RAMSWAROOP SINGH T E-mail: ram_fr_547@yahoo.co.



Mobile computing has been undergoing a bit of a renaissance lately. A few years ago it was a simple matter of finding a datacompatible mobile phone, a PC card modem, and a matching cable and installing it as a modem. Then people started to use PDA’s as well. Cell phones started to come with infrared ports to allow communication with laptops. Then cell phones started to come with modems built in. The connecting methods of mobile connection computing, types, its introduction, factors

affecting connections, mobile applications and its limitations are explained.

but cannot be used in mobile communications at this time. . By using a stylus to replace the keyboard. lasers are used in wireless data transfer between buildings. and One of the most important and highly publicized recent developments in the PC world has been the introduction of the pen interface. Not all wireless communications technologies are mobile. mobile computers are turning thousands of computer illiterate people a data source. The market potential and breadth of application requirements for mobile computing has prompted numerous hardware and software companies to focus their efforts in providing solutions to the vertical." Wireless refers to the method of transferring information between computing devices. formoriented marketplace. Field-based users can access any information available from the system at any time to make critical business decisions. such as an agency database server. Portable devices like laptop and palm top computers give mobile users access to diverse sources of global information      Introduction Wireless networking technology has anywhere and at any time. This information is available at the point of use. For example. such as a personal data assistant (PDA). engendered a new era of computing. Mobile Devices Challenges in mobile computing Merits and Demerits Applications Conclusion Bibliography to be productive immediately by reducing the training requirements associated with traditional automated data collection methods and provides a higher level of portability than keyboard-based systems. without a physical connection. called especially those involved with field-based data collection into computer users. wherever and whenever they need it. Distinction between "wireless" and "mobile.

a "smart" cell phone or Web phone. Third party vendors most often provide support for these devices. it may not require communication between devices at all. Bluetooth:. a laptop computer. Bluetooth is designed as a Personal Area Network (PAN. adventurous early adopters buy the devices for their personal use and then ask IT departments to integrate the devices into the corporate IT environment. as the workforce has grown increasingly mobile. to a network. In fact. Smart phones that allow users to access phone calls.A short-range wireless standard that specifies radio connections between devices within a 10-meter range of each other. Task devices such as the parcel tracking devices used by Federal Express (FedEx) and the United Parcel Service (UPS) delivery personnel are most often bought as part of a complete system from a third-party vendor. most corporations support task devices as rigorously as desktop computers. Pagers that support one. PDA’s.Mobile simply describes a computing device that is not restricted to a desktop. Mobile computing does not necessarily require wireless communication. . are the least planned for and supported devices. They are undergoing rapid evolution and are being brought into organizations in the same way the earliest PCs were. many organizations have replaced desktops with their portable cousins. and paging and data transmissions on one device are also finding applications in hospitals and other situations that have intense and constant need for time sensitive communications.  Mobile devices Here we have seven different types of mobile devices:  Laptop computers  PDA’s and handheld PCs  Pagers  Smart phones and cellular phones  Task devices. or connected. or any one of numerous other devices that allow the user to complete computing tasks without being tethered. however. such as bar code scanners  Blue tooth  Bridge Laptops are typically used and supported in the same way as desktop PCs. That is. two-way radio transmissions. In fact. or WPAN for "Wireless Personal Area Network") technology with a wide variety of theoretical uses. Because they are frequently mission-critical. A mobile device may be a PDA.and two-way text messaging are also used in similar situations.

battery power. or two segments of the same LAN. usage scheduling. Hardware improvements on batteries can help to lengthen the life of a charge and reduce battery weight. disconnection and problems due to client mobility. As a result. such as device weight.  Low Bandwidth Wireless networks deliver lower bandwidth than wired networks. the data is less exposed to transmission errors. By minimizing the usage of wireless transmission. of proxy. In addition. The major challenges in mobile computing are described including: low bandwidth. these schemes also add to the communication overhead and reduce the usable bandwidth. Physical constraints become much more important. Challenges in mobile computing Wireless and mobile environments bring different challenges to users and service providers when compared to fixed. This allows them to connect dissimilar networks (e. error rates. In addition.A device that connects two local-area networks (LANs).  Power Limitations Mobile computers are concerned with the limited power supply. lazy write back. wired networks. caching.Bridge:. mobile applications have to be carefully designed to control the bandwidth consumption. etc. power restrictions.. The wireless updates. security. priority environment exhibits higher error rates. a bridge can connect an Ethernet and Token-Ring network). difference-based prefetching.  High Error Rate The network quality varies as the mobile computer moves across the heterogeneous network connections. portability. However. an issue that does not appear in distributed wired environment. screen size.g. quality of radio transmission. as well as opportunities to provide new services and supplementary information to users in the locations where they find themselves. which results in retransmission and affects the Quality of Service. Bridges simply forward packets from one segment to another without analyzing or routing messages. limited capabilities. error correction schemes can be employed to improve performance. efficient software operations can help to lower the . high error rate. Software techniques required to improve effective bandwidth usage include data compression logging requests to combine multiple short ones. Mobility brings additional uncertainties.

In personal profiles of users are used to restrict access to the mobile units. The main technique used is encryption. poor connection and maintenance. . Examples include: shifting the processing to a fixed host.power consumption. denial of service and tapping. poor security. and a distinct competitive advantage through:  Improving the data collection process  Improving data accuracy  Reducing paperwork  Enforcing collection of more complete information  Facilitating collection of more useful information  Eliminating redundant data entry  Reducing administrative costs  Reducing billing errors  Reducing data backlog  Improving information flow  Allowing faster adaptation to changing business conditions  Increasing responsiveness and customer satisfaction  Providing access to previously unavailable information Demerits The demerits of the mobile computing are discussed as follows:  Information access via a mobile device is plagued by low available bandwidth. aggressively caching and prefetching data to reduce disk traffic. and transmitting less data while receiving more Security Security and privacy are of specific concerns in wireless communication because of the ease of connecting to the wireless link anonymously. Common problems are impersonation. addressing problems. enhancement of revenue potential. Merits The benefits of automating data collection applications with mobile computing are the reduction of hard and soft costs.

Unlike their wired counterparts. For example. new hardware and software techniques must be developed. There is an emerging consensus among researchers that a new architecture and dynamic infrastructure is an appropriate way to address this problem. In general.a new generation of satellites. order entry. and so the mobile. most application software. efficient. wireless user has great difficulty exploiting the computational infrastructure as fully as he or she might. Transportation.  Applications New technical and application developments have established that mobile systems can be a cost-effective. Consumer Goods. and sales automation. and Utilities. are actively promoting Vertical industries where mobile technology has already been successfully Healthcare. They are:. and network infrastructures are intended for more conventional environments. battery power and display size.  Day by day as the standard of the mobile computing is increasing the boons of mobile computing are changing to banes. merchandising. monitor promotions. Government. Features found in these applications usually provide access to stock and pricing information. adopted Market include Research. Delivery & Route Sales. and perform shelf space analysis including number of facings and product age. Typical applications include inventory. operating systems. and productive solution in several different types of application environments. in order to fit in the limited memory on the mobile devices. as well as opportunities to provide new services and supplementary information to users in the locations where they find themselves. design of software for mobile devices must consider resource limitation.  Mobility brings additional uncertainties. Companies like Teledesic and Orbcomm Internet access. Delivery and Route Sales. With fierce competition . Pharmaceuticals. Consumer Goods. 2001. Customer detail helps reps to act more as consultants than order takers. applications need to be highly optimized for space. Eg: The most deadly terrorist attack occurred on sept 11. especially Low-Earth Orbit systems (LEOS) are under development with the Internet in mind. Consequently.

damage inspections from paper to mobile computing greatly expedites the process and reduces costs by providing on-line preshipment inspections. we have looked at issues related to portable devices. In this paper. companies mobile to computing allows customer provide better service by being continually aware of exactly where any given shipment is when in transit. A common goal is to Transportation. this paper shows how these behavioral extensions serve as a powerful abstraction for practical systems. Market Research. In addition to the reps need to perform account management and call reporting functions. Additionally. Transforming freight to perform inspections on a routine basis. The focus in this industry has been on automating patient records. child care. the FDA’s requirement for physician signatures for all drug samples dispensed was an added complication that was eliminated through the use of mobile technology. inspections. Applications center around leverage mobile computing in the implementation of positive patient identification. having timely and accurate information is more important than ever. Eliminating the rekeying of data and providing a means to perform on site analysis are instrumental to an industry that is required . Utilities. and user demand for useful wireless applications is increasing. merits.and an increasing inventory. Healthcare. commercial and residential buildings). nursing home. assessments. In conjunction with GPS (global positioning systems). This technology also offers a more efficient means of storing and transmitting maintenance inspection reports. demerits and applications in mobile environment. Government. Most of these applications involve auditing some sort of facility or process (food service. and sample collection. restaurant. Pharmaceuticals. schools. Automating the survey process has enabled these companies to get their data more accurately and quickly while being able to customize their queries at will. medication dispension. and work orders. Conclusion Mobile computing is rapidly becoming popular. Because of the banes of mobile computing the security level should be improved.

Application design for wireless computing : M-Mail: A Case Study of Dynamic Application Partitioning in Mobile Computing Christine Julien and Gruia-Catalin Roman : Active Coordination in Ad Hoc Networks Raymond J. Brunsting : Quality of Service Issues in Wireless Networks . : Application design for wireless computing.Bibilography Terri Watson.