Correlation Randstad, Rotterdam, and Central Areas

Proposing a new way for correlating the region to the local strategic planning level.

Thesis Plan (P2 Report) Urbanism TU Delft
Gijs Briet 16-11-2012

Colophon

Title: Correlating Randstad, Rotterdan and Central Areas Sub-title: Proposing a New Way for Correlating the Region to the Local Strategic Level Thesis plan (P2 Report) Gijs Briët student number: 4031024 gbriet@student.tudelft.nl 1st mentor: Dr. Diego Andres Sepulveda Carmona D.A.SepulvedaCarmona@tudelft.nl 2nd mentor: Prof. ir. Henco Bekkering H.C.Bekkering@tudelft.nl Date:. 16-01-2012 Msc3 Urbansim Thesis plan (AR3U012) Graduation Lab Urbanism (AR3U100) Graduation Studio Complex Cities

Preface
In this report the thesis plan for the graduation project in complex Cities Urbanism a the technical University Delft is presented. In this report I will show my intentions and ambitions in realtion to the a defined problem urban planning/design field. The subject I will be discussing in this final proposal for the gradaution project are gentrification and dynamics of an inner city and planning intergration. The aim of this project is to integrate the potentialities of less affluent resident of an inner city neighborhood into the strategy/planning system of the municipality. Thereby securing their position socially/spatially and econimcally. How this will be done is shown in this report.

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Motivation
Rotterdam represents one of the largest import en export harbour of Europe which provided a many jobs for its inhabitants for decades. But with the rise of technology therefore the de industrialisation, decreasing number of inhabitants and selective out-migration the city is facing the impoverishment of the city, which could have damaging effects on the region. Therefore the city is facilitating a transition from a primary industrial harbour city the a city for Service and Knowledge in relation with the harbour. In order to facilitate this transition the city constructed a policy to create an attractive residential city with a diverse and strong demographic, centre facilitaing the needs of the future residents and the region. The changing dynamics of the centre and social structure have major influence on the cities current residents. Does the municipality incorpotate the need and potentials of her current residents or will this future vision create friction between the working class residents and gentrifiers? Questions like these will be defined, research and hopefully answered in the graduation project. For now the question is how to research and adress the questions.

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Contents
Preface Motivation Problem Statement Regional Perspective Municipal Perspective Local perspective Problem Statement 3. Objectives Main Objective Theoretical Objectives Practical Objectives 4. Research Questions Main Research Question Sub Research Question 5. Relevance Social Relevance Scientific Relevance 6. Methodology Introduction Structure Strategic Characteristic Planning Characteristic Central Area Local Neighborhood Characteristic Spatial Effects Characteristic Time Schedule 7. Theoretical Framework Gentrification Integrated Planning Theory Public Spaces Network Theory 8. Pre-Analytical Framework Pre-Spatial Context Historic Development Rotterdam Historic Development Oude Westen Pre-Analysis Current Situation Oude Westen Pre-Analysis Planning System Municipality Municipal Interventions Variables Variables + Possible Effects Bibliography Appendix Review Paper 1. 2. pg. 3 pg. 4 pg. 6 pg. 7 pg. 9 pg. 11 pg. 12 pg. 13 pg. 14 pg. 14 pg. 14 pg. 16 pg. 17 pg. 18 pg. 20 pg. 21 pg. 21 pg. 22 pg. 23 pg. 24 pg. 25 pg. 26 pg. 27 pg. 28 pg. 29 pg. 30 pg. 31 pg. 37 pg. 38 pg. 39 pg. 40 pg. 40 pg. 41 pg. 42 pg. 46 pg. 47 pg. 48 pg. 49 pg. 50 pg. 51 5

Problem Field
Prelude
Rotterdam is a city of more then 600.000 inhabitants that plays a major role in the logistics of import en export of goods of the Netherlands and Europe. Before and after the Second World War the city has seen rapid growth in population and in size (CBS, 2011). By annexing adjacent towns and municipalities and extending the harbor activities the city became and attractive working-class city, with the harbor as its main employment supplier, still responsible for the generation of 10% of the GDP (General Domestic Product). But since the rise of the modern technology and the de-industrialization the city has been faced with the need for transformation. While during the industrial period the cities dealt with the loss of middle- and higher-income residents to the surrounding regions, now a recovery is seen (Priemus & Hall, 2004). These economic and technological transformations brought a need for continuous repositioning of the city in relation to the world economy in order to be able to compete on the constantly changing global market. This competitive edge comes according to theorists from the creative economy, which today is an intricate part of the service economy. The attraction of creative firms and creative worker is therefore one of the main goals of postindustrial cities today. However within this economic transformation, challenges Rotterdam in order to remain a strong economic global actor, has major effects on the demographic and spatial structure of the city and its neighbourhoods.

They refer to several sources in explaining tables 4 and 5, but we must conclude that both tables are more speculative than firmly based on empirical evidence. The main message that we can draw from these tables is that there are dynamic developments in economic, sociocultural and political domains, which reinforce each other. Those dynamics can be observed in the domain of both production and consumption. The driving force seems to be the growth of the
Table 5. Overview of spatial dynamics. Spatial Consequences of the Reorganization of Production Systems • Changed location patterns for activities: the creation of centres of innovation; of regional economies; the concentration of (financial) services; production in low wage countries • Laying of infrastructure (goods and information) • Increasing importance of services and leisure products: tourism, the heritage industry

underestimated, while the theme of ‘cultural homogenization’ could be contested. Spatial changes (physical, symbolic, social) depend in turn on social changes. Table 5 gives an overview of the spatial dynamics as presented by Asbeek Brusse et al. (2002, p. 45). In both tables, Asbeek Brusse et al. draw an important distinction between the spatial consequences of the reorganization of production systems and the spatial conse-

Spatial Consequences of Changed Consumption Patterns • Space as consumption space for the middle class • Growing importance of the visual experience of consumption of the space itself • Revaluation of old residential areas; the place of residence as a source of identity • The role of ‘corporate identity’ for firms in their choice of location

Spatial Consequences of Economic Dynamics

Spatial Consequences of Sociocultural Dynamics • Various requirements for layout and use • Revival of land-linked identities and simultaneous loss of cultural characteristics and location • Attention paid to risk and safety: supervision and selection of access • New daily mobility patterns

Spatial Consequences of Political Dynamics • Government withdraws: privatization of the housing market, networks, and public space • Readjustment of administrative scales • Other directive opportunities for the national state • New arrangements for design projects • Issues, diversity, and meanings: radicalization of the space debate

source: Priemus & et al., 2002, Source: Asbeek Brusse Hall, 2004 p. 145
BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 30 NO 4 343

Groningen

Amsterdam The Hague

Rotterdam

Arnhem

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source: made by author source: made by author based on google maps

t internationaal sterk is, rker duurzame steden en htige, maken Krachtige, duurzam nale bereikbaarheid regionale bereikba

Krachtige, duurz regionale bereik

Verbinden van arbeidsmarkt en woningmarkt op een hoger schaalniveau

1. Randstad blijvend beschermen tegen overstromingen - versterken dijkringen - kustbescherming

4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie

8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van: - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk - Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, vrede en veiligheid de stedelijke regio's: 10. Opschalen van 10. Opschalen van de stedelijke regio's: - bundeling en klimaatbestendige inrichting van verstedelijking, met - bundeling en klimaatbestendige inrichting van verstedelijking, - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstadmet ruimte voor werklocaties ruimte voor werklocaties - verbetering van OV- en wegbereikbaarheid - verbetering van OV- en wegbereikbaarheid - Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports - centrumontwikkeling op het niveau van de Noordelijke en de Zuidelijke - centrumontwikkeling op het niveau van de Noordelijke en de Zuidelijke Randstad Randstad - Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad 11. Optimaal benutten en klimaatbestendig inrichten binnenstedelijke ruimte 11. Optimaal benutten en 9. Verbeteren wonen, werkenklimaatbestendig inrichten binnenstedelijke ruimte voor van (inter)nationalevoorzieningen tussen de Randstad en andere en verbindingen door voor regio’s (weg en OV) stedelijkewonen, werken en voorzieningen door - transformeren - transformeren Versterken internationale economische krachten van de steden in de Randstad - herstructureren - herstructureren - intensiveren - intensiveren Verbeteren externe relaties 12. Uitvoeren schaalsprong Almere in relatie met ontwikkeling regio 12. Uitvoeren schaalsprong Almere in relatie met ontwikkeling regio Amsterdam, bereikbaarheid en ecologische verbetering IJmeer – Amsterdam, bereikbaarheid en ecologische verbetering IJmeer – Versterken concurrentiepositie van de Randstad in noordwest Europa Markermeer Markermeer

Regional Perscpective

KEUZES
Versterken relaties met andere stedelijke regio’s - versterken dijkringen - versterken dijkringen Versterken bereikbaarheid - tussen de steden en hun regio’s - de noordelijke - tussen kustbescherming zuidelijke Randstad - kustbeschermingen - nationaal en internationaal - ruimte voor grote rivieren - ruimte voor grote rivieren

Verstedelijkingsopgave - kwalitatief en kwantitatief

5. Transitie van de landbouw

- ruimte voor grote rivieren

6. Ontwikkeling van groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave

au u

haven aven

Strengthening the economy and social structure is not limited to the municipal policies in The Nederlands, this vision is also expressed in the policies from the national government in the “vision for the Randstad 2040”. The vision states the strengthening of the economic base of the region, increase the international connectivity and densification and intensification of the living-working locations in the cities. By intensifying the city networks and characterizing each major city with a specific developing role the national government intends to strengthen and sustain a position, on the national, the regional and city scale in the global economic KEUZES arena.
Benutten internationale topfuncties in de steden, de greenports, luchthaven Schiphol en haven van Rotterdam en Amsterdam 1. Randstad blijvend beschermen tegen overstromingen 1. Randstad blijvend beschermen tegen overstromingen 2. Anticiperen op toenemende verzilting en watertekort: zoet water 2. Anticiperen op toenemende verzilting en watertekort: zoet water 4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie 3. Van Groene Hart naar groenblauwe delta: beschermen, ontwikkelen en 3. Van Groene Hart naar groenblauwe delta: beschermen, ontwikkelen en 5. Transitie van de landbouw klimaatbestendig inrichten klimaatbestendig inrichten 6. Ontwikkeling van groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave

2. Anticiperen op toenemende verzilting en watertekort: zoet water 4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie 4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie

7. Extra groenblauwe kwaliteitsimpuls bij topfuncties de vorm van 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale de steden indoor middel van: 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationalegebieden zijn hiervoor zoekgebieden) 'metropolitane parken' (aangegeven topfuncties door middel van: - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam de regio Amsterdam - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk - Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, - Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, vrede en veiligheid vrede en veiligheid de stedelijke regio's: 10. Opschalen van - bundeling en klimaatbestendige inrichting van verstedelijking, - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstadmet - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad ruimte voor werklocaties - verbetering van OV- en wegbereikbaarheid - Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports - Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports

3. Van Groene Hart naar groenblauwe delta: beschermen, ontwikkelen en 5. Transitie van de landbouw 5. Transitie van de landbouw klimaatbestendig inrichten

6. Ontwikkeling van groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave 6. Ontwikkeling van groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave

7. Extra groenblauwe kwaliteitsimpuls bij de steden in de vorm van 7. Extra groenblauwe kwaliteitsimpuls bij de steden indoor middel van: 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationalegebieden zijn de vorm van 'metropolitane parken' (aangegeven topfuncties hiervoor zoekgebieden) 'metropolitane parken' (aangegeven gebieden zijn hiervoor zoekgebieden) - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk

- centrumontwikkeling op het niveau van de Noordelijke en de Zuidelijke Randstad - Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes - Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad universiteiten in de Randstad

rnationaal sterk is, aken

len en

au

haven

The international connectivity will be improved through HSL railway line connecting key stations like Rotterdam CS to Antwerp, Paris and beyond. Increasing the number of commuters for the city of Rotterdam from 100.000 to 320.000 a day in 2025 (Rotterdam, 2011), increasing the use of the station and the station area, creating pressure and opportunities for the city center and the city overall towards further development. However the strengthening of the economic base of the Randstad does not just rely on the connectivity or the business typology, it depends as well into a great extend on the social structure of the cities, in essence it means that each municipality should have a divers social structure, with a mix of high- middle and lower income/educated inhabitants. In the case of Rotterdam this poses a problem, due to its history as a working-class city, the current percentage of unemployment and their housing typology offer.
VerbindenExtraarbeidsmarkt en woningmarkt op eensteden schaalniveau 7. van groenblauwe kwaliteitsimpuls bij de hoger in de vorm van 'metropolitane parken' (aangegeven gebieden zijn hiervoor zoekgebieden) Verstedelijkingsopgave - kwalitatief en kwantitatief Versterken relaties met andere stedelijke regio’s Benutten internationale topfuncties in de steden, de greenports, luchthaven Schiphol en haven van Rotterdam en Amsterdam 1. Randstad blijvend beschermen tegen overstromingen - versterken dijkringen Versterken bereikbaarheid - tussen de steden en hun regio’s - de noordelijke en - tussen kustbescherming zuidelijke Randstad - nationaal en internationaal - ruimte voor grote rivieren 2. Anticiperen op toenemende verzilting en watertekort: zoet water 3. Van Groene Hart naar groenblauwe delta: beschermen, ontwikkelen en klimaatbestendig inrichten

- Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, vrede blijvend beschermen tegen overstromingen 1. Randstad en veiligheid - Versterken nationale - versterken dijkringen potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad - Versterken van - kustbescherming de centrumfunctie van de greenports - Versterking hoogwaardige - ruimte voor grote rivieren economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad

11. Optimaal benutten en klimaatbestendig tussen de Randstad en andere 9. Verbeteren van (inter)nationale verbindingen inrichten binnenstedelijke ruimte 9. Verbeteren wonen, werken en voorzieningen tussen de Randstad en andere voor van (inter)nationale verbindingen door stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV) stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV) 4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie - transformeren - herstructureren

8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van: Versterken positie van havens en luchthavens - Versterken enGoede robuuste nationale en metropolitane verbindingen (weg en spoor) met een benutten van internationale, internationale kansen van de regio Amsterdam de corridors naar het zuiden, oosten en zuidoosten. focus op - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk - Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, vrede en veiligheid de stedelijke regio's: 10. Opschalen van - bundeling en klimaatbestendige inrichting van verstedelijking, met - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad ruimte voor werklocaties - verbetering van OV- en wegbereikbaarheid - Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports - centrumontwikkeling op het niveau van de Noordelijke en de Zuidelijke Randstad - Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad 11. Optimaal benutten en klimaatbestendig inrichten binnenstedelijke ruimte 9. Verbeteren wonen, werken en voorzieningen tussen de Randstad en andere voor van (inter)nationale verbindingen door stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV) - transformeren - herstructureren

5. Transitie van de landbouw - intensiveren

12. Uitvoeren schaalsprong Almere in relatie met ontwikkeling regio 6. Ontwikkeling vanbereikbaarheid en ecologische verbetering IJmeer – Amsterdam, groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave Markermeer

9. Verbeteren van (inter)nationale verbindingen tussen de Randstad en andere stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV) 2. Anticiperen op toenemende verzilting en watertekort: zoet water 4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie

7. Extra groenblauwe kwaliteitsimpuls bij topfuncties de vorm van 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale de steden indoor middel van: 'metropolitane parken' (aangegeven gebieden zijn hiervoor zoekgebieden) - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk - Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, vrede en veiligheid - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad - Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports - Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad 9. Verbeteren van (inter)nationale verbindingen tussen de Randstad en andere stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV)

3. Van Groene Hart naar groenblauwe delta: beschermen, ontwikkelen en 5. Transitie van de landbouw klimaatbestendig inrichten

6. Ontwikkeling van groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave

7. Extra groenblauwe kwaliteitsimpuls bij de steden in de vorm van 'metropolitane parken' (aangegeven gebieden zijn hiervoor zoekgebieden)

source: Randstad 2040

8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van: 12. Uitvoeren schaalsprong Almere in relatie met ontwikkeling regio - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van Amsterdam, bereikbaarheid en ecologische verbetering IJmeer – de regio Amsterdam Markermeer - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk

(N.B. De kaart is een indicatieve weergave)

- intensiveren

(N.B. De kaart is een indicatieve weergave)

- Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, vrede en veiligheid - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad

KEUZES
8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van: - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam

- Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports - Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad

Verbinden van arbeidsmarkt en woningmarkt op een hoger schaalniveau

1. Randstad blijvend beschermen tegen overstromingen - versterken dijkringen - kustbescherming - ruimte voor grote rivieren

4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie

Verstedelijkingsopgave - kwalitatief en kwantitatief

5. Transitie van de landbouw

- bundeling en klimaatbestendige inrichting van verstedelijking, met Verbeteren van (inter)nationale verbindingen tussen de Randstad en andere 9. ruimte voor werklocaties stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV) -- Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van- verbetering van OV- en wegbereikbaarheid Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar Verbeteren externe relaties de regioLelystad en Eindhoven de regioAmsterdam Amsterdam eventuele uitplaatsing naar - centrumontwikkeling op het niveau van de Noordelijke en de Zuidelijke

8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van: 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van:

10. Opschalen van de stedelijke regio's:

Versterken internationale economische krachten van de steden in de Randstad

Versterken relaties met andere stedelijke regio’s

6. Ontwikkeling van groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave

Benutten internationale topfuncties in de steden, de greenports, luchthaven Schiphol en haven van Rotterdam en Amsterdam 1. Randstad blijvend beschermen tegen overstromingen - versterken dijkringen Versterken bereikbaarheid - tussen de steden en hun regio’s - tussen de noordelijke en zuidelijke Randstad - kustbescherming - nationaal en internationaal - ruimte voor grote rivieren

2. Anticiperen op toenemende verzilting en watertekort: zoet water 4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie

7. Extra groenblauwe kwaliteitsimpuls bij de steden in de vorm van 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationalegebieden zijn hiervoor zoekgebieden) 'metropolitane parken' (aangegeven topfuncties door middel van: - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk - Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, vrede en veiligheid - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad - Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports

Randstad - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie -- Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar en Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar ontwikkelen havennetwerk 11. Optimaal benutten en klimaatbestendig inrichten binnenstedelijke ruimte eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, voor wonen, werken en voorzieningen door vrede en veiligheid - transformeren 10. Opschalen - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, van de stedelijke regio's: Versterken internationale economische krachten van de steden in de Randstad - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, - bundeling en klimaatbestendige inrichting van verstedelijking, - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstadmet - herstructureren transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk ruimte voor transformatieen ontwikkelen havennetwerk werklocaties - verbetering van OV- en wegbereikbaarheid - Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports - intensiveren Verbeteren externe relaties 12. Uitvoeren schaalsprong Almere in relatie met ontwikkeling regio Amsterdam, bereikbaarheid en ecologische verbetering IJmeer – Versterken concurrentiepositie van de Randstad in noordwest Europa Markermeer

Veilige, klim - versterken - versterken - ruimte voo - van zuidw - ruimte voo - metropolit

Versterken concurrentiepositie van de Randstad in noordwest Europa

3. Van Groene Hart naar groenblauwe delta: beschermen, ontwikkelen en 5. Transitie van de landbouw klimaatbestendig inrichten

6. Ontwikkeling van groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave

- centrumontwikkeling op veiligheid de Noordelijke en de Zuidelijke vrede en het niveau van vrede en veiligheid Randstad - Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad

-- Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, -- Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad

Versterken positie van havens en luchthavens Veilige, klimaatbestendige, groenblauwe delta als raamwerk voor verstedelijking - versterken van diversiteit en identiteit Goede robuuste nationale en internationale verbindingen (weg en spoor) met een versterken kust focus -op de corridors naar het zuiden, oosten en zuidoosten. - ruimte voor de rivier - van zuidwestelijke delta naar IJsselmeer - ruimte voor groenblauwe woonmilieus i.c.m. versterken identiteit landschappen - metropolitane parken Inzetten op kracht: versterken van de topfuncties - versterken van de topfuncties in de steden ( hoofdvestiging internationale organisaties en NGO’s, wetenschap, internationale congressen, beurzen, tentoonstellingen e.d., stedelijk toerisme, hoofdkantoren multinationals en internationale banken, havens, luchthavens en internationale toegankelijkheid) - ontwikkelen havennetwerk - versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol - versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports - versterking clusters rond de universiteiten Focus op de stad - steden centraal, met extra inzet op verdichting - opschaling ‘daily urban system’ van stadsregio's naar Noordelijke en Zuidelijke Randstad - schaalsprong Almere - versterken relaties met andere krachten van de steden in de Versterken internationale economischenationale stedelijke netwerkenRandstad Versterken bereikbaarheid (weg en spoor) - tussen de steden en hun regio’s, - tussen de noordelijke en zuidelijke Randstad Verbeteren externe relaties Goede robuuste nationale en internationale verbindingen (weg en spoor) met een focus op de corridors naar het zuiden, oosten en zuidoosten. - Zuid: A4 Amsterdam - van de Randstad in noordwest Europa Versterken concurrentiepositieAntwerpen, HSL Zuid en mogelijk verbeterde goederenverbinding Rotterdam - Antwerpen (Robel) - Zuidoost: A2 en mogelijk verbeterde internationale treindienst via Eindhoven in

Inzetten op - versterken organisatie tentoonste internation - ontwikkele - versterken - versterken - versterking

2. Anticiperen op toenemende verzilting en watertekort: zoet water

7. Extra groenblauwe kwaliteitsimpuls bij de steden in de vorm van 'metropolitane parken' (aangegeven gebieden zijn hiervoor zoekgebieden)

11. Optimaal benutten en klimaatbestendig tussen de Randstad en andere 9. Verbeteren van (inter)nationale verbindingen inrichten binnenstedelijke ruimte voor regio’s (weg en OV) stedelijkewonen, werken en voorzieningen door - transformeren

Versterken positie van havens en luchthavens Goede robuuste nationale en internationale verbindingen (weg en spoor) met een focus op de corridors naar het zuiden, oosten en zuidoosten.

Focus op de - steden ce - opschaling Randstad - schaalspro - versterken

3. Van Groene Hart naar groenblauwe delta: beschermen, ontwikkelen en klimaatbestendig inrichten

- intensiveren

k is,

--Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports - herstructureren -- Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes

Versterken - tussen de - tussen de

- Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad

12. Uitvoeren schaalsprong Almere in relatie met ontwikkeling regio universiteiten in de verbetering Amsterdam, universiteiten in de RandstadIJmeer – bereikbaarheid en ecologischeRandstad Markermeer 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van: stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV) stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV)

9. Verbeteren van topfuncties door middel van: 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale(inter)nationale verbindingen tussen de Randstad en andere 1. Randstad blijvend beschermen tegen overstromingen - versterken dijkringen - kustbescherming - ruimte voor grote rivieren stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV) 4. Beschermen en ontwikkelen van landschappelijke differentiatie

9. Verbeteren van (inter)nationale verbindingen tussen de Randstad en andere 9. Verbeteren van (inter)nationale verbindingen tussen de Randstad en andere
10. Opschalen van de stedelijke regio's: - bundeling en klimaatbestendige inrichting van verstedelijking, met ruimte voor werklocaties - verbetering van OV- en wegbereikbaarheid

Verbinden van arbeidsmarkt en woningmarkt op een hoger schaalniveau

Verstedelijkingsopgave - kwalitatief en kwantitatief

- Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam
5. Transitie van de landbouw

- Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk

source: Randstad 2040

7

Versterken relaties met andere stedelijke regio’s

- Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar 6. Ontwikkeling van groene woonmilieus gekoppeld aan groenblauwe opgave Lelystad en Eindhoven

- centrumontwikkeling op het niveau van de Noordelijke en de Zuidelijke Randstad 11. Optimaal benutten en klimaatbestendig inrichten binnenstedelijke ruimte

Goede robu (weg en spo - Zuid: A4 A goederenv - Zuidoost: zuidoostel - Oost: A2/A Veilige, klim - Overig: A - versterken - versterken - ruimte voo - van zuidw - ruimte voo - metropolit

Inzetten op - versterken organisatie

ROTTERDAM
Facts: Inhabitants: 610.412 Density: 2.903 p/km2 Unemployement: 7.8% (age 16-65) Non-westen EU inh: 37 % Low income: 51%

source: made by author based on google maps

Ro#erdam  
Low   High  

Ro#erdam  
single   no  kids   with  kids  
18000   16000   14000   12000   16317   15765   18000   16000   14000   12000   10000   8000   2903   6000   4000   491   2000   0   Nederland   Oude  Westen   Delfshaven   2903   491   Ro<erdam   Nederland   16317   15765  

28%  

29%   48%   72%  

10000   8000   6000   4000   2000  

23%  

0  

Oude  Westen  

Delfshaven  

Ro<erdam  

Bevolkingsdichtheid  

Housing detailed

Icome

Household

Population density

Bevolkingsdichtheid  

8

source: www.cbsindebuurt.nl

EDBR – Update Econominsche Visie Rotterdam EDBR – Update Econominsche Visie Rotterdam

Koers houden, doorpakken en uitvoeren Koers houden, doorpakken en uitvoeren

Economie Rotterdam 2005-2008 Economie Rotterdam 2005-2008

30 30

EDBR – Update Econominsche Visie Rotterdam EDBR – Update Econominsche Visie Rotterdam

Koers houden, doorpakken en uitvoeren Koers houden, doorpakken en uitvoeren

Economie Rotterdam 2005-2008 Economie Rotterdam 2005-2008

31 31

Municipal Perspective

Traditionally Rotterdam has been a predominant working class city, although the port and the city have undergone major redevelopment after the bombing of the centre during the Second World War the relocation of the harbor and technological innovation left the city with high numbers of unemployment particularly under unskilled workers. While at the same time a migration of middle- and high income/educated to the growing suburbs and surrounding regions took place. During these times the focus of the municipality was primarily on the provision of adequate social housing and employment for their working-class 30 30 inhabitants. (Add literature). Now that the trend are changing and the demands for adequate housing in the centre for affluent household is increasing the national government and municipality have changed their policies to fulfill this demand and strengthen their economic position. Piet Boekhoud: Piet Boekhoud: “Er is niet genoeg gebeurd op het gebied The vision for the Randstad (MVROM, 2008) has been largely adopted by the municipality of “Er is niet genoeg gebeurd op het gebied van arbeidsmarkt. Dit College heeft ook geen van arbeidsmarkt. Dit College heeft ook geen samenhangend beeld over wat te doen. Als je Rotterdam in their Urban Vision 2030 creating major strategic zeker weet dat een groot deel van defacilitate this interventions to jongeren samenhangend beeld over wat te doen. Als je zeker weet dat een groot deel van de jongeren niet goed gaat aansluiten, dan moet je een beleid social and economic transition. The vision form the municipality is focusedis. Je moet eigenlijk on two elements: niet goed gaat aansluiten, dan moet je een beleid voeren dat daar op gericht is. Je moet eigenlijk voeren dat daar op gericht die loopbaan centraal gaan stellen binnen aldie loopbaan centraal gaan stellen binnen alCreating and attractive residential city and strengthening the lerlei vormen van jeugdbeleid. Wat we nu doen posiinternational economic lerlei vormen van jeugdbeleid. Wat we nu doen is mensen in partjes delen. Wij zijn met onderis mensen in partjes delen. Wij zijn met ondertion. However the strategies proposed by the municipality to implement this vision in the wijs bezig en jeugdzorg is daar mee bezig en de wijs bezig en jeugdzorg is daar mee bezig en de corporaties met wonen. Die leefgebieden moet corporaties met wonen. Die leefgebieden moet reality are clearly invasive. je veel meer op elkaar gaan binden en in dienst je veel meer op elkaar gaan binden en in dienst
EDBR – Update Econominsche Visie Rotterdam Koers houden, doorpakken en uitvoeren EDBR – Update Econominsche Visie Rotterdam Koers houden, doorpakken en uitvoeren Economie Rotterdam 2005-2008 Economie Rotterdam 2005-2008

“Voortijdige schooluitval is een grootstedelijk probleem. De uitval in “Voortijdigegevolgd door is een grootstedelijkHaag, is bijvoorbeeld in Rotterdam, schooluitval Amsterdam en Den probleem. De uitval

Rotterdam, gevolgd door Amsterdam en Den Haag, is bijvoorbeeld de helft hoger dan gemiddeld over de rest van Nederland. Daarnaast dehet een armoedeprobleem. over dehet percentage uitkeringen in is helft hoger dan gemiddeld Vooral rest van Nederland. Daarnaast is het een houdt gelijke tred met de schooluitval in diezelfde buurt. een buurt armoedeprobleem. Vooral het percentage uitkeringen in eenis met name terug tetred met de schooluitval in diezelfde buurt. Dit buurt houdt gelijke zien in de krachtwijken. Door de opeenDit is met name terug te zienhun directe omgeving – gebroken stapeling van problemen in in de krachtwijken. Door de opeenstapeling van problemen in voorbeelden, rotte huizen en rotte gezinnen, weinig positieve hun directe omgeving – gebroken

gezinnen, weinig positieve voorbeelden, rotte huizen en rotteuit buurten, drugs, criminaliteit en hoge schulden – zijn kinderen buurten, drugs, criminaliteit en hoge schulden –om hen te laten deze wijken kwetsbaar. Er is weinig voor nodig zijn kinderen uit deze wijken kwetsbaar. Er is weinig voor nodig om hen te laten ontsporen.” ontsporen.”

voeren dat daar op gericht is. Je moet eigenlijk die loopbaan centraal gaan stellen binnen aldie loopbaan centraal gaan stellen binnen allerlei vormen van jeugdbeleid. Wat we nu doen lerlei vormen van jeugdbeleid. Wat we nu doen is mensen in partjes delen. Wij zijn met onderis mensen in partjes delen. Wij zijn met ondermiddelbaar laag opgeleiden Betere woningen, een veilige sociale omgeving, goede sport- en wijs bezig en jeugdzorg is daar mee bezig en de middelbaar laag opgeleiden Betere woningen, een veilige sociale omgeving, goede sport- en wijs bezig en jeugdzorg is daar mee bezig en de culturele voorzieningen, kortom investeren in de kwaliteit van de opgeleiden corporaties met wonen. Die leefgebieden moet culturele voorzieningen, kortom investeren invoorwaarde voor de opgeleiden corporaties met wonen. Die leefgebieden moet stad/quality of life is daarom niet alleen een de kwaliteit van het EDBR – Update Econominsche Visie Rotterdam Koers je veel meer op elkaar gaan binden en in dienst houden, doorpakken en uitvoeren Economie Rotterdam 2005-2008 31 stad/quality of life ishoger opgeleide – Update Econominsche Visie voor ook Koersje veel meer op elkaar gaan binden en in dienst EDBR beroepsbevolking, maar het houden, doorpakken en uitvoeren Economie Rotterdam 2005-2008 31 aantrekken van een daarom niet alleen een voorwaarde Rotterdam stellen van die loopbaan.” aantrekken van een hoger opgeleide beroepsbevolking, maar ook Amsterdam 2006 voor het opleiden van de potentiële beroepsbevolking, de zittende stellen van die loopbaan.”
voor het opleiden van de potentiële beroepsbevolking, de zittende Rotterdammers. Onderzoek wijst uit dat iemand die één niveau Rotterdammers. Onderzoek wijst uit dat iemandvan MBO-2, zo’n hoger is opgeleid, Bijvoorbeeld MBO-3 in plaats die één niveau hoger is opgeleid, Bijvoorbeeld MBO-3investeren in het opleidings8% meer koopkracht heeft. Langdurig in plaats van MBO-2, zo’n 8% meer koopkracht heeft. Langdurig investerenbasisvoorwaarde niveau van de beroepsbevolking is een absolute in het opleidings-

The vision clearly indicates a tendency of the municipality to focus on the regional/national and international position of the city. Socially : by attracting more middle- and higher-eduPiet Boekhoud: Piet Boekhoud: “Er is niet genoeg gebeurd op het gebied cated/income household who often have broader social networks than residents of deprived “Er is niet genoeg gebeurd op het gebied van arbeidsmarkt. Dit College heeft ook geen van arbeidsmarkt. Dit College heeft ook geen samenhangend beeld over wat te doen. Als je neighbourhoods (Findgroot deel van de jongeren lite). Economically by attracting international firms to the RBD, interRotterdam 2006 samenhangend beeld over wat te doen. Als je Rotterdam 2006 zeker weet dat een zeker weet dat een de jongeren niet goed gaat aansluiten, dan moet je een beleid nationally renowned opgroot deel vanmoet eigenlijk studentification (high skill development). architecture and 39% 36% 24% 10,9% niet goed gaat aansluiten, dan moet je een beleid voeren dat daar gericht is. Je

Rotterdam in vergelijking G4 Rotterdam in vergelijking G4
39% 36% 24% 10,9%

niveau van de beroepsbevolking is een absolute basisvoorwaarde voor de economische ontwikkeling van Rotterdam. En dat betekent voornieteconomische ontwikkeling van en participatie,dat betekent dan de investeren alleen in onderwijs Rotterdam. En maar vooral dan niet investeren alleen in onderwijs en participatie, maar vooral ook in de leefomstandigheden van diegenen die nu de krachtook in de leefomstandigheden van diegenen die nu de kracht- en wijken bevolken. Bundeling van de diverse overheidsfondsen wijken bevolken. Bundeling van de diverse overheidsfondsen en budgetten in een gebiedsgerichte/wijkgerichte aanpak is budgetten in een gebiedsgerichte/wijkgerichte bijdrageis noodzakelijk, waarbij ook het bedrijfsleven een aanpak zou noodzakelijk, waarbij ook het bedrijfsleven een bijdrage zou moeten leveren. In het najaar van 2008 komt de EDBR hierover moeten leveren. In het najaar van 2008 komt de EDBR hierover met een uitgebreid advies. met een uitgebreid advies.

What is apparent for the implementation of this vision of the new centre and particularly of werkloze hoog opgeleiden werkloze hoog opgeleiden beroepsbevolking the inner city neighborhoods is that it does not consider the spatial effect that could fragberoepsbevolking ment the local scale/use of the centre from the original/current neighborhoods inhabitants. Amsterdam 2006 It prefers and is spatially express towards the more affluent future residents, their spatial 25% 34% 40% 6,8% 25% 34% 40% 6,8% demands and potentialities, in detriment to the current users.

“Voortijdige schooluitval is een grootstedelijk probleem. De uitval in “Voortijdige schooluitval is een grootstedelijk probleem. De uitval in Rotterdam, gevolgd door Amsterdam en Den Haag, is bijvoorbeeld Rotterdam, gevolgd door Amsterdam en Den Haag, is bijvoorbeeld de helft hoger dan gemiddeld over de rest van Nederland. Daarnaast de helft hoger dan gemiddeld over de rest van Nederland. Daarnaast is het een armoedeprobleem. Vooral het percentage uitkeringen in is het een armoedeprobleem. Vooral het percentage uitkeringen in een buurt houdt gelijke tred met de schooluitval in diezelfde buurt. een buurt houdt gelijke tred met de schooluitval in diezelfde buurt. Dit is met name terug te zien in de krachtwijken. Door de opeenDit is met name terug te zien in de krachtwijken. Door de opeenstapeling van problemen in hun directe omgeving – gebroken stapeling van problemen in hun directe omgeving – gebroken gezinnen, weinig positieve voorbeelden, rotte huizen en rotte gezinnen, weinig positieve voorbeelden, rotte huizen en rotte buurten, drugs, criminaliteit en hoge schulden – zijn kinderen uit buurten, drugs, criminaliteit en hoge schulden – zijn kinderen uit deze wijken kwetsbaar. Er is weinig voor nodig om hen te laten deze wijken kwetsbaar. Er is weinig voor nodig om hen te laten ontsporen.” ontsporen.” Betere woningen, een veilige sociale omgeving, goede sport- en Betere woningen, een veilige sociale omgeving, goede sport- en culturele voorzieningen, kortom investeren in de kwaliteit van de culturele voorzieningen, kortom investeren in de kwaliteit van de stad/quality of life is daarom niet alleen een voorwaarde voor het stad/quality of life is daarom niet alleen een voorwaarde voor het aantrekken van een hoger opgeleide beroepsbevolking, maar ook aantrekken van een hoger opgeleide beroepsbevolking, maar ook voor het opleiden van de potentiële beroepsbevolking, de zittende voor het opleiden van de potentiële beroepsbevolking, de zittende Rotterdammers. Onderzoek wijst uit dat iemand die één niveau Rotterdammers. Onderzoek wijst uit dat iemand die één niveau hoger is opgeleid, Bijvoorbeeld MBO-3 in plaats van MBO-2, zo’n hoger is opgeleid, Bijvoorbeeld MBO-3 in plaats van MBO-2, zo’n 8% meer koopkracht heeft. Langdurig investeren in het opleidings8% meer koopkracht heeft. Langdurig investeren in het opleidingsniveau van de beroepsbevolking is een absolute basisvoorwaarde niveau van de beroepsbevolking is een absolute basisvoorwaarde voor de economische ontwikkeling van Rotterdam. En dat betekent voor de economische ontwikkeling van Rotterdam. En dat betekent dan niet investeren alleen in onderwijs en participatie, maar vooral dan niet investeren alleen in onderwijs en participatie, maar vooral ook in de leefomstandigheden van diegenen die nu de krachtook in de leefomstandigheden van diegenen die nu de krachtwijken bevolken. Bundeling van de diverse overheidsfondsen en wijken bevolken. Bundeling van de diverse overheidsfondsen en budgetten in een gebiedsgerichte/wijkgerichte aanpak is budgetten in een gebiedsgerichte/wijkgerichte aanpak is noodzakelijk, waarbij ook het bedrijfsleven een bijdrage zou noodzakelijk, waarbij ook het bedrijfsleven een bijdrage zou moeten leveren. In het najaar van 2008 komt de EDBR hierover moeten leveren. In het najaar van 2008 komt de EDBR hierover met een uitgebreid advies. met een uitgebreid advies.

Rotterdam in vergelijking G4
Rotterdam 2006 Rotterdam 2006

laag opgeleiden laag opgeleiden

middelbaar middelbaar opgeleiden opgeleiden

hoog opgeleiden hoog opgeleiden

werkloze werkloze beroepsbevolking beroepsbevolking

39%

36%

24%

10,9%

Den Haag 2006 Den Haag 2006

33% 33%

35% 35%

31% 31%

6,5% 6,5%

laag opgeleiden middelbaar laag opgeleiden laag opgeleiden middelbaar middelbaar opgeleiden opgeleiden opgeleiden

hoog opgeleiden werkloze hoog opgeleiden hoog opgeleiden werkloze werkloze beroepsbevolking beroepsbevolking beroepsbev.

laag opgeleiden middelbaar laag opgeleiden middelbaar middelbaar laag opgeleiden opgeleiden opgeleiden opgeleiden

hoog opgeleiden werkloze hoog opgeleiden werkloze werkloze hoog opgeleiden beroepsbevolking beroepsbevolking beroepsbev.

stellen van die loopbaan.” stellen van die loopbaan.”

Due to the traditional functions that Rotterdam has as a working-class city, the city copes with a high percentage of lower educated and lower income inhabitants, especially compared to the other 3 major cities in the Randstad. This poses a threat to the realization of the future vision where there is a need for more middle- and high educated people. To facilitate this need the municipality proposes a strategy of gentrification (Rotterdam, 2007), providing adequate housing and environment for the affluent people. A Strategy which directly entails a demographic transformation process, in certain neighbourhoods around the centre, by a search to reduce the amount of social housing. Transforming these buildings into single family homes or large apartments for higher purchasing power groups. The strengthening of the international economic competitive position of the city will be enhanced through a number of key project related to harbor activities (Maasvlakte 2), further development of the medical and creative sectors and to reinforce the leisure sector of the city by improve the city centre conditions for it, Stadionpark, the Zuidplein and Ahoy areas in particular (Rotterdam, 2007). The re-development of the centre is focused on extending the business services into Rotterdam Business District (RBD) near the train station. As for the leisure/commercial aspect of the centre the focus lies in further developing the dynamic image of the centre through impressive architecture, higher education near or in the centre and improving the connectivity and quality of the public space. “Thereby emphasizing the centre of city as the centre of the South-arch of the Randstad (Rotterdam, 2005).”

Amsterdam 2006 Amsterdam 2006

25%

34%

40%

6,8%

Utrecht 2006 Utrecht 2006

24% 24%

32% 32%

44% 44%

4,4% 4,4%

AANTREKKELIJKE WOONSTAD

laag opgeleiden laag opgeleiden middelbaar middelbaar laag opgeleiden middelbaar opgeleiden opgeleiden opgeleiden

hoog opgeleiden hoog opgeleiden werkloze werkloze hoog opgeleiden werkloze beroepsbevolking beroepsbevolking beroepsbev.

laag opgeleiden laag opgeleiden middelbaar middelbaar laag opgeleiden middelbaar opgeleiden opgeleiden opgeleiden
cos, kerncijfers rotterdam cos, kerncijfers rotterdam

hoog opgeleiden hoog opgeleiden werkloze werkloze hoog opgeleiden werkloze beroepsbevolking beroepsbev. beroepsbevolking

Den Haag 2006 Den Haag 2006

source: Economic Vision Rotterdam 2030

33%

35%

31%
hoog opgeleiden hoog opgeleiden

6,5%
werkloze werkloze beroepsbevolking beroepsbevolking

2008 2008

laag opgeleiden laag opgeleiden

middelbaar middelbaar opgeleiden opgeleiden

Utrecht 2006 Utrecht 2006

24%

32%
middelbaar middelbaar opgeleiden opgeleiden

44%
hoog opgeleiden hoog opgeleiden

4,4%
werkloze werkloze beroepsbevolking beroepsbevolking

laag opgeleiden laag opgeleiden

cos, kerncijfers rotterdam 2008 cos, kerncijfers rotterdam 2008

source: Urban Vision Rotterdam 2030
44 45

9

OUDE WESTEN
Facts: inhabitants: 9.585 Density 16.119 p/km2 Unemployement: 49% (age 16-65) Single family: 54% Non-westen EU inh: 62%

source: made by author based on google maps

Oude  Westen  
Private  Rent  

Oude  Westen  
Middle   High  

Oude  Westen  
single   no  kids   with  kids  
250   200   224  

Social  Housing  

owner  occupied   Low  

15%   15%   70%   38%  

11%   28%   51%   17%   55%  

150   109   100   50   0  

144   109  

41  

Oude  Westen  

Ro2erdam  

Delfshaven  

Ro2erdam  

Nederland  

amout  of  household  per  1000  

Housing detailed

Icome

Household

av. housing value

10

amout of people on wellfare
source: www.cbsindebuurt.nl

Local Perspective

Neighbourhoods like the Oude Westen are areas who will experience extensive changes and pressures due to the national and municipal vision because of the location, their demographic structure and the possible safety issues. The Oude Westen is a neighborhood adjacent to the central station and city centre, with a high percentage of social housing (70%), a high percentage of unemployment and according the housing association and the municipality with use of the safety monitor (veiligindex) the neighbourhoods is expressed as a problem area (probleemwijk). The ambitions of the municipality to strengthen the economic base, search to increase residential attractively and decrease the social problems in neighborhoods like the the Oude Westen in part led by the development of the gentrification strategy. The effects of the municipal strategies are twofold, gentrification as the direct effect and the intensification of the regional focus of the role of the Rotterdam centre as the indirect influence. The effects of both strategies could pose a threat to the current local inhabitants who live in social housing schemes and have low income or are currently unemployed. The gentrification strategy tend to effect a wide scope of social, spatial and economic aspect, the primary effect tends to be people’s displacement, even though the social housing residents have quite extensive tenure rights (Kleinhans, 2003). The displacement does not take place in a single action by the housing corporation, but also takes place in later stages of the gentrification process by rising land values and rent prices (Uitermark et al., 2007, Atkinson, 2002) due the increasing market pressures in the central areas. However displacement is just one of the primary effects of the gentrification strategy. Where the goal of the municipality on the neighborhood scale is to increase social mixing and provoke integration between different “types” of residents, this type of gentrification strategy according to critics is far to limited to be able to create the required conditions for a social cohesive and an integrated neighbourhood. “It is ironic that a process that results in segregation and polarization - gentrification - is being promoted via social mix policies as the ‘positive’ solution to segregation” (Lees, 2000). In relation to the social transformation of the neighborhood, the literature shows that places with affluent residents attract higher-end shops and services, replacing local grocers for delicatessens thereby possibly increasing into the costs of living in such a neighborhood are constantly observed (Atkinson, 2000). As stated before isolating the less affluent residents spatially by possibly changing amenities type and to possibly decreasing stake in public transport/mobility acerbates the above describe externalities. Also as recognized that Middle- high-income residents relay often more on car transportation the morphological qualities of the centre can also being affected (find Lite)

What is apparent it this situation and most likely many more is that a distortion in the decision making process has taken place. Namely that it is fragmented at the local scale/or from an economic regional stakeholder view, the local presents the least important position on the current decision making process, i.e. The local inhabitants even though there are a number of community initiatives are not involved and had no voice in the making of the development vision (Statistiek, 2010). A Phenomena which is a recurring problem in the planning and decision making process of municipalities and housing associations at the municipal level. Thereby the strategy is not only fragmenting the position of the current less affluent inhabitants in the future social, spatial and economic structure but also within the initial decision making structure. Addressing the opinions on the current inhabitants in some ways could be crucial to the establishing of a better social cohesion in the neighborhoods. Especially from the perspective of the emotional connection that residents have with the neighborhood. Some residents might have a stronger ‘sense of place’ than the others; addressing who wants to stay and who wants to leave could pose an essential challenge to establishing integration between initial and future residents (Kleinhans, 2003). Being the way that both groups have needs in potentialities should e considered by the planning framework, which is a key issue to explore in this research project.

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Problemstatement

The city of Rotterdam has a high percentage of social housing schemes to offer; percentages equivalent to Amsterdam, however Amsterdam has a better differentiation in relation to their level of employed residents. To strengthen the city’s economy, the residential attractively and increase their position on the national and global market, strategies are imposed to attract and facilitate functions for more affluent residents. The expectations are that Rotterdam will boost their professional workforce in the medical field, business and innovation and the creative sector primarily in relation the professionals climbing the social ladder (students, graduates, young professional families, following a services related economy program). The tendency is that these social climbers prefer living in the urban environment. The municipality has the ambition to house these young professionals in the inner city and attain to their needs for a dynamic centre with regional orientation: The centre of the SouthWing of the Randstad. Housing these young professionals at inner city deprived neighborhoods will, according to the municipality increase the social, economic and spatial environmental performance of the neighborhood. The problem described in the sections above show that the urban regeneration agenda for central areas of the city and the assigned role of Rotterdam on the national level developmental perspectives are creating a distortion on the local neighborhood level. This distortion manifests itself spatially, disrupting the potentials of the less affluent residents of the neighborhood. The current strategies and means of planning show a one side perspective in relation to effects and the involved actors. The focus lies with the attraction to and facilitation of affluent future resident, while disregarding the current less affluent residents, their needs and potentialities in relation to the transformation of the city and ignoring the possible large scale externalities which this strategy could activate.

AANTREKKELIJKE WOONSTAD

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8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van: - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk - Versterken en uitbouwen van Den Haag als internationale stad van recht, vrede en veiligheid - Versterken nationale potenties Utrecht als draaischijf en kennisstad - Versterken van de centrumfunctie van de greenports

Spatial-Social fragmentation

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source: made by author based on offical maps
- Versterking hoogwaardige economische clusters rond de zes universiteiten in de Randstad 8. Benutten en versterken (inter)nationale topfuncties door middel van: 9. Verbeteren van (inter)nationale verbindingen tussen de Randstad en andere stedelijke regio’s (weg en OV) - Versterken en benutten van internationale, metropolitane kansen van de regio Amsterdam - Versterken hubfunctie van Schiphol mede in relatie met onderzoek naar eventuele uitplaatsing naar Lelystad en Eindhoven - Uitbouwen toppositie Rotterdamse haven door innovatie, transformatie en ontwikkelen havennetwerk

Objectives

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Objectives
Main Objective
The main objective is to counteracts the distortion caused by the dynamic trend of gentrification and the effects of the current strategies of the government and municipality of Rotterdam. With the equilibrium on actors voices and considerations the emphases will be focused on establishing means to integrate the potentialities of the less affluent residents of inner city neighborhoods into the strategies/goals of the municipality at the whole integrated National decision making.

Project Structure

To structure the graduation project the objective has been disassembled into four characteristics which can be divided into theoretical and a practical objectives. These characteristics are: Strategy and Planning for the theoretical objective and Central Area Neighborhood Level and Spatial Effect for the practical objectives. We can categorize the main and sub-objectives as hypotheses, suggesting gaps on the current planning system, strategy etc. Suggestions determine on the analysis of their consequences on the dynamics of inner city residential neighborhoods.

Theoretical Objective

The first theoretical sub-objective (Strategy/implementation) is to determine the consequences of the current strategy of the municipality on the residential neighborhood, and what the potentialities of such a strategy create for the less affluent resident. The second theoretical sub-objective (Planning/ planning framework) emerges from the hypothesis that in the current planning process a distortion or lack of participation has taken place at the local scale, which probably has major influence of the visions and masterplans of the municipality and housing association. This sub-objective therefore is to detemine a possible way to increase the integrated planning system in order to reconnect the local scale in the entire spectrum of the national decision making process.

Practical Objective

The first practical objective (Central Area Neighborhood level) is aimed at understanding what role the dynamics of the centre play in the social, spatial and economic structure of the neighborhood . The increasing role of the centre in the region probably has a profound impact on the surrounding areas, these impacts could pose a threat of even possibilities for integration of the neighborhood into the regional network. This objective aim is to research how to integrate and activate the possibilities and development potentials of the residents.

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The second practical objective (Spatial Effect) has a strong relation with the theoretical objectives. The spatial effects objectives aim is how to determine and link the spatial potentialities of the less affluent residents and how they could relate to the proposed strategies of the municipality and the others stakeholders involed. This embedded into the search to equilibrate voices, and forces in an integrated decision making system. The project should result in a cohesive strategy that integrates the residential neighborhood into the dynamics of the centre and the regional network through a network of active and flexible spaces.

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Integrating potentials less affluent residents in neighborhood strategy
source: made by author

Counteracting the distortions between neighborhood and centre

Reconnecting the less affluent to the reginal planning and strategic process

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Research questions

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Research questions
In order to structure the research for the graduation project the research will be defined according the one main research question and four sub research questions. These sub research question are characterized into four elements that address an intricate part of the research. All elements contain theoretical and practical elements. The four characterizations are: The strategy (to analyze the current effects of the strategic planning and possible adaptations), The Planning (to research what planning instruments are used and what instruments can facilitate part of the objective), Central Area Neighborhood Level (as location specific, considering spatial and planning definition of it) and the Spatial Effects (to determine issues and link the spatial potentialities to the theory)

Main research Question

How to equilibrate the dynamic trend of gentrification, securing the position and potentialities of the less affluent residents in a/the residential neighborhood through a common/collective space network? The main research question defines the scope of the project. Reconnecting the less affluent residents of inner city neighborhood to the region. The reconnecting of the less affluent to the region is prompted on the hypothesis that the gentrification strategy causes a fragmentation between less affluent residents through displacement and changing dynamics who define the neighborhood and centre. Reconnecting the less affluent strengthens the position the current residents and fulfills creates possibilities for the municipality to benefit from their potentialities, making the neighborhood less vulnerable to economic changes. To make this equilibrium, possible questions arise on the different characteristics of the problem. The first characteristic related to strategy seeks to research what are the potentialities of the gentrification strategy and of the current less affluent residents in relation to the current regional strategy. The challenge is to works with the strategy from the perspective of the current inhabitants, because never the less at the social justice perspective there is a definite need for more affluent professionals in the city. The second characteristic is to determine how the equilibrium could be planned and what planning system(s) should be used to facilitate this request equilibrium. The current planning system of the municipality one sided, focused on the entrepreneurial position of the city. Moving away from the urban regeneration for deprived neighborhood and towards the acquisition of more economically beneficial resources. Affluent professional household and large scale innovative, medical and creative industries. The challenge is within this plan characteristic , how to incorporate the potentialities of the local less affluent inhabitants.

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The third characteristic deals with the dynamic change of the centre and its relation to the neighborhood and the position of the current residents. The centre performance is an externality resulting of the functions on the regional level and aspires to fulfill the creation of a regional function as the centre of the South Wing. In order to connect the current inhabitants to the functionality of the centre it should be established what the influence is of the centre on theadjacent neighborhood. Thereby establishing how the less affluent inhabitants can contribute to the centre and thereby the region. The forth characteristic focuses on the spatial translation of the equilibrium. The gentrification strategy imposes new housing typologies, services and amenities and new demands in relation to public space. This forth challenge is the incorporate the findings of the past characteristics into a public space model, seeking the balance the needs en potentialities of the current in future inhabitants in typologies of public space and the facilities that function economic and spatially as integration means.

Sub research Questions • What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-income residents?

• What planning system(s) can facilitate the equilibrium on the spatial scale? • How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the
position of current residents of the neighborhood? rent and future residents of the neighborhood?

• How can a public space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the cur-

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Process scheme

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Process scheme
Economic Competition, Attractive Residential City

Current Policies

Selective out-migration Non-Integrated Policies Local fragmentation

Current issues

The urban regeneration agenda for central areas of the city and the role of Rotterdam on the national level are creating a distortion on the local neighbourhood level.

Problem Statement

Theoretical Framework
Gentrification, Collaborative planning, Territorial Cohesion

Theoretical Aim

Housing Typology, PB Network

Pratical Framework

Practical Aim

How to equilibriate the dynamic trend of gentrification securing the position of the weaker inhabitants, what planning instruments can facilitate the equilibrium on a spatial scale?

Research Question

Strategy Planning
What planning instrument strengthens the position of the lower income residents in the current dynamics of the city? What planning instruments do the municipality/housing coorp. use to facilitate their residential attractive and strong economic city? What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-income residents? What is the decision making progress from the municipality in relation to the local and who are involved? What are the shortcommings of the local and municipal policies in relation to the Oude Westen neighbourhood? Why does the municipality implament a gentrification strategy and what are the effect in the neighborhood and the city?

Central Area Neighbourhood Level
How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the position of current residents of the neighborhood? What pressure is created by strategic urban developments on (housing and PB) surrounding neighbourhoods?

Spatial Effects
How can a pulbic space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the current and future residents of the neighbirhood? what are the current issues in the neighbourhood, spatially, economically and socially? What is currently lacking in the public space and housing typology of the Oude Westen in relation with the current and future residents?

Output
- Shift in strategy - Challenge to equilibirate the equilibrium of the dynamic trend of gentrification.

Scenario: Current Trend

Scenario: Integrated Planning

design principles/design concept

Horizontal and Vertical integration

Strategy

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Relevance

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Relevance
Societal
Looking into the process of gentrification in relation to deprived neighbourhoods we can acknowledge different of process; renovation, restructuring, investment and displacement. But also different urban resident, the gentrifiers, the people who have to leave and the people who stay. As we look at the people in the existing neighbourhood we can also acknowledge the observers, the residents who are experiencing the transformation of the neighbourhood without participating in the process. When dealing with gentrification one deals with changing physical, social and economic structures of neighbourhoods, to meet the needs of future inhabitants one also affect the existing social networks and interactions of the existing residents. Through urban development we are effecting the social spatial and economic networks of future and existing resident, therefore we have to take these effects into account. Looking at gentrification in relation the large scale urban development (train stations, CBD’s, harbor development etc.) it is noticeable that the current trends for post-industrial cities is to develop into global actors in a Service and Knowledge economies rather then competing on the production side. Therefore the cry for residents, business firms, large scale renovation and reorganizations ask for a sustainable consumer/residential base, which causes municipalities to attract in some cases different types of residents then those who currently make up a large part of the population. Creating friction between current and (from the municipalities perspective) more suitable residents/consumers and employees. The way in which the policies from national, regional and local government effect a city’s population makes this quite socially relevant.

Scientific

The literature on the gentrification strategy of municipalities as extensive on the social and economic benefits and repercussions, showing drastic changes in the scope of the strategy and the effects. Transforming over them from a process into a strategy the policy makers used it as a means to retain control over neighborhoods on which municipalities had lost their grip. It the expanding context of the strategy a probability arises that the spatial externalities of the strategy are far greater then is anticipated. Their is a great lack of knowledge on the what these spatial externalities could be for cities promoting such a strategy. One of the intentions of this paper is to research the detailed spatial effects and determine the possible large scale spatial externalities of such a strategy. Possibly showing that the social injustice gentrification poses is not just effecting less affluent local residents but also residents on other district or even municipalities.

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Source: http://www.flickriver.com/photos/brunogirin/sets/72157605004678602/

Methodology

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Methodology
The sub research questions define hypotheses about the current position of the planning system of the municipality of Rotterdam which due to the current strategy of gentrification creates spatial fragmentation of the less affluent residents of a inner city residential neighborhood. The hypothesis explore an integral planning process. To search for an alternative, integrated planning approach for spatial integration of current the less affluent residents in residential neighborhood, thereby connecting these residents to the region (mobility), and socially and economically integrating them to the dynamics of the neighborhood. Exploring what happens when the current strategy of the municipality is played out and what happens with the alternative integrated strategy. This exploration is based in the previously described sub research questions characterized by Strategy, Planning, Central Areas Neighborhood Level and Spatial Effects and addresses three steps before exploring through a research by design process what an alternative strategy could be to achieve an equilibrium between the dynamics of the inner city and the position of the current residents.

• The first step explores the consequences of the strategy and decision making process of • The second how the municipality is planning to realize their strategies and how this is • The third step will explore the effects of the transformation of the inner city towards • •
connected to the consequences of the imposed strategy. a regional function and what the spatial consequences and opportunities are for the residents and the neighborhood Forth step explores the spatial issues and potentialities of the neighborhood showing where and opportunities lie for residents in a public space network. Final phase exploring a possible strategy through a research and design process consistent of design of scenario’s and theory acquired from the previous steps. the municipality.

Structure

What can be distilled from the structure of the steps is that the first two step are focused on acquiring theory and literature on the current governance means of the municipality while the second steps are spatially orientated to determine the existing context, spatial effects of gentrification and transformation of the inner city to a regional focus. The result from these steps will form the underpinning and starting point of the research by design process. The research by design phase following the four step of the sub-research questions will consist of and exploration of two scenario’s to evaluate the current strategy of the municipality and an alternative scenario’s where an equilibrium is sought. Results from this scenario exploration will hopefully lead the principles for the final design phase and integrated strategy building. 23

Methodology Scheme
Economic Competition, Attractive Residential City

Current Policies

Selective out-migration Non-Integrated Policies Local fragmentation

Current issues

The urban regeneration agenda for central areas of the city and the role of Rotterdam on the national level are creating a distortion on the local neighbourhood level.

Problem Statement

Strategy
What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-incomve residents? What is the decision making progress from the municipality in relation to the local and who are involved? What are the shortcommings of the local and municipal policies in relation to the Oude Westen neighbourhood? Why does the municipality implament a gentrification strategy and what are the effect in the neighborhood and the city?

Planning

What planning instrument strengthens the position of the lower income residents in the current dynamics of the city? What planning instruments do the municipality/housing coorp. use to facilitate their residential attractive and strong economic city?

Spatial Effects
How can a pulbic space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the current and future residents of the neighbirhood? what are the current issues in the neighbourhood, spatially, economically and socially? What is currently lacking in the public space and housing typology of the Oude Westen in relation with the current and future residents?

Central Area Neighbourhood Level
How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the position of current residents of the neighborhood? What pressure is created by strategic urban developments on (housing and PB) surrounding neighbourhoods?

Theoretical Framework
Gentrification, Collaborative planning, Territorial Cohesion

Research Questions

Housing Typology, PB Network

Pratical Framework

Theoretical Aim

Practical Aim

How to equilibriate the dynamic trend of gentrification securing the position of the weaker inhabitants, what planning instruments can facilitate the equilibrium on a spatial scale?

Research Question

Literature research on gentrification process and effect (review paper)

Literature research on current municipal planing system

Mapping Character Appraisal Urban Morphology Study Demographic Research Identifying the current and past social structure of the neighborhood Social Impact assessment Identifying the impact of developments on the community .........

Literature Research on development of the central area

Literature research on effect of current municipal strategy (review paper) literature research + interview H.A. on municipal decicion making process

Literature research on integrative planning systems dealing with isolated/fragmented societies .......

Urban Morphology reseach historic development of the central area in relation the inner city neighborhoods Mapping development of the central area focused on function in relation in different scales researching the to what system the oude westen belongs.

Research

Case study on spatial effect of gentrification on gentrifeid neighbourhood (de Pijp + jordaan Amsterdam)

........

Appraisal of the current governance system and possible integrated planning system.

Spatial appraisal of the neighborhood and inner city

Scenario: Current Trend

Scenario: Integrated Planning

Research by design

design principles/design concept

Horizontal and Vertical integration

Strategy

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Scheme

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Strategy Characteristic

What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-income resdents? Character Sub questions What is the decision making progress from the municipality in relation to the local and who are involved? What are the shortcomings of the local and municipal policies in relation to the Oude Westen neighbourhood? Why does the municipality implement a gentrification strategy and what are the effect in the neighborhood and the city? The first step will research the principles of the effects of the strategy imposed by the municipality and explore the consequences of the decision making process in relation to the strategy and the residential neighborhood. It will show the positive and negative effects and as a result the potentialities of strategy for the current less affluent residents. In this part three things are studied. It will study the of gentrification on a residential neighborhood profiding an insight in the social and economic effect of such a strategy. Furthermore the decision making process of the municipality is explored to detemine how this effects the position of the current residents. Lastly the spatial consqueces of gentrification are explored though research on gentrified areas in Amsterdam. After this step the contradications between the strategic processes and the spatial effects of the strategy are known, thus creating the insight where the strategy needs to be improved in relation to the current residents. Research methods: Literature study Interview with housing association and municipality Literature study in spatial effect of gentrification process Amsterdam

Strategy
What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-incomve residents? What is the decision making progress from the municipality in relation to the local and who are involved? What are the shortcommings of the local and municipal policies in relation to the Oude Westen neighbourhood? Why does the municipality implament a gentrification strategy and what are the effect in the neighborhood and the city?

Literature research on gentrification process and effect (review paper)

Literature research on effect of current municipal strategy (review paper) literature research + interview H.A. on municipal decicion making process

Case study on spatial effect of gentrification on gentrifeid neighbourhood (de Pijp + jordaan Amsterdam)

Methodology
Current Policies

Economic Competition, Attractive Residential City

Selective out-migration Non-Integrated Policies Local fragmentation

Current issues

The urban regeneration agenda for central areas of the city and the role of Rotterdam on the national level are creating a distortion on the local neighbourhood level.

Problem Statement

Strategy
What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-incomve residents? What is the decision making progress from the municipality in relation to the local and who are involved? What are the shortcommings of the local and municipal policies in relation to the Oude Westen neighbourhood? Why does the municipality implament a gentrification strategy and what are the effect in the neighborhood and the city?

Planning

What planning instrument strengthens the position of the lower income residents in the current dynamics of the city? What planning instruments do the municipality/housing coorp. use to facilitate their residential attractive and strong economic city?

Spatial Effects
How can a pulbic space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the current and future residents of the neighbirhood? what are the current issues in the neighbourhood, spatially, economically and socially? What is currently lacking in the public space and housing typology of the Oude Westen in relation with the current and future residents?

Central Area Neighbourhood Level
How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the position of current residents of the neighborhood? What pressure is created by strategic urban developments on (housing and PB) surrounding neighbourhoods?

Theoretical Framework
Gentrification, Collaborative planning, Territorial Cohesion

Research Questions

Housing Typology, PB Network

Pratical Framework

Theoretical Aim

Practical Aim

How to equilibriate the dynamic trend of gentrification securing the position of the weaker inhabitants, what planning instruments can facilitate the equilibrium on a spatial scale?

Research Question

Literature research on gentrification process and effect (review paper)

Literature research on current municipal planing system

Mapping Character Appraisal Urban Morphology Study Demographic Research Identifying the current and past social structure of the neighborhood Social Impact assessment Identifying the impact of developments on the community .........

Literature Research on development of the central area

Literature research on effect of current municipal strategy (review paper) literature research + interview H.A. on municipal decicion making process

Literature research on integrative planning systems dealing with isolated/fragmented societies .......

Urban Morphology reseach historic development of the central area in relation the inner city neighborhoods Mapping development of the central area focused on function in relation in different scales ......

Research

Case study on spatial effect of gentrification on gentrifeid neighbourhood (de Pijp + jordaan Amsterdam)

........

Appraisal of the current governance system and possible integrated planning system.

Spatial appraisal of the neighborhood and inner city

Scenario: Current Trend

Scenario: Integrated Planning

Research by design

design principles/design concept

Horizontal and Vertical integration

Strategy

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Planning Characteristic

What planning instrument strengthens the position of the lower income residents in the current dynamics of the city? Character Sub questions What planning instruments do the municipality/housing association. use to facilitate their residential attractive and strong economic city? This second research sep is very related to the strategic research characteristic because the strategy is part of the planning process. In this step the planning process and planning instruments of the municipality and housing association are researched in order to determine how they effect the position of the residential neighborhood. Through the research of the current planning system insight will be acquired on were or if there are any shortcomings in the way the transformation of the city is plan. This will lead to a research on what an alternative planning system could be that is more integral/cohesive what respect the to current dynamics in the centre and especially in the Oude Westen. Research methods: Literature study

Planning

What planning instrument strengthens the position of the lower income residents in the current dynamics of the city? What planning instruments do the municipality/housing coorp. use to facilitate their residential attractive and strong economic city?

Literature research on current municipal planing system

Literature research on integrative planning systems dealing with isolated/fragmented societies

Methodology
Current Policies

Economic Competition, Attractive Residential City

Selective out-migration Non-Integrated Policies Local fragmentation

Current issues

The urban regeneration agenda for central areas of the city and the role of Rotterdam on the national level are creating a distortion on the local neighbourhood level.

Problem Statement

Strategy
What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-incomve residents? What is the decision making progress from the municipality in relation to the local and who are involved? What are the shortcommings of the local and municipal policies in relation to the Oude Westen neighbourhood? Why does the municipality implament a gentrification strategy and what are the effect in the neighborhood and the city?

Planning

What planning instrument strengthens the position of the lower income residents in the current dynamics of the city? What planning instruments do the municipality/housing coorp. use to facilitate their residential attractive and strong economic city?

Spatial Effects
How can a pulbic space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the current and future residents of the neighbirhood? what are the current issues in the neighbourhood, spatially, economically and socially? What is currently lacking in the public space and housing typology of the Oude Westen in relation with the current and future residents?

Central Area Neighbourhood Level
How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the position of current residents of the neighborhood? What pressure is created by strategic urban developments on (housing and PB) surrounding neighbourhoods?

Theoretical Framework
Gentrification, Collaborative planning, Territorial Cohesion

Research Questions

Housing Typology, PB Network

Pratical Framework

Theoretical Aim

Practical Aim

How to equilibriate the dynamic trend of gentrification securing the position of the weaker inhabitants, what planning instruments can facilitate the equilibrium on a spatial scale?

Research Question

Literature research on gentrification process and effect (review paper)

Literature research on current municipal planing system

Mapping Character Appraisal Urban Morphology Study Demographic Research Identifying the current and past social structure of the neighborhood Social Impact assessment Identifying the impact of developments on the community .........

Literature Research on development of the central area

Literature research on effect of current municipal strategy (review paper) literature research + interview H.A. on municipal decicion making process

Literature research on integrative planning systems dealing with isolated/fragmented societies .......

Urban Morphology reseach historic development of the central area in relation the inner city neighborhoods Mapping development of the central area focused on function in relation in different scales ......

Research

Case study on spatial effect of gentrification on gentrifeid neighbourhood (de Pijp + jordaan Amsterdam)

........

Appraisal of the current governance system and possible integrated planning system.

Spatial appraisal of the neighborhood and inner city

Scenario: Current Trend

Scenario: Integrated Planning

Research by design

design principles/design concept

Horizontal and Vertical integration

Strategy

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Central Area neighborhood Level Characteristic

How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the position of current residents of the neighborhood? Character Sub questions What pressure is created by strategic urban developments on (housing and PB) surrounding neighbourhoods? This research step will focus on the relation between the dynamics of the city centre and the residential neighborhood. By doing this the influence of the increasing relation between the centre and the region centre and the neighborhood will be established. The main interest lies in determine the extend of the influence. Researching how shops, services and facilities change due to the regional orientation of the centre and how far this regional facilities reach outside of the central area. This will give insight in possible changes in the demand of inner city neighborhoods. Futhermore research will be done to explore to what system the inner city neighborhood belongs, to the central scale of the city or the local residential scale. Through this exploration projections can be made in relation to the unfluence of the centre and ferocity of changing functions. Research on the historic development of the city and an analysis of the changing charataristic of the centre in relation to inner city residentail neighborhood. Will add to establishing the relation between the centre and the residential neighborhood After this step Research methods: Literature research Archive research as described in the Urban design toolkit (Ministry for the Environment, 2006). Mapping Urban Morphology study

Central Area Neighbourhood Level
How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the position of current residents of the neighborhood? What pressure is created by strategic urban developments on (housing and PB) surrounding neighbourhoods?

Literature Research on development of the central area

Urban Morphology reseach historic development of the central area in relation the inner city neighborhoods Mapping development of the central area focused on function in relation in different scales researching the to what system the oude westen belongs.
Methodology
Current Policies

Economic Competition, Attractive Residential City

Selective out-migration Non-Integrated Policies Local fragmentation

Current issues

The urban regeneration agenda for central areas of the city and the role of Rotterdam on the national level are creating a distortion on the local neighbourhood level.

Problem Statement

Strategy
What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-incomve residents? What is the decision making progress from the municipality in relation to the local and who are involved? What are the shortcommings of the local and municipal policies in relation to the Oude Westen neighbourhood? Why does the municipality implament a gentrification strategy and what are the effect in the neighborhood and the city?

Planning

What planning instrument strengthens the position of the lower income residents in the current dynamics of the city? What planning instruments do the municipality/housing coorp. use to facilitate their residential attractive and strong economic city?

Spatial Effects
How can a pulbic space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the current and future residents of the neighbirhood? what are the current issues in the neighbourhood, spatially, economically and socially? What is currently lacking in the public space and housing typology of the Oude Westen in relation with the current and future residents?

Central Area Neighbourhood Level
How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the position of current residents of the neighborhood? What pressure is created by strategic urban developments on (housing and PB) surrounding neighbourhoods?

Theoretical Framework
Gentrification, Collaborative planning, Territorial Cohesion

Research Questions

Housing Typology, PB Network

Pratical Framework

Theoretical Aim

Practical Aim

How to equilibriate the dynamic trend of gentrification securing the position of the weaker inhabitants, what planning instruments can facilitate the equilibrium on a spatial scale?

Research Question

Literature research on gentrification process and effect (review paper)

Literature research on current municipal planing system

Mapping Character Appraisal Urban Morphology Study Demographic Research Identifying the current and past social structure of the neighborhood Social Impact assessment Identifying the impact of developments on the community .........

Literature Research on development of the central area

Literature research on effect of current municipal strategy (review paper) literature research + interview H.A. on municipal decicion making process

Literature research on integrative planning systems dealing with isolated/fragmented societies .......

Urban Morphology reseach historic development of the central area in relation the inner city neighborhoods Mapping development of the central area focused on function in relation in different scales ......

Research

Case study on spatial effect of gentrification on gentrifeid neighbourhood (de Pijp + jordaan Amsterdam)

........

Appraisal of the current governance system and possible integrated planning system.

Spatial appraisal of the neighborhood and inner city

Scenario: Current Trend

Scenario: Integrated Planning

Research by design

design principles/design concept

Horizontal and Vertical integration

Strategy

27

Spatial Effects Characteristic

How can a public space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the current and future residents of the neighborhood? Character Sub questions what are the current issues in the neighbourhood, spatially, economically and socially? What is currently lacking in the public space and housing typology of the Oude Westen in relation with the current and future residents?

Spatial Effects
How can a pulbic space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the current and future residents of the neighbirhood? what are the current issues in the neighbourhood, spatially, economically and socially? What is currently lacking in the public space and housing typology of the Oude Westen in relation with the current and future residents?

In this research step an assessment of the current situation of the neighborhood is made in relation to the possible public space network theory. However it also has a very strong relation with the current the strategy and the planning process, because the decisions made in those stages/elements detemine a certain spatial effect. Researching this effect is one of the step made in his research question. By researching the current situation of the neighborhood insight is formed in the actual social and economic situation of the neighborhood and how this is effected by the plans of the housing association. This will indicate if the housing association is already creating fragmentation between future and current residents and amenities. The research will look into the social, spatial and economic situation of the neighborhood and how it changed over time reviewing different urban development plans through a character appraisal tool . As a result an impact of the current master plan of the housing association is assessed Research methods: Literature research Mapping Demographic research Character appraisal Social impact analysis

Mapping Character Appraisal Urban Morphology Study Demographic Research Identifying the current and past social structure of the neighborhood Social Impact assessment Identifying the impact of developments on the community

Methodology
Current Policies

Economic Competition, Attractive Residential City

Selective out-migration Non-Integrated Policies Local fragmentation

Current issues

The urban regeneration agenda for central areas of the city and the role of Rotterdam on the national level are creating a distortion on the local neighbourhood level.

Problem Statement

Strategy
What potentialities lie in the strategy of gentrification for current lower-incomve residents? What is the decision making progress from the municipality in relation to the local and who are involved? What are the shortcommings of the local and municipal policies in relation to the Oude Westen neighbourhood? Why does the municipality implament a gentrification strategy and what are the effect in the neighborhood and the city?

Planning

What planning instrument strengthens the position of the lower income residents in the current dynamics of the city? What planning instruments do the municipality/housing coorp. use to facilitate their residential attractive and strong economic city?

Spatial Effects
How can a pulbic space network contribute to the integration potentialities of the current and future residents of the neighbirhood? what are the current issues in the neighbourhood, spatially, economically and socially? What is currently lacking in the public space and housing typology of the Oude Westen in relation with the current and future residents?

Central Area Neighbourhood Level
How can the dynamic change of the centre contribute (spatially, functionally) to the position of current residents of the neighborhood? What pressure is created by strategic urban developments on (housing and PB) surrounding neighbourhoods?

Theoretical Framework
Gentrification, Collaborative planning, Territorial Cohesion

Research Questions

Housing Typology, PB Network

Pratical Framework

Theoretical Aim

Practical Aim

How to equilibriate the dynamic trend of gentrification securing the position of the weaker inhabitants, what planning instruments can facilitate the equilibrium on a spatial scale?

Research Question

Literature research on gentrification process and effect (review paper)

Literature research on current municipal planing system

Mapping Character Appraisal Urban Morphology Study Demographic Research Identifying the current and past social structure of the neighborhood Social Impact assessment Identifying the impact of developments on the community .........

Literature Research on development of the central area

Literature research on effect of current municipal strategy (review paper) literature research + interview H.A. on municipal decicion making process

Literature research on integrative planning systems dealing with isolated/fragmented societies .......

Urban Morphology reseach historic development of the central area in relation the inner city neighborhoods Mapping development of the central area focused on function in relation in different scales ......

Research

Case study on spatial effect of gentrification on gentrifeid neighbourhood (de Pijp + jordaan Amsterdam)

........

Appraisal of the current governance system and possible integrated planning system.

Spatial appraisal of the neighborhood and inner city

Scenario: Current Trend

Scenario: Integrated Planning

Research by design

design principles/design concept

Horizontal and Vertical integration

Strategy

28

Time Schedule
November December Oktober Fenuari Januari March April June May July
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5

Defining problem scope:

Reviewing gentrification strategy Reviewing integrated planning methods

Defining Consequences of Municipal Strategy + Potentials for Residents
Literature study influence strategy Case Study Gentrified Area

Defining planning system municipality
Literature study influence strategy Case Study Gentrified Area

Analyses Centre Exploring Spatial Influences
Analyzing Spatial Influence Analyzing state of belonging O.W.

Analyses Centre Exploring Spatial Influences
Analyzing Spatial Influence Analyzing state of belonging O.W. Scenario normal muni. strat. Scenario 1st alt. strat.

Design Alternative strategy

29

Theoretical Framework

30

Theoretical Framework
In this chapter we aim the investigate what the characteristics of the gentrification strategy are, how it evolved to what problem this had led today. Furthermore theory is presented on how a more integral development can be planned and in relation to what spatial design method.

Assessment of the Gentrification Agenda (for the full paper see the appendix)

First of all it is important to clarify what in general is understood as gentrification. Gentrification has been part of the academic debate since fifty years ago, when the first description of the phenomenon was given by Ruth Glass in her 1964 work “London: Aspects of Change” in which she also coined the term “gentrification”: “One by one, many of the working-class quarters of London have been invaded by the middle classes—upper and lower. Shabby, modest mews and cottages—two rooms up and two down—have been taken over, when their leases have expired, and have become elegant, expensive residences. Larger Victorian houses, downgraded in an earlier or recent period— which were used as lodging houses or were otherwise in multiple occupation—have been upgraded once again … Once this process of “gentrification” starts in a district it goes on rapidly until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed.” The process observed by Glass could also be described as “class-transformation” or in more general terms: “The production of space for progressively more affluent users” (Hackworth, 2002). Looking at the process of gentrification over time we could say that the general effect has not changed, as it is still a matter of “class-transformation”. However, due to changing economic and political conditions, its context has grown as well as the processes itself, thereby creating externalities that are far greater then in the initial process.

The gentrification process is thought to be an instrument for a municipality to control or the alleviate social tension and restore neighborhoods to a climate of good liveability (Uitermark et al., 2007). In this sense it is used a somewhat of a strategy for urban regeneration even though the effects of the gentrification strategy generally favor the future residents/gentrifiers and they favor the economic development of neighborhood, city and region. Which means the people who may have to pay the price are the old residents with low income or in social housing, since they are directly affected by the consequences. In the next paragraph we will show that the local scale urban regeneration strategy of gentrification has transformed by the municipality to be part of large scale economic visions to strengthen municipalities economically and demographically. Creating conflicts and distortions that need to be addressed.

Gentrification as concept for urban regeneration

31
Source: http://theorycity.wordpress.com/

Evolution of the Gentrification Strategy in the Dutch context.

Since the first scientific observation of the gentrification process it has undergone transformations, not so much as to how it worked, as in the way it was used and governed by the public or private sector. Hackworth and Smith stated in their article “The Changing State of Gentrification” that gentrification from today is quite different from what it was in the early 1970’s, 1980’s and early 1990’s. To understand the changing role of the government and the private sector in this respect, it is necessary to understand the historical context. Slater defined three defining periods or waves since the discovery of the gentrification process, separated by two recessions. While in the UK gentrification during the first wave was highly localized and a somewhat discrete process in the Netherlands during this wave in the 1970s huge urban regeneration programs were undertaken aimed at providing sufficient and adequate housing for lower income inhabitants. These programs were funded by national government and developed by municipalities and housing associations that owned substantial amounts of land, which they prepared for building and whose allocation they controlled (Stouten, 2010). During this period in the Netherlands, gentrification was strongly and effectively opposed by the Dutch squatters movement, which helped create a decommodified housing stock that was accessible and affordable (Uitermark, 2009). During the second wave of gentrification in the late 1980s the role of the private sector in the Netherlands remained limited, due to the position of the housing associations who were still part of the public sector. While in the rest f the world private investors were stimulated the invest rather then the government. There were initiatives to promote housing careers, were residents were stimulated to move to the better and more expensive accommodations, leaving cheaper subsidized housing for lower-income groups. (Stouten, 2010). However, these initiatives proved largely unsuccessful. The third wave of gentrification took place in the late 80s end slowed down in ferocity. Due to the recession, However by the end of the recession private investors jumped at the chance to maximize their profit crating huge dynamics in the inner city neighborhoods. In contrast to the global trend of state involvement, the Dutch government opted for privatization of the housing associations who were to combine their traditional public tasks with market activities thereby becoming self reliant entrepreneurs (Stouten, 2010, MVROM, 1989). Moreover, as we will see later the municipalities took on a pro-active role when imposing new urban regeneration plans. During its 50 year development, the scope of gentrification gradually broadened from specific forms of neighborhood change towards a comprehensive reformation including such diverse issues as office development, changes in retail environment, city marketing and zerotolerance policing strategies. (Uitermark et al., 2007) 32

Gentrification and the role of the Government

As discussed, the involvement with the gentrification process of government and other actors has changed over time. Davidson states that as gentrification became more diverse, complex and geographically differentiated, concern about displacement and related injustice issues tended to diminish. Nevertheless, policy-makers increasingly embraced gentrification as a potential urban renewal solution. The motive for municipal gentrification strategies comes from a change in the perception of social housing. Until the 1990’s social housing was seen as an asset to the cities and a solution for social ills, whereas later, it was associated with crime, graffiti, disorder and disadvantaged neighborhoods with unliveable conditions. The national government now started to encourage local governments and housing associations to construct owneroccupied housing and to demolish social housing in order the create neighborhoods with balanced social composition (MVROM et al., 2000). Currently the notion of the local government is that social housing has become an ill in itself and that it is associated with dependency (Uitermark et al., 2007, MVROM et al., 2000). (Uitermarkt et al, 2007) make clear that through the change of perception of social housing from a municipal perspective the strategy on how a neighborhood with good liveability can be achieved has been adjusted by emphasizing spatial quality and gentrification as a means to guarantee social sustainability (social cohesion, social capital). “Liveability means that neighborhoods are orderly in the sense that they exhibit a low level of crime, vandalism and nuisance, according to housing association” (Uitermark et al., 2007). The change in perception of social housing and the change of involved actors made gentrification part of the national agenda. “The Large City Policy” (Grotestedenbeleid) was aimed at improving the liveability and social-economic position of large cities by improving the inner city neighborhoods on a regional scale” (Kruythoff and Haars, 2002). These changes in perception in relation to social housing are very much dependent on the political powers in time. For example when Pim Fortuyn’s party “Leefbaar Rotterdam” (Liveable Rotterdam) came to power. During that period a strong call for the dispersal of poor and immigrant inhabitants and the creation of mixed neighbourhoods rose (Lees, 2008 Gentrification leads to increases in rent, home prices and land value, which is of course beneficial for the housing associations and other home owners. Also, the prosperity of the newcomers sustains a better range of private retail outlets and services (Kearns and Mason, 2007). Unfortunately, these changes are unfavorable for the lower income residents. The introduction of better private retail outlets usually implies more expensive products and competition with existing lesser private retail. This makes the daily life in the neighborhood more expensive and endangers the existing shop keepers who are dependent on local networks (Atkinson, 2002). Relevant for The Netherlands is the report by OTB at the TU Delft. This report shows that incoming gentrifying residents in a regional and municipal scale create a pull factor for high-end innovative activity, they fulfill a demand for well-educated inhabitants (universities, schools, day-care, sports) and they contribute to a desired image for the city (Ouwehand et al., 2006).

Economic Effects

€+ €+ + €+ € €+ €+
source: made by author

€+

€+

33

Dutch municipalities hold the position that gentrification can favor the position of the city on the regional, the national and even the international scale, way beyond the immediate local effect on the neighborhood. This shows that in the Dutch context the current position of the municipality on deprived neighbourhoods is one that does not primarily focus on just addressing social, spatial and economic issues of the local neighbourhood scale but one that tends to focus on facilitating the market. This facilitates functions like those of the city centre and the central business districts and turns the focus to the regional, national and international scale.

Changing scope and risks of the gentrification strategy

As shown in the sections above the scope of the gentrification strategy has changed in the global context but more evident for Rotterdam it has changed in the Dutch context. The increasing ambitions of the municipality of facilitate greater economic goals and the use of the gentrification strategy to achieve these goals distortions arise between the greater goals and the local effects. Over the last 50 years of the urban regeneration agenda of the Netherlands in particular in the last 20 years the agenda has changed from facilitating the less fortunate residents of cities with housing and adequate facilities and service towards an entrepreneurial perspective. What is evident in the changing position of the municipality towards the gentrification strategy is that they are guided by greater forces in this case economic forces, strengthening their competitive position in the Randstad and beyond is the main objective. This change in perspective has great influence on the perceptive of the housing associations towards their inner city housing stock. In the next section it will be clarified that the change in perspective from the municipality has great impact on the social and spatial position of less affluent residents in inner city neighborhood but that the strategy creates a distortion on the local spatial scale. Which poses externalities that the municipality neglects to address.

Social Effects

The social effects of the gentrification strategy are still very much focused on the urban regeneration perspective of the municipality to create socially stable and integrated neighborhoods. The primary intended social effect of gentrification as a strategy in deprived neighborhoods is social mixing. Social mixing is then expected to reduce anti-social behavior to enhance educational outcomes, to stimulate social networks and to raise aspirations by providing role-models (Kearns and Mason, 2007). A number of authors show that the introduction of middle-class households can trigger an effect called “defending the neighborhood”. They observed that middle-class households are stronger advocates for public resources and they are more persistent in getting through to the right people and agencies. This benefits could all the residents (Klein34

hans, 2004, Blokland - Potters, 2001, Lees, 2008). Municipalities have used this mechanism as an argument to support their gentrification policies. However, next to the positive social effects, the coin of gentrification may also have downsides locally and on the region. The most evident unwanted effect of gentrification is displacement of the poor to create housing for the affluent. In the Netherlands the existing residents have a strong position due to strong tenure rights. The housing associations have to offer similar alternative housing and often the residents can obtain a larger and better dwelling without increase in rent or loss of subsidy (Kleinhans, 2003). However, displacement can also happen through rising rent, increasing home prices and increasing land value, as well as through displacement of relatives and neighborhood friends. This loss of the social network does not contribute to the social cohesion and hampers the integration of the residents who stay behind and the so called gentrifiers. This may lead to tension, resentment, community conflicts, and fragmentation(Uitermark et al., 2007, Atkinson, 2002). Kleinhans also points to a specific emotional effect on the residents who are displaced, that is not mediated by the loss of social networks but by the loss of the sense of place. Clearly, there is a distinction between residents who actually want to move and those who want to stay, but are forced to move. Kleinhans points out that more attention is needed to determine social-emotional ties of residents. In essence, determining who wants to stay and who wants to move provides the key to a maximization of happiness, if wishes can be granted. (Kleinhans, 2003)

Spatial Effects

The local spatial effects of gentrification have been “under researched” even though there are clear physical changes visible. The most obvious spatial effect of gentrification is the renewal of the physical fabric of neighborhoods. Renovation and demolishment of buildings, redividing of houses, fewer apartments per building etc. Gentrification on a large scale affects the density of the population, since gentrifiers generally under-occupy their property or have larger spatial and higher quality demands than residents of social housing or with a lower income (Atkinson, 2003). In the Dutch context, the loss of population density contrasts with the current national policy (MVROM, 2008) which aims to densify and intensify the cities. This policy is based on the thesis that high density is associated with improvements in the social (positive interaction, improving viability and access to community services), economic (enhancing economic development), environmental (increasing energy efficiency) and safety spheres (Carmona et al., 2010). To facilitate the needs of the affluent future residents not only bigger homes are needed but also for example more parking spaces. Which in turn has an aggravated effect on the density of the neighbourhoods in population or in public space.

€+ €
+

€+

€+

€-

€+

€-

Density Decrease
source: made by author

More space less people

35

Spatial Effects Municipal Scale

The spatial effect of the gentrification strategy in the Netherlands does not limit itself to the local scale. Due to the changing dynamics in the residential neighborhood and displacement large scale pressure build up possibly throughout the municipality. Due to the changing demographic of the neighborhood to need for certain type of transport decrease and accessibility decrease. Limiting the mobility of lower income, elderly and other less affluent residents. This is a distortion that could affect a larger area then the neighborhood the gentrification process has affected. The decrease in demand for certain types of mobility could case a ripple effect to other neighborhoods. If this is really the case will be researched in this graduation project. Kleinshans describes in one of his papers the waterbed effect, which implies that tying to reduce social disorder through displacement does not solve the problem only displaces it (Kleinhans, 2011). Furthermore by displacing less affluent residents to other district which are mainly peripheral areas with large concentrations and dynamics of migration new and increasing pressure arise. The gentrification strategy of not managed properly or not inclusively could pose a huge array of effects, local and non-local. By addressing the strategy of the municipality in a more inclusive/integrated manner the distortion on the local and non-local scale could be minimized and possibly could make use of the potentialities of the current residents. In the next section possible integrated planning theory is presented.

€+

€€-

€-

€€-

€-

€-

€€-

€+
Displacement

€Peripheral Spatial/ Social Pressure

source: made by author

36

Strategy for integrated planning

What is evident in the assessment of the gentrification strategy and the current position of the municipality is that they show a one-sided approach to facilitation their ambitions. They neglect to see the local and larger scale spatial externalities the strategy functions at and the possibility of isolating and fragmenting the less affluent residents of their inner city neighborhoods. A alternative way of planning is needed to integrate the different scales of stakeholders. This distortion between stakeholders creating spatial externalities has been described by patsy healey. Where she described not only a distortion in the planning system from a top down perspective, but also from bottom-up perspective. “ In the jargon of the time, ‘bottomup’ forces kept resisting and reworking ‘top down’ policies. These local interactions were not merely adapting national and regional policy to their own purposes (Healey, 2003).” In her book she advocates for a more integrated and collaborative planning process because all planning activity involves some interactive relation, and some kind of governance process. By evaluation the process forms one can realize the impact and the potential material/ spatial consequences they have on people’s sense of identity. By identifying the complexity of the planning process and identifying the complexity of stakeholders one can possibly comprehend the effects of intended interventions. Through collaborative planning process the decision making process become more engaging and democratic in therms of structure, processes and outcomes (Maginn, 2007). By using a collaborative planning process; an inclusionary decision making process engaging with the stakeholders through all the scales gives insight in positive, negative effects and down falls of the current strategy are. Engaging with stakeholders through all scales leads to a more cohesive plan/strategy and a more cohesive place.

37

Public Space Network Theory

In addition the what was argued in the past section Carmona states “Urban design is typically collaborative and inter-disciplinary, involving an integrated approach and the skills and expertise of a wide range of actors. Some urban design practitioners argue that ‘place’ is not - or should not be - a professional territory and that, rather then imbuing the creative task of designing urban places in the hands of an single ‘all knowing’ designer, it should be shared among many actors” (Carmona et al., 2010). However we are not limiting ourselves the just collaborative urban design but a collaborative planning process, creating a strategy and planing process with an integrated decision making process. In his book urban places, public space Carmona it is argued that the urban designers single role is the reassert the ‘cohesiveness of the urban experience’, which means there should be a conscious concern for urban design as a process of giving qualities of coherence and continuity. Without which places of inward-focused development will inevitably be neglected (Carmona et al., 2010). To secure a cohesive and sustainable neighborhood environment a network of public spaces is needed according to Pinto et. al. Where the requirement to create this network of cohesive places together with the previous theory on gentrification an integrated planning create a framework of requirements to possibly create the equilibrium needed to integrate the residents and dynamic changes of the city. Requirement for a cohesive spaces in a public space network Four indicators of programming are shown for creating urban cohesion through public space networks: • Mobility/accessibility/connectivity: Creating mobility and accessibility conditions that endorse cohesive urban spaces and connecting to different public spaces making easy access possible. Promoting the existing network of flows. • Land uses/activities: Promoting multi functionality in the network ranging form commerce and services to facilities and recreational activities. However keeping in mind the socio-economical dynamics through the creating of new land uses and activities, which can contribute to regeneration of certain spaces. • Social Dynamics: Generating social dynamics through the complementarity between public spaces and the activities available. These dynamics promote the urban experience as stated before and are capable of minimizing the phenomena of social exclusion and marginalization. • Comfort/safety: Crating safety and security through movement within the urban network. (Pinto et al., 2010) Through the combination of the three elements of the theoretical framework the theory for a cohesive planning process is established which could contribute to the realization of the equilibrium through the different scales. Acknowledging the potential of the less affluent residents in a dynamic environment. 38

Pre-Analytical Framework

39

Historic Development Rotterdam
Settlements of Rotterdam date back to about 900 AC, located at the lower end of the Rotte stream. Around 1260 AC a dam was constructed along the Rotte the location which is now named the Hoogstraat, which for centuries also formed the centre of the city. By 1850 the city in its triangular form accumulated about 90.000 inhabitants. Due to the poor hygienic and social conditions a project was design to improve the cities water system and expand beyond the city walls, this project was called the Rose’s Waterproject. Approximately 50 years later the city had developed into an important import and export city, through the ambitions of the mayor Zimmerman the city was given a metropolitan appeal, with prominent urban boulevard flanking he monumental architecture of the coolsingel. The 14 of may 1940 was a devastating day for the city of Rotterdam, German Luftwaffe bombed the centre of the city, which gave the city the nickname ‘City without a Hart’. During an after the war plans were made for the reconstruction of the centre (de Wederopbouw). Through the visions of Witteveen and van Traa a strict modernistic centre was built with modernistic planning ideas, introducing ideas like the segregation of function, dominance of motor traffic and low residential density in the centre. The housing shortage was reduced by building new modern neighborhood with open building structures, community gardens and separation of living and traffic. This great reconstruction however left certain 19th century neighborhoods untouched, which by the 1970 often were of poor quality. Between 1975 and 1980 plans were proposed to reinvest in the quality of inner city neighborhood through an urban regeneration planning system. At this time criticism arises against the modern architecture, which did not respect the characteristic of the current city. This was the birth of the City Renewal Concept or Stadsvernieuwing. Were the priority was giving to small scale reconstruction without disrupting the current social and spatial structure. Moving away from the ideas of strengthening the economy and motor accessibility of the city. At the end of the 80s criticism rises again, however not in favor of the City Renewal Concept, the concept is to much directed at the less affluent residents causing selective out-migration due to shortage of adequate housing. The sober user friendliness and quality of public space creates a low standerd on the housing market. And finally the reconstruction of these neighborhood did not improve the social-economic situation of the residents. In the centre of the city from the 1980 onward the municipality developed an extensive architectural policy, building new styles of apartment complexes, high rise office buildings and recreation facilities, which craeted a new modern skline for the city. Creating the nickname ‘Manhattan aan de Maas”. In the 90s the Kop van Zuid project was launched developing an ambitious working and living environment of the South side of the River, with its main icon the Erasmus bridge. However due to the historic development of the city and its current ambitions like discribed in the problem statement a distortion between the ambitions and the current situation is created. Not respecting the history and the social history of the current residents and focus40 sing on the future vision of the highly modern city.

Rose’s Waterproject

1850

Source: http://www.engelfriet.net/ Alie/Hans/

“City Without a Hart”

Rose’s Waterproject

1937

Source: http://4umi.com/image/map/nl/rotterdam/

1940

Source: http://4umi.com/image/map/nl/rotterdam/

City Renewal Project

City Reconstruction

1955

Source: http://4umi.com/image/map/nl/rotterdam/

1980

SourceL Stadsuitbreiding, Rotterdam
VISIEKAART

Urban Vision 2030

2011

T

T

T

F

T

T

T

T

T

Source: City Lounge Rotterdam 2030
T

source: made by author based on Top10 vector

Historic Development Oude Westen
The Oude Westen neighborhood was built in the 19th century in the what used to be called the Coolsche Polder. Untill for in the 19th century is was a agricultural polder landscape devided into disricts under the authority of a sheriff. The rural landscape has completely dissapeerd, however the polder scturcture is clearly visible in the street strucutre of the current residential neighborhood. With long North-South directed street on a tight narrow East-West grid. In 1886 Delfshaven which was untill then an adjacent town was annexated making the Oude Westen a part of the city. Because the municipality of Delfshaven did not care for the neighborhoods like the Oude Westen over time it became somewhat of a getto with poor housing quality, socail disordern and poort hygene. Due to the Waterproject plan van Rose and the specific streetplan by L.J.C.J. Van Ravensteyn the neighborhood was renovated giving it the now typical street structure. This street structure and housing typology remaind untill far in the 20th century. The bombardement in the WWII spared the neighborhood because of the turning wind direction. However the bombardement did have serious social effects on the neighborhood. Many residents of the central area lost their homes and were forced the seek housing elsewere. Within a short time the Oude Westen became over-densified creating friction within and outside of the neighborhood. The neighborhood remained a working class 19th housing area, even during the reconstruction of the centre between 1951 and 1975 due to the housing shortage. During this period na number of researches were done evaluate the quality of the housing in the neighborhood, however not untill the end of the 70th anything was done with these researches. Mid 1970 the policy was adopted for a City renewel plan (the Stadsvernieuwing). With a large stake of the decision making process given to the Action Groep the Oude Westen the plans for the City Renewal of the Oude Westen were given a green light. Through the principle of Building for the Neighborhood affordable renovated housing was built for 85% of the social housing residents. Social Development Oude Westen The Oude Westen has since it modern construction in the end of the 19th century been a working class neighborhood, housing a high percentage schooled and unschooled workers from the countryside, small entrepreneurs and the unemployed. (source: Cultuur Historische Verkenning Oude Westen)

1840

1974

1870

1994

1882

Source: Stadsuitbrading Oude Westen, Rotterdam

1903

41
Source: Cultuurhistoricshe Verkenning Oude Westen

Structure Oude Westen

scale 1: 7200

42

Structure Neighborhood
source: made by author based on kadaster maps

Pre-Inventarisation Oude Westen
The Housing Association Woonstad is proposing to develop, renovate and demolish a number of buildings to provide better housing for middle-class families and creative industries. The next preliminary analysis is a stepping stone towards checking in how far the plans of the housing association effect the current residents and in particular the current small scale business entrepreneurs. If these plans are located in areas that effects these businesses it would indicate and serious distortion in the plans of the municipality and the housing association. Instead of creating possibilities for business the Woonstad is possibly destroying business.

Projecten in het Oude Westen 2010 -2018

sloop /nieuwbouw opknappen renovatie /samenvoegen binnenterreinen energie /groot onderhoud studie wijkeconomie
W Z N O

scale 1: 7200

Masterplan Woonstad
source: made by author based on kadaster maps

43

Pre-Inventarisation Oude Westen
The pre inventarisation functions as a location finder of functions. However in the next analysis a categorization will be made of the different commercial function introduction on which scale these function operate, possible indicating the extend of the influence of the centre.

scale 1: 7200

scale 1: 7200

44

Social Housing

Schools

Day-care Primary School College
source: made by author based on kadaster maps

Pre-Inventarisation Oude Westen

scale 1: 7200

scale 1: 7200

Shops

Horeca

source: made by author based on kadaster maps

45

Matrix of Variables

Key Variables
Housing

Key Variables

Municipal

The City of Rotterdam has been going through a transistion, a transition which is/was triggerd by an economic shift from an industrial economic strucutre to a knowledge and service struture. This in turn has major effects on the social and spatial structure of the city. The trend in relation to this transition shows a need for a demographic shift of deprived neighbourhood for example the Oude Westen near high potential areas like the Rotterdam Central District. These neighbourhoods are experiencing (or are planned to experience) a social shift (gentrification) where the % of social housing is reduced to make space for middle and high income/educated inhabitants. This kind of strategy doesn’t simple effect the social structure of a neighbourhood it also effects the spatial structure; public space, density, facilities, all change in order the facilitate the needs of the future inhabitants. Due to the limited approach on the local scale (horizontal planning framework) an detachment is caused in the vertical framework. If this transition isn’t managed properly it could in short term have negative effects for the existing residents of social housing and on the long term effect neighbourhoods that still attract these groups. In other words there is a need for an integrated strategy to not only facilitate the transition of the city (by facilitating the needs for the gentrifiers) but which also incorporates the potentialities of the lower income inhabitants into the transition. Thereby creating an equilibrium between the (social spatial and economic) variables of the future inhabitants and the (social spatial and economic) variables of the exising lower income inhabitants. In the following two schemes an assesment is made of the different variables and critiria; how they are connected to one another and what effect they have on a social, economic and spatial scale. This to create an understanding of the interrealtions of the variables and to understand how to might influence eachother.

single family, increase space demand,

Increasing Knowledge/Service, International Centre, Increasing creative industry centre neighbourhoods, increase leisure facilities Increase capacity train (Stedenbaan, HSL), v

Economic Connectivity

Spatial Connectivity

single family home, larger appartments,

Housing typologies Public space

Local

squares, ammenities, (+) parking space, (-) car infra increase in middle high income/ edu residents existing and future residents

Social Mixing

Home-ownership

(+) small business, plinth liveability

Local Entrepreneurship

46

Social/Economic criteria
(+) service position (+) commercial position governance focus on region and market

Spatial Criteria
support regional network (+) user density

change in typology of use

(+) offer middle-high income (+) private ownership entrepeneurship

(+) diversification of space (housing, facilities, PB)

change in facility demand change in public space demand

Theory: CBD pressure: Doucet: Resident perception of flagship waterfront redevelopment Voice weaker: Lei Qui et al. Making Room for People Discplacement: Kleinhans, van Weezep, Slater Crisis Ferocity: Density Decrease: Atkinson, 2003: Introduction missunderstood savour or vangeful wrecker Participation: Competition for space: Exlusionary area:

(+) = increase (-) = decrease
47

spatial programming

(+) space demand (higher income, more space)

Municipal Intended Variables and Effects

Social/Economic criteria
(+) service position (+) commercial position governance focus on region and market

Spatial Criteria
support regional network (+) user density

change in typology of use

(+) offer middle-high income (+) private ownership entrepeneurship

(+) diversification of space (housing, facilities, PB)

change in facility demand change in public space demand

Social/Economic effect

Spatial effect

change in employment typology (high edu, sevice) (+) pressure from CBD (-) voice weaker res. ((-) collaborative/cohesive planing)

(+) connectivity

((+) mobility regional, local pedestrain?)

(+) competition for space participation issue with current residents

Weekend City/ (-) user intensity

(-)Public space (peaks and falls in use)

displacement (making room for new typologies) (+) crisis ferocity

(-) high connectivity for weaker income

(-) density (more space , less density (contradiction)) exlusionary area (facilities, PB, housing) (+) land value

48

spatial programming

(+) space demand (higher income, more space)

Bibliography
ATKINSON, R. (2002). Does Gentrification Help of Harm a Neighbourhood? An Assessment of the Evidence-Base in the Context of the New Urban Agenda. ESRC Centre for Neighbourhood Research, 27. ATKINSON, R. (2003). Introduction: misunderstood saviour or vengeful wrecker? the many meanings and problems of gentrification. Urban Studies, 40, 2343-2350. BLOKLAND - POTTERS, T. V. (2001). Middenklassers als middel: het grotestedenbeleid en de betekenis van midden- en hogere inkomensgroepen voor grootstedelijk sociaal kapitaal. B en M : Tijdschrift voor Beleid, Politiek en Maatschappij, 28, 42 - 53. CARMONA, M., TIESDELL, S., HEATH, T. & OC, T. (2010). Public Places Urban Spaces, The Dimensions of Urban Design, Oxford, Architectural Press. DAVIDSON, M. (2008). Spoiled Mixture: Where Does State-led `Positive’ Gentrification End? Urban Studies, 45, 2385-2405. GLASS, R. (1964). Introduction: Aspect of Change in, Centre For Urban Studies (ed), Aspects of Change, London, MacGibbon and Kee HACKWORTH, J. (2002). Postrecession Gentrification in New York City. Urban Affairs Review, 37, 815-843. HEALEY, P. (2003). Collaborative Planning in Perspective. Planning Theory, 2, 101-123. KEARNS, A. & MASON, P. 2007. Mixed Tenure Communities and Neighbourhood Quality. Housing Studies, 22, 661-691. KLEINHANS, R. (2003). Displaced but still Moving Upwards in the Housing Career? Implications of Forced Residential Relocation in the Netherlands. Housing Studies, 18, 473-499. KLEINHANS, R. (2004). Social implications of housing diversification in urban renewal: A review of recent literature. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 19, 367-390. KRUYTHOFF, H. M. & HAARS, A. (2002). Herdifferentiatie van de Woningvoorraad Inventarisatie Meerjaren-Ontiwkkelingsprogramma’s G30, Delft, Delft University Press. LEES, L. (2000). A reappraisal of gentrification: towards a ‚Äògeography of gentrification‚Äô. Progress in Human Geography, 24, 389-408. LEES, L. 2008. Gentrification and Social Mixing: Towards an Inclusive Urban Renaissance? Urban Studies, 45, 2449-2470. MAGINN, P. J. (2007). Towards more effective community participation in urban regeneration: the potential of collaborative planning and applied ethnography. Qualitative Research, 7, 25-43. MINISTRY FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, NEW ZEALAND 2006. Urban Design Toolkit. Retrieved oktober 25, 2011, from www.mfe.govt. MVROM 2008. Structuurvisie Randstad 2040 [Structurevision Randstad 2040]. In: MINISTRY OF HOUSING, P. A. E. (ed.). The Hague. MVROM, MINISTRY OF HOUSING & ENVIRONMENT, P. A. (2000). Mensen, Wensen, Wonen, Wonen in de 21stes eeuw [What people want, where people live]. In: ENVIRONMENT, M. O. H. P. A. (ed.). The Hague. MVROM, M. O. H., PLANNIG AND ENVIRONMENT(1989). Nota Volkshuisvesting in de Jaren Negentig [Housing in the 1990s]. In: MINISTRY OF HOUSING, P. A. E. (ed.). The Hague. 49

OUWEHAND, A., KLEINHANS, R., VAN DER LAAN BOUMA-DOFF, W. & VAN DER LAND, M. (2006). Een stap vooruit? De Pretenties van Fysiek voor Sociaal bij Herstructurering [A Step Ahead? The Pretensions of Physical to Social in accordance with Restructuring]. Delft: Research institute OTB TU Delft. PINTO, A. J., REMESAR, A., BRANDAO, P. & NUNES DA SILVA, F. (2010). Planning Public Spaces Networks towards Urban Cohesion. 46th ISOCARP congress 2010. Nairobi, Kenya. PRIEMUS, H. & HALL, P. (2004). Multifunctional Urban Planning of Mega-City-Regions. Built Environment, 30, 338-349. ROTTERDAM. (2005). Economische Visie Rotterdam 2020. In: ROTTERDAM], E. E. D. B. (ed.). Rotterdam. ROTTERDAM. (2007). Stadsvisie Rotterdam Ruimtelijk ontwikkelings plan 2030. Rotterdam. SLATER, T. O. M. (2006). The Eviction of Critical Perspectives from Gentrification Research. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30, 737-757. COS, STATISTIEK,. (2010). Evaluatie Participatieaanpak Fysieke Projecten [Evaluation Participation approach Physical Projects. In: WONEN, D. V. A. (ed.). Rotterdam. STOUTEN, P. (2010). Changing Contexts in Urban Regeneration: 30 Years of Modernisation in Rotterdam, Techne Press. UITERMARK, J. (2009). An in memoriam for the just city of Amsterdam. City, 13, 347-361.

Sources
CBS- Central Bureau of Statistics COS- Center for Research and Statistics (http://www.cbsinuwbuurt.nl/#pageLocation=index) (http://www.rotterdam.nl/monitoren)

Economische Visie Rotterdam 2030 http://www.rotterdam.nl/Concern/Document/EconomischeVisie.pdf Stadsvisie Rotterdam 2030 Randstad 2040
Sourche: http://radicalactivismvisualarchive.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/yuppy.jpg http://theorycity.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/picture6-7_tarlabasi-before-and-after.jpg

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Appendix

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Gentrification: a two-sided coin

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The transformation and potential risks of gentrification effects on residential neighborhoods regeneration.

Gentrification: a two sided coin
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4031024 _ g.briet @student.tudelft.nl Delft University of Technology, Department of Urbanism 9th Graduation Lab Urbanism Conference February 2nd 2012

effects of the gentrification phenomenon in residential neighborhoods. Based on these findings we identify considerations that can be taken into account, when local governments are planning on the gentrification of their less privileged neighborhoods. The knowledge gained with this paper will be used as part of the theoretical framework for the research on how the city of Rotterdam can find a fair balance between the perceived advantage of their gentrification policy and the interest and the preferences of the current “weaker” inhabitants. 2. What is Gentrification? Gentrification has been part of the academic debate since fifty years ago, when the first description of the phenomenon was given by Ruth Glass in her 1964 work “London: Aspects of Change” in which she also coined the term “gentrification”: “One by one, many of the working-class quarters of London have been invaded by the middle classes— upper and lower. Shabby, modest mews and cottages— two rooms up and two down—have been taken over, when their leases have expired, and have become elegant, expensive residences. Larger Victorian houses, downgraded in an earlier or recent period—which were used as lodging houses or were otherwise in multiple occupation—have been upgraded once again … Once this process of “gentrification” starts in a district it goes on rapidly until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed.” The process observed by Glass could also be described as “class-transformation” or in more general terms: “The production of space for progressively more affluent users” (Hackworth, 2002). This author demonstrates that “New-Built” developments can also lead to secondary gentrification nearby. Newly built developments for the middle classes can act as flagship developments from which tentacles of gentrification slowly stretch into adjacent neighborhoods. (Slater, 2006) Looking at the process of gentrification over time we could say that the general effect has not changed, as it is still a matter of “class-transformation”. However, due to changing economic and political conditions, its context has grown as well as the process itself, thereby creating externalities that are far greater then in the initial process 2.1 The Evolution of Gentrification Since the first scientific observation of the gentrification process it has undergone transformations, not so much as to how it worked, as in the way it was used and governed by the public or private sector. Hackworth and Smith stated in their article “The

Abstract– Gentrification generally refers to a change in neighborhoods where people of middle and high income gradually replace a resident lower-income population. The influence of gentrification on deprived neighborhoods has been part of the urban, social, and economic debate for many years (Smith, 1979, Marcuse, 1986). Nowadays, gentrification is rarely a natural process. Instead, municipalities often enforce it as a strategy to strengthen the economic, social, and spatial structure of cities undergoing economic transformation, which results in large-scale urban development (Rotterdam, 2007). The notion exists that gentrification on a neighborhood scale will decrease segregation, social exclusion, and deprivation, and creates more sustainable communities (Kearns and Mason, 2007). Motivated by this notion, municipalities tend to stimulate gentrification to improve social capital and cohesion in places where the cities have lost grip on social life. However, there are many critics who question the capability of this ‘positive gentrification’ policy (Slater, 2008, Lees, 2008, Uitermark et al., 2007). Therefore, we look at why municipalities tend to see gentrification as a functioning means to create social control and cohesion in deprived neighborhoods and to demographically facilitate the economic transformation of the city. Second, we seek to find out why different academic fields dispute the positive effects of this strategy. Third, we want to develop a framework of aspects to take into account when dealing with deprived neighborhood near large-scale urban development such as business districts, city centers, and large train stations. Towards understanding the workings of enforced gentrification and why it is a topic of debate, this review paper addresses three research questions: What is gentrification and how has it evolved? How have governments used gentrification as an instrument for their urban planning policies? What are the social, economic and spatial implications of the gentrification strategy on deprived neighborhoods and on the city as a whole? In order to answer these questions, we reviewed a wide range of academic articles on gentrification as a planning strategy.

Changing State of Gentrification” that gentrification from today is quite different from what it was in the early 1970’s, 1980’s and early 1990’s. To understand the changing role of the government and the private sector in this respect, it is necessary to understand the historical context. Slater defined three defining periods or waves since the discovery of the gentrification process, separated by two recessions. The first wave took place prior the global economic recession of 1973. At first, as Ruth Glass described in 1964, gentrification was a highly localized and discrete process, primarily funded by the public sector. In this way, local and national governments tried to counteract the economic decline of central city neighborhoods. While the state involvement was often justified because it was a means to counteract urban decline, the effect of of these interventions generally did not improve or even worsened the conditions of the urban working class, who had to move from their old homes that became unaffordable after the necessary renovations. In the Netherlands during this period huge urban regeneration programs were undertaken aimed at providing sufficient and adequate housing for lower income inhabitants. These programs were funded by national government and developed by municipalities and housing associations that owned substantial amounts of land, which they prepared for building and whose allocation they controlled (Stouten, 2010). However, gentrification was strongly and effectively opposed by the Dutch squatters movement, which helped create a decommodified housing stock that was accessible and affordable (Uitermark, 2009). The second wave of gentrification came after the economic recovery in the mid 1970’s and lasted until the late 1980’s. Gentrification occurred even in cities that had not experienced it before. In addition, instead of planning and financing the projects themselves municipalities stimulated the private sector to do the necessary investments rather then directly planning the process themselves. This second wave lasted till end of the 1980s which characterized the transformation of gentrification due to the integration of a wider range of economic and cultural processes. In The Netherlands the role of the private sector remained limited during this episode, due to the position of the housing associations who were still part of the public sector. There were initiatives to promote housing careers, were residents were stimulated to move to the better and more expensive accommodations, leaving cheaper subsidized housing for lower-income groups. (Stouten, 2010). However, these initiatives proved largely unsuccessful. The third wave occurred after the recession at the end of the 1980’s, a period when gentrification processes slowed down. However, the late 1980s recession proved to be just a transition period of gentrification to the third wave. During the the second wave private investors usually stepped in after a neighborhood had started to improve. In this third wave however, private investors tried to maximize their profits by anticipating on the developments and by taking the initiative to acquire and renovate inner city buildings. Also the community opposition declined primarily due to the

Key words – Gentrification, municipal strategy, social mixing, social housing, social/economic/spatial effects 1. Introduction:
With the de-industrialisation in the West and the rise of newly industrializing countries that took over the production of goods, a change occurred in the postindustrial cities. This triggered a shift of capital from unproductive sectors to new productive ones and it set the stage for reinvestment in central city real estate for offices, recreation, retail and residential homes . (Hackworth and Smith, 2001). These postindustrial cities saw major reinvestment in their central business districts , which prompted a secondary reinvestment in residential neighborhoods nearby these districts. In addition , the economic restructuring led to an increase in technical and cultural activities and to an influx of many professionals. Technical jobs and cultural markets rose in the urban core, which prompted a change in the demography of the city. The former working class neighborhoods near the urban core attracted these white collar professionals who often maintained a nontraditional household and a lifestyle very different from that of the former working class residents (Zukin, 1987). During the heyday of neoliberalism in the last decades of the 20th century, municipalities started to use the process of gentrification as a major strategy to strengthen the social, economic and spatial structure of their cities. This tendency has not been limited to metropolitan cities but it has trickled down to smaller industrial cities and even market towns. In this literature review we aimed to investigate what gentrification is, how municipalities have exploited the gentrification process for their aims and how it affects the social, economic and spatial structure of inner city neighborhoods. The structure of the paper is as follows. First, we describe what gentrification is and the changes it has gone through over time. Second, we illustrate how municipalities have tried to guide the process of gentrification towards deprived neighborhoods. Third, we give a review of the social, economic and spatial

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continued displacement of the working class, thereby decreasing the oposition base. Finally, the most apparent change in the this period was the reappearance and growing involvement of governments in the gentrification process. In contrast to the global trend of state involvement, the Dutch government opted for privatization of the housing associations who were to combine their traditional public tasks with market activities thereby becoming self reliant entrepreneurs (Stouten, 2010, MVROM, 1989). Moreover, as we will see later the municipalities took on a pro-active role when imposing new urban regeneration plans. During its 50 year development, the scope of gentrification gradually broadened from specific forms of neighborhood change towards a comprehensive reformation including such diverse issues as office development, changes in retail environment, city marketing and zero-tolerance policing strategies. (Uitermark et al., 2007) 3 Gentrification and the role of government As discussed, the involvement with the gentrification process of government and other actors has changed over time. Davidson states that as gentrification became more diverse, complex and geographically differentiated, concern about displacement and related injustice issues tended to diminish. Nevertheless, gentrification was increasingly embraced by policymakers as a potential urban renewal solution. (Davidson, 2008). Hackworth and Smith make clear that the involvement of the state is related to the privatization process:”First, continued devolution of federal states has placed even more pressure on local states to actively pursue redevelopment and gentrification as ways of generating tax revenue. Second, the diffusion of gentrification into more remote portions of the urban landscape poses profit risks that are beyond the capacity of individual capitalists to manage. Third, the larger shift towards post-Keynesian governance has unhinged the state from the project of social reproduction and as such, measures to protect the working class are more easily contested'' Within the Dutch context some of these notions do not apply. For example the housing associations, even though they are financially independent institutions since 1995, are legally bound to reinvest their profits in housing for target groups of social housing policies. Another point is that municipalities can collect taxes only for specific services. Income tax can be collected only by the national government. The motive for municipal gentrification strategies comes from a change in the perception of social housing. Until the 1990’s social housing was seen as an asset to the cities and a solution for social ills, whereas later, it was associated with crime, graffiti, disorder and disadvantaged neighborhoods with unliveable conditions. The national government now started to encourage local governments and housing associations to construct owner-occupied housing and to demolish social housing in order the create neighborhoods with balanced social composition (MVROM et al., 2000). Currently the notion of the local government is that social housing has become an ill in itself and that it is associated with dependency (Uitermark et al., 2007,

MVROM et al., 2000). (Uitermarkt et al, 2007) make clear that through the change of perception of social housing from a municipal perspective the strategy on how a neighborhood with good liveability can be achieved has been adjusted by emphasizing spatial quality and gentrification as a means to guarantee social sustainability (social cohesion, social capital). “Liveability means that neighborhoods are orderly in the sense that they exhibit a low level of crime, vandalism and nuisance, according to housing association” (Uitermark et al., 2007). The change in perception of social housing and the change of involved actors made gentrification part of the national agenda. “The Large City Policy” (Grotestedenbeleid) was aimed at improving the liveability and social-economic position of large cities by improving the inner city neighborhoods on a regional scale” (Kruythoff and Haars, 2002). These changes in perception in relation to social housing are very much dependent on the political powers in time. For example when Pim Fortuyn’s party “Leefbaar Rotterdam” (Liveable Rotterdam) came to power. During that period a strong call for the dispersal of poor and immigrant inhabitants and the creation of mixed neighbourhoods rose (Lees, 2008). An instrument that was proposed to achieve this goal was to introduce affluent households into neighborhoods with socialeconomic problems and high percentages of social housing. These affluent households could then serve as role models for the current inhabitants. 4. Effects of gentrification Over the last decades there have been numerous studies on the effects of gentrification on residential neighborhoods. The impact may be small for acupuncture interventions and great for large scale neighborhood restructuring plans, but this does not change the fact that the direct effects are felt in the neighborhoods themselves. What are the intended effects and which unwanted effects do occur, according to the municipalities and what has the academic world to say about them. 4.1 Social effects The primary intended social effect of gentrification as a strategy in deprived neighborhoods is social mixing. Social mixing is then expected to reduce anti-social behavior to enhance educational outcomes, to stimulate social networks and to raise aspirations by providing role-models (Kearns and Mason, 2007). A number of authors show that the introduction of middle-class households can trigger an effect called “defending the neighborhood”. They observed that middle-class households are stronger advocates for public resources and they are more persistent in getting through to the right people and agencies. This benefits could all the residents (Kleinhans, 2004, Blokland Potters, 2001, Lees, 2008). Municipalities have used this mechanism as an argument to support their gentrification policies. However, next to the positive social effects, the coin of gentrification may also have downsides locally and on the region.

As for the “role-model” arguments research has shown that the closer the physical proximity between tenants, the greater the social tensions between residents from different backgrounds. This phenomenon may nullify the desired positive interaction between residents. (Beekman et al., 2001) in (Kearns and Mason, 2007) The most evident unwanted effect of gentrification is displacement of the poor to create housing for the affluent. In the Netherlands the existing residents have a strong position due to strong tenure rights. The housing associations have to offer similar alternative housing and often the residents can obtain a larger and better dwelling without increase in rent or loss of subsidy (Kleinhans, 2003). However, displacement can also happen through rising rent, increasing home prices and increasing land value, as well as through displacement of relatives and neighborhood friends. This loss of the social network does not contribute to the social cohesion and hampers the integration of the residents who stay behind and the so called gentrifiers. This may lead to tension, resentment, community conflicts, and fragmentation(Uitermark et al., 2007, Atkinson, 2002). Kleinhans also points to a specific emotional effect on the residents who are displaced, that is not mediated by the loss of social networks but by the loss of the sense of place. Clearly, there is a distinction between residents who actually want to move and those who want to stay, but are forced to move. Kleinhans points out that more attention is needed to determine socialemotional ties of residents. In essence, determining who wants to stay and who wants to move provides the key to a maximization of happiness, if wishes can be granted. (Kleinhans, 2003) 4.2 Economic effects Gentrification leads to increases in rent, home prices and land value, which is of course beneficial for the housing associations and other home owners. Also, the prosperity of the newcomers sustains a better range of private retail outlets and services (Kearns and Mason, 2007). Unfortunately, these changes are unfavorable for the lower income residents. The introduction of better private retail outlets usually implies more expensive products and competition with existing lesser private retail. This makes the daily life in the neighborhood more expensive and endangers the existing shop keepers who are dependent on local networks (Atkinson, 2002). Relevant for The Netherlands is the report by OTB at the TU Delft. This report shows that incoming gentrifying residents in a regional and municipal scale create a pull factor for high-end innovative activity, they fulfill a demand for well educated inhabitants (universities, schools, day-care, sports) and they contribute to a desired image for the city (Ouwehand et al., 2006). Dutch municipalities hold the position that gentrification can favor the position of the city on the regional, the national and even the international scale, way beyond the immediate local effect on the neighborhood. This shows that in the Dutch context the current position of the municipality on deprived neighbourhoods is one that does not primarily focus on

just addressing social, spatial and economic issues of the local neighbourhood scale but one that tends to focus on facilitating the market. This facilitates functions like those of the city centre and the central business districts and turns the focus to the regional, national and international scale. In summary, the effects of the gentrification strategy generally favor the future residents/gentrifiers and they favor the economic development of neighborhood, city and region. However, the people who may have to pay the price are the old residents with low income or in social housing, since they are directly affected by the consequences. Next, the spatial translation of gentrification may pose a threat for both movers and stayers. 4.3 Spatial effects The local spatial effects of gentrification have been “under researched” even though there are clear physical changes visible. The most obvious spatial effect of gentrification is the renewal of the physical fabric of neighborhoods. Renovation and demolishment of buildings, redividing of houses, fewer apartments per building etc. Gentrification on a large scale affects the density of the population, since gentrifiers generally under-occupy their property or have larger spatial and higher quality demands than residents of social housing or with a lower income (Atkinson, 2003). In the Dutch context, the loss of population density contrasts with the current national policy (MVROM, 2008) which aims to densify and intensify the cities. This policy is based on the thesis that high density is associated with improvements in the social (positive interaction, improving viability and access to community services), economic (enhancing economic development), environmental (increasing energy efficiency) and safety spheres (Carmona et al., 2010). To facilitate the needs of the affluent future residents not only bigger homes are needed but also for example more parking spaces. Which in turn has an aggravated effect on the density of the neighbourhoods in population or in public space. As for the public space authors claim that new residential users of diferent class with different notions or uses of public space appropriate the public space, make it an axtension of their dwelling, and include them in their home territory. In this new dynamic new residents sometimes exlude uses and representation of the initial residents judging them to be inappropriate. (Bélanger, 2007). In this sense gentrification can redefine activities taking place in the public space without even changing the physical aspect of the space. 6. Conclusions At first, gentrification was initiated by the public sector but later the role of the private sector became more important and at the same time its influence broadened from the neighborhood to the city as a whole. It became a city-wide strategy to strengthen the demographic structure, the economy and the quality of the public space. The municipality acquired the role of entrepreneurial planner. However, a narrow focus on the economic benefits on

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the one hand and a disregard for the interests and preferences of the original residents on the other, may threaten the social harmony in the city. Clearly, gentrification is a two-sided coin. In this paper we have tried to create an understanding of gentrification as a governmental and municipal strategy and to explain what the influences are on the social, economic and spatial structure of residential neighbourhoods. The graduation project linked to this review paper deals with a neighborhood under developement of a gentrification strategy. This project will provide argumentation why steps must be taken to secure the position of lower income residents in neighbourhoods under a gentrification process. In addition it will anwer questions on how gentrification should be managed in a just manner and on the larger scale effects of such a strategy. This literature review paper provides part of the theoretical framework for the graduation project, showing breaches in the current urban renewal strategy and the spatial effects of such a strategy. 7. Recommendations In this paper we have tried to clarify what gentrification is and how it affects social, economic and spatial structures., However, it is still unclear what the possible larger externalities are and moreover what negative externalities there may be for cities planning such a strategy of gentrification. During the graduation project research will be done on what the effects are of displacement on neighborhoods were these displacees land and how neighborhoods facing gentrification intend to facilitate integration between existing and future residents. In addition, the project aims to shed light on how to manage gentrification in a residential neighborhood with attention for the current less affluent inhabitants and their future position in the neighborhood.

Bibliography ATKINSON, R. (2002). Does Gentrification Help of Harm a Neighbourhood? An Assessment of the Evidence-Base in the Context of the New Urban Agenda. ESRC Centre for Neighbourhood Research, 27. ATKINSON, R. (2003). Introduction: misunderstood saviour or vengeful wrecker? the many meanings and problems of gentrification. Urban Studies, 40, 2343-2350. BEEKMAN, T., LOYNS, F. & SCOTT, J. (2001). Improving the Understanding of the Influence of Owner Occupiers in Mixed Tenure Neighbourhoods. Edinburgh: Scottish Homes. BÉLANGER, H. (2007). Public Spaces in Gentrifynig Neighborhood: Conclicting Meanings? ENHR 2007 International Conference 'Sustainable Urban Areas'. Rotterdam. 24-28 June 2007, viewed, 2 Januari 2012, http://www.enhr2007rotterdam.nl/pages/ papersdownload.htm BLOKLAND - POTTERS, T. V. (2001). Middenklassers als middel: het grotestedenbeleid en de betekenis van middenen hogere inkomensgroepen voor grootstedelijk sociaal kapitaal. B en M : Tijdschrift voor Beleid, Politiek en Maatschappij, 28, 42 - 53. CARMONA, M., TIESDELL, S., HEATH, T. & OC, T. (2010). Public Places Urban Spaces, The Dimensions of Urban Design, Oxford, Architectural Press. DAVIDSON, M. (2008). Spoiled Mixture: Where Does State-led `Positive' Gentrification End? Urban Studies, 45, 2385-2405. HACKWORTH, J. (2002). Postrecession Gentrification in New York City. Urban Affairs Review, 37, 815-843. HACKWORTH, J. & SMITH, N. (2001). The changing state of gentrification. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 92, 464-477. KEARNS, A. & MASON, P. 2007. Mixed Tenure Communities and Neighbourhood Quality. Housing Studies, 22, 661-691. KLEINHANS, R. (2003). Displaced but still Moving Upwards in the Housing Career? Implications of Forced Residential Relocation in the Netherlands. Housing Studies, 18, 473-499. KLEINHANS, R. (2004). Social implications of housing diversification in urban renewal: A review of recent literature. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 19, 367-390. KRUYTHOFF, H. M. & HAARS, A. (2002). Herdifferentiatie van de Woningvoorraad Inventarisatie MeerjarenOntiwkkelingsprogramma's G30, Delft, Delft University Press. LEES, L. (2008). Gentrification and Social Mixing: Towards an Inclusive Urban Renaissance? Urban Studies, 45, 2449-2470. MARCUSE, P. (1986). 'Abandonment Gentrificatio and Displacement: The Linkages in New York City, Londen, Unwin Hyman.

MINISTRY OF HOUSING & ENVIRONMENT (2008). Structuurvisie Randstad 2040 [Structurevision Randstad 2040], The Hague. MINISTRY OF HOUSING & ENVIRONMENT (2000). Mensen, Wensen, Wonen, Wonen in de 21stes eeuw, [What people want, where people live], viewed 18 December 2011, http://www.eerstelijn-rotterdam.nl/files/notamensen-wensen-wonen.pdf MINISTRY OF HOUSING & ENVIRONMENT (1989). Nota Volkshuisvesting in de Jaren Negentig [Housing in the 1990s], The Hague. OUWEHAND, A., KLEINHANS, R., VAN DER LAAN BOUMA-DOFF, W. & VAN DER LAND, M. (2006). Een stap vooruit? De Pretenties van Fysiek voor Sociaal bij Herstructurering [A Step Ahead? The Pretensions of Physical to Social in accordance with Restructuring]. Delft: Research institute OTB TU Delft. ROTTERDAM (2007). Stadsvisie Rotterdam Ruimtelijk ontwikkelings plan 2030 [Urban Vision Rotterdam Spatial Development Plan 2030]. Rotterdam. viewed 5 Januari 2012, http://www.kei-centrum.nl/view.cfm? page_id=1893&item_type=nieuws&item_id=2 526 SLATER, T. O. M. (2006). The Eviction of Critical Perspectives from Gentrification Research. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30, 737-757. SLATER, T. O. M. (2008). ‘A Literal Necessity to be Re-Placed’: A Rejoinder to the Gentrification Debate. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32, 212-223. SMITH, N. (1979). Toward a Theory of Gentrification A Back to the City Movement by Capital, not People. Journal of the American Planning Association, 45, 538-548. STOUTEN, P. (2010). Changing Contexts in Urban Regeneration: 30 Years of Modernisation in Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Techne Press. UITERMARK, J. (2009). An in memoriam for the just city of Amsterdam. City, 13, 347-361. UITERMARK, J., DUYVENDAK, J. W. & KLEINHANS, R. (2007). Gentrification as a governmental strategy: social control and social cohesion in Hoogvliet, Rotterdam. Environment and Planning A, 39, 125-141. ZUKIN, S. (1987). Gentrification: Culture and Capital in the Urban Core. Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 129-147.

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