MODULE - I Fundamentals of Computers [T-(Theory): 215, P-(Practical): 270] Unit-I History of Computers and Fundamentals (T-40) • Introduction • Definition • Type

and classification • Computer characteristics • Functions Unit-II Computer Hardware and Software Concepts (T-40) • Input devices • Output devices • CPU, Memory, Secondary Memory • Removable Devices • Concept of Environmental safety:- Pollution of environment due to e-waste like junk key board, components of computers and other office machineries. Unit-III Introduction of Personal Computer and Operating Systems (LINUX, WINDOWS-XP) (T-80, P-150) Unit-IV Basic concept of Networking / Communication (T-30, P-100) Unit-V Concept of Information and Data Processing (T-15) Unit-VI Concept Handling and Basic Level Troubleshooting (T-20, P-20) MODULE - II Basic Programming Techniques (T: 180, P: 670) Unit-I Flow Charts (T-5) Unit-II Language Concepts - Introduction to C (T-30, P-220) Unit-III Approaching ASP.NET starting with Visual Basic .NET (T-145, P-450) MODULE - III Application / Working with programming packages (T:125, P:360) Unit-I Office Automation Package (T-40, P-100) Unit-II Spread Sheet Package (T-25, P-60) Unit-III X-base packages MySQL (Open Source) Overview of VB.Net, ASP.NET (T-55, P-200) Unit-IV Awareness of IT Act 2000, its Amendments and Phenomena (T-5) 7 MODULE - I (T:215, P:270) Fundamentals of Computers Unit-I History of Computer & Fundamentals (T:40) History of Computer • Abacus of ENIAC, Computer Generations, Languages, Software and application, Computers in India. Computers - An Introduction • Functions of Computer: input, processing, output, Functions of ALU, control, storage, input and output devices. • Application of Computers: viz. Railway Reservation, Electricity / Telephone Billing and

(include some e-governance applications according to respective States.) • Networks of Computers- Homogenous, Heterogeneous Characteristics (State Wide Area Network (SWAN) concept) • Clock Speed • Accuracy Functions • Bits, bytes characters, field record, file. Representation of data: • Binary addition and subtraction, octal, hexadecimal, ASCII, EBCDIC, positive versus negative integers, floating point numbers. • Higher level and Lower language. Unit-II Hardware and software concepts (T:40) • Computer Hardware; electronic digital computer. • Input device: on line data input devices & their importance, dumb terminals, voice recognition devices, Touch tone terminals, Mouse. • Office data input: key to disk system • Source data input: point of sale terminals, laser beam scanners, optical sense readers, optical characters readers (OCR), and magnetic ink character readers (MICR). • Output device: Hard copy device -Dot matrix printer, ink jet printer, laser printer, plotter output. • Soft copy device: VDU (monochrome color), LCD (liquid crystal display), audio response unit; • CPU architecture: Overview with data flow • Memory device: Classification of Primary Memory Devices and Flash Memories. • Secondary memory device; Hard disk (removable/fixed), advantage and limitations of secondary storage devices & DVD Writers or Blu-ray Writers. • Removable Drive like Pen drives and external storage devices. • Serial, Parallel and USB Ports 8 Unit-III Introduction Computer and Operating Systems: Windows XP or Higher Version and LINUX and its flavours T-80, P-150). INTRODUCTION TO Personal/Desktop Computers, LAPTOP, PALM-TOP & Minimum hardware and software configuration of the above. WINDOWS and LINUX commands• Installation of Operating Systems (Windows XP) • profiling an operating system • Booting sequence: operating system files and command processor file. • Definition of a file; File name. • Booting from HDD, CD or DVD or external removable devices.

• Change Programmed/their properties • Expand compressed directories and files • Multiple Windows Using Desktop ICONS • My Computer • Network Neighborhood • Control Panel • Add Printer • Create/Delete/Rename/Folder File Management through Windows • Select File snag Directories • Copy. who.• warm and cold reboot • Multitasking and Multiprocessing • Client Server Architecture Using WINDOWS • Start windows • Using different windows simultaneously • Moving through widows and mouse • Maximum/Minimum windows • Use of help feature • Exit windows • Starting an application • Run and Manage multiple application • Close applications Using the program Manager • Create/Add Groups using Program Manager • Move/Copy/Delete Program Items. grep. cp. • Protocols TCP/IP. P100) • Internet connection setup & sharing. rm. NSP ETC. echo. sort. etc. • Mkdir. is. Move. • Concept of sites & pages . passwd. ISP. Unit-IV Basic concepts of Networking / Communication: (T-30. Files/Directories • Disk Operations using File Manage Using Essential Accessories • Starting and Using Text Editors • Type and Edit text in a document in Text Editors 9 • Save and Print a document file in Text Editors • Starting and using paintbrush • Printing a drawing Basic Shell Commands of LINUX • Date. Delete. chmod. mv. rmdir. cd.

DVD. • Data processing: Storage. Mouse.Scheduling . low chart and Data flow Diagrams. comparison of manual and computer storage and organization of data as files. SCANNER . Variables. restoration etc Unit-VI : Computer Handling and Basic Level Troubleshooting (T-10. Keyboard. • Physical concepts: Storage and Retrieval of data. Static & Dynamic. • Definition of Information: difference between Data and Information. • Backup and Restore of DATA .Processing (T-15) • Information concepts and processing: Evolution of Information Processing. • Designing web-pages. Application server. retrieval and processing of data. provision of Information of relevance. searching merging Analysis of algorithmsspace and time trade offs. HDD. Inkjet. Monitor • Printers: Dot Matrix. Database Server Unit-V : Concept of Information & Data .VCD.Refilling the cartridge.Installing the cartridge . Web server. • Data processing: Storage. retrieval and processing of data as files. • Methods of Data Security like backup. P:670) Basic Programming Techniques Unit-I: Flow Charts (T-5) • Illustrations with summing series. data information. program testing. DHTML. P-220) Introduction to C • Overview of C • Constants. Attributes and Relationship. Hub. language and Communication. and Data type • Operators and Expression • Managing Formatted / Unformatted Input and Output • Decision making and Branching .Programme documentation. • Precautionary measures in Handling /Operating. • Techniques/Methods of Data processing. 10 MODULE .II (T:180. sorting. .Feeding paper . Earth voltage & checking earthing.Modem. online backup. FDD. • Program testing and debugging efficient programming techniques Structured programming.Management Plans etc. • Logical concepts of data: Entities. CD. P-20) • Measuring Main Supply.XML. style in programming. Laser . Unit-II: Language Concepts (T-30.• Introduction to BIML. • Concepts of Web Hosting. • Data concepts: symbols which describe records reality: logical and physical concepts.

project and executable files • Visual Basic Reference Materials • Creating Simple Applications.• Decision Making looping • Arrays • Handling of Character Strings • User defined Functions • Structures and Unions • Pointers • File management in concepts Unit-III: Approaching ASP. Visual Basic. Methods and Events • Working with Forms • Introduction to controls • Basic controls • Creating a Visual Basic Applications Working with Code and Forms • Automatic Code completion features • Interfacing with the user 11 • Using the Message box Functions • Using the Input box functions • Working with code statements • Managing forms • Working with Forms Variables and Procedures • Overview of variables • Declaring Variables • Variable scope • Using Arrays • User-Defined data types • converting data types • Using Constants • Working with Procedures • Working with dates and times • Using the Format function • Manipulating Text strings .NET (T: 145. Working in the development environment • Event-Driven Programming • Creating a program in Visual Basic. Introduction to Objects • Controlling objects • Properties .NET starting with Visual Basic . Editions of Visual Basic.NET Fundamentals. Visual Basic Terminology • Visual Basic Terminology. P: 450) • Features of Visual Basic .

NET data Control • Overview of Activex Data objects • Visual Basic data Access Features • Relational Database concepts • Using the ADO Data control to access data • Structured Query Language (SQL) • SQL connection • Manipulated Data • Using the Data Form Wizard • Accessing Databases • Back up & Restore Procedure . Else If loop. Do While. SWITCH Case Debugging • Types of Errors • Break Mode • Using the Debug Toolbar • Using the Watch Window • Using the Immediate Window • Using the locals window • Tracing Program Flow with the call stack • Using visual Basic debugging tools Working with Controls • Types of controls • Overview of Standard Controls o Using combo box and list Box controls • Using option button and Frame Control 12 • working with selected text • Advanced Standard Controls • Activex controls • Insertable Objects • Working with controls • Login.Then Statements • Using select…case statements • Overview of Looping structures • Using Do…Loop structures • For…Next Statement • Exiting a Loop • Controlling Program Flow While. Validation & Navigation Control Data Access using the ADO.• Writing Procedures Controlling Program Execution • Comparison and Logical Operators • Using If….

NET • Error Trapping . Excel etc (Include regional language INDIC keyboard selection topic) .III (T:125.Web Services 14 Module. P-100) (MS Office or Open Office: Word.Hyperlink Drag-and-Drop Operations 13 • Overview of Drag-and-Drop Features • Mouse Events • Drag-and-Drop Editing Basics • Adding Drag and Drop More About Controls • Collections • Using Control Arrays Finishing Touches • User Interface Design Principles • Distributing and Application • Creating a Default Project • Review: Steps to Creating a Visual Basic Program • Development Resources • Using the Package and Development Wizard .Exception Handling Enhancing the User Interface • Menus • Status Bars • Toolbars • Adding Menus . P:360) Application/Working with Programming Language Unit-I Office Automation package (T-40.Input Validation (and Testing of software) • Field – Level Validation • Using Text Box Properties to Restrict Data Entry • Using the Masked Edit Control • Form-Level Validation • Form Events Used When Validating Data Error Trapping • Overview of Run-Time Errors • Overview of the Error -0 Handling Process • The Err Object • Errors and the Calling Chain • Errors in an Error-Handling Routine Exception Handling • Inline Error Handling • Error – Handling Styles • General Error – Trapping Options in Visual Basic.

Data source • Merging Documents • Using mail merge Feature for Labels and envelopes Graphics and using Templates and Wizards • Hands-on experience in word processing under DOS • Familiarity in Word processing under Windows.WORD PROCESSING PACKAGE Basics of Word processing • Text selection • Opening Documents and Creating Documents • Saving Documents/Quitting Documents • Cursor control • Printing Documents • Using the interface(Menu. Sorting blocks. Headers and Footers • Setting Up Multiple columns. toolbars) • Editing Text (Copy./ • Working with ranges • Worksheets printing Working with Graphs and Charts • Adding/Formatting Text data with Auto format • Changing chart types • Creating separate. chat sheet • Adding titles. P-60) Usage of Ms-Excel Worksheet Basics • Data Entry in cells. margins and hyphenating documents • Creating Master Document. Document Enhancement • Adding borders and shading. entry of numbers. Unit-II SPREADSHEET PACKAGE (T-25. delete. Minus) • Editing basics • Working with workbooks • Saving and quitting • Cell Referencing Formatting and calculations • Calculations and Worksheets-Using Auto fill 15 • Working with formulae • Efficient Data Display with Data formatting number formatting etc. text and Formulae • Moving data in a Worksheet • Moving around in a Worksheet • Selecting Data range • Using the interface(Toolbars. Move etc.) • Finding and replacing Text • Practicing in Regional Language. legends and gridlines .

Truth Tables • SQL Operators o SQL Operator. WI-FI with license Operating System and Antivirus . 2. Concatenation operator. • Filtering records in a worksheet Unit-III X-base package (T-55. IS NULL • SQL Functions o Number.01 Nos. Rules for writing numericals. Character. File server for LAN . Xeon Latest 64 bit processor or Higher with PCI Express Video Card 4GB VRAM 8 GB RAM 22" TFT . 8 GB RAM. P-200) . its Amendments and Phenomena (T-5) • Provisions of act • Types of offences. LIKE. BETWEEN. Cyber Law • E-Commerce Basics (Overview of B2B. Date. Date. date and variable names o Logical operators.using MySQL and MS-Access • What is Database Management System (RDBMS) and Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) • Introduction to SQL o What is SQL? o Data Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML) o Introduction to Atomic Concurrent Integrated Durable (ACID) Properties. characters. Dual Table. • Expression o Select commands o Using Numeric. AND IN. Expression Table. Conversion o Group Functions. Data base management • Finding Records With Data form • Adding/Deleting records. Laptop: With i770 Intel Processor. o Joins and operators o SQL Queries o Reports Unit-IV Awareness of IT –Act 2000. C2C). B2C. fines.• Printing charts. Online transactions 16 HARDWARE EQUIREMENT FOR COMPUTER ORERATOR & PROGRAMMING ASSISTANT 1.01 No. 1 TB HDD. Group by & Having Clause. imprisonment • Cyber Crime. null values • Where Clause (Select Statement) o Where clause o Comparison operators.

Server Edition Internet. CAT-6 CABLE FOR LAN -As required 10. WORKSTATION/NODES . Antivirus . WORKSTATION FOR MULTIMEDIA . Wireless Router . RJ 45 CONNECTORS -As required 9.Server Edition & UPS for Power Back up. Silver light . Standalone HARDDISKS .2 Nos 21. LCD PROJECTOR . 2 KVA ON. OPTICAL SCANNER (DESK TOP TYPE) .1 No 15. i700 (i7) PROCESSOR or Quadcore or Higher 8 GB RAM 1 Terabyte HDD 22" TFT Monitor101 DVD OR BLU-RAY WRITER KEYBORD/INTERNET USB Optical Mouse. DSL Wireless Router . 24 PORT SWITCH WITH WIRELESS CONNECTIVITY -As required 6. COLOUR LASER PRINTER .01 No 25. LAB should have Structured cabling -As required 7. Data Recovery Software -As required 23. WEB CAM (DIGITAL CAMERA) .2 Nos SOFTWARES Front Page. LAN Setup -As required 22.1 No 14. USB Keyboard with latest license of OS with Antivirus Professional/Ultimate Edition 5.05 Nos 26. Network MONOCHROME LASER PRINTER . Internet or Intranet Connectivity -As required 8. DVD OR BLU-RAY WRITER .Keyboard.1 No 13.10 NODES i700 (i7) PROCESSOR or Higher 8 GB RAM 1 Terabyte HDD 22" TFT Monitor101 DVD OR BLU-RAY WRITER KEYBORD/INTERNET USB Optical Mouse.01 Nos. Network Rack . Flash Software . 500 VA or higher off – line UPS FOR NODES .5 Nos 18.01 No 24.1 no 11.1 No 17 20. USB Floppy Drive . Mouse.2 Nos 16.LINE UPS FOR SERVER . USB Keyboard with latest license of OS and Antivirus Professional/Ultimate Edition 4.10 Nos 12. DVD OR BLU-RAY WRITER with latest license of OS . 3. PEN-DRIVE . Wireless LAN Card .2 Nos 17.4 Nos 19.

Computer table sunmica top 150X650X750 mm with sliding tray for key board and one shelf of storage -10 Nos 6. Pigeon hole cabinet : 20 compartments -01 No 3. Vacuum cleaner – 01 No 2.Server Edition for Servers and clients / workstations in profile with validity of an year or more that can be procured on expiry. MySQL AND OTHER SOFTWARES. NOTE. Linux or any Open Source Software. OPEN Office. Printer table 650X500X750mm can be varied as per local specifications—03 Nos 10. VISUAL STUDIO.SQL SERVER.5 tons – 03 Nos 11. Antivirus .LATEST VERSION OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE should be provided LIST OF OTHER ITEMS/ FURNITURE 1.01 each (for class room & laboratory) 4. adjustable height – 20 Nos 7. MICROSOFT OFFICE. Wall clock -01 No 9. Storage cabinet 60X700X450mm -01 No . Door mat -02 Nos 8. Window or Split type air conditioners 1. Chair and table for the instructor . Dual Desk or Chair and Tables for Trainees (For the batch of 16+4=20 Trainees) 5. Operators chair (without arms mounted on castor wheels.

Joe Carthy.80386.Pentium. Variables For the moment we will skip details of variable declaration and simply use the 8086 registers as the variables in our programs.80286. .I II ….80486.) Learning any imperative programming language involves mastering a number of common concepts: Variables: declaration/definition Assignment: assigning values to variables Input/Output: Displaying messages Displaying variable values Control flow: if-then Loops Subprograms: Definition and Usage Programming in assembly language involves mastering the same concepts and a few other issues. also referred to as the X86 family. UCD 1 Introduction to 8086 Programming (The 8086 microprocessor is one of the family of 8086. Registers have predefined names and do not need to be declared.Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming.II.PentiumI.

x add z. cl. Joe Carthy. dh. In assembly language we carry out the same operation but we use an instruction to denote the assignment operator (“=” in Java). z = x + y. UCD 3 . bx. UCD 2 The 8086 has 14 registers. Each of these is a 16-bit register. ch. al. cx. The above assignments would be carried out in 8086 assembly langauge as follows mov x. dl Assignment In Java. Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. 24 add z. bh. dx These four 16-bit registers can also be treated as eight 8-bit registers: ah.Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. y = 24. bl. Initially. Joe Carthy. assignment takes the form: x = 42 . 42 mov y. y The mov instruction carries out assignment. we will use four of them – the so called the general purpose registers: ax.

e. ‘A’ The mov instruction also allows you to copy the contents of one register into another register. bx The first instruction loads the value 2 into bx where it is stored as a binary number. Example: Store the ASCII code for the letter A in register bx. 2 mov cx. representing the destination where data is to be placed and the source of that data. Joe Carthy. UCD 4 where destination must be either a register or memory location . source Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming.It which allows us place a number in a register or in a memory location (a variable) i. mov bx. Example: mov bx. [a number such as 2 is called an integer constant] The Mov instruction takes two operands. General Form of Mov Instruction mov destination. it assigns a value to a register or variable.

Note: The comma is essential.) is ignored by the assembler. A missing comma is a common syntax error. Comments Anything that follows semi-colon (. In assembly language you can only carry out a single arithmetic operation at a time. inc. More 8086 Instructions add. You use them to explain what you are doing in English. dec and sub instructions The 8086 provides a variety of arithmetic instructions. we only consider a few of them. For the moment. another register or a memory location. This means that if you wish to . To carry out arithmetic such as addition or subtraction. you use the appropriate instruction. Comments are used to make your programs readable. It is called a comment.and source may be a constant. It is used to separate the two operands.

UCD 6 The inc instruction takes one operand and adds 1 to it. load 5 into ax add ax. . The destination operand is always the first operand in 8086 assembly language. subtract 1 from ax .evaluate an expression such as : Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. 3 . Joe Carthy. Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. 6 . add 1 to ax . Joe Carthy. UCD 5 z=x+y+w–v You will have to use 3 assembly language instructions – one for each arithmetic operation. It is . Example: mov ax. ax now contains 8 inc ax . ax now contains 2 The add instruction adds the source operand to the destination operand. leaving the result in the destination operand. subtract 4 from ax . ax now contains 8 sub ax. These instructions combine assignment with the arithmetic operation. add 3 to the contents of ax. ax now contains 9 dec ax . 5 .

ax mov cx.provided because of the frequency of adding 1 to an operand in programming. ch move ax. The dec instruction like inc takes one operand and subtracts 1 from it. 6 inc ax. Exercises: 1) Write instructions to: Load character ? into register bx Load space character into register cx Load 26 (decimal) into register cx Copy contents of ax to bx and dx 2) What errors are present in the following : mov ax 3d mov 23. This is also a frequent operation in programming. (b) 2 registers. The sub instruction subtracts the source operand from the destination operand leaving the result in the destination operand. 2 3) Write instructions to evaluate the arithmetic expression 5 + (6-2) leaving the result in ax using (a) 1 register. 1h add 2. cx add 3. .

bl and so on to represent the variables: a. 10 . 3 cmp ax. This is an example of an endless loop. bh. and v. 3 jmp Label_X The jmp instruction causes the program to start executing from the position in the program indicated by the label Label_X. 2 add bx. u. Implementing a loop: The jmp instruction Label_X: add ax. x.(c) 3 registers Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. Joe Carthy. mov ax. c. It is used in combination with a comparision instruction – cmp. y. z. We could implement a while loop using a conditional jump instruction such as JL which means jumi-if-lessthan. 2 add bx. UCD 7 4) Write instructions to evaluate the expressions: a = b + c –d z = x + y + w – v +u 5) Rewrite the expression in 4) above but using the registers ah. w. b. al. 0 Label_X: add ax.

The cmp instruction compares ax to 0 and records the result. The jl instruction uses this result to determine whether to jump to the point indicated by Label_X. Input/Output Each microprocessor provides instructions for I/O with the devices that are attached to it. to read a character from the keyboard.g. so we usually use the operating system to do I/O for us instead. The 8086 provides the instructions in for input and out for output.g. In addition we must be able to tell the operating system what kind of I/O operation we wish to carry out. UCD 8 The above loop continues while the value of ax is less than 10. to display a character or string on the screen or to do disk I/O. These instructions are quite complicated to use. the keyboard and screen. In assembly language we must have a mechanism to call the operating system to carry out I/O. Joe Carthy. .jl Label_X Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. e. e.

UCD 9 A software interrupt is one generated by a program (as opposed to one generated by hardware). instead. part of the operating system). the number used is 21h. The 8086 int instruction generates a software interrupt. running your program) and to pass control to an interrupt service program (i. Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. . we do not call operating system subprograms by name. the instruction int 21h transfers control to the operating system. Joe Carthy. we use a software interrupt mechanism An interrupt signals the processor to suspend its current activity (i. It uses a single operand which is a number indicating which MS-DOS subprogram is to be invoked. Thus.e.In 8086 assembly language.e. This subprogram handles a variety of I/O operations by calling appropriate subprograms. to a subprogram that handles I/O operations. For I/O and some other operations.

This number must be stored in the ah register. the subprogram to display a character is subprogram number 2h. We are now in a position to describe character output. the interrupt service program terminates and our program will be resumed at the instruction following int.3. Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. . UCD 10 3.g. For example. Joe Carthy. The ah register is used to pass this information.1 Character Output The task here is to display a single character on the screen. This is done by storing the character’s ASCII code in a specific 8086 register. display a character) you wish to carry out. There are three elements involved in carrying out this operation using the int instruction: 1.This means that you must also specify which I/O operation (e. When the I/O operation is finished. We specify the character to be displayed. read a character. This is done by placing a specific number in a register.

e. 2h . Joe Carthy. This means that we interrupt our program and transfer control to the MS-DOS subprogram that we have specified using the ah register. 2. . character output subprogram int 21h . We request MS-DOS to carry out the I/O operation using the int instruction. 3.3. The subprogram to display a character is subprogram number 2h. Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. Example 1: Write a code fragment to display the character ’a’ on the screen: mov dl. We specify which of MS-DOS’s I/O subprograms we wish to use. dl = ‘a‘ mov ah.2 Character Input The task here is to read a single character from the keyboard. call ms-dos output character As you can see. ‘a‘ . UCD 11 3.In this case we use the dl register. this simple task is quite complicated in assembly language. This number is stored in the ah register. we use dl to pass a parameter to the output subprogram. i.

Example 2: Write a code fragment to read a character from the keyboard: mov ah. by reading a character from the keyboard and displaying it. Joe Carthy. This is MS-DOS subprogram number 1h. i. The MS-DOS subprogram uses the al register to store the character it reads from the keyboard. character is stored in al The following example combines the two previous ones. 1h . As for character output. Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. UCD 12 Example 3: Reading and displaying a character: . 3.There are also three elements involved in performing character input: 1. character input . keyboard input subprogram int 21h . the character input from the keyboard subprogram.e. This number must be stored in the ah register. we specify which of MS-DOS’s I/O subprograms we wish to use. We call MS-DOS to carry out the I/O operation using the int instruction as for character output. 2.

al . The process of using the editor (editing) is a basic form of word processing. display character in dl A Complete Program We are now in a position to write a complete 8086 program. This skill has no relevance to programming. 2h .asm. We use Microsoft’s MASM and LINK programs for assembling and linking 8086 assembly language programs. keyboard input subprogram int 21h . (You may use any name you wish. you must then use the . copy character to dl mov ah. You must use an editor to enter the program into a file. read character into al mov dl.mov ah. We will call our first program prog1. it displays the letter ‘a‘ on the screen. MASM program files should have names with the extension (3 characters after period) asm. Having entered and saved the program using an editor. It is a good idea to choose a meaningful file name). 1h . character output subprogram int 21h .

UCD 14 Example 4: A complete program to display the letter ‘a‘ on the screen: .MASM and LINK commands to translate it to machine code so that it may be executed as follows: C> masm prog1 Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. H:###BOT_TEXT###gt; link prog1 To execute the program. Joe Carthy. pressing Return in response to prompts for file names from masm or link. Date: March 1994 . you will get error messages at this point. Joe Carthy. correct them and repeat the above command. simply enter the program name and press the Return key: H:###BOT_TEXT###gt; prog1 a H:###BOT_TEXT###gt; Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming.asm: displays the character ‘a’ on the screen . Author: Joe Carthy . prog1.model small . You then have to edit your program. otherwise proceed to the link command. UCD 13 If you have syntax errors.

stack. 2h .code start: mov dl. 4c00h .stack 100h .code.model and .e. Joe Carthy. ms-dos character output function int 21h . . . displays character in dl register mov ax. ‘a’ . indicates where the program instructions (i. give the name of the author and the date the program was written. the program code) begin. They are concerned with how your program will be stored in memory and how large a stack it requires.. return to ms-dos int 21h end start The first three lines of the program are comments to give the name of the file containing the program. store ascii code of ‘a’ in dl mov ah. The third directive. Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. The first two are directives. explain its purpose. suffice it to say that you need to start all assembly languages programs in a particular format (not . UCD 15 For the moment.

Terminates program terminate a program and return you to MSDOS. begin in place of start). It is the subprogram to terminate a program and return to MSDOS. which is the first instruction to be executed. Hence.necessarily that given above. we return to the operating system. i. In the middle comes the code that you write yourself. Code for return to MS-DOS int 21H . . e.e. You must also specify where your program starts. this is also accomplished by using the int instruction. When a program has finished. the instructions: mov ax. This same label is also used by the end directive. the end directive indicates where your program finishes. Your program must also finish in a particular format. This is the purpose of the label. Like carrying out an I/O operation.g. start. 4c00h . This time MS-DOS subprogram number 4c00h is used. (Note: We could use any label.

Then.asm. UCD 16 Time-saving Tip Since your programs will start and finish using the same format. . prog2. say for example.g.asm prog2.Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming. You create a template program called for example. Joe Carthy. using the MS-DOS copy command): H:###BOT_TEXT###gt; copy template. when you wish to write a new program. which contains the standard code to start and finish your assembly language programs. template. as follows (e.asm and enter your code in the appropriate place.asm You then edit prog2. you copy this template program to a new file. you can save yourself time entering this code for each program.asm.