(from various uncited Internet resources, primarily books and papers on





Taylor family moved from England to America in late 1600's. Samuel Taylor settled from England to the Quaker province of West Jersey in 1677. Mother's side of the family had relatives that came to America on the Mayflower and landed in Salem Massachusettes in 1629 (Winslows)...Edward Winslow was 1 of the 15 original Mayflower Pilgrims that brought servants or children, and 1 of 8 that had the honorable distinction of Mister. He served for many years as the Governor of the Plymouth colony. Taylor's father is a lawyer and one of the richest men in Philadelphia. Taylor's uncle Caleb is president of a bank and a congressman. Frederick Taylor was an aristocrat and extremely wealthy. American civil war lasts from 1861 - 1865.

Additional Notes




Schools in France and Germany

The two years of school in France and Germany, and then a year and a half of travel in Italy, Switzerland, Norway, England, France, Germany, Austria, etc.




Exeter Academy

Family returns to Phildelphia, Pennsylvania from Europe. Taylor starts at Phillips Exeter Academy in NH. Led class scholastically. Plan was to go to Harvard and then law school (to be a lawyer like his Father). Exeter is a prep school for Harvard, like Andover is for Yale.




Exeter Academy

Passed June 1874 Harvard entrance exams with Honors (1869 exam included Latin translation, Latin grammar, Greek grammar, Greek composition, History & Geography, Arithmetic, Logarithms and Trigonometry, Algebra, and In the USA, from 1873 1879, 18,000 businesses went bankrupt, including hundreds of banks, and ten states went bankrupt, while unemployment peaked at 14% in 1876 Plane Geometry).



Apprentice Mold Patternmaker

Enterprise Hydraulic Works

EYE PROBLEM, supposedly the reason for not attending Harvard. Instead of studying at Harvard, Taylor takes a mold patternmaker apprenticeship at a Pump Mfg Co in Philadelphia, also sometimes known as Ferrell & Jones. The patternmaker, the highly skilled worker who made the wooden patterns that produced hollows in hard-pressed sand to mold molten metal, producing iron and brass castings. Precision metal working is the high tech industry of this generation. The company owners were friends of Taylor's family. Many accounts say that his eyes recoverd quickly, but he stayed at the apprenticeship for 4 more years. That he persisted with his apprenticeship despite the early restoration of his eyesight. Note that apprenticeships were the normal way to train for a job (there were no written training or work instructions). You learned through on the job experience, and word of mouth.

1874: Economic depression in USA, recovery starts in 1878 (late industrial revolution). Unemployment went as high as 14% (UK and Western Europe affected until 1896). The sectors which experienced the most severe declines in output were manufacturing, co Wages drop drastically and this causes labor unrest and strikes. 1878 USA recovery begins. The mileage of railroad track laid down in the USA increased from 2,665 mi (4,289 km) in 1878 to 11,568 in 1882. Construction began recovery by 1879; the value of build half times between 1878 and 1883, and unemployment fell to 2.5% in spite of high immigration. Railroads require steel and much construction did as well.



Machine Tool Salesman

Enterprise Hydraulic Works

In 1876, his cousin persuades Taylor to be a trade show booth sitter for a group of New England machine tool manufacturers at Philadelphia s Centennial Exposition (100th anniversary of USA, capital is Philadelphia). There are many foreign visitors to the Expo and Taylor knows German and French (in addition to Greek and Latin). Machine tools for cutting metals were made of tool steel at the time (versus high speed tool steel 25 years later). Again, precision metal working is the high tech industry of this generation.



Apprentice Machinist

Enterprise Hydraulic Works

After that, he returned to the pump works and served a second apprenticeship, this time as a machinist. 6 months away from apprenticeship.



Machine shop laborer Time clerk Journeyman Machinist Gang Boss over the Lathe Hands F oreman of the Machine Shop

Midvale Steel

Economic recovery in the USA begins (late industrial revoolution). Midvale was an advanced steel manufacturer. They installed the first chemisty lab in a steel factory. Owned by Edward Clark and William Sellers (Sellers also has a machine tool company, Clark is the money man)). Sellers is a well respected Mechanical Engineer with many patents. Taylor begins at Midvale as a Machine Shop Laborer (strange for an skilled aristocrat). Learns shop floor labor methods and techniques at Midvale (Philadelphia). Observes soldiering or laziness on a mass scale. Observes machines running a low utilization. Solidering / laziness is the first key focus (he first focuses on increasing labor productivity). Wages are paid per output, by unit of output (piece-rate, or piece-work system)...or day rate for general labor. Piece rates were a wage incentive system to try and give individuals incentives rather than treat them as an entire group / gang. A FIXED price was set per piece of output, paid to the worker (Taylor would change this in 1903's Shop Management). Piece rate systems had been a failure before Taylor, as most companies would reduce their piece rates, paying less for the same output to control and reduce wages. All ASME papers on wage systems at the time didn't know the expected output for a worker and therfore had a critical flaw. Taylor has a Ridiculous rise in positions due to family connections and friends (Midvale owned by Clark and Sellers. Clark's son Clarence is also an Midvale manager, and partner with Taylor on 1st US Open tennis doubles champions in 1881. Clarence Clark marries Taylor's sister. Taylor said to US Congress that his EYES HEALED in 1878, 4 years later than many say is true. It was the wrong side of the Exeter training, however, which ruined my eyes and left me no alternative than working as a workman for the four years following 1874. Did he really have an eye problem? Taylor said himself to Congress that when he started as a laborer at Midvale, that is when his eyes healed. Was Taylor hired as an industrial spy for Clark Senior, and didn't threaten the workers, as he had a supposed eye problem.? Quick rise through the ranks is definitely due to family and personal relationships with the Midvale owners (Clark and Sellers).

In the nineteenth century, Philadelphia was the nation's most intensely industrialized city, with numerous small-sized and medium-sized enterprises in the textile, chemical, and metal industries. Leading metal-sector firms included the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and Midvale Steel, noted for its production of armor-plate, the experiments of management guru Frederick Taylor and its employment of African American workers. Midvale emerged after 1873, when Edward Clark and William Sellers began to transform the co largest steel works. The son of a prominent city banker, Clark and his family were the wealthiest residents of Germantown, a genteel suburban community northwest of the city center. Since founding his own firm in 1847, Sellers had pioneered a number of innov thread for machine screws and bolts. By the 1870s he was possibly the country's leading figure in machine tools, the heavy-duty lathes, planers, boring machines, and other metal-cutting machines that constituted the guts of modern industry. Sellers had also att young men of socially prominent families, forming a "fraternity of mechanicians" that served as a model and prototype for professional mechanical engineering. In 1875 Midvale secured a challenging order for naval guns and began the transformation that woul pioneering maker of steel for large guns and heavy armor. At the time, kerosene torches still lighted Midvale's "dark and dilapidated" factory, located at the southern edge of Germantown in a district grandly called Nicetown. Midvale, with 400 workers, had a sma making steel; separate hammer, rolling and machine shops for forming steel; and the needed blacksmith and pattern shops for design and engineering work. Soon, guns up to six inches in diameter left its shops, for battleships and cruisers in the United States' ne that Congress hoped would transform the nation into a world power. For close to a decade, Midvale was the nation's preeminent military contractor, until Bethlehem Steel in the mid-1880s and then also Carnegie Steel entered this supremely lucrative market.(Another prominent member of the Philadelphia industrial scene, Josep responsible for reforming Bethlehem in these years.) While rails sold for around $40 a ton, the Navy paid $400 a ton or more for top-grade armor. Mastering the special alloys and heat treatments needed to make hardened armor also made these three firms tech Midvale hired a new machine-shop subforeman. In many ways he fit into Seller's "fraternity of mechanicians," for he had a flair for inventing machinery. An in-law of Edward Clark, and soon Clark's son-in-law and his son's award-winning doubles tennis partner, he Philadelphia Quaker family, just a mile from the Nicetown factory. His name was Frederick Taylor, the father of "scientific management," and in time his fame would far outdistance any of the Philadelphia social elite. During World War I a flood of military orders its Nicetown plant workforce to 11,500, including 4,000 African Americans, most of whom were part of the ongoing "Great Migration" from the American South. Despites its merger with three other medium-sized Pennsylvania iron and steel firms in southeastern Coatesville, and Eddystone - Midvale Steel and Ordnance could not keep pace with the larger Pittsburgh mills after the war had ended. Instead of competing for tonnage orders, Midvale converted its Nicetown plant to specialty steel production. After powerhous purchased the other three plants, Midvale's Nicetown plant shrank to just 1,800 workers by 1928 (for the rest of the 20th century, steel in Pennsylvania would no longer be a Philadelphia story (Pittsburgh took over as the steel city)).



Maintenance Foreman Head of the Drawing Office (F oreman of the Machine Shop)

Midvale Steel

Keep in mind that after 6 months at Midvale, Taylor was a foreman. Taylor was not an IE (IE didn't exist yet). Taylor was a manufacturing manager. 1881, ends 3 years of workers fighting Taylor at Midvale, until they supposedly gave up and promised to do a fair days work. At this point, Taylor says he had doubled their output. Taylor later says to Congress that they were fighting over what a proper day's work was. Taylor said the workers knew 10 times more than them, and management didn't know. what a proper day's work was. Workers had all of the power. Taylor is a Foreman and wants more output. No set theory or plan. Taylor sought to learn the content of the workers' skill. He wanted to formulate rules, laws, even formulae to help calculate the optimal output of labor work. Taylor is motivated by Charles Babbage's - Economy of machinery and Manufacture, where Babbage list the tables used in France in the 1700's showing the time required to do a series of operations in pin manufacturing. These tables show no study of the motions of the worker, or how much work should be expected. The costing of new products (time, not materials) was based on the Foreman's guess or estimates from past products. This was the same process used in setting piece rates. In 1881, at 25, Taylor introduced time study at the Midvale plant. This transferred skill from the men to management . Taylor timed the work and also analyzed for improvement (which often highlighted issues with methods, tools, layout, etc). Friends thought yes this would reduce disputes with labor, but it was wasting a lot of time and effort, collecting data on the smallest motions of work. The profession of time study was founded on the success of this project, which also formed the basis of Taylor's subsequent theories of management science. Essentially, Taylor suggested that production efficiency in a shop or factory could be greatly enhanced by close observation of the individual worker and elimination of waste time and motion in his operation. Though the Taylor system provoked resentment and opposition from labour when carried to extremes, its value in rationalizing production was indisputable and its impact on the development of mass-production techniques immense. Taylor separates Thinking from Doing. Managers think and workers do what they're told. Taylor finds his work studing the labor work (accurate motion and time study of men) and studying the machine work (study of the art of cutting metals). So, he experiments with materials and machines . In the 1880s all art of cutting metals was left to the judgment of the workmen and foremen, they had no set rules or procedures. Taylor wants to answer every mechanic's questions: what is the proper angle for machine tools, what was the proper clearance angle, and what were the proper back and side slopes? First metal cutting discoveries. Taylor wins US Open tennis doubles with Clarence Clark...happy day at Midvale Steel.



Head of the Drawing Office (F oreman of the Machine Shop)

Midvale Steel

Midvale hires Emlen Hare Miller, the first person ever to have time study as his full-time profession, a new scientific occupation. Taylor continues ridiculous amounts of metal cutting experiments, over 49,000. It takes him 14 years to realize that the most important factor in metal cutting is the speed of the tool. Machine tool manufacturers at the time were ignorant of the speed at which their tools should be run). Years later, Taylor highlights to the Tool Builders Association annual convention that 95% of metal cutting machines were not properly one could argue with him. 1883 Taylor gets ME degree - Stevens Institute. Home study. Taylor has many patents (Steel hammer, etc.) More than 40 patents in his lifetime.

but to systematize and organize a business. workers used their own shovels and rarely had the optimal one for the job. From 1890 until 1893 Taylor worked as a general manager and a consulting engineer to management for the Manufacturing Investment Company of Philadelphia. and Towne wanted people to share their knowledge and experiments with each other. Higher output.. Define basic work elements. in 1895. Still another concern for which he did some important work in this p & Company. at 2. Tool holder and setup reduction table inventions. The result was a three to four fold increase in productivity and workers were rewarded with pay increases. and in addition is given a premium for having worked faster. after the Eastern Rate Case in 1910.In 1899. Thompson (a protegy). Taylor introduces his "method of bookkeeping" to Bethlehem Steel. Sets up a pseudo-laboratory.W. there was scarcely a year when one or more patents were not issued to him in connection either with his professional work or with his purely personal activities such as devising improved implements for tennis. etc. and these later become functional departments.600. (3) a lower piece rate paid if output is lower than expected. Taylor builds a house in Appleton. and lower labor cost (because you get more output to cover the increased wages).. Taylor never made use of this system outside of Midvale Steel. which upset Taylor.which led to big labor problems. and was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal that same year by the Franklin Institute. Taylor builds new machine shop (30 machines.which just discouraged the better workers.. perhaps only 1/8 of the pig iron handlers were capable of doing so..Systematizing Shop Management and Manufacturing Costs a Specialty". hires George Sinclair to look at the data and create formulae for proper metal cutting settings and resulting cutting time. Creates differential piece rate system. so he standardize the work so he can control the process and get a proper time and work method.. He writes in a style directed at the "Tired Business Man. Halsey wanted to correct the evils of the 3 current wage systems at the time. inventory. and a team of assistants developed high speed steel.. for an ordinary day's pay.. only 4 papers on the subject had been presented. Taylor expected workers to make 1/3 higher wages. as there was only 1 hotel in the town. discipline. Not all workers were physically capable of moving 47 1/2 tons per day. Expereiments to determine proper feed rate for materials. piece rates. Provides detailed work instructions and checklists for work in other parts of the factory. gardening. At this time his method was to consider the accounting end first j he readily convinced the directors that a new acc 43 1899 Consulting Engineer Bethlehem Steel To increase machine shop capacity. Prior to Taylor.. and Cleveland. their physical capabilities were well-suited to moving pig iron. and The Premium Plan of Paying for Labor (Halsey 1891). Up until 1895 (when Taylor's A Piece Rate System is published).. condition. then you get paid a lower piece rate. Extra pay for extra work was his motto. Had problems controlling outide environment / factors. He practices this profession for the next 8 years (until 1901 when he pseudo-retires). The firm provided the workers with optimal shovels. Wisconsin. 44 1900 Consulting Engineer Bethlehem Steel 45 1901 Consulting Engineer Bethlehem Steel Taylor was forced to leave Bethlehem Steel in 1901 after antagonisms with other managers. and also proper variety. 34 1890 General Manager Manufacturing Investment Company 3 year contract. and speed. one man for time study. whose plant later became one of those of the International Harvester Company. his general experience with patents was such that he came to regard them as useful for little else besides that of pegs marking stages in the march of progress.1893.. golf. More patents. Halsey proposes to give the workmen a premium (higher rate of pay) for more work than had been done traditionally.he further and further breaks up the foreman's responsibilities into a new functional type of organization versus military type. and then the forge shop needed extra capacity." Taylor mentions very little about standardization of general conditions. MOST and MODAPTS. as part of his contract). In 1895 he began to publish papers on schemes to increase worker incentive. He offers his services not as a manager. then with a short contract he can just leave.. and doesn't desire to use technical terms that would confuse readers. paid on a very high daily or weekly rate (he also continues mechanical engineering work at the same time).this becomes the cost accounting field (whereas only financial accounting had existed prior). a company that operated large paper mills in Maine and Wisconsin. one man for planning. Adds allowances. engineering. 2-3 month $876 in 2011). Buraeaucratic org with lorts of record keeping. scheduling of work. This was taylor's first published paper and public presentation. 42 1898 Consulting Engineer Bethlehem Steel Bethlehem Steel. A Problem in Profit Sharing (Kent). The paper is 23 pages long.profit sharing was like day ra interest / motivation of the worker.If workers were moving 12 1/2 tons of pig iron per day and they could be incentivized to try to move 47 1/2 tons per day. According to F. Taylor and mentioned in his book Shop Management "it consists in recording the quickest time in which a job has been done. Taylor opened an independent consulting practice in Philadelphia. An even lower piece rate is paid if defective units were made.. and then all work is a combination of these elements. two allied concerns having mills at Johnstown.higher price to workers paid per piece (via properly set standard times). Gantt creates the standard tables for setting up the metal cutting machines. and he accepted full responsibility for the results (good or bad). Carl Barth at Midvale takes this and makes a slide rule for clauclateing lathe speeds and feeds. due to th control of manufacturing. other than the mass-producers. Gantt (26 yrs old). 33 1889 Chief Engineer (F oreman of the Machine Shop) Midvale Steel Marries Louise Spooner. he developed (with Maunsel White) the Taylor-White process for heat-treating high-speed tool steels. Unavoidable delays.organization is 6 years old." 31 1887 Chief Engineer (F oreman of the Machine Shop) Midvale Steel 1887. including maintenance. Taylor and Maunsel White. in order to solve an output problem (forge shop output was much greater than machine shop capacity. This is the first statement of Taylor's management methods.In another study of the "science of shoveling". there are various rates for workmen: (1) ordinary piece rate which is ppaid for ordinal/normal output. skill and accuracy.the expenses were clear. but the benefits unclear. they were left to work by themselves (unless the process had a problem or was really difficult or important). Beginning with 1886. A little perspective on Bethlehem Steel.. increasing labor productivity.. Gain Sharing (Towne). In the case of all these companies.. joins Towne's gain-sharing plan with Halsey's patents. employed more than 2. Taylor attacks the universal difficulty of rewarding workers equitably according to their accomplishment. but moderate successes. or a slipping belt. via ASME. manufacturers of agricultural machinery. attendance. However. the William Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine Building Company. Whitney. General manager should direct policy and the ability of the men underneath him. To get more efficient. He charges $40/day ($40 in 1914 . instead of workmen owning their own tools.. Taylor always spent a lot of 1880 few.. Applies extra pay for extra work to day rate labor also. At this time. but the economic recession made MIC not very profitable (another reason for Taylor to quit after his contract ended). day rates. Little supervision. was amongst the largest US companies. Ohio. 1884. by first conducting experiments to determine the amount of resting that was necessary. His version is shown in the 2 books he co-authored with Sanford E. .he didn't do a good job of documenting and explaining the money savings from his projects. Workers might not make standards because of machine failures.A Step Toward Partial Solution of the Labor Problem paper published ASME transactions. If you don't make the expected output per day. and their lack of pride in manufacturing.15 years later . Paper focuses on how to get most economical use of belts for machine power. companies at the time would just increase expected output from the workers. Lorain. Prior to scientific management.if they built another machine shop to meet with forge capacity. with wages readjusted periodically based on their record. Taylor's system adds assistants for various functions. Taylor nominally retired in 1901. rapidity. Whitney was President of the Manufacturing Investment Company. the worker's manager could determine the optimal timing of lifting and resting so that the worker could move the 47 1/2 tons per day without tiring. This expands to cost accounting. 37 1893 Consulting Engineer Independent Consulting Practice 1893. They were fired if they didn't meet the foreman's undocumented expectations. Organization building / adopting the system becomes the key problem (people issues). He demanded full authority to make changes. Concrete Plain and Reinforced (1905) and Concrete Costs (1912). 39 1895 Consulting Engineer Independent Consulting Practice A PIECE-RATE SYSTEM . Wage incentives closely related to time standards. Since there is a wide range of densities of materials. Towne had presented 1 of them. Ohio. hothouses.which opens the door for mass production worldwide. With Taylor's differential piece rate system. (2) differential rate system of piece work. Management supplies tools. in which he pleads with the ASME for the recognition and the organization of "the Science of Management. Standardization meant getting the right materials and the right tools in the right condition to the right man with the right instructions at the right time. Taylor ran time studies to determine that the optimal weight that a worker should lift in a shovel was 21 pounds.. suggested him to the Secretary of the Navy . and (3) paying men and not positions. basically stable product mix just making locomotive tires and car axles). While these 1/8 were not extraordinary people who were highly prized by society. Flow of work must be continuous. Taylor solves metal cutting formulae problem from back at Midvale 16 years earlier (leads to art of cutting metals paper / book). "Men will not work. Taylor sees the need for creating a new profession. Capital's (Partridge). left to their own wits they probably would become exhausted after a few hours and fail to reach their goal. First he pays workmen higher wages to follow his standard methods resulting from the experiments. and fixing this as a standard. as they had no proper time standards. and and sufficient quantity. The first statement of Taylor's system. He spent time as a plant manager in Maine (Taylor used to vacation in Maine).extra work led to extra profits. the shovel should be sized so that it would hold 21 pounds of the substance being shoveled. High speed steel machine tools become standard in every machine shop around the world. The LABOR PR to receive the largest possible wages for their time. coupled with management's desire to receive the largest possible return for the wages they pay. nonstop perorations about his system. In 1891.. Taylor joined Bethlehem Steel. Remember also that steel mill machine shops were Taylor's expertise (from ~ 14 years at Midvale).. In 1886. Taylor doesn't want to persuade or reason with the workmen to follow his methods. as the owners were not scientifically trained and they didn't realize the value of his contribution (similar to what happened at the end of his time at Midvale when ownership changed to Harrah) the complete alternate power plant at the Wisconsin mill. Introduces the concept of detailed written work instructions (versus the current word of mouth training processes).1884 Chief Engineer (F oreman of the Machine Shop) Midvale Steel Took 6 years to become Chief Engineer of the steel factory (maintained Machine Shop Foreman). New York . Focused on labor. All of the papers that Taylor writes on his management system (3 in total) are designed for presentation to ASME. After 1 year.. PA). Bethlehem Iron.. he wants to MAKE them do it. which were shared equally by all workers. Wisconsin 1 mile from the pulp and paper mill. foremen made little attempt to train or teach workers. Imagine his enormous profits (which added to an pre-existing fortune). All cause for delay must be avoided. and the Johnson C Company. Within this timeframe he developed the Towne-Halsey plan. caused him to never work again under th control of a company. Henry R.. Higher wages. Reveals high speed steel for the first time at Paris Exposition of 1900.. waiting for instructions. Philadelphia. product design. lower labor cost. But. the consulting engineer in management.." He speaks simply so that people can understand. Gets opportunity to start fresh and implement his improvements / newly forming system.. He varied day rate labor wages based on punctuality." Key point was that managers in factories should be trained as enginee developing. of Philadelphia (commonly known as Cramp's shipyards) . of Chicago. Belting experiments reduced machine delays due to belt issues (provide power to machines)..000 workers. In this paper. 1886 Taylor joins ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). In 1893. Working with many different manufacturing companies gives Taylor the experience to refine and organize his methods / system. Taylor moved from Midvale to serve as a consultant to many manufacturing firms particularly in the metal trades and with his disciples and competitors formed the scientific management movement. Taylor leaves Midvale on good terms.. High speed tool steel is Taylor's greatest mechanical invention. Towne (VP of the ASME) writes a paper called The Engineer as an Economist. and everything in its place. integrity. inspection. and higher wages. Principal clients. Invents pouring water on machine tools to cool them. All of the work in the shop needed to be carefully planned in advance (this was new). Sinclair is replaced by Henry L. as it is too c ontroversial. Pennsylvania. High speed steel increased machine shop capacity by 500%. Workmen that don't make standards get paid less.a manufacturer of steel balls for bicycle bearings (they had earlier acquired the rights to some of Taylor's patents). Massachusetts (shortly after starting work at Simonds. Taylor's engagements with them largely overlapped. Shoveling experiments . The mills did well.measures efficiencies (actual costs compared to expected standard costs).. His superioss (like Midvale) questioned the savings from his expenses. Taylor publishes NOTES ON BELTING (15 pages) in ASME Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers [ ASME ] 28th Meeting. Rate fixing was done through scientific study. If people don't want to listen to him. it would have cost $1 million in 1898). Foreman are expected to do everything. Position acquired after US military inspectors on-site at Midvale for a contract. from Sellers and Clark.. Rest of time spent at Midvale is developing Shop Management (later Scientific Management. instead of guesswork as had been done in the past. Separates planning from execution. William C. instead of 3 years at MIC. 38 1894 Consulting Engineer Independent Consulting Practice In 1894. Joins ASME. more than 4 variables). In 1898. 3 key points of the his piece rate system: (1) creating a rate-fixing department. However. Unclear if this is 7 days/week. Organized tools: a place for everything. Still not much progress with speeding up of machines. This is the differential rate system. Taylor envisions books for the various trades that have all possible motions and their according times (through pro similar to pre-determined motion time systems like MTM. in order that Taylor worked with them (before working at Bethlehem Steel): Simonds Rolling Machine Company with plant at Fitchburg. and they challenged this repeatedly. His business card read "Consulting Engineer . This example suggests that workers should be selected according to how well they are suited for a particular job. Taylor was unhappy at MIC. the general manager and all foremen quit. which increased cutting capacities up to 300 man for making instruction cards. If the workman succeeds in doing the job in his same wages per hour for the time he works on the job. Experiments to determine standard times. Financiers.. In order. (Bethlehem. the Northern Electrical Manufacturing Company of Madison. Also. and (2) a higher piece rate paid to workmen if he turns out more than the ordinary output. and profit sharing. but over the next decade he brought legions of industrialists and other acolytes to his estate outside Philadelphia for long. he doesn't talk about functional management. PA is 110km from Philadelphia. Schmidt and the pig iron handling. Famous steam hammer invention (previous designs would break apart and Taylor's design introduced elasticity). consisting of from one-quarter to one-half the difference between the wages earned and the wages originally paid when the job was done in standard time... Ownership had changed a few years earlier to Harrah. cannot do it (too complex. and moving trees. Unrelated to his management system. His first customer was Simonds Rolling Machine Company ..but that would be given mostly to management (2/3 of the gain). This differential piece rate is new. Taylor's A Piece Rate Systems.

archive. The ASME formed an ad hoc committee to review the text. Taylor collected a number of his articles into a book-length manuscript which he submitted to the ASME for publication. Taylor retired at 45 but continued to devote time and money to promote the principles of scientific management through lectures at universities and professional societies Read Taylor's papers and books for free at www. Leon P. he says "I am inclined to go faster in any direction of reform than is in many cases wise.272). during the very material increase of output of every man and every machine in their manufacturing establishments. Interest in golf initiated the well known grass experiments at Boxly. by the majority of men. Significantly. Then. Taylor s methods and ideas were embraced by the combatant nations. and also as a trade book. Thompson were joint authors of. The committee modified the report slightly. Other witnesses. Taylor was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Pennsylvania (in his home area of Philadelphia/Germantown). It is a model which every young engineer will have to study. work was performed by skilled craftsmen who lengthy the push to develop such an approach was a result of the implementation of the so-called anti-stop watch clause in the USA between 1915 and 1949 which began with the banning of Taylorist principles of work study from Government arsenals in 1915 and subsequent bans in Naval and Army Appropriations legislation 1917: no part of any appropriations made in this act . There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. they swept through the factories and offices. swore that Scientific Management had reduced their costs. The Commission on Industrial Relations (also known as the Walsh Commission) was a commission created by the U. based its first-year curriculum on Taylor's scientific management. foreman. new tools were discovered made from chromium-tungsten. and Nov. Step-by-step." (-p. and any extra pay was apt to be short-lived. the railroad companies in the northeastern USA file new freight tariffs with the government's Interstate Commerce Commission (a significant increase in freight rates). and conditions. and then in Sept. In 1907.Pneumonia . but aggressively and bitterly opposed. It is possible to double the output of men and machines just as they stand now. &c. &c.. called the Taylor-White process. containing that no part of a United States government appropriation could be used to provide funds for the purpose of timing an employee of the United States government by means of a stop watch.´ Before Taylor. mostly relating to the shape of lathe tools.S.000 recorded experiments. This year. DODGE & DAY. In 1910. Taylor writes to a friend and says. In order to determine proper standard times. The whole country learned about this new Scientific Management. This practical result suddenly opened the way areas in the factory . teach.1948). New York. and saving a million dollars a day in 1910. This led him to standardizing methods. Under Taylor's management system. tools. minute-by-minute instructions the time the job ought to take. Taylor creates the Planning department. PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT paper presented to ASME. The main elements of the Scientific Management are [1] : "Time studies Functional or specialized supervision Standardization of tools and implements Standardization of work methods Separate Planning function Management by exception principle The use of "slide-rules and similar time-saving devices" Instruction cards for workmen Task allocation and large bonus for successful performance The use of the 'differential rate' Mnemonic systems for classifying products and implements A routing system A modern costing system etc. suddenly. Taylor lets "The American Magazine" publish a pamphlet version of Principles of Scientific Management (3 separate issues. " Taylor called these elements "merely the elements or details of the mechanisms of management" He saw them as extensions of the four principles of management." Taylor wrote to Brandeis. In this way it became practicable for a workman to use Taylor's formulas and laws. while you were consigned to mindless doing. In this paper. Towne. Taylor was transformed into a celebrity.. over 8 years he made some startling discoveries." Taylor is not a good people manager and change agent. where he endured a four-day inquisition. the Taylor home in Chestnut Hill. Taylor personally distributed copies of the Society before the publication of each of the forthcoming magazine articles and the ³trade edition´ of essentially the same material. Taylor angrily withdrew the book and published Principles without ASME approval. it was almost universally believed that the number of thinkers (or brain-workers) should be as small as possible.11). They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. Meanwhile.000 pounds of iron and steel. workers had to toil harder and faster than Taylor himself said: "the art of cutting metals and the proper use of machine tools is but one of the small elements. Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles: First. tabulation of results. Fourth. He and Sanford E. Scientific management took away much of this autonomy and converted skilled crafts into a series of simplified jobs that could be performed by unskilled workers for the tasks. Harvard University. In July 1910. work instruction cards. Congress on August 23. The scientific education and development of the workman 4. and the reformer must usually tread a thorny path. The commission studied work conditions throughout the industrial United States between 1913 and 1915. organized labor pushes the House of Representatives to investigate whether Congress should forbid the system in the government service (this actually led to Congress banning stopwatch time study on government work from 1915 ..." The success of this essay propelled Taylor to the presidency of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1906. they held hearings (11 experts testified). the man whose genius would save the railroads a million dollars grabbed the headlines. and includes new management innovations such as functional departments (gang boss. Third.. whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could." 52 1908 Self-employed Serves the Public without Pay Self-employed Also. boundless prosperity its certain consequence. Oct. and develop the workman. Now. search for related papers written by other authors to get more insight / more perspectives. inhumane to treat workers li 56 1912 Self-employed Serves the Public without Pay Self-employed PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT published as trade book on his own. During one of Taylor's own implementations. This fascinating story is detailed in a series of articles. a strike at theWatertown Arsenal led to an investigation of Taylor's methods by a U. manager bias during setting of R rating. Superintendent. while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men. kitche hospitals of half the globe. 59 1915 Self-employed Serves the Public without Pay Self-employed NAVAL APPROPRIATIONS BILL. to control the work. which replaces the old rule-of. The object of the experiments was to make a putting green which would not be entirely dependent on natural rainfall but would tap the reserves o of the soil. He resorted to a ³private printing´ of the material that had been rejected by the ASME. manager. organized labor had Taylor hauled before a House Committee to Investigate the Taylor and Other Systems of Shop Management. They coined the term so that all experts would use the same terminology (which hadn't existed prior). compared to th 50 1906 Self-employed Serves the Public without Pay Self-employed ART OF CUTTING METALSpublished in ASME Transactions. The railroads claimed that recent large increases in worker wages caused the need to increase their profits. one of the first American universities to offer a graduate degree in business management in 1908. During World War I. In the 1920s. The Planning dept developed into individual functional departments. Death . Prior to scientific management. Frederick Winslow Taylor s system of science-bred industrial efficiency. The committee delegated the report to the editor of the American Machinist. using almost 800. That organizational style is what is standard today. The scientific selection of the workman 3. like a machine. Your duty was to execute them. Taylor himself conducted between 30-50. in 1910. House of Representatives committee.S. the railroads published articles that defended against the idea that they were inefficiently managed. Henri Le Chatelier said of the present work: "the near future will sho been rendered to the mechanical arts by this generous publication of researches pursued with such uncommon preseverance. speed boss. The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick W. SHOP MANAGEMENT paper published ASME Transactions. anti-stop-watch clause enforced by the US government. Taylor began as the text of a fireside lecture and evolved into a classic work of the Scientific Management Era. In the dark imaginings of Taylor s ost hostile critics and often in practice. "I have rarely seen a new movement started with such great momentum as you have given this one. This essay would stand as his most complete statement of scientific management. Also. The way was called Scientific Management (modified the Shop Management term). Taylor credited Brandeis with the successful promotion of the system. volume 13. caused a sensation which was grasped by editors and reporters. plant managers. In a Taylorized factory. But at the same time. was a dose of scientific management. Taylor expands on the need for scientific work study from A Piece Rate System. in 1912. as well as the duty. Martha Banta called the Saratoga essay. ASME first recognizes the field of management engineering. Dartmouth College holds a conference to promote the merits of scientific management. but rather by the management who could measure all the variables and provide the optimum environment and tools for an efficient f maximum levels. The development of a true science 2. the word robot had not yet been coined. which lies before us as engineers of taking such steps as will. But labor s hostility went deeper than that. saving the machine industry of the USA hundreds of millions of dollars each year. and inspector). 1912... Harrington Emerson. "I have found that any improvement of any kind is not only opposed. In 1910.. with what tools came from on high. and the development of high-speed steel. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen. namely the great opportunity. too human work was being stripped of much of what made it rewarding. 54 1910 Self-employed Serves the Public without Pay Self-employed Eastern Rate Case. stated that in this way the railroads could save a million dollars per day. wa important one. 1906. These experts (led by FW Taylor) testified that there was a definite way that railroads could increase wages. But even now we can admire without reserve the scientific method which has controlled this whole work. made for just another brutal speed-up. and at the same time. They develop a science for each element of a man's work. you worked not just harder and faster but by someone else s lights. not your own. he said. The conclusion was that scientific management did provide some useful techniques and offered valuable organisational suggestions. Personal correspondence preserved in the Taylor Collection at Stevens Institute of Technology provides clues wherein Taylor labored over the manner of publication of his ³Principles of Scientific Management. They made their own decisions about how their job was to be performed. optim optimums. AMSE rejected the proposed trade book Eastern Rate Case. attorney (and future Supreme Court justice) Louis Brandeis made Taylor a household name. This term Scientific Management. By December. W. Taylor was 25th president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) from 1906 to 1907 (VP in 1904 and 1905). repair boss. It more than doubled the speed of metal-cutting machinery (see Dictionary of Scientific Biography. It is an example unique in the arts. in spite of an extensive letter writing campaign directed toward the effort. "Concrete Plain and Reinforced . in what order. the ICC started an inquiry into this proposed freight tariff increase. reduce their costs. shall be available for the salary or pay of any officer. or any other person having charge of the work of any employee of the United States Government while making or causing to be made with a stop-watch or other time measuring device a time study of any job of any such employee between the starting and completion thereof or of the movements of any such employee while engaged upon such work. removing the thinking from the doing of work. Taylor devised his system and published "Scientific Management" in 1911. but accepted Alford's recommendation not to publish Taylor's book. Taylor s experts and engineers did the thinking. Taylor had to control the work. and later supreme court justice) led this fight against the railroad tariff increases. One of the witnesses." which was published in 1906 Summary: Accurate metal cutting could no longer be achieved by relying on the individual and haphazard skills of the operator. This cruel man s system.. They scientifically select and then train.-thumb method.47 1903 Self-employed Serves the Public without Pay Self-employed Focuses on promoting his methods. Second. Taylor failed to convince his colleagues in the American Society of Mechani ³Principles´ in the ASME Transactions. June 1903 presents Shop Mgmt to 350 mechanical engineers in Saratoga. Pennsylvania. in a case heard before the Interstate Commerce Commission.[2] 1... Certain powerful railroads had petitioned the ICC for a rate hike. Alford. Also. Overnight. Alford was a critic of the Taylor system and the report was negative. just how you were to do it.. p. Louis Brandeis (ICC. This case not only coined the term scientific management." Also. the newspapers were filled with the testimonies of the experts in this case. the use of water as a lubricant." published in Country Life in America in 1915. but made it a household word. Criticisms of time study parts (foundation of Taylor's system) include adding percentage of time to cover unavoidable delays is unscientific. etc. ASME was 26 years old. 53 1909 Self-employed Serves the Public without Pay Self-employed Starts lecturing at Harvard (until 1914). 55 1911 Self-employed Serves the Public without Pay Self-employed In Jan 1911. which reported in 1912. At the time. preceded by an issue with Taylor's biography). takes power and skill away from labor. "The Making of a Putting Green. Taylor publishes SHOP MANAGEMENT as a trade book. The committee included Taylor allies such as James Mapes Dodge and Henry R. while increasing their men's wages 25 to 100 percent. IEs today typically make the same mistakes. The shippers fought against the railroads. They did What they needed instead. "one of the key documents shaping modern industrialization. said his enemies in labor. Intimate and friendly cooperation between the management and the men. After an attitude survey of the workers revealed a high level of resentment and hostility towards scientific management. efficiency was all. but it gave production managers a dangerously high level of uncontrolled power. Foreman are expected to do everything (too much). factories are managed through scientific methods rather than by use of the empirical "rule of thumb" so widely prevalent in the days of the late nineteenth century when F. and at the same time. the Senate banned Taylor's methods at the arsenal.