SIAR Flag : Type Species Exposure period Unit Analytical monitoring LC50 MATC Method : : : : : : : : flow-through Chironomus tentans (Insecta) 14-day µg/l No effects on survival or growth were observed up to and including the highest concentration (measured as 125 µg/l) Mosher.E. W. 25% C11. Macroinvertebrates and Amphibians. 7% C10.G. 48% C12. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. Values reported are considered worst case because data were collected in close proximity to sewage outfalls and from receiving waters providing low dilution for sewage effluents.. and ranged from 8 to >75 for receiving waters and from 190 to >1650 for sediments. 1982 no Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 61p.E.. and Adams. ECOTOXICITY BENZENE. Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : yes Alkylate 230 (1% C10.2001 EPA. 1991.1 TOXICITY TO SOIL DWELLING ORGANISMS 4. Saeger. 1% C14) Test was a 14-day partial chronic study. Saeger. EPA-660/3-75-009.. Tox. V. Env. 16% C12. In addition. 19% C13. ES-82-M-11..A.

Tox.9 : BIOTRANSFORMATION AND KINETICS ADDITIONAL REMARKS 58 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .. and Trehy.12. (4) Flag 4. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.8 4. Saeger. 1991. and Chem.L. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene.2001 Gledhill. ECOTOXICITY Reference : BENZENE. V.W. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. W.E. Env.OECD SIDS 4. M. 10:169-178.

200 mg/kg no Alkylate 225 (<1% C9.2002 Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL undiluted 17. 40% C12. 48% C12. 7% C10. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. 19% C13. 16% C10. TOXICITY 5. 50% C13. 1% C13. BT-65-3 Cited in SIAR LD50 rat Sprague-Dawley (11) undiluted 20.800 mg/kg no Alkylate 230 (1% C10. 25% C11. 16% C12.08 g/kg no UNEP PUBLICATIONS 59 .1.OECD SIDS 5. 1% C15) considered to be practically non-toxic Monsanto Report.000 mg/kg no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 1% C14) considered to be practically non-toxic Monsanto Report. BT-65-4 Cited in SIAR LD50 rat Holtzman (12) undiluted >34.1. 30% C14. 2% C11. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. <1% C14) considered to be practically non-toxic Monsanto Report BT-65-2 Cited in SIAR LD50 rat Sprague-Dawley (10) undiluted 28.1 ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : LD50 rat Sprague-Dawley BENZENE. 43% C11.

25% C14. <1% C15) considered to be practically non-toxic RT LAB No. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 1% C11. 1% C11. TOXICITY Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE. 25% C14. 925621 Cited in SIAR LD50 rat SD (25) undiluted >5 g/kg Nalkylene 550L (<1% C9. 23% C12.2 ACUTE INHALATION TOXICITY 60 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 14% C10. 23% C12. 31% C12. 50% C13. 50% C13. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. 7% C13.A. 7% C14. 29% C12.8 g/kg no Nalkylene 600 (<1% C9. 202093 Cited in SIAR LD50 rat SD (26) undiluted >5 g/kg Nalkylene 600L (<1% C9.1. 21% C10. 925620 Cited in SIAR (24) 5.OECD SIDS 5. <1% C15) considered to be practically non-toxic RT LAB No. <1% C10. 30% C11.2002 Nalkylene 500 (1% C9.1. 6589-67 Cited in SIAR LD50 rat Cox-SD (2) undiluted >35. <1% C15) considered to be practically non-toxic S. <1% C10. <1% C14) considered to be practically non-toxic CSL Report No. 20% C13. 39% C11.

7% C13. TOXICITY Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : LC50 rat Sprague-Dawley BENZENE. 1% C13.200 mg/kg no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.200 mg/kg UNEP PUBLICATIONS 61 .1. 40% C12.82 mg/l yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 31% C12. 43% C11. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. 40% C12. <1% C14) administered as an aerosol CSL No.3 ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : LD50 rabbit New Zealand Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year undiluted >10.OECD SIDS 5. 43% C11. 16% C10. BT-65-2 Cited in SIAR LD50 rabbit New Zealand (10) undiluted >10. <1% C14) administered as an aerosol Monsanto Report ML-80-71A Cited in SIAR LC50 rat Holtzman (16) undiluted 71 mg/l (nominal) no Nalkylene 500 (1% C9. 1% C13.1. 21% C10. 6589-67 Cited in SIAR (2) 5. 16% C10.2002 undiluted >1. 39% C11. <1% C14) considered practically nontoxic Monsanto Report. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.

BT-65-3 Cited in SIAR LD50 rabbit New Zealand (11) undiluted >10. 2% C11. No.1. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. 7% C13. <1% C14) considered practically nontoxic CSL No. BT-65-4 Cited in SIAR LD50 rabbit New Zealand albino (12) undiluted approximately 2 g/kg no Nalkylene 500 (1% C9. 39% C11. 30% C14.2002 no Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.200 mg/kg no Alkylate 230 (1% C10. 871188 Cited in SIAR LD50 rabbit New Zealand albino (23) UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 7% C13. 39% C11. 31% C12. 31% C12.OECD SIDS 5. TOXICITY GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals 62 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE. <1% C14) considered practically nontoxic RT LAB. 19% C13. 1% C14) considered practically nontoxic Monsanto Report. 50% C13. 21% C10. 6589-67 Cited in SIAR LD50 rabbit New Zealand albino (2) undiluted >5 g/kg Nalkylene 500 (1% C9. 21% C10. 16% C12. 1%C15) considered practically nontoxic Monsanto Report. 48% C12. 25% C11. 7% C10.

H. <1% C10. 1% C11. 14% C10.Pharm.. and Calvery. 40% C12.. 925620 Cited in SIAR (24) 5. J. 16% C10.2002 Nalkylene 600L (<1% C9. 82:4 (1944) no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.8/8. 7% C14.0 after 72 hrs Draize. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 43% C11.1 ACUTE TOXICITY OTHER ROUTES SKIN IRRITATION : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : rabbit New Zealand undiluted Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals PDII Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals PDII maximum scores: 3.OECD SIDS 5. 29% C12. 23% C12.H.1. 30% C11.O. TOXICITY Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Type Species Strain Sex Number of animals Vehicle Value Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : undiluted >2 g/kg BENZENE.1. 20% C13. <1%C15) considered practically nontoxic RT LAB. G. 50% C13. 925621 Cited in SIAR LD50 rabbit New Zealand albino (25) undiluted >2 g/kg Nalkylene 550L (<1% C9.2. Woodard. <1%C15) considered practically nontoxic RT LAB. Ther. 1% C13.4 5.. <1% C14) considered moderately irritating based on average score Monsanto Report BT-65-2 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (10) UNEP PUBLICATIONS 63 . 6742-54-7 Date: 25. Exp. J. No. 25% C14. No.

H.6 at 24 hrs UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 7% C10. Woodard. 16% C12. 82:4 (1944) no Nalkylene 500 (1% C9. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.2002 maximum scores: 3. G. 25% C11. and Calvery. TOXICITY Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE. J.Pharm. Ther. J.0 after 24 hrs Draize. 19% C13. H. Woodard..0 after 24 hrs Draize. Exp. Woodard. Exp. J.H.O. J. 30% C14..O. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.6 at 48 hrs Draize. 2% C11.Pharm. 7% C13. and Calvery. 39% C11.. Ther.O. 1%C15) considered slightly irritating based on average score Monsanto Report BT-65-4 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (12) maximum score: 3.1. 31% C12. 6589-67 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (2) maximum score: 4.. 82:4 (1944) no Alkylate 225 (<1% C9.OECD SIDS 5.. and Calvery. <1% C14) CSL No.6/8. 82:4 (1944) no Alkylate 230 (1% C10.H.Pharm. 48% C12.. Exp. 1% C14) considered moderately irritating based on average score Monsanto Report BT-65-3 Cited in SIAR (11) Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals PDII Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals PDII Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals PDII Result EC classification 64 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : rabbit New Zealand maximum score: 3. 21% C10. G. H. Ther. 50% C13. J. J... G.H..

OECD SIDS 5. TOXICITY
Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals PDII Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals PDII Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals PDII Result EC classification : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

BENZENE, C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES
Id: 123-01-3; 6742-54-7 Date: 25.1.2002 Draize, J.H., Woodard, G., and Calvery, H.O.; J.Pharm. Exp. Ther, 82:4 (1944)

Nalkylene 500 (1% C9, 21% C10, 39% C11, 31% C12, 7% C13, <1% C14) RT. LAB No. 871188 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (23)

maximum score: 2.5 at 24 hrs Draize, J.H., Woodard, G., and Calvery, H.O.; J.Pharm. Exp. Ther, 82:4 (1944)

Nalkylene 600L (<1% C9, <1% C10, 1% C11, 23% C12, 50% C13, 25% C14, <1%C15) RT. LAB No.925621 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (25)

maximum score: 2.4 at 24 hrs Draize, J.H., Woodard, G., and Calvery, H.O.; J.Pharm. Exp. Ther, 82:4 (1944) no Nalkylene 600 (<1% C9, <1% C10, 1% C11, 23% C12, 50% C13, 25% C14, <1%C15) S.A. Report 202093 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (26)

maximum score: 3.6 at 24 hrs

UNEP PUBLICATIONS

65

OECD SIDS 5. TOXICITY
Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : :

BENZENE, C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES
Id: 123-01-3; 6742-54-7 Date: 25.1.2002 Draize, J.H., Woodard, G., and Calvery, H.O.; J.Pharm. Exp. Ther, 82:4 (1944)

Nalkylene 550L (<1% C9, 14% C10, 30% C11, 29% C12, 20% C13, 7% C14, <1%C15) RT LAB. No. 925620 Cited in SIAR (24)

5.2.2 EYE IRRITATION Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

rabbit New Zealand undiluted

maximum scores: 20.8/110 after 1 hr Draize, J.H., Woodard, G., and Calvery, H.O.; J.Pharm. Exp. Ther, 82:4 (1944) no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9, 16% C10, 43% C11, 40% C12, 1% C13, <1% C14) considered slightly irritating based on average score Monsanto Report BT-65-2 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand (10)

maximum scores: 14.4/110 after 1 hr Draize, J.H., Woodard, G., and Calvery, H.O.; J.Pharm. Exp. Ther, 82:4 (1944) no Alkylate 225 (<1% C9, 7% C10, 25% C11, 48% C12, 19% C13, 1% C14) considered slightly irritating based on average score Monsanto Report BT-65-3 Cited in SIAR (11)

Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals Result EC classification Method Year 66

: : : : : : : : : :

rabbit New Zealand undiluted

maximum scores: 11.8/110 after 1 hr Draize, J.H., Woodard, G., and Calvery, H.O.; J.Pharm. Exp. Ther, 82:4 (1944)

UNEP PUBLICATIONS

OECD SIDS 5. TOXICITY
GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

BENZENE, C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES
Id: 123-01-3; 6742-54-7 Date: 25.1.2002 no Alkylate 230 (1% C10, 2% C11, 16% C12, 50% C13, 30% C14, 1% C15) considered slightly irritating based on average score Monsanto Report BT-65-4 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (12)

maximum score: 2.0 at 1 hr Draize no Nalkylene 500 (1% C9, 21% C10, 39% C11, 31% C12, 7% C13, <1% C14) considered non-irritating based on maximum average score CSL. No. 6589-67 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (2)

maximum score: 0.7 at 24 hr Draize

Nalkylene 600L (<1% C9, <1% C10, 1% C11, 23% C12, 50% C13, 25% C14, <1% C15) considered non-irritating based on maximum average score RT. LAB. No. 925621 Cited in SIAR rabbit New Zealand undiluted (25)

maximum score: 5.3 at 3 hrs Draize no Nalkylene 600 (<1% C9, <1% C10, 1% C11, 23% C12, 50% C13, 25% C14, <1% C15) considered non-irritating based on maximum average score S.A. 202093 Cited in SIAR (26)

UNEP PUBLICATIONS

67

C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. “Prüfung auf hautsensibilisierende Wirkung am Meerschweinchen von Marlican.1. Observations of skin reactions indicative of irritation or sensitization at each challenge were conducted at 24. held in place for 24 hours with an occlusive wrapping.2002 maximum score: 0 Draize Nalkylene 550L (<1% C9. Hüls Report No. 7% C14. <1% C15) considered non-irritating based on maximum average score R. held in place with occlusive wrapping. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. TOXICITY Species Strain Concentration Exposure Exposure time Number of animals Result EC classification Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : rabbit New Zealand undiluted BENZENE.1 ml Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA).1 ml 20% test substance in paraffin oil. This application was followed by topical challenge about 14 days later in which the left flanks of test animals were exposed to 2 X 4 cm filter papers soaked with 20% substance in paraffin oil. 2 X 4 cm filter papers soaked with 50% test substance in paraffin oil were applied to the same area of the shoulders and then held in place with occlusive dressing for 48 hours. test guinea pigs received three pairs of intradermal injections simultaneously. A second topical challenge was also performed about one week later. CAS No 6777474-7.” 1983. 48 and 72 hours following the removal of occlusive wrappings. (3) 0. Cited in EU Risk Assessment Report. Revision June 1997. 14% C10.2 ml 205 none number of individuals with skin reaction at challenge: 0 of 205 UNEP PUBLICATIONS .OECD SIDS 5. LAB. Benzene C10-13 Alkyl Derivs.1 ml 40% test substance in FCA. in which the right flanks of the test animals were exposed to 2 X 2 cm filter paper strips soaked with 5% and 10% test substance in paraffin oil. 29% C12. The paired injections were. (CAS 67774-74-7) In the induction phase. (1) 0. Updated April 2002 human 0. (2) 0.3 SENSITIZATION Type Species Number of animals Vehicle Result Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : : : : : : : Source Reference Flag Species Strain Dose Exposure Exposure time Number of individuals Control group Result Classification 68 : : : : : : : : : : : : Guinea Pig Maximization Test Guinea pig 20 (test and control) paraffin oil 0/20 test animals showed reactions indicative of sensitization OECD guideline 406. One week later. 925620 Cited in SIAR (24) 5. 143. No. Skin Sensitization 1992 no Benzene C10-13 alkyl derivs. 20% C13.T. 30% C11.

there were no gross or histopathological changes. 1% C13. Exposure period : 4 weeks Frequency of : 6 hr/day. period Concentrations Control group Results : : : : : : : : : : rat Sprague-Dawley inhalation up to 14 weeks 6 hr/day. = 102 mg/m3 NOAEL : UNEP PUBLICATIONS 69 .and high-exposure concentrations. 5 days/wk 0. decreased mean body weights and changes in organ weights or organ/body weight ratios were observed at the mid.2 ml on the webril pad of an adhesive bandage) during the 3 week induction period and subsequent challenge phase. TOXICITY Method : BENZENE. Body weight gains were also depressed at these levels. <1% C14) Test Substance Remarks : : Source Reference : Monsanto Report ML-80-71 (15) Flag : Cited in SIAR Species Sex Strain Route of admin. 102. A diluted sample (50% Alkylate 215 in corn oil) was a primary irritant in 13 individuals. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. Animals were observed and weighed during the study. 40% C12. NOAEL : = 100 mg/m3 Method : EPA/TSCA. 100. 1% C13. <1% C14) The undiluted material was a primary irritant in 149/205 individuals. No individuals were considered to be sensitized to the diluted sample of test material. no Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 16% C10. 40% C12.OECD SIDS 5. 340. period : 3 Concentrations : 0. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 298.4 REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY : rat Species Sex : Strain : Sprague-Dawley : inhalation Route of admin. While liver weights and serum levels of hepatic enzymes were elevated in females in the highest-exposure group. 43% C11. 16% C10. No adverse histopathological changes were observed. Afterwards tissues were weighed and examined for histopathological changes Year : : yes GPL : Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. and 580 mg/m3 yes Skin and mucous membrane irritation and respiratory problems were evident at the mid. A loss of abdominal fat was noted at the highest concentration. Monsanto Report SH-81-1 Cited in SIAR (19) Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : Source Reference Flag : : : 5. and 830 mg/m : yes Control group Results : Irritation of the eyes and nose.2002 volunteers were treated with a series of 24 hour applications (0. 43% C11.and high-exposure concentrations. 5 days/wk treatment Post obs.1. Exposure period Frequency of treatment Post obs.

5 days/wk 0. 32. 16% C10. No adverse histopathological findings were noted. 3 = 29 mg/m EPA/TSCA. yes Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. period Concentrations Control group Results NOAEL Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species 70 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : UNEP PUBLICATIONS . Afterwards tissues were weighed and examined for histopathological changes. 97. 43% C11.OECD SIDS 5. 7% C10. Animals were observed and weighed during the study. EPA/TSCA. 40% C12. Animals were observed and weighed during the study. Exposure period Frequency of treatment Post obs. and 308 mg/m3 yes Nasal discharge and lacrimation were increase in all exposure groups. 19% C13. 1% C15) Monsanto Report BD-84-315 Cited in SIAR rat (9) (8) 3 Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Sex Strain Route of admin. Afterwards tissues were weighed and examined for histopathological changes. 48% C12. 1% C13. 16% C12. Exposure period Frequency of treatment Post obs. 2% C11. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. TOXICITY Method : BENZENE. Body weights of males were slightly depressed throughout the study. <1% C14) Monsanto Report ML-82-1 Cited in SIAR rat males and females Sprague-Dawley inhalation 4 weeks 6 hr/day. 50% C13. Rats were observed and weighed during the study. 105. 30% C14. 29. period Concentrations Control group Results : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : (17) NOAEL Method : : Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag Species Sex Strain Route of admin. 25% C11. 5 days/wk 0. No histopathological evaluation was conducted yes Alkylate 230 (1% C10. Body weights of males were depressed at the highconcentration.1. 1% C14) Monsanto Report BD-84-277 Cited in SIAR rat Sprague-Dawley inhalation 4 weeks 6 hr/day. and liver weight of females were increased at this level. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. and 293 mg/m yes Mid and high-exposure concentrations were associated with red nasal discharge.2002 EPA/TSCA.

1% C13. 540-548 (1992). (22) Flag : Cited in SIAR Type System of testing Concentration Cytotoxic conc. <1% C14) Monsanto Report ML-80-58 Cited in SIAR (14) 5. = <2500 ppm in diet.0 mg/plate with and without negative with and without activation EPA/TSCA. and 1537 with metabolic activation: >10 mg/plate without metabolic activation: >10 mg/plate 3. Fund. 40% C12.1.1535. 540-548 (1992). plate incorporation : Year GPL : yes Test Substance : Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. and Nair. Histopathology was not carried out.S.010 mg/plate without metabolic activation: 0. Conc.2002 Sprague-Dawley oral 4 weeks daily. Metabolic activation Result Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bacterial test Salmonella typhimurium/TA-98. 16% C10. 43% C11.100. Toxicol 18. 2500. (22) UNEP PUBLICATIONS 71 . R.001 mg/plate : with and without Metabolic activation Result : negative with and without activation Method : EPA/TSCA. in diet 0. 7500. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. in diet yes Reductions in body weight and food consumption were noted at all exposure levels. 43% C11. E.1535. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery.100. causing precip. Toxicol 18. reduced weight gain observed at all doses EPA/TSCA. period Concentrations Control group Results NOAEL Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE. : with metabolic activation: 0. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. Rats were observed and weighed during the study. <1% C14) : Remarks Source : Reference : Robinson. plate incorporation assay yes Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. 40% C12. 48% C12. 19% C13. : 0.OECD SIDS 5..C. Fund. and 20000 ppm. 7% C10.5 GENETIC TOXICITY ‘IN VITRO’ Type : Bacterial test : Salmonella typhimurium/TA-98. Appl. 1% C14) Robinson. and 1537 System of testing Concentration : Cytotoxic conc. Exposure period Frequency of treatment Post obs. 1% C13.010 mg/plate Conc.S. yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. causing precip. and Nair. R. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery.C. 25% C11. Appl. TOXICITY Sex Strain Route of admin. No gross pathological changes were noted.. 16% C10. 5000. E.

HGPRT point mutation yes Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. and Nair. 1% C15) Robinson..S. 50% C13.0 mg/plate with and without negative with and without activation EPA/TSCA.S. 40% C12. (22) Cited in SIAR Non-bacterial test CHO/HGPRT point mutation with metabolic activation: 1. 30% C14.0 mg/ml without metabolic activation: 0. HGPRT point mutation yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. plate incorporation assay yes Alkylate 230 (1% C10.. <1% C14) Robinson. 16% C10. Appl. R. Appl. Conc.C. causing precip. TOXICITY Flag Type System of testing Concentration Cytotoxic conc. 25% C11. E.. 1% C14) Robinson. Conc. 7% C10. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. (22) Cited in SIAR Non-bacterial test CHO/HGPRT point mutation with metabolic activation: 0.1. R. Conc.5 mg/ml with and without negative with and without activation EPA/TSCA. and Nair.2002 Bacterial test Salmonella typhimutium/TA-98. 48% C12. 43% C11. 1% C13. Fund. E. R. Fund. Metabolic activation Result Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cited in SIAR BENZENE. Fund.250 mg/ml with and without negative with and without activation EPA/TSCA. Metabolic activation Result Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Flag Type 72 : : UNEP PUBLICATIONS . E. 540-548 (1992). Toxicol 18. 540-548 (1992). 19% C13. causing precip. Toxicol 18.OECD SIDS 5.C. 16% C12. (22) Cited in SIAR Non-bacterial test Flag Type System of testing Concentration Cytotoxic conc. 2% C11. Metabolic activation Result Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Flag Type System of testing Concentration Cytotoxic conc.S.C.1535.5 mg/ml without metabolic activation: 0. and 1537 with metabolic activation: >10 mg/plate without metabolic activation: >10 mg/plate 3. Appl. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery. Toxicol 18. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery.100. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. and Nair. 540-548 (1992). causing precip.

S. Fund. Appl.C. E. R. (22) : Cited in SIAR Flag Type Species Sex Strain Route of admin.C. 25% C11. 2% C11. 540-548 (1992).S.700 mg/kg. The genotoxic potential of linear Reference alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery. Effect on Mitotic Index or P/N Ratio: no effect EPA/TSCA.2002 CHO/HGPRT point mutation with metabolic activation: 1. TOXICITY System of testing Concentration Cytotoxic conc.C. R. : : Exposure period Doses : Result : Negative for genotoxicity Lowest dose producing toxicity: 6. Conc.6 mg/ml without metabolic activation: 1. causing precip. Metabolic activation Result Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : : : : BENZENE. 30% C14. 50% C13. 1% C15) Robinson. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery. bone marrow chromosome abberation Method Year : GPL : yes : Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 540-548 (1992). The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery... Toxicol 18. R. 48% C12. 16% C12. Fund.6 mg/ml with and without negative with and without activation EPA/TSCA. (22) UNEP PUBLICATIONS 73 .6 GENETIC TOXICITY ‘IN VIVO’ Type : Cytogenetic assay (bone marrow chromosome abberation) Species : rat : Sex Strain : Sprague-Dawley Route of admin.. <1% C14) Test Substance Remarks : Source : : Robinson. Exposure period Doses Result : : : : : : : : Cytogenetic assay (bone marrow chromosome abberation) rat Sprague-Dawley Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : Negative for genotoxicity Lowest dose producing toxicity: 12.000 mg/kg. Toxicol 18. and Nair. 19% C13.1. 7% C10.S. Toxicol 18. 43% C11. bone marrow chromosome abberation yes Alkylate 225 (<1% C9. HGPRT point mutation yes Alkylate 230 (1% C10. and Nair. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. E. Appl. Fund. 1% C13. 40% C12.OECD SIDS 5. 540-548 (1992). 1% C14) Robinson. Appl. 16% C10. E. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. and Nair. Effect on Mitotic Index or P/N Ratio: no effect : EPA/TSCA. (22) Cited in SIAR Flag : 5.

. 2% C11. T. 40. Appl. 50% C13. TOXICITY Flag Type Species Sex Strain Route of admin. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. 30% C14. 13.C. Toxicol 18. E. Epidermal hyperplasia has been shown to promote skin tumors in mice. O.S. (22) Cited in SIAR Flag : 5.7 CARCINOGENICITY : Species Sex : Strain : : Route of admin. Turmorigenesis and Carcinogenesis studies of a number of insulation oils and fluids and hairless and SENCAR mice with special reference to skin tumors and malignant lymphomas. 540-548 (1992). mice received twice weekly skin applications of 20. R. 98.2 or 25. No complete carcinogenic activity was observed. Vol.OECD SIDS 5. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a short-term test battery. Exposure period : : Doses Result : mice Hairless hr/hr mice Oslo strain skin application 18 months 20 and 40% in µL100 acetone Enhanced mortality and skin effects (hyperplasia and pigment leakage) were observed. Two stage initiation/promotion protocol. 12-dimethylbenzen(a)anthracene followed by skin application of test material at 20 and 40% in µL100 acetone for 18 months. a promoting effect on carcinogenesis but not tumorigenesis was reported.6 µL of 7.000 mg/kg.S. Exposure period Doses Result : : : : : : : : : Cited in SIAR BENZENE. 211-258. 14(3). Toxicol. and Nair. initial single application 51. 1985) Iversen. CRC Crit. pp 3-60. or 80% test material in 100 µL acetone for 18 months. however. 1% C15) Robinson. Rev. Regeneration and the mechanism of epidermal tumor promotion.H.2002 Cytogenetic assay (bone marrow chromosome abberation) rat Sprague-Dawley Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : Negative for genotoxicity Lowest dose producing toxicity: 4. bone marrow chromosome abberation yes Alkylate 230 (1% C10. (5) Cited in SIAR Method : Year GPL Test Substance Remarks : : : : Source Reference : : Flag : 74 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 1990. complete carcinogenesis protocol. (Argyria. Effect on Mitotic Index or P/N Ratio: no effect EPA/TSCA. 16% C12. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.1. APMIS Suppl. 1990 no described as a C12-C20 monosubstituted linear alkylbenzene composed primarily of C9 and C10 substituted components The interpretation of the study is confounded by the use of high concentrations of test material resulting in severe skin irritation. Fund.

40% C12.E. and lactation periods Doses : 0. NOEL NOEL Method : : : Year : UNEP PUBLICATIONS 75 . 50 mg/kg (P generation) 5 mg/kg (F1 generation) 5 mg/kg (F2 generation) EPA/TSCA. 125. and 2000 mg/kg/day. yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9. 500. gestation. administered in corn oil : Maternal weight gain was reduced in all treatment groups and these Result differences were statistically significant at the mid. TOXICITY BENZENE. 125. Maternal and paternal general toxicity: reduced weight gain in the high-dose group Reproductive toxicity observed in parental animals: reduced litter size in high-dose group Reproductive toxicity observed in offspring: reduced survival and weight gain in high-dose group.OECD SIDS 5. Food consumption was also lower in these groups. 43% C11. Exposure period : days 6 through 15 of gestation Doses : 0. and 500 mg/kg. 16% C10.2002 5. during premating. and Schroeder.and high dose groups Pregnancy and litter data: no treatment related effects Foetal data: skeletal (ossification) changes in mid. pregnant rats received daily dose of 0. pup Result viability. <1% C14) Robinson.. and pup weight gains were found at the high dose group. and examined for treatment-related effects.1.C. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Studies of a Linear Alkylbenzene Mixture in Rats. Toxicol 18. Fund. Ossification variations and delayed ossification were significantly increased at the high dose level and were increased above control at the mid-dose level. R. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3. (29) Cited in SIAR NOEL NOEL NOEL Method Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : : : : : : Flag : 5. administered in corn oil : Reduced weight gain in parental animal and decrease in litter size. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. mating. Sporadic occurrences at mid-dose level.9 DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY/TERATOGENICITY : rat Species Sex : female Strain : Sprague-Dawley : oral Route of admin. pup survival.8 TOXICITY TO REPRODUCTION : rat Species Sex : Strain : Sprague-Dawley : oral Route of admin. 500. 549-556 (1992). Dams and fetuses were observed for treatment related effects. Exposure period : for 2 generations. No consistent adverse effects of treatment were found in both generations at 50 mg/kg. 50.and high-dose groups 125 mg/kg (maternal) 125 mg/kg (offspring) EPA/TSCA. parental rats and their offspring were observed. primarily in mid. Appl. 1% C13. weighed. Maternal general toxicity: reduced weight gain.and high-dose groups. E. and 2000 mg/kg of Alkylate 215 administered in corn oil on days 6 through 15 of gestation. 5.

125. pregnant rats received daily dose of 0. 1% C13. Soft tissue (kidney) changes in the high-dose group. maternal animals: 125 mg/kg offspring: 125 mg/kg EPA/TSCA. 40% C12. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.10 OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION 76 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 50% C13. yes Alkylate 230 (1% C10. Ossification variations were increased in the mid. Maternal general toxicity: reduced weight gain primarily in the mid-and high dose groups Pregnancy and litter data: no treatment related effects Foetal data: skeletal (ossification) changes in the mid. 30% C14. Fund. 43% C11..1.2002 yes Alkylate 215 (<1% C9.E. 549-556 (1992). E. 500. <1% C14) The fetal findings were considered evidence of a fetotoxic effect Robinson. Exposure period Doses Result : : : : : : : : NOEL NOEL Method : : : Year GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference Flag : : : : : : : 5. 125.and high-dose groups. and 2000 mg/kg of Alkylate 230 administered in corn oil on days 6 through 15 of gestation. 500. TOXICITY GPL Test Substance Remarks Source Reference : : : : : BENZENE. Appl.C. (29) Cited in SIAR rat female Sprague-Dawley oral on days 6 through 15 of gestation 0. 2% C11. and 2000 mg/kg/day. Retardation in kidney development (distended renal pelvis and distended tortuous ureter) was also present at the high-dose level. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. R.OECD SIDS 5. administered in corn oil Maternal weight gain was reduced in all groups and this difference was statistically significant at the mid.and high-dose groups. 16% C12. and Schroeder. Toxicol 18. 1% C15) Cited in SIAR Monsanto Report BD-84-315 (9) Flag Species Sex Strain Route of admin. Food consumption was also reduced in these groups.and high-dose group. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Studies of a Linear Alkylbenzene Mixture in Rats. 16% C10. Dams and fetuses were observed for treatment related effects.

Acute Toxicity of Alkylate 215 to the Midge (Paratanytarsus parthenogenetica). and Nair. 925620 (25) RT LAB No. The genotoxic potential of linear alkylbenzene mixtures in a shortterm test battery. (6) Monsanto Report ABC-27560 (7) Monsanto Report ABC-27561 (8) Monsanto Report BD-84-277 (9) Monsanto Report BD-84-315 (10) Monsanto Report BT-65-2 (11) Monsanto Report BT-65-3 (12) Monsanto Report BT-65-4 (13) Monsanto Report HL-84-290 (14) Monsanto Report ML-80-58 (15) Monsanto Report ML-80-71 (16) Monsanto Report ML-80-71A (17) Monsanto Report ML-82-1 (18) Monsanto Report MO-810174.E. Inc. 10:169 . 1991. and Chem. R.178 (5) Iversen. 1991. Report 202093 (27) Vista Analytical Report UNEP PUBLICATIONS 77 . Toxicol 18.W. An Aquatic Environmental Safety Assessment of Linear Alkylbenzene. M. 4. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. Vol. 13. 1992. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.H. Turmorigenesis and Carcinogenesis studies of a number of insulation oils and fluids and hairless and SENCAR mice with special reference to skin tumors and malignant lymphomas.W. O.L. 925621 (26) S.. 98. 1990.1. 54142. and Trehy.S. pp 3-60. APMIS Suppl. 871188 (24) RT LAB No. September.C. 1990. 6589-67 (3) Dixie Services. unpublished (22) Robinson. 540-548. Env. 1991 (4) Gledhill. 1990. V. E. Report No. Fund. (19) Monsanto Report SH-81-1 (20) Monsanto Study ES-81-SS-41 (21) Monsanto. "Alkylbenzenes Summary of Safety Assessment". Saeger. Dec. REFERENCES BENZENE. Based on Monsanto Report DA-79-367 (23) RT LAB No.OECD SIDS 6.2002 (1) Council of LAB/LAS Environmental Research. Appl. (2) CSL Report No.A. Tox.

C. (30) Unpublished. and Schroeder. and R.1. R. Toxicol 18.E. Chem. 549-556. Toxicol. Kimerle.A. 1982. May 2002. (29) Robinson. F. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Studies of a Linear Alkylbenzene Mixture in Rats. 6742-54-7 Date: 25. Fund. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.10.S. Uptake and distribution of C12 alkylbenzene in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). 1997. Appl. REFERENCES BENZENE.OECD SIDS 6. 78 UNEP PUBLICATIONS . 1:143-6. E. EPA model run using EPIWIN (SRC) version 3. U.2002 (28) Werner. Environ.

4 16 31 31 29 28 26 23 23 C13 1 19 45.6 2 39 44 30 17 <1 1 1 C12 40 48 36.1 1 21 20 14 9 <1 <1 C11 43 25 7.6 30 <1 <1 7 15 <1 25 25 C15 <1 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 C16 - UNEP PUBLICATIONS 79 .2 50 7 5 20 30 74 50 50 C14 <1 1 9. 6742-54-7 Date: 25.1.OECD SIDS APPENDIX BENZENE.2002 TABLE 1 COMMERCIAL LINEAR ALKYLBENZENES TYPICAL PRODUCT COMPOSITION Component Percentage Product Alkylate 215 Alkylate 225 Alkylate 229 Alkylate 230 Nalkylene 500 Nalkylene 500L Nalkylene 550L Nalkylene 575L Nalkylene 580L Nalkylene 600 Nalkylene 600L C9 <1 <1 <1 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 C10 16 7 1. C10-C16 ALKYL DERIVATIVES Id: 123-01-3.