An Assignment for the subject of


Submitted as part of MBA (Human Resource Management)

By Bhawna Khurana (Roll NO. RDA / PG / 002 / MBA / 2009 J)


Content 1. Introduction 2. Transforming Groups into Teams 3. Develop Common Goals and Vision 3.1 Strategies To Create Common Goals and Vision 3.2 Value and Harness Diversity 3.2.1 Strategies As a team leader 3.3 Foster Effective Communication 3.3.1 Strategies As a team leader 4. Reasons for Team Building 5. Team Building Exercises 5.1 Types of Team Building Exercises a. Communication Exercise b. Problem Solving/Decision Making Exercise c. Planning/Adaptability Exercise d. Trust Exercise 5.2 Subgroups of Team Building Exercises a. Simple social activities b. Group bonding sessions c. Personal development activities d. Team development activities e. Psychological analysis 6. Prerequisites In Team Building


6.1 Planning 6.2 Team Building shouldn’t be Ad hoc 6.3 Structured Process 6.4 Criterion for A great team 6.5 Awareness 6.6 Interpersonal 6.7 Common Goal 7. Types of Teams (Permanent teams and temporary teams) 7.1. Task Force 7.2. Problem Solving Team 7.3. Product Design Team 7.4. Committee 7.5. Work Group 7.6. Work Team 7.7. Quality Circle 8. Stages of Team Building 8.1 Forming 8.2 Storming 8.3 Norming 8.4 Performing 8.5 Adjourning and Transforming 8.6 Norming and Re-Norming


2 Criteria 9.3 Be other focused 11.4 Commitment 10.1 Control and Affection 13. Reference 4 .9. 10. Team Building & Interpersonal Communication 11. The Four C's of Team Goal Setting 9.5 Look for common ground 12.1.1 Clarity 9.3 The ability to solve conflicts 11. 11.4 Be open to new ideas 11.1.2 Listen 11. 10.3 Affection types 14. FIRO-B Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation 13.1. Interpersonal Competence & Team Effectiveness 10.2 The right motivation. Six Principles of Effective Team Management 13.1 The right mix of skills.3 Challenge 9.2 Control types 13.1 Inclusion types 13.1 Take time to talk.

It generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational development. but can also be applied to sports teams. presented to organizations designed for improving team performance. Work environments tend to focus on individuals 5 . leadership skills and the ability to work closely together as a team to problem solve. school groups. and other contexts. sports teams. Introduction Team building retreats designed to develop a team (including group assessment and group-dynamic games).TEAM BUILDING 1. A team is a group organized to work together to accomplish a set of objectives that cannot be achieved effectively by businesses. Team building is pursued via a variety of practices. religious individuals” or nonprofit Team Building refers to a wide range of activities. schools. usually falling somewhere. its focus is to specialize in bringing out the best in a team to ensure self development. Team building is not to be confused with "team recreation" that consists of activities for teams that are strictly recreational. positive communication. usually falling somewhere in between. Teambuilding is an important factor in any environment. and can range from simple bonding exercises to complex simulations and multi-day team building retreats designed to develop a team (including group assessment and group-dynamic games).

I could not see the 'team' he was referring to. scanning every corner of the room." "What team?" I inwardly cried. Indeed. I found myself enjoying and admiring this character. common goals and vision mix to form the glue that binds a team together. Transforming Groups into Teams Perhaps more than any other factor. nervous smiles. as you can see. while his honed wit and mastery of language delighted all. Although the 40 people entering the function room shared the same employer. the body language.and personal goals. What qualifications are required to be a team? What are the differences between a group of people and a team? And what strategies can a leader adopt to nurture the transformation from groups into teams? 6 . Team building can also refer to the process of selecting or creating a team from scratch. all I could see were 40 people in one place at one time. He was quick to engage his audience. this team has been brought together to achieve the financial targets by the end of the next year. and superficial conversations made it clear that most did not know each other. Try as I might. "How to create effective teams is a challenge in every organization". with reward & recognition singling out the achievements of individual employees. The opening speaker did an excellent job of welcoming all and breaking the ice with his animated and insightful comments. 2. which I regarded as an astute and affable presenter. Then he said it: "So.

This will provide a simple measure of the degree to which your team shares common goals and visions. 2. In an increasingly competitive world. then consider the differing perceptions you detect. but perform vastly different tasks along the journey. only those destinations passionately sought will ever be reached. Develop Common Goals and Vision Unless a common goal is held for a given venture and each individual holds the one vision of the shared destination. the journey will be confusing and the travelers hobbled.3. We can share the same goal and vision.1 Strategies to Create Common Goals and Vision 1. Ask your team members to express their individual role in terms that articulate how that role contributes to the common goals and 7 . start by asking what goals and visions (which are also desirable for the organization) the team members can get truly passionate about. With your team members. Lacking direction. 3. but take on differing roles in a collaborative venture. Ensure the team members are clear on the distinction between their common 'goals' and their individual 'roles'. In developing common goals and visions. 3. individually record your perception of the team's common goals and vision. The captain of a steam ship and the stoker share the same destination. such a group will fragment as energies are spent in moving against each other rather than as a team.

4. Use the data to draw a 'team map' that clarifies which preferences and roles are well-represented and which are not. The determining factors will be the team's ability to understand diversity. value it.2 Value and Harness Diversity The diversity of people on a team can be its greatest asset or its greatest threat. 3. Ask your team to take an outside perspective on the 'team map' . and manage it.1 Strategies As a team leader (A) Undertake a team survey that highlights the diverse work-styles and roles within your team. while the latter could be described as a 'reach for the stars' goal and should carry significant uncertainty as to its achievability. Diversity harnessed can be an awesome engine for achieving high goals. 3. The former can be defined as 'the minimum we will accept from ourselves as professionals' This will allow a team to keep energized and strive for improvement even beyond perceived limitations.what strategic advice would they give to themselves in developing the team further? Excellent instruments for this exercise include the Team Management Profile designed by Charles Margerison and Dick McCann (Team Management Systems) and the well used Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) assessment. 8 . consider both a 'benchmark' goal and a 'stretch' goal. When setting collaborative goals.

(C) When it comes to diversity. 3.3.(B) Target 'understanding and managing diversity' in your team's training and development schedule. the ability to harness diversity and the mastery of 9 . 3. and when they need to hear it. common goals and vision. lead by example. (C) Try to finish conversations with the question "Is there anything else you want to talk about?" to provide opportunities for others to ask about what they need to hear. If you do not value and are not seen to value diversity in your people. Effective communication requires us to balance this with what they need to hear from us.1 Strategies As a team leader (A) Formulate a survey of satisfaction ratings on different forms and directions of communication within your team. Avoid embarrassment by telling people why you are doing it! (B) Encourage paraphrasing as a strategy to enhance active listening. While many factors will make a team better. your team members certainly will not. Use the data to target aspects of communication that have the greatest potential for improvement.3 Foster Effective Communication Most of our communication energy is expended on telling others what we need them to hear when we need them to hear it.

Getting to know each other 5. Motivating a team 4. Improving communication 2. There are many types of team building Activities that range from kids games to games that involve novel complex tasks and are designed for specific needs there are also more complex team building exercises that are composed of multiple exercises such as ropes courses.communication will be key differences between a group and a team. Reasons for Team Building Reasons for Team Building include 1. 4. Practicing effective collaboration with team members 5. Teaching the team self-regulation strategies Helping participants to learn more about themselves (strengths and weaknesses) 7. including goal setting 6. Team Building Exercises Team building exercises consist of a variety of tasks designed to develop group members and their ability to work together effectively. Identifying and utilizing the strengths of team members 8. Improving team productivity 9. Making the workplace more enjoyable 3. Getting everyone "onto the same page". corporate drumming and exercises that last 10 .

5. Goal: Give team a problem in which the solution is not easily apparent or requires the team to come up with a creative solution c. These exercises are some of the most common as they appear to have the most direct link to what employers want their teams to be able to do. Communication Exercise This type of team building exercise is exactly what it sounds like.over several days. The purpose of team building exercises is to assist teams in becoming cohesive units of individuals that can effectively work together to complete tasks.1 Types of Team Building Exercises a. Goal: Create an activity which highlights the importance of good communication in team performance and/or potential problems with communication. The issues teams encounter in these exercises are solved by communicating effectively with each other. Problem Solving/Decision Making Exercise Problem Solving/Decision making exercises focus specifically on groups working together to solve difficult problems or make complex decisions. Planning/Adaptability Exercise These exercises focus on aspects of planning and being adaptable to 11 . b. Communications exercises are problem solving activities that are geared towards improving communication skills.

Group bonding sessions Company sponsored fun activities to get to know team members (sometimes intending also to inspire creativity) c. These are important things for teams to be able to do when they are assigned complex tasks or decisions.change. Team development activities Group-dynamic games designed to help individuals discover how they approach a problem. Goal: Show the importance of planning before implementing a solution d.2 Subgroups of Team Building Exercises a. They are sometimes difficult exercises to implement as there are varying degrees of trust between individuals and varying degrees of individual comfort trusting others in general. Simple social activities To encourage team members to spend time together b. and 12 . Goal: Create trust between team members 5. how the team works together. Trust Exercise A trust exercise involves engaging team members in a way that will induce trust between them. Personal development activities Individual programs given to groups (sometimes physically challenging) d.

You need to decide before you start what improvements you want and can realistically expect the team to achieve. After approval.1 Planning Plans are drawn and made. 6.3 Structured Process every member have understands the plan. 6. the among the members of the team and it is made monitored against the plan. Individuals from the team can also participate in decision making process by participative decision copies of the plan is distributed crystal clear that making. If you want to build a team rather than just bond the individuals closer. Prerequisites In Team Building The following are the important requirements of team building process:6.2 Team Building shouldn’t be Ad hoc Generally the team building effort is ad hoc in 6. and training in how to work better together and combinations of the above. you need a structured process. better methods e.4 Criterion for A great team 13 . Psychological analysis Of team roles. Progress shall be nature that is no formal prior planning is done before forming the team.

e. b. All participating in idea generation. Members must have a chance to contribute. d. respect. The best teams display these characteristics in their roles. As teams continue to grow in popularity within business. Members sharing leadership responsibility and rotating other roles as needed. 6.6 Interpersonal Relationship: There must be interpersonal relationship. Members showing support. and decision-making c. problem solving. All taking actions and doing work that is necessary to reach team goals. attitudes. learn from and work with others. Team members need to help each other work towards developing these characteristics to build their continued work ethic and skills.a. 6. 6.5 Awareness There must be an awareness of unity on the part of all its members. and group and dedicated individuals. Members managing conflict by confronting issues and inappropriate behaviors. and trust for one another. understanding and using the five characteristics of great teams may help teams and organization development. behaviors.7 Common Goal measure their success in team working as 14 .

Product Design Team A temporary team assembled to design a new product or service. Types of Teams Today we find all kinds of teams in society. Committee A temporary or permanent group of people assembled to act upon some matter. and they generally fall into one of two primary groups: permanent teams and temporary teams. 7.5. 7.2.3. 15 . 7.4. Task Force A temporary team assembled to investigate a specific issue or problem.She member must have the ability to act together toward a common goal. Work Team (also called Self-Directed Work Team or SelfManaged Work Team) an ongoing group of workers who share a common mission who collectively manage their own affairs within predetermined boundaries. Here are some of the common types: 7. Work Group A permanent group of workers who receive direction from a Designated leader.6. 7. 7. 7. Problem Solving Team A temporary team assembled to solve a specific problem.1.

8. to plan work. to find solutions. Quality Circle A group of workers from the same functional area who meet regularly to uncover and solve work-related problems and seek work improvement opportunities 8 Stages of Team Building (a) The Forming (c) Norming (b) Storming (d) Performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965.1 Forming In the first stages of team building. This model has become the basis for subsequent models of group development and team dynamics and a management theory frequently used to describe the behavior of existing teams. and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks. to tackle problems. The team meets and learns about the opportunity and challenges. They may be motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and 16 . It has also taken a firm hold in the field of experiential education since in many outdoor education centers team building and leadership development are key goals. to face up to challenges. who maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow.7. Team members tend to behave quite independently. the forming of the team takes place.7. and to deliver results.

The forming stage of any team is important because in this stage the members of the team get to know one another and make new friends. Mature team members begin to model appropriate behavior even at this early phase. Team members open up to each other and confront each other's ideas and perspectives. Performing" is extremely helpful to the team. Storming. It can be contentious. 17 . Sharing the knowledge of the concept of "Teams . In others. Norming.objectives of the team. Team members are usually on their best behavior but very focused on themselves. This is also a good opportunity to see how each member of the team works as an individual and how they respond to pressure. The storming stage is necessary to the growth of the team.Forming. Some team members will focus on minutiae to evade real issues. how they will function independently and together and what leadership model they will accept.2 Storming Every group will then enter the storming stage in which different ideas compete for consideration. 8. In some cases storming can be resolved quickly. The team addresses issues such as what problems they are really supposed to solve. The maturity of some team members usually determines whether the team will ever move out of this stage. the team never leaves this stage. Supervisors of the team tend to need to be directive during this phase.

Team members adjust their behavior to each other as they develop work habits that make teamwork seem more natural and fluid. Supervisors of the team during this phase may be more accessible but tend to still need to be directive in their guidance of decisionmaking and professional behavior.3 Norming At some point. the team may enter the norming stage. professional behavior. Without tolerance and patience the team will fail. values. During this phase. Supervisors of 18 . Teams in this phase may lose their creativity if the norming behaviors become too strong and begin to stifle healthy dissent and the team begins to exhibit groupthink. working tools and even taboos. Team members often work through this stage by agreeing on rules. 8.unpleasant and even painful to members of the team who are averse to conflict. This phase can become destructive to the team and will lower motivation if allowed to get out of control. Motivation increases as the team gets more acquainted with the project. Tolerance of each team member and their differences needs to be emphasized. team members begin to trust each other. The groups will therefore resolve their differences and group members will be able to participate with one another more comfortably and they won't feel that they are being judged in any way and will therefore share their own opinions and views. shared methods.

however some can begin to feel threatened by the amount of responsibility they have been given. They would try to resist the pressure and resist reverting to storming again. The team members can be expected to take more responsibility for making decisions and for their professional behavior. By this time they are motivated and knowledgeable. autonomous and able to handle the decision-making process without supervision.the team during this phase tend to be participative more than in the earlier stages. These highperforming teams are able to function as a unit as they find ways to get the job done smoothly and effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need for external supervision. The team feels a sense of achievement for getting so far. The team members are now competent. Team members have become interdependent. Views seen before of members at the start begin to change as they know each other better. Many long-standing teams will go through these 19 .4 Performing Some teams will reach the performing stage. 8. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channeled through means acceptable to the team. Supervisors of the team during this phase are almost always participative. The team will make most of the necessary decisions. Even the most highperforming teams will revert to earlier stages in certain circumstances.

This puts the emphasis back on the team and leader as the Storming stage must be actively engaged in to succeed – too many 'diplomats' or 'peacemakers' especially in a leadership role may prevent the team from reaching their full potential. a change in leadership may cause the team to revert to storming as the new people challenge the existing norms and dynamics of the team.5 Adjourning and Transforming Tuckman later added a fifth phase. This addition is designed to reflect that there is a period after Forming where the performance of a team gradually improves and the interference of leader content with that level of performance will prevent a team progressing through the Storming stage to true performance. adjourning. 8. that involves completing the task and breaking up the team. 20 . For example. Others call it the phase for mourning A team that lasts may transcend to a transforming phase of achievement.6 Norming and Re-Norming Timothy Biggs suggested that an additional stage be added of Norming after Forming and renaming the traditional Norming stage Re-Norming.cycles many times as they react to changing circumstances. Transformational management can produce major changes in performance through synergy and is considered to be more far-reaching than transactional management 8.

and team commitment. worthwhile challenge. With a clear goal. 9. Clear goals with measurable standards must be developed and agreed upon with the team. The definition of the goal is specific enough that there is no misunderstanding about what is to be accomplished and the team fully understands what is expected of them.1 Clarity in a team goal means it is easily understood by all members involved. those working towards achieving it will know what they need to do or learn in order to meet their target objective. The Four C's of Team Goal Setting Goals are a great way to improve team performance.2 Criteria spelled out in a goal are the performance measures that must be reached in order for the team to know they have hit their target. The criterion is a unit of measure in quantity or percentage to be accomplished during a specified timeframe and agreed to by the team. The C's stand for goal clarity.9. Clarification assures the team understands why the goal is a worthwhile and relevant one for them to work towards 9. Having this criterion provides regular feedback for the team along the course of the goal so they can make adjustments to their 21 . One simple way to help determine what team goals should be is to utilize the four C's of goal setting. measurable criteria.

Instead it should motivate the team to stretch themselves without breaking down their spirits or greatly interfering with their quality procedures or necessary routine tasks. A meaningful goal should not just maintain the status quo or accomplish a little more. and ask for adjustments or help with barriers when necessary 9.3 Challenge Within the goal is a way to give the team the opportunity to stretch their skills and show what they can do. For the team to commit to any goal. mission. A goal that is too small or too large can be more damaging than it is challenging or motivating. giving a worthwhile 22 . 9. and and behaviors. they must be involved in the decision making process and receive the appropriate information or training to know what they can accomplish and why it is important Utilize the C's for building team goal clarity.4 Commitment Is the team agreeing to the responsibility and accountability of reaching the goal the best way to get team commitment is for the team to participate in the goal setting process? The team must understand how their goal fits with the organization's visions. assigning measurable criteria. Without this information. it is hard for the team to understand their reward and recognition structure develops their work plan.

Team effectiveness depends on people taking on different roles in a group setting. In fact. If the job is too easy or too difficult. This can mean different technical abilities or communication skills. teaming up people who share the exact same characteristics is often a recipe for disaster. and getting full team commitment. Team effectiveness depends in part on bringing together people who have different skills that somehow complement each other.challenge. or if the 23 . Team effectiveness is determined by a number of factors. If there is no agreement on who does what in the group. Clear team goals with agreed to measurements are one of the best ways to improve team performance.2 The right motivation. 10. Team effectiveness is directly linked to the interest that the group has on the project. The idea behind team effectiveness is that a group of people working together can achieve much more than if the individuals of the team were working on their own. The four C's are an easy method of determining what team goals should be. 10. such as: 10.1 The right mix of skills. Interpersonal Competence & Team Effectiveness Team effectiveness refers to the system of getting people in a company or institution to work together effectively. it is unlikely that the team will prosper.

Working towards a specific goal enhances team effectiveness significantly. What is allowed and what is not? How will the team deal with disagreements? Is open discussion favored or will the group vote on major decisions? Knowing what to expect and having the plan will make the process of working in group much easier. 10. just so they can keep the process moving. Team effectiveness should be increased. As conflicts arise.rewards for achieving the end result do not seem worth the effort. Sometimes groups end up making decisions they know are not in the best interest of the project. the team may end up working half-heartedly in the project. Conflict is innate to any work done in groups. working intensely on a project 24 . through conflict. and should be taken as part of the challenge rather than as something to be avoided by compromising. it is important to know how to deal with them. 11. you may find yourself isolated from the larger workplace. The task should also have a clear outcome. Team Building & Interpersonal Communication When you are working in small groups. not compromised. One way to enhance team effectiveness is to agree beforehand on a code of conduct.3 The ability to solve conflicts (Without compromising the quality of the project) Team work has one major downfall.

That means it requires your active involvement 11. It’s an activity. you feel like you can read their mind. Sometimes when you’re working very closely with someone.” time to focus on your interpersonal communication skills and style here are some suggestions: 11.that has become a vital part of yourself. While that personal ownership of a project has many wonderful benefits. and increased irritability will usually result. It builds camaraderie when opinions and ideas are valued. Every member of the group will likely have that same experience.1 Take time to talk. and that they can read yours. That’s all good – until you’re wrong about it. Taking the time to talk things through.3 Be other focused Ask for opinions of others before promulgating yours. one danger is that interpersonal communication may deteriorate. and a sense of dependence on one another will occur. even when it’s about insignificant details. as well as just being practical. Psychologists refer to this as the “lifeboat syndrome. This is usually caused by dependence becoming overdependence. 25 . 11. There may also be an increased tendency to perceive disagreement within the group as a personal attack. is a team building activity.2 Listen.

There is no one RIGHT way to do something. If this starts happening.5 Look for common ground. things. When things get tense. use your skills to move things back to the shared beliefs and values. not just you. Whether it’s exposure to new people. it’s easy to focus on differences. You can’t control human dynamics. an open mindset goes a long ways toward promoting harmony within a group.4 Be open to new ideas. You are responsible for keeping it moving forward. Find what works for the group. 12. managers must be able to work with one another to achieve common goals. to maximize the effectiveness of the organization. but you’ve got other people to consider as well. rather than commonalities. and meeting your objectives. or simply trying something new. Six Principles of Effective Team Management Individual department or functional managers need to embrace ownership and responsibility for success and accomplishing defined strategic initiatives. and then move forward.11. There may be a RIGHT way for you. 26 . but you can conduct yourself in a way that shows your team that you are committed to working through all the issues on the road to success. Being a leader is a lot more work than just being one of the team. However. 11. processes.

This encourages innovation and creativity but it requires effective communication. Goals should be measurable and specific. information and the organization encourages empowerment. 4. Do not micro manage. Minimize oversight through confidence and empowerment. Accountability must be at the forefront of every initiative. Managers need to function more as facilitators and leaders. If you can't trust someone on the team then they shouldn't be on the team. Workers will accept more responsibility if management isn't constantly looking over their shoulder. Performance management & performance measurement are key contributors to improved team management. Manager skill sets must be continuously reviewed and upgraded 27 . Coaching is a skill set that should be required training for all managers to improve team management.To be effective the following six principles apply: 1. 6. Regular performance discussions should be scheduled and strictly held to. 3. Information sharing and effective communication is critical. 2. Teams must have unrestricted access to all relevant information. Creating score cards is an effective tool to improve team performance 5. Employees do want to be held accountable and they willing accept responsibility given the necessary training.

trust and maturity becomes the foundation for teamwork and problem solving. A forum exists to educate and train managers on the problems and concerns of other functional departments. FIRO-B was created. The dimensions are called allow them the opportunity to adopt new skills specifically related to coaching and mentoring. This feeling of mutual respect. three dimensions of interpersonal relations are necessary and sufficient to explain most human interaction. 13. FIRO-B Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) is a theory of interpersonal relations.1 Control and Affection. Communication is kept at the "Adult" level and an explicit understanding of respect exists throughout the culture of the organization. 13. The manager's role must be redefined for the team environment and an emphasis on the servant style of leadership ("The Lead Wolf" model) is essential. and more intimate personal relations. introduced by William Schutz in 1958. leadership and responsibilities. According to the theory. These categories measure how much interaction a person wants in the areas of socializing. Organizations that maximize success embrace the concept of "Team Leadership" and their managers are skilled at leading group problem-solving sessions maximizing collaboration across all functional units. based on this 28 .

and can and do change. Schutz himself discussed the impact of extreme behavior in the areas of inclusion.1. Scores are graded from 0-9 in scales of expressed and wanted behavior. and affection as indicated by scores on the FIRO-B. low WI) 2. From this. which led to the creation of a theory of Five Temperaments. Schutz believed that FIRO scores in themselves were not terminal. Excessive was defined as indicating that an individual was constantly trying to satisfy the need. (2) excessive. high WI) 3.1 Inclusion types. 1. which define how much a person expresses to others. The undersocial (low EI. moderate WI) 29 .theory. control. Deficient was defined as indicating that an individual was not trying to directly satisfy the need. the four temperaments were eventually mapped to the FIRO-B scales. and (3) ideal. and did not encourage typology. a measurement instrument with scales that assess the behavioral aspects of the three dimensions. however. The social (moderate EI. and how much he wants from others. The oversocial (high EI. For each area of interpersonal need the following three types of behavior would be evident: (1) deficient. he identified the following types 13. Ideal referred to satisfaction of the need.

6thEdition.2 Control types 1. Reference: 1. McGraw Hill. Flippo.1. Edwin B.3 Affection types 1. Beach. high WA) 3. Personnel Management. 4th Edition. The autocrat (high EC. The abdicrat (low EC. New York (1980). low WA) 2. moderate WC) 13. The democrat (moderate EC. low WC) 3.1. 30 . high WC) 2.13. New York (1984). 2. The personal (moderate EA moderate WA) ******************** 14. Macmillan. The overpersonal (high EA. Dale S. The underpersonal (low EA. Personnel: The Management of People at Work.

The Global Open University Nagaland 5. VU Pakistan Lectures on Human Resource 6. Michael. A Handbook of Personnel Managemen Practices. Armstrong.html Blurtit. 10.shu. 4. Worlstrans. 31 .com Buzzle. Kogan Page London (1988). utexas. Muktar Ahmad. 3rd Edition. Human Resource Planning & Development . By Professor Dr. Google. Pirate. 8. The Economist .com Scribd. Wikipedia. 15.