Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer, Wine and Liquor

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Role of Yeast in Production of Alcoholic Beverages
Introduction Although there is a distinction between beer, wine and liquor as well as other lesser known alcoholic beverages, they share one thing in common. They are the fermentation products of yeasts, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in the case of beers, usually S. carlsburgiensis. Yeasts, as you recall, are not mycelial. They are unicellular fungi that reproduce asexually by budding or fission. The reaction by which alcoholic beverages are produced is generally referred to as fermentation and may be summarized as: Yeast + Glucose è Alcohol (Ethanol) + CO2 This reaction is also important in baking bread, but the desired product is then the carbon dioxide rather than alcohol. The production of alcohol occurs best in the absence of oxygen. However, from the yeast's point of view, alcohol and carbon dioxide are waste products, and as the yeast continues to grow and metabolize in the sugar solution, the accumulation of alcohol will become toxic when it reaches a concentration between 14-18%, thereby killing the yeast cells. This is the reason why the percentage of alcohol in wine and beer can only be approximately 16%. In order to produce beverages (liquor) with higher concentrations of alcohol, the fermented products must be distilled. What's the Difference Between Beer and Wine? Generally, beverages derived from fermented fruit juice is wine. However, commercially speaking, "wine" is fermented grape juice from Vitis vinifera. Other wines are specifically referred to by the name of the fruit of the juices from which they are fermented. For example, elderberry wine, peach wine, etc. Beer on the other hand is usually derived from fermentation of malt derived from the digestion of germinated barley grains, in western cultures, but other grains may be utilized in other cultures. There is also a difference between processes by which wines and beers are fermented. There is a perception, perhaps just my own, as to the people that drink beer and the ones that drink wine. Beer
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It's truly a natural drink and its origin probably preceded beer making. In addition. with a recipe for beer. on the other hand. a much simpler process than making beer. beer is the beverage most often purchased. clay tablets." When you get together with friends after you played a softball game or touch football game. it involved collecting fruits. at formal dinners.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer..C. The necessary ingredients and a recipe for beer making. is the first documented evidence of beer making. knowing the modern process of beer making will help you appreciate how beer making has evolved in the many thousands of years since its origin.. However. respectively. the link for the beer recipe is "framed" so you must click on the links within to go to the general beer making recipe and the beer recipes. Being underbaked. Wine. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. Compared to wine making.000 BC. and fermentation will occur whenever there is a break in the skin (take a deep breath the next time you go hiking and pass a bunch of guava fruits that have fallen to the ground). Some historians believed that beer may have existed before the dawn of civilization while the human species was still made up of numerous nomadic tribes. from approximately the year 6. as well as a variety of beer recipes. When you go to professional baseball and football games. can be found in the following page. However. This recipe utilized underbaked bread made from germinated barley. So when human production of wine began. you might have just the opposite impression. is a beverage consumed in expensive restaurants. there is usually lots of beer. etc. Note. History of Beer Making The making of beer has become a popular hobby and many people now brew beer in their homes. is relatively simple.. the bread serves as a live yeast culture and when the bread was cut into small pieces and placed in a large 2 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . The yeast responsible for fermenting the sugars in the fruits are usually present in the grape skins. if we compare beer and wine making processes. not wine. Beer making is almost a science. it is rather complex and there's a purpose for everything that is done in making beer and the beer makers know just about everything that goes into beer. on the other hand. crushing them and allowing them to ferment. social affairs. most believed that it came about early in various civilizations. People that drink only wine seem to be the "white-collar people. Anyone can do it. However. in Babylonia. The ancient Mesopotamians and Sumerians were brewing as early as 10. Wine making. drinkers seem to be "blue-collar.000 B. The manufacturing of beer is more complex than wine and it has been mastered by many cultures in different ways.

was because water was often of poor quality and contaminated. This resulted in a concoction that was only 1-2% alcohol. In all cases beer was considered a heavenly gift. In Western culture. it is still recognizable as beer. jug with water. Beer was considered "liquid bread" and a meal would consist of beer. the "common" people considered this beverage ready to drink. malt would be produced. Although the recipes for their beer was also far different than today’s bottled varieties. in many cultures.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. someone with "breeding" would usually filter this mixture before drinking. their heaven for those who died in battle and in China beer was simply a gift from heaven. black bread to malt. Although crude. and allowing this mixture to ferment. and brewing then became a male dominated process. since both involved the same ingredients and mysteries. along with baking. The Babylonians to Siris and in Rome beer was dedicated to Ceres who was the Goddess of the Corn and their name for beer was cerevisia. In rural areas of Russia. cerevisiae. which served as a flavoring. which gave beer a longer shelf life. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. The preinoculated malt when left out will ferment to give you beer. sugar and water. along with the production of other edible product such as butter and cheese. In fact. the origin of beer in many cultures is attributed to women. Note that early beer did not include hops in their recipe. The Norse believed their beer was the drink of Vahalla. but more importantly. However.. beer production. added their own enzyme to break down the starch by first chewing the corn before placing it in the fermentation tank. kvass was made by adding pieces of stale. The Roman armies carried beer with them as 3 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . Since women were considered closer to the corn goddess. Dates. which would not be included until centuries later. one reason why beer was adopted as the beverage of choice. The saliva from their mouths served as the enzyme in the process of starch conversion to sugar and gave their beer its improved and distinct flavor. flour. which is the derivation for the specific epithet for brewer's yeast S. The role of women and beer would continue until the Middle Ages. Although early beer was not necessarily very tasteful. during the Middle Ages. It was also at this time that hops was introduced into the process of beer making. a preservative. but the Russians have maintained production of kvass for several hundred years. when monasteries began to make beer.. In ancient China rice was used to make a rice beer and in pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas. It is interesting to note that historically. was considered to be woman's work. in many early cultures. brewing was a household art in which every girl was instructed. they were made the priestesses of these goddesses as well as the brewers in various cultures. herbs and honey were sometimes added for flavoring. without knowing it. bread and cheese. corn was used instead of barley and.

Roman yeast was introduced by using the wort from previous batches of beer to ensure that they would have a decent drink. The bride's ale eventually became the present bridal. However.. in 1620. Adolph Coors. Henry Weinhard and Theodore Hamms. By the time that the New World was invaded by Europeans. Beer was considered such a necessity by some of the early settlers. immediately. By the mid 1600's. and by 1384. Joseph Schlitz. in popularity. this was but one of the factors that led to the overthrow of the Roman Catholic Church. beer would be imported from another town and sold at cost in the basement of city hall . but churches often required the community to buy their beers. on the other hand. Beer also had impact on languages. Pilsen's breweries were under the control of Charles IV (Holy Emperor of Rome. it was impossible to impose a tax directly. they journeyed to conquer distant lands in order to avoid becoming ill in foreign lands. a ratskeller is a restaurant or tavern. Because of the resentment of this practice in England. that they started their own breweries. Skipping ahead in time. in the town of Budweis. A custom of medieval marriages. when German immigrants started breweries that lager beer would be introduced." Government also used beer as a means of collecting taxes. Their lager beers soon displaced the ales. It is said that the dwindling supply of beer. when Matthew Vassar 4 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . The English initially imported beer from England. Today. but by 1629 began their own local breweries. in 1861. for the bride. in 1256. Among some of the people that started these German breweries were Frederick Pabst. The Dutch. Even the word ale is derived from the medieval hael. Beer even contributed to higher education for women. Columbus drank corn beer offered to him by Native American Indians. meaning "good health. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. usually below street level. These early beers were all ales and it would be until 1840. Bernard Stroh. that features the serving of beer. Since beer was made at home.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. When an area was conquered. In Germany. started their own breweries. However. 1316-78). Churches were exempt from this tax since on the grounds that they consumed their own products. had the bride's family brew a special "bride's ale". breweries were well established in the New World.the ratskeller: Literally council basement. Bohemia. such as George Washington and William Penn. taxes were levied on the ingredients that were required to produce beer as well as on alehouses. historical region and former kingdom of present-day western Czech Republic. beer was already present.. aboard the Mayflower. if the local beer went bad. it would not be until after the Reformation and the weakening of the church that brewing became the responsibility of commercial brewers who could be taxed for the beer they brewed. was what led to the selection of Plymouth as the end of the voyage for the Pilgrim. in England. had established state breweries.

There were approximately 4. Although the process of fermentation had been used for thousands of years. the origin of "light" beer. in order to appeal to women. Using a sophisticated and massive advertising campaign. the year before Prohibition.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. Miller moved from seventh to second place among U. Century that it would be known that yeasts were the organisms that actually were responsible for the fermentation process. it 5 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . corn and wheat. such beers only sold modestly well. Most of these beers were very uniform and bland. They were the ones that came out with the slogan: "all you ever wanted in a beer. in establishing Vassar College. By the 1970's fewer than 40 breweries remained. It would not be until the 19th." Thus. Philip Morris. milder tasting beers were developed. Despite the sophisticated machinery that is used in brewing beer. After Prohibition was repealed. There were reasons behind this. and beer making is largely automated as in all mass produced products. business came to realize that promotion of the product and not necessarily product quality that determines the success of a product. The United States had by this time developed a reputation for having the world's worst beer. of cereal grains. would change the face of American beer as well as advertising. It was not until the 19th. using well known former athletes. The Science of Beer Making Today. With the exception of Prohibition. invested his fortune.137 breweries in the United States in 1876 producing quality beer.. earned in beer. It would not be until 1972 that cigarette maker. However. However. beer is consumed in vast amounts in this country. such as potato. that enzymes were released that would not break down not only the barley starch and protein into simple sugars and amino acids. only 700 breweries reopened. but none knew of the science behind each step. corn and wheat. Century beer has been largely mass-produced and automated. it's still essentially the same procedures that has been used for hundreds of years. in 1919. We will see a video on the making of beer on Thursday that will demonstrate the process that we have just covered. After WWII. This realization cheapened the cost of making beer since germinated barley is a greater investment than the utilization of potato..S. Prior to. but would also do the same for other carbohydrates. and even during the 1800's. and less. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. brewers. This number fell to 1. beer making has become very sophisticated because of the advances in knowledge that has resulted from advances in science. during the 20th.100. Thus. Philip Morris acquired Meister Brau and its Lite label that year and renamed it Miller Lite. century that it was realized that during germination. there were many who knew how beer could be made.

In the beginning of beer making. It would not be until the 8th. tannins from Oak and Ash trees were used in Scandinavia. When Pasteur placed a small amount of this material in a sugar solution. it was known that yeast was present during fermentation. However. licorice or sassafras was used. so did different diseases arise as a result of different microorganisms. and that these microorganisms did not arise spontaneously. Using a similar method. This concept led to the heat treatment of food products and beverages that we now know as pasteurization. to determine the problem of lactic acid production in their alcohol.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. Century.and sphere-shaped cells. Hops was not the only bitter additive used. Pasteur was able to observe the usual yeast cells. Pasteur argued that the cells were a new "yeast" that specifically converted sugar to lactic acid during its growth. was this argument resolved. Upon examination of the fermentation product under the microscope. Nevertheless. while the other argued that the process was purely chemical. It was flat. Various cultures used other bitters. but also noted that there were a large number of smaller rod. Successive transfers of these cells always resulted in production of lactic acid fermentation and an increase in the number of cells. by the end of the 15th.. slightly sweet and would spoil quickly. cinnamon in southern Europe and in America sweet fennel. He was able to show that the different fermentation products produced were invariably accompanied by specific microorganisms. spoilage could be prevented. Century. As a result. as once believed. By the 17th. Pasteur studied a number of organisms and their fermentative processes. Century. Just as the different microorganisms caused different fermentation products from sugar. however. It was not until Louis Pasteur's work. One view was that yeast was required for the fermentation process. was an important local industry. but its role was controversial. but that each microorganism was derived from pre-existing cells of the same type. in the 1850's and 1860's. that brewers in central Europe found that the addition of Hops flowers preserved the beer and gave it the slightly bitter taste that made it more palatable. was thought to be a magical rather than a material process. a vigorous lactic acid fermentation occurred along with the formation of a grayish deposit in the solution which proved to be the rod. It would be years later before it was understood that the new "yeast" were actually bacteria. it was 6 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . There were two opposing views on this subject. many rituals and superstitions developed to direct and control fermentation.and sphere-shaped cells. Pasteur was asked by the distillers of Lille. beer was an alcoholic beverage with the flavor of malt and grain. had further significance. where the manufacture of of alcohol. This discovery. from beet sugar. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev.. This also led to the concept that by destroying the microorganisms in food products and beverages or by preventing their appearance in sterile products.

Wine made before this time probably would have used wild grapes.. With the genetic manipulation of yeasts. Most American beers are lagers. Around 600 B. numerous varietal strains have been bred. Beers made with yeast that settle on the bottom (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis) of the container used. The dark color and roasted flavor is derived from the roasted barley. resulting in a cloudier beer. A colorless lager beer originally brewed in the city of Pilsen. the place and time of origin of wine is uncertain. Because of the number of different types of wine that are produced. A very dark ale. too. Porter.C. Dionysus gave wine to man and his Roman counterpart. Only in England was there resistance to the use of Hops. This. with a higher calcium and magnesium content than water used for lager. The color of pilsner is also lighter than that of lager beer. all the yeast and other material settles on the bottom which results in a clear beer. accepted it by the end of the 16th. They tend to have a higher alcohol content than lagers..C. Pilsner. Until recently Europe and North Africa were the world's leader in quality and quantity of wines produced. Portugal and Algeria.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. Stout. History of Wine As in the case of beer. was the God of Wine. Ale. The darker color and special flavor comes from toasting the malt before brewing. Century. and/or roasted malt. In ancient Greece. Hops that became the standard bitter and preservative added to beer. along with modifications in the brewing process have led to different types of beers. Water used for this style of beer tend to be harder. wine grape cultivation spread from the Mediterranean region to France and later to Spain. Thus. it was Adam who planted the first grapevine. In Hebrew folklore.. women were not associated with wine. This usually results in a stronger taste and higher alcohol content. Considered by beer historians to have evolved into the Stout ale. Beers made with yeast that floats (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to the top of the brewing vats. Those most often seen in North America include: Lager. A very dark. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. Now 7 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . The species of grapes used in most wines is Vitis vinifera and is known to have been "domesticated" before 4. Beer historians consider it to be the descendant of the Porter ale. Unlike beer. Bacchus. almost black ale. but they. we will restrict our discussion to grape wine.000 B.

after which the 8 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . This is one of the uncontrolled quality of wines. Although not part of the United States at this time. Argentina and Russia rank among the top 10 wine producing countries of the world. unlike beer. the free juice is transferred to a fermentation tank and the peels and stems are removed and pressed again. plastic garbage can. especially if they are in different countries. the quality of the finished wine will also vary (this is probably the basis for the claim that one country's wine is superior to another). California began cultivating grapes around 1769 and by the middle of the 19th. The most inexpensive and commonly used vessel is a 32 gallon. the quality of wine produced were poor to begin with because the New England area. However. In the United States. Grapes may be crushed by various means. If red wine is the desired product. Century.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. there were other areas where growth would be better. Once the juice is in the fermentation tank. The skin of the grapes already have adequate yeasts on them that this step could be omitted. The addition of the preferred yeast gives some measure of control to the end product. You will see this as we discuss the process. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. the United States. was not favorable for growing European grapes. from stomping on them with bare feet to the use of sophisticated electric presses. Sulfur dioxide is normally introduced into the juice at this time to kill bacterial growth that may spoil the taste of the final product. Making Wine Wine is made today much the same way that it was centuries ago. The red color of this wine is from the red pigment in the epidermis of the grape skin. California had a small but respectable wine industry.. but are not needed. Various vessels may be used as the fermentation tank. Since the yeasts that grow on the grapes vary in different vineyard. However. preferred strains of yeast are often added. If the desired product is a white wine. The combination of the skin. the skins of the grape go into the fermentation tank with the juice. which was the part of North America that was settled first.. juice and seeds is called the must. there is still a great deal that cannot be controlled in the production of wine. The juice of the second press can be added to the original juice or used to make another lower grade wine. Fermentation is allowed to continue for about eight to ten days. The grapes from which the wine is to be made is first separated from the stem (stemmed) and then crushed in order to release the juice.

usually one year to eighteen months. At stages during aging. Red wines. based on the decision of the wine master. Because wooden cask cannot be cleaned. and the wine is often transferred across a series of tanks during aging. If all the sugars have been metabolized. initial wine is drawn off of the skin.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. Any liquid obtained from the skins that remained during the fermentation is considered to be of a poor quality and is used in poorer quality wines or for vinegar. can continue to improve for thirty or even up to forty years. The fate of the wine is dependent upon the decision of the wine master. Thus. If the final tank is a wooden cask. on the other hand. They have a nice web page on making wine at home. During this second fermentation. may be aged longer in the bottles or sold immediately after bottling. but red wines can age for as long as five years. the dead yeast cells as well as other particulate matter settle to the bottom. the finish product is a sweet wine. again. A detailed recipe for red and white wines can be downloaded from the Viticulture and Enology Department at the University of California at Davis. the wine is said to be dry. The wine may be bottled after aging is complete or used only as a blend to make an inferior wine. more sedimentation occurs. the wine is sampled and judged by a wine master. fruit wines are generally 5 to 7% alcohol. As in the case of beer. When this process is complete. However. the wine is separated from the sediment and transferred to an aging tank. After the initial fermentation. the liquid is allowed to ferment for 20 days to about a month. if it is still present. This process is known as racking. For white wines.. The aging of wine is variable. they provide a unique character to the wine some of which are said to make the wine "superior. in fruit wines. If fermentation stops before the sugars have all been metabolized by the yeast. after which they will tend to deteriorate. The above wines are "still" wines because they are fermented in open tanks and contain no gaseous carbon dioxide. the percentage is lower because the amount of sugars in other fruits are generally lower. The bottled wine. the percent alcohol content will be 14-18%. White wines can benefit from aging for up to five years. this also adds another uncontrolled quantity into the final product. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. 9 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM ." However. with wine making recipes in pdf files. Even with the addition of sugar. the use of stainless steel vats have removed this uncertainty.. is the variability of the finished wine product. As the aging process continues.

just to name a few. composed of bacteria and fungi. When put together. apparently when consumed in this matter. do not try to eat it. "Manchurian Mushroom". This is somewhat tricky since if too much fermentation occurs. The "fungus" in this case is actually a composite organism. However. What about really cheap champagne? The price of the champagne does not necessarily mean that quality is lacking.. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. as is the case with many common names.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. it is somewhat toxic! The Kombucha fungus is pictured below: Physical appearance of Kombucha "Fungus" 10 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . Kombucha A beverage that is non-alcoholic that came to the attention about ten years ago is commonly known as Kombucha. The organisms involved are: Acetobacter xylinum Acetobacter xylinoides Saccharomycodes ludwigii Schizosaccharomyces pombe Saccaromyces cerevisiae The first two are bacteria and the last three are yeasts. these names.. but has many common names. and "Fungus Japonicus". the tightly sealed bottle can explode from the built up pressure. none of which are mushrooms. Champagne and Other Sparkling Wines In order to obtain carbonation. Some champagnes are cheap because they are mass produced in large vats rather than handled as individual bottles. The build up of carbon dioxide will carbonate the beverage to give you the bubbly effect. However. are misleading. they have an interesting appearance. It is also known as the "Tea Fungus". extra sugar is added to yeast while the yeast is still actively fermenting and then tightly cap. They have the color and consistency of a fillet of sole and looks somewhat like "fish cake".

but has pictures. high blood pressure. The recipe for making the tea from Kombucha (40 fluid ounces) that I was given is: Boil 40 fluid ounces of water in metal container... However. The tea that is made from Kombucha is said to a remedy for many ailments. you may want to visit that site. like the alcoholic beverages. arthritis. Allow tea to steep for 10 to 15 minutes and then remove tea bag. high cholesterol. Guenther's Web site. barley is the grain generally used. Pour 8 to 12 fluid ounces of previously made tea or a piece of Kombucha fungus into container. it is produced by the yeast during fermentation. during the Tsing Dynasty. I have only included a few. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. also gives a variation of the above recipe. Add two regular size tea bag or an equivalent amount of tea to water. with a lid. in Germany.. Specifically. I have included links to glossary for brewing and winemaking. Cover tea and allow to cool to room temperature. If you are interested in looking up more terms. If you have difficulty visualizing what is done in the above recipe. in China. there has been little scientific research done on the virtues of this beverage. The first record of its appearance was in 221 B. In western culture. it is also an old beverage. 11 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . Ethanol: Alcohol that is the metabolic product of yeast in the wine and beer making. Mycological Terms There are a large number of brewing and wine making terms.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. AIDs. Pour tea into a 64 fluid ounce glass container. After boiling. Cover tea with unbleached filter paper held in place with a rubber band. below. and many many more. cancer. It was used as a herbal remedy and currently is popular for that reason. Thus. add one third to one half cup of sugar. Beer: Any alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of sugars obtained from grain. but it is probably safe to say that many of the claims made of this beverage are "exaggerated". You should see the beginning of a new Kombucha fungus growing at the top of the tea at this time.C. Allow to incubate for about a week before drinking.

Wine: Usually fermentation of grape juice. e. other species are also used. Early beer was flat. Questions to Think About 1. Yeast: In wine and beer making. Kombucha: A tea that is brewed with several species of bacteria and yeast and said to be of medicinal value. produced? 3. Other than for the obvious reason. why is it that you cannot produce a beverage that is more than 18% alcohol? That being the case. how is hard liquor. In either case. one obvious difference was in the grain that was used for malting.. which has a much higher alcohol content. Which is older. carlsburgiensis. Why is production of a standard quality wine more difficult to achieve than a standard quality beer? 8.g.Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer. independently. Also known as Manchurian Mushroom Tea. how would you distinguish beer and wine? 2. The most common species used are Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. what was another reason for continuing to drink beer? 4. it also serves as a preservative that gives it a longer shelf life. not very palatable and also spoiled quickly. 6. However. 2 Hops: Flower of hops added as ingredient to beer that gives it a bitter taste. but may also be other fruit juices as well. etc. Various cultures developed beer making. the "ingredient" that converts the simple sugars into ethanol. Although the process by which they made beer was similar. Fermentation: The process by which yeast converts sugars into alcohol and CO . In the strict sense. Fungus Japonicus and Tea Fungus. It was a long time before the early spoilage of beer was remedied. peach. Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev.. However. in terms of the organisms involved? 12 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . Yet. people continued to drink it. What is the composition of the Kombucha "fungus". How did brewers finally keep beer from quickly spoiling? 5. elderberry. Name some cultures that used grains other than barley for making beer. beer or wine? Why do you believe this to be the case? 7.. apple.

Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages: Beer... Wine and Liquor file:///C:/Users/Mutizwa Tafadzwa P/Desktop/Yeast and Alcoholic Bev. There are various reasons for drinking Kombucha. Is there any evidence to believe that this usage is justified? Why or why not? Back to Botany 135 Syllabus 13 of 13 05-Sep-11 8:56 PM . 9.

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