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225

**Fuzzy Control for Shunt Capacitors Applied in Distribution Feeders
**

EDUARDO KAZUMI YAMAKAWA1 1 Electrical Engineering Department Parana Federal University UFPR Polytechnic Center – PO Box 19011 BRAZIL Eduardo_yamakawa@uol.com.br http://www.ufpr.br ALEXANDRE RASI AOKI1,2 2 Institute of Technology for Development LACTEC UFPR Polytechnic Center – PO Box 19067 BRAZIL aoki@lactec.org.br http://www.lactec.org.br

Abstract: - The lack of reactive energy flow control in distribution networks causes an increase of electrical losses and problems with the voltage profile. The main objective of this work is to develop a fuzzy control system for automatic capacitor banks applied to distribution feeders, which was focused on the improvement of the equipment performance allowing a better correction of the system reactive and minimizing the switching number of the capacitor banks and not causing the floating of voltage levels at the feeders. It was analyzed the controller´s performance on a 70 buses system. The main results shown that the fuzzy controller is not affected neither by the capacitor bank installation position at the distribution feeder nor by the bank capacity in kvar. Another aspect is that the fuzzy controller does not need to be tuned in the case of changes at the system’s load profiles, always operating with good results for several different load profiles. Key-Words: - Fuzzy control, distribution feeders, shunt capacitors.

1 Introduction

The Brazilian electric distribution companies are subjected to the regulation by performance comparing to stimulate the service quality improvement for the customers and the cost reduction with the objective of increase the competitivity. [1]. So, the lack of a reactive energy flow control that circulates at the distribution networks causes an increasing of the electrical losses and damages for the voltage profile. Considering the arguments mentioned before, it is desirable to compensate the reactive by optimizing the operational costs through some investments on the capacitor banks installation at the electric energy distribution feeders. The optimized application of the capacitor banks imply in a first moment on the best installation position of the equipment. Basically the capacitor banks allocation problem is to define the kind of capacitor bank (fixed or automatic), the capacity of the bank (in kvar) and the bank localization. This is a problem that is not easy to be solved because the quantity of minimum local points and the option numbers to be analyzed grow when the quantity of buses increase. [2]. However, the complete solution for the capacitor banks problem involves not only the bank allocation but also to define the kind of the bank control and its control tuning. This work is focused on the development of a fuzzy control system considering that the automatic bank localization and its capacity is already known.

The loads on real distribution systems are subjected to non-simultaneous variations on the distribution feeder buses. So, the equipment operation with the fixed tuning of the control device during a certain time horizon can not to be enough to supply the necessary reactive compensation. Another important point is the improvement of the voltage profile that comes from the losses reduction of the system and can be gotten through the application of the capacitor bank and its control equipment. In fact, beyond the reactive compensation, the improvement on the voltage profile becomes one of the advantages for the implementation of this device at the distribution feeders specially considering that there is a specific legislation in Brazil about the allowed voltage levels and the penalties for the limit breaking.

2 Problem Formulation

The capacitor banks are used on distribution systems to compensate the reactive, contributing for the energy and power losses minimization and to improve the voltage profile within the acceptable limits. The compensation quantity is strongly related to the capacitor banks placement at the distribution system, capacity, quantity and kind of capacitors to be installed at the system [4]. The capacitors applied on distribution systems are frequently placed at the distribution feeders or at the

2. and also the substation (SE) bus.06 1. The voltage values for permanent regimen have to attend the requirements of the regulation ANEEL No 505 [3].02 Tensões nas barras [pu] Tensão Adequada 1 0.88 10 20 30 Barras 40 50 60 70 Tensões nas Barras Tensão Crítica Tensão Precária nlp DRP = × 100[%] 1008 • Critical Relative Duration of Transgression (DRC).05xTC The concessionaire must monitor when there is a customer complaining or when making a routining sampling measurement the following individual indicators: • Precarious Relative Duration of Transgression (DRP). It is possible to verify that under nominal conditions the buses from 59 to 66 show precarious voltage levels according to the regulation ANEEL No 505/2001 [3] and the feeder has a global power factor (from the substation bus) worse than the limit specified at ANEEL No 456/2000 [6].90xTC ≤ TL < 0. It was performed studies about the system’s behavior under nominal condition and without the capacitor banks. considering that the banks may be fixed or automatics depending on the load conditions. .98 0. The studied system’s voltage profile where no capacitor banks were used can be visualized at the Figure 2. China. Its utilization is focused on the local power factor correction. nlc DRC = × 100[%] 1008 where: nlp = number of readings with measurements with the values placed at the precarious range.9 Tensão Crítica 0.2 Analyzed System The distribution system that was used on this work is shown at the Figure 1.93xTC TL < 0. established on 0. nlc = number of readings with measurements with the values placed at the critical range.96 0. 1.1 Brazilian Regulations 48 49 50 51 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 SE 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 52 53 69 70 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 67 68 Figure 1 – 70 buses distribution system diagram. Beijing.1 kW and the power factor of the feeder is 0.08 1. 2007 226 electrical substations. The Brazilian concessionaires use most of time the time-voltage control system.92 the minimum value for reference power factor inductive or capacitive at the facilities of the Brazilian electrical consumers. using the following equation: 2. the active losses are 225. The allowed values at the feeders for the voltage variation in permanent regiment are shown at the Table 1 Table 1 – Standardized nominal voltage for voltages higher than 1kV and lower than 69kV Classification of Reading voltage range the Voltage variation (TL) in relation to Attendance (TA) the contracted voltage (TC) Adequate 0. Basically. Under nominal conditions.Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems.821 inductive.05xTC Precarious 0. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 The regulation ANEEL No 456 [6]. September 15-17.008 = number of valid readings every 10 minutes at the observation period. The time adjust is fixed for the operations from 08:00am to 9:00pm.90xTC or TL > Critical 1. where it is possible to verify the 69 load buses [7].93xTC ≤ TL ≤ 1.92 0. using the following equation: Figure 2 – System’s voltage profile with no capacitor banks used. and 1. adjusting the voltage that turns on the bank (Von) through the voltage measured at the installation point at 8 o’clock on working days.04 1. the fixed banks are applied for light load conditions and the automatic banks for medium and heavy load of the system [5].66 [kV] and the power of 10 [kVA]. For the power flow calculations it was considered the voltage base of 12.94 0.

and V(k-1) is the voltage at the iteration k-1.225 -0. The voltage V was splitted in four fuzzy subsets considering a range of [0.00 1. • .12 0.19 -0.9 0. • Big Positive – GP: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [0.5 -0. considering that: • The fuzzification interface receives the input variables values and develop a conversion to a linguistic variable in set with a membership function.98]. Knowledge Base Fuzzification Interface Fuzzy Decision Take logic Fuzzy Defuzzification Interface Outputs and system states Not fuzzy Sistema Controlado Control Actions Not fuzzy Figure 3 – Basic configuration of a fuzzy controller. The fuzzy technology is adequate to be implemented on complex systems or not well defined. considering 0 the bank turned off and 1 the bank turned on. The controller 1 was developed with the following parameters: • Input variables chosen: V (voltage) e ∆V (voltage variation).92 0.17]. • The knowledge base regards the control rules in terms of linguistic variables.05]. The developed rules for the knowledge base for the controller 1 are shown at the Table 2.CB: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [0.2].28 -0. described as the following: Critical Low . September 15-17.28 -0. • Small Positive – PP: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterizations [0. Those subsets were defined as described below: • Negative Medium – MN: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [-0.05].17 0.96 1.07 1. The variable ∆V (voltage variation) was splitted in five fuzzy subsets considering a range or possible values of [-0. • Medium Positive – MP: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterizations [0.16 0. The variable ∆V represents the voltage variation at the installation point of the capacitor banks and can be calculated by: ∆V = (V(k) – V(k-1)) / V(k-1) (k) where: V is the voltage at the iteration k.8 0. Another important aspect is the use of linguistic variables involved on the control process.05 0. The output variable BC was splitted in four fuzzy subsets considering a range or possible values of [0.5. • Medium Positive – MP: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [-0. Beijing.8. China.24].8 0. • Critical High . • Precarious . • Adequate – A: it was chosen a triangle function with the parameterization [0.94 0.2 1.98 1. which do not admit the usage of traditional methodologies of quantitative analysis [8].2] in pu. which makes the controller more independent of the context (specific characteristics) of the controller application.05 1. • Zero – ZE: it was chosen a triangle function with the parameterization [-0.2 -0.20].8 1 1].7 0.2].CA: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [1. • Output variable chosen: BC (represents the capacitor bank on or off).00].5 -0.Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems. Those subsets were defined as the following descriptions: • Zero – ZE: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [0 0 0. • The defuzzification interface receives the fuzzy control actions in terms of a linguistic variable in set with a membership function and converts for values of the output variable.225].17 0.8].0.1.08].24 -0.2 -0.23 0. • Small Positive – PP: it was chosen a triangle function with the parameterization [-0.03 0.05 0.05]. • The decision take logic is able to emulate the human decision take process and infer fuzzy control actions. 2007 227 2.7 0. • Small Negative – PN: it was chosen a triangle function with the parameterization [0.25 -0.1] in pu. Those subsets were defined according to the regulation ANEEL No 505 [3].3 Fuzzy Control The basic structure of a fuzzy controller [8] regards four main components presented at the Figure 3.P: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [0.

Regras desenvolvidas para o controlador 2 Output BC CB P A CA MN GP GP GP ZE PN GP GP GP ZE ∆V ZE GP GP ZE ZE PP GP GP ZE ZE MP GP GP ZE ZE Bshunt Figure 4 – Block diagram of the control system with a saturation block. The second control strategy uses the controller 2 and uses an accumulation block and a saturation block. deltaV Fuzzy Controller V BC = [ -1 1 ] Saturation Acumulation Xpu = Xpu + BC The first control strategy uses the controller 1 and uses a saturation block.1 0. • Big Positive – GP: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [0. Zoom in Saturation Block If Xpu>=0. the accumulation block has the objective of anticipate the turn on and delay the turn off of the capacitor banks. the saturation block is responsible to implement the output of the control system to {0. every time the output variable gets bigger than 0. • Small Negative – PN: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [-0.75 -0.5 YES X=BCmax NO X=0 Bshunt Figure 5 – Block diagram for the control system with acumulation and saturation. . The function of the saturation block is to implement the system output for {0. • Medium Positive – MP: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [0.2]. except the saturation block.4]. Those subsets were defined according to the described below: • Big Negative . according to the Figure 5.5 0. considering 1 the additioning of the total reactive power to the system and -1 o total decreasing of the reactive power of the system.5]. even knowing that currently it is not feasible to implement this strategy yet.1] in pu.25 -0. The output of the saturation block is loaded at the Bshunt vector (system’s shunt capacitor banks vector) for the power flow.1} turning off of turning on the capacitor banks.4 0.1].5 Saturation Block YES X=BCmax V PP GP GP PN ZE MP GP GP MN ZE NO X=0 The second developed controller uses the output variable BC splitted in four fuzzy subsets considering a range or possible values of [-1. so values smaller than zero were limited to zero and values bigger than one were limited to one.8 -0.5 the capacitor banks are turned off. according to the Figure 4. The third control strategy implemented is similar to the second one.5 -0.1].1].65 0. In the same way.35 -0.65].Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems. deltaV BC = [ 0 1 ] Fuzzy Controller IF Xpu>=0. As the controller 2 was developed based on the philosophy of increase and decrease reactive power from the capacitor bank. China. Beijing.8 1 1]. This control strategy was implemented to verify the efficiency of this kind of methodology. September 15-17. the capacitor banks are turned on.5.75]. V. • Medium Negative – MN: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [-0.1} turning off or turning on the capacitor banks. the saturation block output is loaded at the Bshunt vector. According to the Figure 4. For output variables smaller than 0.25 0.GN: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [-1 -1 -0.7 0. And also. • Zero – ZE: it was chosen a triangle function with the parameterization [-0.7 -0.2 0 0. The developed rules for the knowledge base for the controller 2 are shown at the Table 3. To avoid negative values for capacitive reactive power. so the output variable can assume values of [0.35 0. the output variable was limited to [0. • Small Positive – PP: it was chosen a trapezoidal function with the parameterization [0. 2007 228 Table 2: Developed rules for the controller 1 Output BC CB P A CA MN GP GP GP ZE PN GP GP MP ZE ∆V ZE GP GP ZE ZE V. Table3 .5 -0.

30 0.With Capacitor Banks . where the study was focused on check if the controllers have different performance for different load profiles for the analyzed system.1 Sensibility analysis to the Capacitor Banks allocation The load profile used at the simulations of the feeder regarded a rate of 15% of low incomes houses.10 0.With Capacitor Banks .5 Potência [pu] 1 0. which will appear at the time frame from 08:00am to 9:00pm. Analyzing the results from Tables 5 and 6 it is possible to conclude that the fuzzy control strategy 0 ~1 with saturation block had a similar good performance of the time-voltage controller at the voltage levels problems mitigation.3 0 Curva de Carga . that can be noticed every time that the losses at the simulation get equal to the losses of the simulation with no capacitor banks.10 0 .Fuzzy -1 ~ 1 Case 1 473.5 Potência [pu] 1 0.With Capacitor Banks .0059 446.39 0.Sábados 1.With Capacitor Banks .10 65 1.10 0.Dias Úteis 1.10 0. where the study was focused on check the performance if the performance of the fuzzy controllers were affected by the connection point of the capacitor banks.5618 454. 55% of medium incomes houses. It was simulated two cases with the load profile from the Figure 6. • Case 2: capacitor banks of 300 kvar allocated at the buses 13 and 48 and capacitor banks of 600 kvar allocated at the bus 58 of the system Curva de Carga . China. showing only the buses that shown problems with the voltage level. At the Table 4 are shown the results of the energy losses for one year at the system for the five configurations simulated at the three cases. 48 and 58 of the system.2389 452. It is understandable because the severe problems with voltage levels will occur on the conditions of medium and heavy loads of the system. 2007 229 The three control strategies developed shown behaviors that are adequated to the real problem behavior and were tested at the analyzed system to prove the best controller and control strategy.5 00:00:00 06:00:00 12:00:00 Horas 18:00:00 00:00:00 Ativa Reativa It is possible to check that the system with the best performance in terms of losses is the fuzzy controller 0 ~1 with saturation block. The fuzzy control strategy -1 ~ 1 with saturation block had more switching of the capacitor banks.1 0 0.20 0 .10 0.1 0 0.3 0 0.9483 Case 2 473.10 0.Fuzzy 0 ~ 1 Saturation Energy Losses [MWh] .Fuzzy -1 ~ 1 Saturation Energy Losses [MWh] . September 15-17.8952 3 Problem Solution The tests were defined in two categories as the following: • Sensibility analysis to the capacitor banks allocation.6448 453.20 66 2.10 0. The fuzzy controller -1 ~ 1 with no saturation shows a good performance with reduced losses because there is no excessive capacitive power reactive insertion.6 8 0. the inserted values of reactive capacitive power can not be enough to improve the global power factor.Case 1 DRP [% ] Con trols fo r Cap ac ito r Ban ks 62 No Capaci tor Bank s 0.69 0. Table 5 – Relative Duration for the Precarious Voltage Transgression . according to the described below: • Case 1: capacitor banks of 300 kvar allocated at the buses 13.5 Potência [pu] Ativa Reativa 1 0.Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems. • Sensibility analysis to the load profiles. The fuzzy controller -1 ~ 1 with saturation block causes more switching at the earliness times and after the peak rate time on Saturdays and Sundays. what reduces the lifetime of the oil switches.10 0.5 00:00:00 06:00:00 12:00:00 Horas 18:00:00 00:00:00 Figure 6 – Load profiles.10 Ti me-Vol tage F uzz y 0 ~ 1 s aturati on wi th ac umul atio n F uzz y -1 ~ 1 s aturati on wi th acumul at i on F uzz y -1 ~ 1 with acumul ati on 63 0 .Domingos e Feriados 1. The DRC (Relative Duration of the Critical Voltage Transgression) is zero for all the system’s buses. in some moments at the earliness time. But.10 0 . 3.10 0. Beijing.92 inductive. Table 4 – Energy losses for several capacitor banks configurations – 70 buses system Energy Losses [MWh] . when there are no problems about voltage. Saturdays and Sundays/holidays (Figure 6). The DRP (Relative Duration of the Precarious Voltage Transgression) is shown at the Tables 5 and 6.5 00:00:00 06:00:00 12:00:00 Horas 18:00:00 00:00:00 Ativa Reativa Curva de Carga . when the .5618 450.9869 441.10 0. It was observed that excepting the fuzzy controller 0 ~1 with saturation block.No Capacitor Banks Energy Losses [MWh] . according to the Table 4. 10% of high incomes houses and 20% of commercial facilities at the feeder for working days.Time-Voltage Energy Losses [MWh] .4541 445.10 Bu ses 64 1.4907 444. there were problems with the power factor below 0.10 0 .

which will appear at the time frame from 08:00am to 9:00pm. China. 48 and 58. The configuration used for the simulation of the 70 buses system regards capacitor banks of 300 kvar at the buses 13. 20 0 0 0 0 Bu ses 64 1.10 0.92 inductive for light load times.2828 491.10 0.10 0.38 2.0302 487.1 0 65 5.00 0. Also it is possible to notice that sometimes the switching turning off the capacitor banks of the system makes .10 0. showing only the buses that shown problems with the voltage level.18 66 6 .18 2.20 0 66 2.18 2.00 Ti me-Vol tage F uzzy 0 ~ 1 s aturati on wi th ac umul ation F uzzy -1 ~ 1 s aturati on wi th acumul ati on F uzzy -1 ~ 1 wi th ac umul ati on 62 3. o 40% of medium incomes houses.20 Bu ses 64 9.10 0.10 0. 2007 230 time-voltage controller is supposed to keep the capacitor banks turned on too.10 0.18 2. The DRC (Relative Duration of the Critical Voltage Transgression) is zero for all the system’s buses. 48 and 58 with the 3 load profiles.18 2 . September 15-17.38 2.3213 491. and is not solved by traditional quantitative analysis methodology.10 0. The DRP (Relative Duration of the Precarious Voltage Transgression) is shown at the Tables 8 and 9.10 0.69 0 0 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.18 2 .10 0.6106 660. • Load profile 2: o 5% of low incomes houses. what will reduce the lifetime of the oil switches.With Capacitor Banks .00 0.236 498.Fuzzy 0 ~ 1 Saturation Energy Losses [MWh] . Table 7 – Energy losses for 2 load profiles – 70 buses system Energy Losses [MWh] .10 Bu ses 63 3.68 0.39 0 0 0 0 65 1.3056 Load Profile 2 692.10 0.Fuzzy -1 ~ 1 Load Profile 1 522.65 0.37 0. Beijing.03 0. when the time-voltage controller is supposed to keep the capacitor banks turned on too 4 Conclusion Currently. the Brazilian distribution concessionaires that use automatic capacitor banks generally adopt the time-voltage control.10 0.No Capacitor Banks Energy Losses [MWh] . Analyzing the results of the two fuzzy controllers implemented and the control strategies used to adequate the controllers for the reactive optimization problem on distribution systems. o 35% of medium incomes houses.17 0.10 0.4 7 0.68 2. it is possible to observe again that the fuzzy controller -1 ~ 1 with saturation block causes more switching at the capacitor banks.10 0.2855 648.1 0 0. The fuzzy logic control technology was chosen to be implemented because it is proper for implementation on complex systems or not well defined. It is understandable because the severe problems with voltage levels will occur on the conditions of medium and heavy loads of the system.65 2.20 63 7. At the Table 7 it is shown the results of the energy losses for a year at the system for the five simulated configurations for the three load profiles with capacitor banks of 300 kvar at the buses 13. Table 8 – Relative Duration for the Precarious Voltage Transgression – Load profile 1 DRP [% ] Con trols fo r Cap ac ito r Ban ks 61 No Ca paci tor Ba nk s 0.18 3.00 62 5.10 0 0 0 0 63 0.1 0 0. Table 6 – Relative Duration for the Precarious Voltage Transgression .20 65 16.10 0.Case 2 DRP [% ] Con trols fo r Cap acito r Ban ks 62 No Ca paci tor Bank s Ti me-V ol t age F uzz y 0 ~ 1 s at urati on wi t h ac umul ation F uzz y -1 ~ 1 s at urati on wi t h acumul ati on F uzz y -1 ~ 1 wi th ac umul ati on 0 .00 0.75 2 .With Capacitor Banks .1459 648. where it is possible to highlight: Checking the behavior of the global power factor for the five simulations.48 2. and o 30% of commercial and service facilities.00 0.00 0.10 the global power factor for levels lower than 0.48 2.30 0.00 0.18 2 .37 2.9824 Table 9 – Relative Duration for the Precarious Voltage Transgression – Load profile 2 DRP [% ] Con trols fo r Cap acito r Ban ks 61 No Capaci tor Bank s Ti me-V ol tage F uzz y 0 ~ 1 saturati on wi th ac umul ation F uzz y -1 ~ 1 saturati on wi th acumul ati on F uzz y -1 ~ 1 wi th ac umul a ti on 0.Fuzzy -1 ~ 1 Saturation Energy Losses [MWh] .Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems.10 64 3.Time-Voltage Energy Losses [MWh] .48 Analyzing the results from Tables 8 and 9 it is possible to conclude again that the fuzzy control strategy 0 ~1 with saturation block had a similar good performance of the time-voltage controller at the voltage levels problems mitigation.38 66 17.76 2.84 0. o 5% of high incomes houses.48 2.2 Sensibility analysis to different load profiles On this study it was used three different load profiles shown below: • Load profile 1: o 25% of low incomes houses.With Capacitor Banks . o 5% of high incomes houses. and o 55% of commercial and service facilities.10 0.9863 643.1 0 0.With Capacitor Banks .

E. M. WU. 725-734. 4. what could allow the development of a control strategy more complex and powerful. November 29. p. . 2005. 20. 3. Power System Capacitors. Resolution ANEEL N° 456. operating with good results for the different load profiles. • The fuzzy controller doesn’t need different tunings for working days. References: [1] BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY REGULATORY AGENCY – ANEEL. Sundays and holidays. 1990. Optimal Selection of Capacitors for Radial Distribution Systems Using a Genetic Algorithm. Fuzzy Logic in Control Systems: Fuzzy Logic Controller – Part I and II. IEEE Transactions on Systems. [7] BARAN.T. • The developed system showed a superior performance compared to the time-voltage control system for the different load profiles at the simulated systems.. 2000. PAHWA. Man. as there is the necessity of improve the performance of the automatic capacitor banks applied to the distribution feeders and the implementation cost of this controller on a hardware platform micro processed is not so high. A.F. Resolution ANEEL N° 505. 2. • The fuzzy controller doesn’t need new adjusts in the case of changes with the system’s load profiles. For this implementation there is the possibility to use not only the 3 voltage signals but also the 3 current signals. Manual of Research and Technology Development Program of Electrical Energy Sector. September 15-17. Vol. R.Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems. Vol. 505 [3]. p. 1994. 552 p. No. contributing for the problem mitigations related to the regulation ANEEL No. No. R. 404-418. Vol. 1989. MSc Thesis. China. • [5] NATARAJAN. C. and Cybernetics. [3] BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY REGULATORY AGENCY – ANEEL. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. [4] SUNDHARARAJAN. in terms of optimization of reactive at the distribution systems. 2007. Paraná Federal University. 2007 231 The fuzzy controller is not affected neither by the installation position of the capacitor bank at the distribution feeder nor by the performance difference caused by the bank capacity in kvar. [8] LEE. Beijing. [2] BEÊ.C. 9. p. 1. and • Allowed improvements for the voltage profile at the feeders. Saturdays. No. November 26. Capacitors Allocation in Distribution Systems Using Genetic Algorithms. April 2006.. For future developments the suggestion is to implement the fuzzy controller on a real system. Optimal Capacitor Placement on Radial Distribution Systems. 2001. S. [6] BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY REGULATORY AGENCY – ANEEL. F. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 1499-1507.

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