Let there be light!

Lesson 1

Light for sight
Without light, we can’t see. Pretty obvious, really. But what’s actually going on when we see something? A couple of basic points.

 

Light travels as rays Light rays travel in straight lines.

Draw a light ray on this diagram to show how the girl sees the light bulb. Use a ruler!

But what about objects that don’t give off light? How do we see those? Draw two light rays on this diagram to show how the girl sees the frying pan. Think carefully.

Use your diagrams to complete these sentences.

 

All visible objects either g____ o___ light (like a light bulb) or r______ light (like a book). This light then t______ to the e___.
1

Let there be light!

Lesson 1

Shiny stuff
Why do some objects – like aluminium foil – look shiny whilst others look dull? Objects don’t always reflect all of the light that falls on them. They can absorb some of it. Complete the table and the bar chart to show the reflectivity of different surfaces. surface mirror brown carpet sheet of glass tarmac wooden table top white gloss paint % of light reflected 95 25 % of light absorbed 5 17 70 46 68

Title: ____________________________
100 90 80 70 % of light reflected 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2

What is light?

Lesson 1: extra

Looking into light
You’ll need a ray box with a single slit, a power supply, a triangular prism and a screen made of white card. Set up your equipment like this.
light ray power supply (12 V)

ray box prism screen

Point the light ray near the top corner of the prism. Now turn the prism slowly, keeping an eye on the screen. 1. Describe what you see.

2.

Where have you seen this sort of pattern before?

3.

List the different colours you can see.

Mnemonics
A mnemonic is a way of remembering a list. It works like this: My Very Excellent Mulberry Jam Should Use No Preservatives. (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.) Make up your own mnemonic for the colours of the rainbow: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

3

What is light?

Lesson 1: extra

Now you see it…
Light is a wave. It’s a bit like waves in water, but there are some big differences. In water, the distance between the top of one wave and the top of the next – the wavelength – might be a few metres. For light, the wavelength is about 0.0000005 metres – you can fit two million wavelengths into a single metre. Light also travels amazingly fast – in fact, it’s the fastest thing there is. The speed of light is 300,000,000 metres per second – a beam of light could go round the Earth seven times in a single second at this speed. Because light travels so fast, we never notice any sort of delay when we switch on a light. Light from the Sun is white in colour. But when the sunlight is split up – say by raindrops in a rainbow – we see that light is actually made up of different colours mixed together. The different colours have different wavelengths. Blue light has the shortest wavelength – 0.0000004 metres. The wavelength of red light is almost twice as long at 0.0000007 metres. Questions 1. What is light?

2.

On this picture of a wave, draw an arrow to show the wavelength. 3. Use the information in the second paragraph to work out the circumference of the Earth.

4.

Green light has a wavelength between red and blue. Write down a possible value for the wavelength of green light.

5.

The Moon is about 400,000,000 metres away. How long would it take a ray of light to travel to the Moon? (time = distance ÷ speed.)

4

Reflection

Lesson 2

Mirror, mirror…
You learnt in the last lesson that we see most objects because light reflects off them. This is because:

Light can be reflected

Light doesn’t just reflect off mirrors, but because mirrors are flat, it makes it easier to study what goes on.

The law of reflection
In this experiment, you’ll find out exactly what happens when a light ray hits a mirror. 1. 2. 3. Collect a ray box, a power supply, a single slit and a small mirror. Place the mirror on this page where shown. Shine rays of light along the different lines. Use a sharp pencil and a ruler to draw in the reflected rays. Label them A1, B1 and C1.
mirror

C

B A this line is called the normal

5

Reflection

Lesson 2

4. 5. 6.

Use a protractor to measure the angle between the normal and line A. Write the angle in the table. Now measure the angle between the normal and the reflected ray A1. Write it in your table. Repeat for rays B and C. angle between normal and reflected ray A1 angle between normal and reflected ray B1 angle between normal and reflected ray C1

angle between normal and ray A angle between normal and ray B angle between normal and ray C

Look carefully at your results. What do you notice?

Complete this sentence.

When light reflects from a mirror, the angle the ray r_______ at is the s____ as the angle the ray comes in at.

Complete this diagram of a ray striking a mirror.

n_______

25o

6

The Hall of Mirrors

Lesson 2: extra

Funny face
The Law of Reflection only works when a mirror is flat. If a mirror is curved, you get all sorts of strange effects. Collect a flexible mirror. 1. Bend the mirror towards you, like this.

Look in the mirror. Make a sketch of what you see.

2.

Bend the mirror away from you, like this.

Look in the mirror. Make a sketch of what you see.

3.

Find out how to give yourself a thin face. Make a sketch of your face, and show how you bent the mirror.

7

The Hall of Mirrors

Lesson 2: extra

ReflecTion
Mirrors can be used to investigate symmetry. (Symmetry means ‘the same’.) Put the edge of your plastic mirror against the dotted line in this letter T.

T
If you look in the mirror, you should still see a T. The dotted line is a line of symmetry. Now try this T puzzle. A mirror might help – or maybe not.

Collect a copy of the shapes above. Cut them out carefully, then arrange them to make a letter T. You can’t fold or overlap the shapes.
8

Total Internal Reflection

Lesson 3

A see-through mirror?
You might think that the whole point about glass is that light travels straight through it. But if you arrange things properly, a piece of glass can act like a mirror. Experiment 1 Collect a block of glass. Hold the glass horizontally in front of your eyes, and look down through the glass onto the bottom surface.
look this way see a reflection of whatever’s here

You should see a reflection of whatever is on the other side of the glass. This is called total internal reflection, and it happens whenever light strikes glass at a big enough angle. Experiment 2 Your teacher will show you how light can travel through a long piece of clear plastic. This is called an optical fibre. On this diagram, draw the path of the ray of light in the optical fibre.

Mark with an X the points where the light is totally internally reflected.

Light can travel down an optical fibre.
9

Total Internal Reflection

Lesson 3

Optical fibres in medicine
Doctors don’t want to cut people open if they can avoid it – but how else can you see if something is wrong? You can use a fibrescope. A fibrescope has two bundles of optical fibres. The first bundle is used to pass light down into a patient’s body – perhaps into the lungs. The light reflects off the lungs and travels back up the other bundle of optical fibres to the doctor’s eye. This means the doctor can see inside the patient. When a fibrescope is used to examine the lungs, it is called an endoscope. When it is used to examine the digestive system, it is called a gastroscope. Optical fibres can also be used to help treat certain types of cancer. Lasers can be used to burn away cancerous growths. But if the growth is in the stomach, a doctor would need to cut open the stomach to get to the growth. Because lasers are a form of light, they can be passed down optical fibres by total internal reflection. A fibre can be passed down the throat and into the stomach. When it is in the right place, the laser is fired to burn away the growth. 1. What is the job of each bundle of optical fibres in a fibrescope?

2.

What is the difference between a gastroscope and an endoscope?

3.

How does the laser light travel down an optical fibre?

4.

Why do doctors prefer to use optical fibres for laser treatment?
10

Total Internal Reflection

Lesson 3

11

Christian Huygens

Lesson 3: extra

Working out light
In the 17th century, there were many arguments about what light was and how it worked. Sir Isaac Newton thought he knew, but for once, the great scientist had got it wrong. A Dutch scientist called Christian Huygens was the first person to explain how light travelled as waves. Collect Info Card 4.3 on Christian Huygens. Use it to complete the Huygens Fact File and answer the questions.

Date of birth: ________________ Date of death: _______________

Place of birth: _______________ University: __________________

Famous discovery 1

Famous discovery 2

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ________
Questions 1.

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ________

Who helped Huygens become interested in science?

2.

Why did Huygens write so many letters to other scientists?

3.

What was the title of Huygens’ first book?

12

Christian Huygens

Lesson 3: extra

4.

What amazing astronomical discovery did Huygens make?

5.

What topic did Huygens work on in the 1650s – and who else was working on it?

6.

What was Newton’s explanation for light?

7.

What was Huygens’ explanation for light?

8.

Huygens’ ideas were correct, but were ignored for some years. Can you explain why?

9.

What book did Huygens publish in 1673?

10.

Can you solve Huygens’ anagram? RUST GRAINS NASH

13

Lenses

Lesson 4

Lenses for seeing
As you get older, your sight usually gets worse. There’s not much you can do to stop this happening – it’s a condition called middle-aged presbyopia. So if you don’t wear glasses already, you probably will when you’re older. So how do glasses work to correct our sight? The two pieces of glass or plastic in front of your eyes are called lenses. Lenses turn up all over the place – in telescopes, for example. Lenses come in two main types. Converging lenses look like this. (They’re also called convex.)

Diverging lenses look like this. (They’re also called concave.)

Questions
1. What is the name of the condition that causes sight problems, as you get older?

2.

List three things, not mentioned above, that use lenses.

3.

Name the two main types of lens.

4.

What are the other names for the lenses?

14

Lenses

Lesson 4

Lenses and light
In this experiment, you’ll find out how the different types of lenses affect light. Collect a power supply, ray-box, triple slit, converging lens and a diverging lens. Set it up like this:
three light rays power supply (12 V)

ray box

lens

Put the converging lens in front of the ray box. In the box below, draw the lens and show what it does to the light rays. (Use a ruler for the light rays!)

A converging lens b_______ the light rays t__________.

Now remove the converging lens and put the diverging lens in front of the ray box. In the box below, draw the lens and show what it does to the light rays.

A diverging lens s________ the light rays a_______.
15

More on lenses

Lesson 4: extra

In Lesson 4, you learnt about the effect that converging and diverging lenses have on rays of light. But not all converging or diverging lenses are exactly the same shape. Some are more curved than others. Does this have an effect? What to do 1. Collect a power supply, ray-box, triple slit, and different converging and diverging lenses. 2. Choose a lens, place it on this lesson sheet, and draw around it. 3. Shine three rays of light through the lens. 4. Draw the rays of light that go into the lens and come out of the lens. 5. Repeat this with as many lenses as you have time for.

16

More on lenses

Lesson 4: extra

Have you found any sort of pattern? How does the amount of curve in the lens affect the rays of light? Explain what you have found out.

17

How do you see?

Lesson 5

Sight problems
The two most common eye problems are called short sight and long sight.  Short sight is when you can’t see far away things clearly.  Long sight is when you can’t see nearby things clearly. The cause of these problems is usually that the eyeball hasn’t grown properly. In short-sighted people, the eyeball is too long. In long-sighted people, the eyeball is too short. This means that the lens in the eye can’t focus light on the retina – the screen at the back of the eye. Let’s have a more detailed look. Good sight The lens in the eye focuses light right on the retina. You see everything clearly.
eyeball lens of eye retina

light focused on retina

Short sight The eyeball is too long. The light comes to a focus in front of the retina. Anything in the distance looks fuzzy.
light focused in front of retina

Long sight The eyeball is too short. The light comes to a focus behind the retina. Anything nearby looks fuzzy.

light focused behind retina

18

How do you see?

Lesson 5

Use the information on the other side of this sheet to answer these questions. 1. What are the names of the two main sight problems?

2.

What is the usual cause of short sight?

3.

What is the usual cause of long sight?

4.

A man needs glasses to read the newspaper. Is he short-sighted or longsighted? How do you know?

5.

A woman needs glasses to read road signs when she is driving. Is she short-sighted or long-sighted? How do you know?

6.

What is the screen at the back of the eye called?

7.

If a person has good sight, where does the light focus in their eye?

8.

In John’s eyes, the light focuses before it gets to the retina. Is he longsighted or short-sighted?

9.

Can you name any other sight problems?

19

Quiz time

Lesson 5: extra

Anagrams
Solve the anagrams – all the answers are words connected with light and lenses. FLECTER_________________ VEAW _________________ GIVEGRIND__________________ RORRIM __________________ _________________

CLAPOIT _________________ SNEGYUH _________________

GHOSTTRISH TRAINE

__________________

A to Z (well, some of them…)
A: what a black piece of paper does to light C: a lens that brings light rays together D: a lens that spreads light rays apart E: used to look at the lungs F: we see clearly if light rays are in … G: used to look at the digestive system H: famous scientist from The Netherlands L: when nearby things are blurred M: when people get presbyopia N: a dotted line drawn at right angles to a mirror O: a type of fibre R: the title of this topic S: when far away things are blurred T: how light can bounce down glass W: light travels as a … __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

20

Quiz time
2

Lesson 5: extra
3

4 5 6 7 8 9

10

11

12

13 14

Clues across 1. A lens that brings light rays together 4. If you have long sight, you can’t things clearly that are ____ to you. 7. A colour of the rainbow.

Clues down 1. Another name for a diverging lens 2. Coloured part of eye. 3. Used to look inside body. 5. Screen at back of eye.

9.Light travels in straight ______. 6. Used to reflect light. 10.Produced by 11 across. 8. Used to focus light. 11. Produces 10 across. 10. A colour of the rainbow. 12. If you don’t know, you’re in the ______. 14. A triangular piece of glass. 13. Peanuts!

21

Curing sight problems

Lesson 6

Lenses for life
Glasses or contact lenses can be used to fix sight problems. But how are different lenses used to fix different problems? Your teacher will show you a demonstration with a model eye. We can make the model short-sighted or long-sighted, and see which lenses are needed to fix the problems. Watch the demonstrations, then answer the questions. 1. Where on the model do you see the image?

2.

How can you tell that the model eye is ‘seeing’ a clear image?

3.

How do we make the eye ‘short-sighted’?

4.

What happens to the image when we make the eye short-sighted?

5.

What type of lens is used to correct the short sight?

6.

How do we make the eye ‘long-sighted’?

7.

What happens to the image when we make the eye long-sighted?

8.

What type of lens is used to correct the long sight?

22

Curing sight problems

Lesson 6

This diagram shows how a short-sighted eye can’t focus on things far away.

Now we’ve added a diverging lens. Draw light rays on the diagram to show how the eye can now focus. Use a ruler!

This diagram shows how a long-sighted eye can’t focus on nearby things.

Now we’ve added a converging lens. Draw light rays on the diagram to show how the eye can now focus. Use a ruler!

 

A converging lens can be used to correct long sight. A diverging lens can be used to correct short sight.
23

Other uses for lenses

Lesson 6: extra

Different views
Although one of the most important uses of lenses is in glasses, there are lots of other ways we can make use of them. Here are a few for you to try. Experiment 1: the telescope Basic telescopes use two lenses. The one you point at whatever you’re looking at is called the objective lens. The one next to your eye is the eyepiece lens. Here’s how to make a very simple telescope. Collect a small fat lens for the eyepiece, a larger thinner lens for the eyepiece and two lens stands. 1. Set them up like this.

look this way eyepiece lens objective lens

2. 3.

Look through the eyepiece lens towards the objective lens. Adjust the distance between the two lenses until you get a sharp clear image.

Questions 1. What do you notice about the image you see?

2.

Try looking through the telescope the ‘wrong way’. What do you see now?

3.

Maps of the Moon are published upside-down. Why do you think this is?

24

Other uses for lenses

Lesson 6: extra

Experiment 2: the magnifying glass Scientists have always needed ways to make small things look bigger. Many years ago, they used drops of water as magnifying glasses. This experiment is a bit easier. You need the two lenses from the last experiment. 1. 2. 3. Use the lenses in turn to examine the print on this page.

Try changing the distance between the lens and the paper. Try changing the distance between the lens and your eye.

Questions 1. Which lens magnified most – the thin lens or the fat lens?

2.

Which lens did you have to hold nearest the page to see clearly?

Experiment 3: the camera lens The lens in a camera works in a similar way to the lens in the eye. It has to focus an image onto the photographic film at the back of the camera. 1. 2. 3. Pin a piece of plain paper to the wall opposite the window. (The paper is like the photographic film.) Hold one of the lenses near the paper. Make sure your hand or body doesn’t block the light from the window. Move the lens in or out until you see sharp image of the window on the piece of paper. Try both lenses.

Questions 1. Which lens gave the smallest image on the paper?

25

Lasers

Lesson 7

I expect you to die, Mr Bond…
You’ve probably seen the film. James Bond strapped to a table. A red laser beam is gradually moving up the table, cutting it in half. In just a few seconds, it’s going to cut James Bond in half… We see images of lasers all the time on films. Star Wars battle cruisers fire green bolts of laser light at each other. Whole planets are destroyed by powerful laser beams. But what are lasers? Laser stands for: by the of Light Amplification Stimulated Emission Radiation.

That sounds rather complicated – what does it really mean?

A laser is a concentrated beam of light of just one colour.

Laser light doesn’t spread out, like light from a torch does. Because all the light energy is concentrated in one place, powerful lasers can burn through sheets of steel or shoot aeroplanes out of the sky. But most lasers are much less powerful, though they are just as useful. People who have a disease called diabetes may suffer from leaking blood vessels in the eye. This can cause blindness. A laser can be used to heat up and seal the blood vessels, saving the person’s sight. Lasers can be very dangerous. The problem with many laser pens is that they are too powerful. If they are shone in someone’s eye, the laser light can burn the retina. Schools must follow special rules when using lasers, to make sure that nobody’s eyes are hurt. The sign at the top of this page shows that a laser is being used. Because laser light doesn’t spread out and get weaker, it can travel huge distances. During one of the moon landings in the 1970s, a mirror was fixed to the Moon’s surface. Scientists can now fire a laser at the mirror, although it’s 400,000 kilometres away. The laser light bounces off the mirror and travels back to Earth. By measuring how long this takes, scientists can work out exactly how far away the moon is – to the nearest centimetre! Now watch the laser demonstration. Afterwards, answer the questions on the back of this sheet.

Lasers

Lesson 7

Questions
1. What does LASER stand for?

2.

What is a laser?

3.

Describe in detail how lasers can be used is hospitals.

4.

Why could you not use a powerful torch to send a light beam to the Moon?

5.

Describe in detail how lasers are used to measure the distance to the Moon.

6.

When the laser was first switched on, could you see the beam travelling across the room?

7.

27

Review

Lesson 7: extra

Check what you’ve learnt
The questions below cover all the things you should have learnt in lessons 1 - 7. See how many questions you can answer from memory – then read over your notes and correct any answers you got wrong or missed out. 1. Complete this sentence. All visible objects either g____ o____ light or r_______ light to the e___. 2. How do light rays travel?

3.

What can you say about the angle at which light hits a mirror, and the angle it reflects at?

4.

What is the name of the imaginary line we draw at 900 to a mirror?

5.

Write down the seven colours of the rainbow, in order.

6.

Write down one practical use for optical fibres in medicine.

7.

Name the two types of lenses.

8.

Jill can’t see things clearly that are close to her. Is she short-sighted or long-sighted?

28

Review

Lesson 7: extra

9.

Light from distant objects entering Jack’s eye comes to a focus in front of the retina. Is he long-sighted or short-sighted?

10.

What type of lens is used to correct long-sight?

11.

What type of lens is used to correct short-sight?

12.

Draw a converging lens and show how it affects parallel light rays travelling through it.

13.

Draw a diverging lens and show how it affects parallel light rays travelling through it.

14.

What does LASER stand for?

15.

How many colours of light does a laser produce?

16.

Write down one practical use for lasers.

My score out of 16:

____
29

X-rays

Lesson 8

The unknown rays
In the 1870s, a German physicist called Wilhelm Roentgen took the very first X-ray picture of his wife’s hand. No-one really knew what these rays were – they were called X–rays because the letter x is used in maths for something that is unknown. Some companies tried to take advantage. A company in Paris sold pairs of ‘X-ray glasses’ for seeing through clothes. Although this was nonsense, another company started selling ‘X-ray proof underwear’ for ladies. It was hard to understand X-rays because:

 

X-rays are invisible to the naked eye

We can’t see X-rays directly – we can only see their effects. X-rays can be detected with photographic film.

X-rays are part of the same family as light, but have a much shorter wavelength. This means they can pass through things that light can’t. X-rays can pass through soft skin and tissue easily, but they are absorbed by bones. Questions 1. Look at the X-ray picture above. What is the lump on one of the fingers?

2.

Here’s how an X-ray is taken. Copy the labels into the right boxes.

Labels
body part X-ray film X-ray machine X-rays X-rays not absorbed by bones

30

X-rays

Lesson 8

Looking at X-rays
Take a careful look at each of the X-ray prints in the room. For each one, write down what part of the body you think it shows. Describe any other interesting details you see – can you find the zip on one of the X-rays? X-ray number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

what does it show?

31

Digital X-rays

Lesson 8: extra

The power of computers
Nowadays, X-rays can be converted into computer images. This has many advantages, such as being able to get a 3D view. But how can a computer image be made from a black-and-white X-ray? A scanner passes over the X-ray, section by section. If it sees a black area below, it sends a 0 to the computer. If it sees a white area, it sends a 1 to the computer. The computer uses this information to build up a picture. What to do Here is the information from a scanner. 0000010000,0001010100,0101010100,0101010000,0101010100,0101010101, 0111111101,0111111101,0111111111,0111111111,0111111111,0001111100, 0001111100,0001111100,0001111100 Work across, row by row. If the number is 0, shade in the box in the grid. If the number is 1, leave it blank. The first row has been done for you.

What have you taken an X-ray of? Is there a problem?

32

Digital X-rays

Lesson 8: extra

Making the right choice
Here is a table of information about different digital X-ray machines. Study it carefully, then use it to answer the questions. Make X-cel Ray-guard Supa-view iXs X-Camera 1. Cost £450,000 £615,000 £1,250,000 £650,000 £830,000 Delivery time 3 months 8 weeks 6 months 2 weeks 1 month X-rays per hour 16 14 30 21 20 notes bone X-rays only bones + lungs all types of X-ray may not be used for skull x-rays all types of X-ray

Why is the Supa-view the most expensive machine?

2.

How many X-rays can the X-Camera take in 8 hours?

3.

Which machine would be unsuitable for a hospital dealing with sports injuries? Explain your choice.

4.

Why is the X-cel the cheapest machine?

5.

The X-ray machine at the Parkfield Chest Hospital needs to be replaced urgently. The hospital deals with many emergency cases. The hospital manager is worried about the budget. Which X-ray machine should they choose. Explain your choice.

33

Using X-rays

Lesson 9

X-rays in medicine
Most of us think of X-rays as pictures of bones. Doctors use X-rays to find out if a leg is fractured or an ankle is broken. This is a very important use of X-rays, but there are other ways that they can be used in medicine. CAT scanners CAT stands for Computer Aided Tomography. A CAT scan takes hundreds of separate X-rays of the body, slice by slice. This gives doctors a much better view of things like tumours growing in the body. Killing and curing with X-rays

X-rays are dangerous because they can damage living cells

Having one or two X-rays is not a problem. Only a few of your cells will be damaged, and your body will soon repair them. However, a very big dose of X-rays could make you seriously ill or kill you. The people in hospitals who take X-rays are called radiographers. They have to be protected from the X-rays they work with. Before the X-ray machine is switched on, they go behind a lead-lined door – leaving you all alone! X-rays can also be used to kill cancerous tumours. Beams of X-rays are fired at the tumour from different directions. This kill the unhealthy cells, without damaging too many healthy cells. 1. Have you ever had an X-ray? Which part of your body?

2.

What is the main advantage of a CAT scan compared to a normal X-ray?

3.

If you have a tooth X-ray at the dentist, you have to wear a lead-lined apron. Why?

34

Using X-rays

Lesson 9

X-rays in industry
Although we usually think of X-rays as something to do with medicine, they have many other uses. Airport security If you’ve ever flown abroad, you’ll know that your luggage gets X-rayed. The X-rays will pass through the sides of your suitcase, but will be absorbed by any metal objects in your case.

Testing pipes The UK is held together by pipes. Our water, gas and sewage pass down pipes, and it’s important that they don’t leak. Pipes can be X-rayed to show up any cracks or splits. Welded joints The bodywork of most cars is made from separate metal sections that have been welded together. It’s vital that the welded joints are strong and have no flaws. X-rays can be used to examine welded joints to look for any signs of damage. 1. Name the different items you can see in the suitcase.

2.

Can you see any damage on the pipe? How do you know?

3.

When you travel abroad, it’s a good idea not to put camera film in your suitcase. Why not?

35

X-raY-quiZ

Lesson 9: extra

X-ray wordsearch
Answer the questions. Then find the answers in the grid. 1. The discoverer of X-rays. 2. A type of X-ray scan. 3. X-rays can damage living _____ . 4. The person who gives you an X-ray. 5. They show up white on an X-ray. 6. Compared to light, X-rays have a very short _____________. 7. X-rays can be detected by ______________ ____. (2 words) 8. At the airport, X-rays are used to check __________. 9. The first X-ray ever taken showed a _______. 10. We can’t see X-rays because they are _____________ . 11. X-rays can be used to kill these. 12. The X in X-ray stands for _____________. 13. X-rays were discovered in the nineteenth _____________. 14. This metal can be used to absorb X-rays.

A G O Q C I B T G P U L E O F J L Z B Y

Y F U W X C E R C O O N X L G Y S Q V H

W R L E C E L L S I W B K R H W B W F P

P O R R B N B N R U C R R N A G Y X R A

H E E T E T R H F Y N O M V O X Q E T R

U N H Y G U I G T T U N E D J W E C Y G

U T P U H R S H G R D L G Q H Q N R H O

I G A I K Y A N A E E F A Y G U B V G M

X E R O W R E N U N X A G B L E A T W O

C N G P I E G V G J D A G K O T A C S T

W S O A O A H T O N Y X U O R P T B I B

Q V I S S L H N L G U Z L P P L L Y O X

U Y D D E T U M O U R S P E O I F N P W

O L A F V Y L O D D K O A C E B T U N P

M A R G M U P S E E E L B I S I V N I L

L Q B H X N E E W R S R V D S S R M A U

D Z R J E N C D S S S N E O Z A V I C T

P H O T O G R A P H I C I F I L M L Q D

E O E B E I Z A V A N P L S J D A E L A

Z I M K R K M Q A Z W L F N U R D P S M
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X-raY-quiZ X-ray vision

Lesson 9: extra

This is a poster for a film made in 1963 called “X – The Man with X-ray Eyes.” In the film, a scientist called Dr. Xavier develops the power to see through things. At first he enjoys this new skill – he can look inside people’s bodies and tell them what’s wrong with them – but soon he finds that always seeing inside things makes life very difficult. At the end of the film, he goes mad. Encouraged by a preacher quoting the Bible – “If thine eye offends thee, pluck it out!” – Dr Xavier rips out his own eyes. Imagine you developed X-ray vision. How would you use it? How could you help people? How could you make yourself rich? Would you want to keep your X-ray vision, or might you end up like Dr. Xavier? Write a short story about what you would do.

37

Lesson 10

Some substances, like uranium, are radioactive. This means they break down by firing out particles and rays. These particles and rays are the things that can make radioactivity dangerous. There are:  alpha particles (α )  beta particles (β )  gamma rays (γ ) (Gamma rays are also called gamma radiation – it means the same thing.) The symbols α , β and γ are the first three letters of the Greek alphabet. These particles and rays are invisible – but we can detect them. Like X-rays, they affect photographic film. But an easier way is with a Geiger-Muller tube. You’ve probably seen these in films – they make clicking noises when they pick up radioactivity.

Your teacher will demonstrate some experiments with radioactive sources. Watch the experiments carefully, and use the information you get to complete this table. type of radioactivity alpha – α beta – β gamma - γ count rate (slow, medium, fast) how far does it travel in air? what is it absorbed by?

38

Lesson 10

Questions
1. Which type of radiation was stopped very easily?

2.

3.

Why could the alpha particles not travel very far through the air? What was stopping them?

4.

Which radioactive source was the most penetrating?

5.

6.

Describe how the radioactive sources are stored.

7.

List three safety rules when using radioactive sources.

8.

Smoke alarms use a radioactive source. If the radioactive particles are absorbed by smoke, the alarm goes off. Which type of radioactive source is used in smoke alarms? Explain your answer.

39

It’s all Greek to me

Lesson 10: extra

Different alphabets
If you’ve ever been to Greece, you’ll know that they use a different alphabet. (And did you know that the word ‘alphabet’ comes from the first two Greek letters – alpha beta.) You might have learnt the Greek letter π – called pi. It’s used in maths for working out things about circles. Physics uses the Greek alphabet because there aren’t enough letters in the normal alphabet to stand for all the things we measure in physics. Here’s the full Greek alphabet and the nearest English letter. α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ µ alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota kappa lambda mu a b c or g d e z h th i k l m ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω nu xi omicron pi ro sigma tau upsilon phi chi psi omega n x o p r s t u f or ph c y w or v

Questions 1. Write your full name using the Greek alphabet.

2.

Write down the name of your favourite football team in Greek.

3.

Can you translate this?

λε ι τ η α χ α δ ε µ ψ

4.

And this:

σχο τ λ α ν δ

τ η ε

β ρ αϖ ε

40

It’s all Greek to me

Lesson 10: extra

Design a badge for yourself, featuring your name or initials in Greek letters. Make it large and colourful.

41

Gamma rays close up

Lesson 11

Dangerous – but useful
Gamma rays are similar to X-rays in many ways.

  

Gamma radiation is invisible to the naked eye. Gamma radiation can kill or damage living cells.

However, gamma rays are even more powerful than X-rays. Think back to lesson 10 and you’ll realise: Gamma radiation can pass through most materials.

Absorbing gamma rays In lesson 10, pieces of lead were needed to absorb the gamma rays. How does the thickness of lead affect the number of gamma rays? Watch the experiment, and record the results in this table. Then draw a graph.
thickness of lead (mm) gamma rays in 1 minute

Title: _______________________

gamma rays in 1 minute

thickness of lead (m m )

42

Gamma rays close up

Lesson 11

Questions
1. What is the name of the device used to count the gamma rays?

2.

Why did your teacher start by using a sheet of aluminium?

3.

What happened to the number of gamma rays as the lead got thicker?

4.

How much lead was needed to reduce the gamma rays by half?

5.

How much lead do you think would be needed to stop the gamma rays altogether?

6.

7.

What other materials could be used to absorb gamma rays?

8.

Why can gamma rays be dangerous?

9.

Gamma rays from the rocks and soil are passing through your body all the time. Why do you think that they don’t damage your health?

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Using gamma rays

Lesson 11: extra

Read the following passage, then answer the questions. Gamma rays kill or damage healthy cells. Although this means they can harm human health, we can make use of them. Gamma rays can be directed at cancer tumours. The gamma rays kill the cancer cells, without doing too much damage to the healthy cells around the tumour. Gamma rays can also be used to sterilise surgical instruments. The gamma rays will kill any bacteria that might be living on the instruments. Because gamma rays pass through most materials, things like scalpels can be sealed in plastic bags and then exposed to gamma rays. The gamma rays pass through the bag and kill any bacteria. As the scalpel is in a bag, no new bacteria can get in. Gamma rays also help us to see what is happening in the human body. A patient with a heart condition might have a tracer injected into their bloodstream. The tracer emits gamma rays as the blood travels around the body. These gamma rays easily pass through the body to the outside. A special type of camera called a gamma camera can pick up these gamma rays and use them to make a picture of how the blood is flowing. Doctors can then find problems such as blockages. The tracers do not keep on emitting gamma radiation for very long. This would harm the patient. The strength of all sources of gamma rays decreases over time. The sources used for tracers decrease very quickly. 1. How can gamma rays be used to treat cancer?

2.

How can gamma rays kill bacteria inside plastic bags?

3.

Why can alpha and beta not be used to make tracers?

4.

Why is it safe to inject someone with a tracer that emits gamma rays?

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Using gamma rays

Lesson 11: extra

Read the following passage, then answer the questions. In Russia, there are pipelines thousands of kilometres long carrying oil. These pipelines often run underground. Sometimes, the pipeline develops a leak. But how do you find the leak without digging up the pipes? Engineers can add a chemical to the oil that emits gamma rays – again, this is called a tracer. As the oil travels along the pipe, it will give off gamma rays. The gamma rays pass through the pipes and the rocks and soil, and are detected on the surface. By studying what happens to the gamma rays, engineers can work out where the leak is. Only a small section of the pipe needs to be dug up. Because the gamma rays will have to pass through the metal pipes and many metres of soil, very strong sources of gamma rays have to be used. They must be used very carefully. The engineers keep as far away from the sources as possible, and handle them for as short a time as possible. Thick lead shielding is used to protect the engineers. 1. What is a tracer?

2.

Why does such a strong gamma ray source have to be used?

3.

List three safety precautions the engineers will follow.

4.

Will the strength of gamma source decrease quickly or slowly? Explain your answer.

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Gamma rays all around us

Lesson 12

You can’t see it, but it’s there…
Some people think that gamma rays are man-made – that before scientists in white coats started making bombs, there weren’t any gamma rays. Not true. Gamma rays have been around since the start of the Universe. There were gamma rays on Earth well before humans showed up. And they’re still here.

There is gamma radiation present in our surroundings.

That’s right. The bricks that make your home, the air you breathe, the food you eat – even you yourself – give off gamma radiation. This radiation that surrounds us is called background radiation. Measuring background radiation Your teacher will set up an experiment to measure the background radiation level in the room. Draw a labelled diagram of the equipment. Write down how many minutes the experiment ran for, and how many counts were recorded.

Time experiment was run for = _____ minutes

Now use the results to calculate the average number of counts per minute. The background radiation level in the room is ________ counts per minute.

Gamma rays all around us

Lesson 12

dose per year

notes higher dose in Cornwall

Review

Lesson 12: extra

Check what you’ve learnt
The questions below cover all the things you should have learnt in lessons 8 12. See how many questions you can answer from memory – then read over your notes and correct any answers you got wrong or missed out. 1. Complete this sentence. X-rays are ______________ to the naked eye. 2. Why are X-rays dangerous?

3.

Write down two materials that X-rays can pass through.

4.

Write down one medical use for X-rays.

5.

Write down one use of X-rays in industry.

6.

Name the three types of radioactivity.

7.

Which types of radioactivity can pass through paper?

8.

What substance is used to absorb gamma radiation?

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Review

Lesson 12: extra

9.

Why are gamma rays dangerous?

10.

Describe a medical use for gamma rays.

11.

What is a tracer?

12.

Describe a non-medical use for gamma radiation.

13.

Name three sources of background radiation.

14.

Why does an airline pilot get a bigger dose of background radiation than you do?

15. Translate this sentence. πηψ σ ι χ σ ι σ φαν τ α σ τ ι χ

.

My score out of 15:

____

49

Infrared

Lesson 13

Detecting heat
You don’t need your eyes to tell you when an electric fire is on in a room. Your skin – particularly the skin on your face – detects the heat given off. This is because all hot objects give off heat rays – or infrared radiation.

 

Measuring infrared
Although you can detect infrared with your skin, scientists prefer more precise methods. In this experiment, you can use an infrared detector to measure the heat radiation being given off by a hot object. What to do Place the infrared detector at different distances from the heat source. Be careful. Record the reading on the meter at different distances from the heat source in the table below.
meter ruler
0.43

distance from heat source (cm) 5 10 15

detector

20 25 30

heat source

35 40 45 50

50

Infrared

Lesson 13

Use your results to plot a graph. Remember:  label the axes, including units  put the ‘distance from heat source’ measurements on the horizontal axis  give your graph a title Title: ______________________

Questions 1. What was the highest value of infrared you measured?

2.

What happened to the infrared measurement as the distance from the heat source increased?

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Using infrared

Lesson 13: extra

Night vision
You can’t see someone in the dark. But if you use the right equipment, you can ‘see’ the heat they give off. Night vision equipment detects the infrared radiation given off by warm objects, and convert it to a picture. ‘Night sights’ are used by soldiers to detect the enemy at night. The police use night vision cameras to follow suspects in the dark. Firefighters use similar cameras to find people in smoke-filled houses. The picture on the left shows the sort of thing a firefighter might see.

Fault-finding and analysis
Many objects will start to heat up just before they fail – such as fuses and wires. A thermal camera takes a picture of the heat radiation being given off. This helps us to spot problems that we wouldn’t otherwise notice. In this picture, the wire on the right has started to heat up due to a fault in the circuit. This picture shows a 747 at take-off. The light areas show where the temperature is greatest – the tyres show up as being very hot. This sort of picture helps aircraft designers to design parts that can withstand high temperatures.

Thermograms
The temperature of the human body varies a lot. The end of your nose is quite cold – your cheeks are much warmer. A thermogram shows the different temperatures of the body as different colours. Doctors can use thermograms to identify certain problems. A tumour in the body tends to be hotter than the tissue around it. If the blood supply to part of the body is poor, that part wil be cooler than mormal. This thermogram doesn’t show up too well in black and white, but you can see how the cheeks and lips are darker that the nose. The hair and glasses give off no heat, and appear black.

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Using infrared

Lesson 13: extra

Questions
1. Name three jobs where you might use night vision equipment.

2.

Look at the picture that a firefighter might see. What do you think it shows?

3.

Look at the picture of the three wires. How can you tell which wire is heating up?

4.

Why are the tyres of the 747 so hot? What has caused this?

5.

Look at the picture of the 747. What are the long white streaks at the left of the picture?

6.

Describe two medical problems that can show up on a thermogram.

7.

What do you think this medical thermogram shows?

53

Absorbing infrared

Lesson 14

Getting through?
You know that light can pass through some substances, but is blocked by others. X-rays and gamma rays can pass through most things. How about infrared? In this experiment, you’ll find out whether infrared is absorbed by different materials. What to do 1. Set up an infrared detector, a meter and a heat source like this.
0.43

heat source

detector

2. 3.

Write down the meter reading in the table below. Without moving the detector or the heat source, place different materials between the detector and the heat source. Write down the meter reading for each material in the table below. Use your results to draw a bar chart.

4.

material no material sheet of paper book hand sheet of glass sheet of perspex wood

54

Absorbing infrared
Title: ______________________

Lesson 14

Questions 1. Which material absorbed the least infrared?

2.

Which material absorbed the most infrared?

3.

Explain why it is warmer in a greenhouse than it is in a shed.

55

Absorbing infrared

Lesson 14: extra

Infrared and football
Solve the clues to fill in the missing words. Then answer the questions. One of the most common ________ (1) in football is bruised or sore __________ (2). These sorts of injuries don’t usually threaten a player’s career, but they can keep him out of a _______(3). If you’ve ever had a _____ (4) leg, you’ll know just how difficult it can be to use badly bruised muscles. It’s vital that players can ________(5) quickly from these injuries – which is where infrared comes in. There’s not a football _____ (6) in the country now that doesn’t have an infrared lamp as part of its treatment room. The ______ (7) radiation given off by one of these lamps is absorbed by the muscles. This can help ease the _______ (8) and allows the muscles to recover faster. (If you’ve ever used a spray like Deep Heat® or Ralgex®, you’re trying to do the same thing. However, these sprays use a chemical reaction to produce the heat.) With intensive ___________ (9) from infrared, a footballer can recover from a serious dead leg in just a few ______ (10). Clues 1. A broken leg and a calf strain are both ___________. (8 letters) 2. The biceps and triceps are both _______________. (7 letters) 3. Used to light a fire? (5 letters) 4. Not living. (4 letters) 5. Get better. (7 letters) 6. Diamond, Heart, Spade, _____. (4 letters) 7. Anagram of HATE. (4 letters) 8. No _______, no gain. (4 letters) 9. Anagram of NET MATTER. (9 letters) 10. Longer than hours, shorter than weeks. (4 letters) Questions 1. Explain how an infrared lamp can be used to treat a sore leg.

2.

Where else might an infrared lamp be used for medical treatment?

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Infrared mini-quiz

Lesson 14: extra

1.

2.

Give another name for infrared radiation.

3.

What part of your body is particularly good at detecting infrared?

4.

Describe in detail one medical use for infrared.

5.

What is a thermogram?

6.

Describe in detail one non-medical use for infrared.

7.

Name two materials that infrared can pass through.

8.

Name two materials that absorb infrared.

57

UV - ultraviolet

Lesson 15

UV – showing you up
Clubs and discos often use ultraviolet lights. If you’re wearing a clean white shirt, you’ll know if you’re standing near one of them – you seem to glow in the dark. Ultraviolet is another type of radiation. Like infrared:

Ultraviolet radiation is invisible to the naked eye.

So if ultraviolet is invisible, how does it ‘light up’ a white shirt?

Using UV
Use the ultraviolet lamp to look at the different objects you’ve been given. Look at any white clothing you have on. Look at someone else’s teeth. Don’t put the lamp next to your eyes. Write a sentence about each object you look at. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

58

UV - ultraviolet

Lesson 15

How do you see UV?
Our eyes cannot detect ultraviolet light. However:

Some chemicals glow (or fluoresce) when they absorb ultraviolet light.

You can use a security marker to write your address on valuable items – say a mobile phone. The ink in the pen contains a chemical that glows under UV light. A thief won’t be able to see it in daylight, but if the police shine UV light on the phone, your address will show up clearly. Most washing powders have a chemical added to them that glows in UV light. Because sunlight contains some UV, this makes white clothes seem extra clean and bright when they’re in sunshine. But if you put these clothes under a strong UV light, they really stand out. You may have had banknotes checked when you’re shopping. Real £10, £20 and £50 notes have a security marking in the paper that glows under UV light. Most forged notes don’t have this chemical. A shop assistant can put your note under a UV light and quickly check if it’s genuine. Questions 1. Describe carefully how we ‘see’ ultraviolet light.

2.

Why do manufacturers add chemicals that glow under UV light to washing powder?

3.

Describe how UV light can be used to identify security markings.

59

UV - ultraviolet

Lesson 15: extra

Putting it together

60

The electromagnetic spectrum

Lesson 15: extra

Wavelength

shortest

longest

Detected by

Medical use

Non-medical use

61

Ultraviolet and medicine

Lesson 16

Sunshine sorts the spots…
Spots – or acne vulgaris to give it its full name – is something most teenagers suffer from at some time. However, for some people, acne is a lot worse than a few pimples. Very bad acne can lead to severe scarring all over the body. You may have noticed that you get fewer spots in summer. That’s because the ultraviolet light in sunshine helps your skin to stay in better condition. People with very serious acne can use ultraviolet lamps to help keep their skin healthy.

…and sunshine shrivels the skin…
The ultraviolet radiation in sunlight gives you a tan – but that’s not all.

Too much exposure to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight seriously increases your risk of skin cancer.

Scots people, who tend to have very fair skin, are particularly at risk.

…and sunshine strengthens the bones
Your body need vitamins to stay healthy. You get vitamin D from all sorts of foods, including margarine and butter. However, your body also makes vitamin D if the skin is exposed to a reasonable amount of sunlight. A lack of vitamin D leads to a disease called rickets, where the bones fail to grow properly. Many children in Glasgow suffered from rickets in the early 1900s. Questions 1. Describe one medical use for ultraviolet radiation.

2.

How should people reduce the risk of skin cancer?

3.

Why do you think Glasgow children didn’t get enough sunlight?

62

Ultraviolet and medicine

Lesson 16

Sun block
To protect your skin against sunburn and skin cancer, you should use sun block. Sun block reduces the amount of UV reaching your skin. Different makes of sun block have different SPFs – Sun Protection Factors. The SPF tells you how long you can stay in the sun before you get sunburnt. The weather forecast might say you can stay in the sun for half an hour. If you put on a sun block with SPF 8, you can stay in the sun for 8 x ½ an hour or 4 hours. This bar chart shows how long you can stay in the sun without sun block for a week in summer. Use the bar chart to answer the questions.
70 60 minutes in sun 50 40 30 20 10 0 M on Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

1.

On which day of the week was the sun strongest – how do you know?

2.

Bill uses SPF 12 sun block. How long can he stay in the sun on Monday?

3.

Jenny wants to spend 6 hours in the sun on Thursday. What SPF must her sun block have?

4.

Don uses sun block with SPF 10. On which days of the week can he stay in the sun for 3 hours?

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Review

Lesson 16: extra

Check what you’ve learnt
The questions below cover all the things you should have learnt in lessons 13 16. See how many questions you can answer from memory – then read over your notes and correct any answers you got wrong or missed out. 1. Complete this sentence. Infrared radiation is ______________ to the naked eye. 2. What is the other name for infrared radiation?

3.

Explain how firefighters make use of infrared radiation.

4.

What is a thermogram?

5.

Write down one use of infrared radiation in medicine.

6.

Name two substances that absorb infrared radiation.

7.

Name one material that infrared can pass through.

8.

How might a footballer make use of infrared radiation?

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Review

Lesson 16: extra

9.

Name three things that show up well under ultraviolet light.

10.

Explain why some chemicals show up under ultraviolet light.

11.

Explain how ultraviolet light could be used in a bank.

12.

Describe a medical use for ultraviolet light.

13.

How can you reduce the risk of developing skin cancer?

14.

Why are some Scottish people more likely to develop skin cancer?

15.

Infrared, ultraviolet, light, X-rays and gamma all travel at the same speed. What is that speed?

16.

Arrange the 5 radiations mentioned in question 15 in order of wavelength – shortest wavelength first.

My score out of 16: