Northern Mindanao Colleges Inc.

Atega St. CabadbaranAgusandel Norte

Research Paper In English
Submitted by: Rheza Rena M. Baylosis

Submitted to: Mrs. MarlenDalanTeodosio

Febraury 6, 2012

What Are The Causes andEffects. Types of Child Abuse………………………………………………….. III......2 Definition of Terms……………………….3 Presentation of Data II.12 . ……. Treatment of child victims of child abuse…………………. Body.Table of Contents I. Child Abuse .…………………………. Child Abuse and Neglect……………………………………………...9-10 IV...V.. Child Abuse Can Cause Permanent Damage to Brain...IV.... and Emotional Well Being…………………………….4-5 IV.III.6-7 IV. How can child abuse be prevented……………………………….11 IV.I.. ……. IV.. ….. Introduction……………………………….. IV.VI.....8 IV..1 Problems…………………………………….II.

[35] Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children.14 Bibliography………………………………… ……15 VI. I.[6] A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice].[36] However.S. it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse.[37][38] In addition..[7] The continuous refusal of a child's basic needs is considered chronic neglect.[40] Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. There are many effects of child neglect.[39] and there is an increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy. One U. and neglect.[36] Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected.IV.13 V. unintended pregnancies are more likely than intended pregnancies to be associated with abusive relationships. Introduction Child abuse can take several forms:[5] The four main types are physical.. psychological.VII. or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser.[34] Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse. study found that parents with documented substance abuse. such as children not being able to interact with other children around them. Office on Child Abuse and doctor). Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Victims…………………….[40] They also result in poorer maternal mental health.[8] Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes. sexual. most . …………………….. Summary / Conclusion.[40] and lower mother-child relationship quality.

This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse. The importance of the first three year’s of life Apart from the intuitive wisdom of intervening early to prevent child abuse and neglect we now have solid evidence from a range of disciplines on the importance of the first three years of a child’s life. More generally. mental illness or a childhood history of abuse. Problems The keys to preventing child abuse and neglect are to recognise that all families face some stress and to intervene as early as possible to support vulnerable families. and heroin. Many families are also coping with domestic violence.[41] Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. We also know that how a brain develops hinges on a complex interplay between the genes we’re born with and the experiences we have. alcohol or drug addiction. the children began to come in with injuries. Many researchers believe that early experiences have a decisive impact on the architecture of the brain – they directly affect the way the brain is wired – and on the nature and extent of adult capacities. poverty. and between cocaine and sexual abuse. hopefully these (and other stresses) will not become overwhelming. A third of new parents for example. We now know that a human brain is only a quarter of its eventual size at birth and that much brain development occurs during the first years of life.commonly alcohol. It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary care-taker of the children. . Now that the father was in that role. It’s easy to think that child abuse and neglect is just a problem for ‘certain’ families. many families are far away from the support of their extended families and old friends. All of these add to the stresses facing parents – by intervening early in the life of a child. challenging and a steep learning curve for many. and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments. cocaine.[45] See also Infanticide (zoology).[42] Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse. most parents are in the labour force . The reality is that parenting today is complex.often working long hours. has never held a baby before.[44] Studies have found that not biologically related parents (like stepparents) are up to a hundred times more likely to kill a child than biological parents. were much more likely to mistreat their children. 1 II. An evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that using resources in order to take care of another person's biological child is likely not a good strategy for increasing reproductive success.[43] In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession. and 20 per cent are lone-parent families. stepchildren have a much higher risk of being abused which is sometimes referred to as the Cinderella effect.

with our capacity to learn and change growing steadily as an infant progresses towards adulthood. and child sexual abuse. child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death. Studies of preschool children have shown that vital pathways in the brain are enhanced by the right kind of stimulation at the age of one or two. [1] In the United States. emotional mistreatment. or in the organizations. or threat of harm to a child. serious physical or emotional harm.[3] A person who feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may be described as a "pedopath". cognitive and psychological development. 2 III. or neglect of a child. psychological/emotional abuse. Definition of Terms Child abuse is the physical. sexual abuse or exploitation. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect. Our new thinking on brain development is complemented by our knowledge that a positive parent-child relationship in infancy is a prerequisite for healthy emotional.[2] Child abuse can occur in a child's home. physical abuse. . There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect. an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm". sexual. If a family is experiencing difficulties that impact on the parent-child relationship a child’s ability to thrive socially.[4] A child may be defined as a person under the age of 18. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. These acts may be committed by a parent or caretaker (including any employee of a residential facility or any staff person providing out-of-home care) who is responsible for the child's welfare. potential for harm. We now know that there are prime times for acquiring different kinds of knowledge and skills and that the first years of life are crucial.It was previously thought that brain development was linear. psychologically and intellectually will be impeded. schools or communities the child interacts with. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) and the Department of Children And Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm. Good relationships between a parent and child in the first three years of life provide the foundation for a resilient life.

This legislation also defines what acts are considered child abuse within each category: physical abuse. a child is especially vulnerable to abuse. within the child's home or that of someone known to the child. An instant of uncontrolled anger is all it takes to shake a baby and inflict permanent brain damage. When brain circuitry is altered during the formative years it may eventually cause such disorders as anxiety and depression to more readily surface in adulthood. these reporters often include teachers. sibling. to yank a small arm out of its socket. Abuse During Childhood Can Permanently Rewire and Restructure the Brain Researchers at McLean Hospital. or to inflict alarming physical pain and longlasting emotional injury. for example. not only because of their physical fragility. Those who are considered to bemandatory reporters of child abuse are also listed and defined within legislation. sexual abuse or maltreatment. child abuse often occurs in an instant of unthinking frustration and anger. and foster parents. caregiver or guardian. Body. mistreatment or neglect that a child or adolescent may experience while in the care of someone they either trust or depend on. and Emotional Well-Being In the first years of life. have found that child abuse and neglect can "rewire" the developing brain. 3 IV. Presentation of Data IV. The term “child abuse” refers to the violence.Abuse is defined in both Federal and State legislation. nurses. neglect. such as a parent. uncaring parents--rather. other relative. the largest psychiatric affiliate of Harvard Medical School. Many cases of child abuse aren’t intentional acts of violence committed by violent. Abuse may take place anywhere and may occur.I Child Abuse Can Cause Permanent Damage to the Brain. . but also because the early years can be an especially challenging time for even the most well-meaning parents. physicians.

The researchers suggest that this may also occur in children. "science shows that childhood maltreatment may produce changes in both brain function and structure. emotional reactions and biological rhythms. 4 In addition. Increased Blood Flow in the Cerebellar Vermis. usually affecting the left hemisphere of the brain. "We know that an animal exposed to stress and neglect early in life develops a brain that is wired to experience fear. attention. together with the hypothalamus. We think the same is true of people. Impaired Corpus Callosum. MD. which is associated with more self-destructive behavior and more aggression. the area of the brain that. controls hunger.According to Martin Teicher. the researchers found that four abnormalities are more likely to be present in victims of child abuse and neglect: Changes to the Limbic System."During the course of their studies. . it coordinates complex activities requiring a sequence of performance steps. Animal studies have shown that neglect and emotional trauma triggers changes in hormones and neurotransmitters within parts of the brain that are responsible for regulating fear and anxiety. and regulation of the limbic system." In July 2000. As Teicher emphasizes. which can contribute to depression and impaired memory. anxiety and stress. thirst. This is not something people can just get over and get on with their lives. the pathway integrating the two hemispheres of the brain. which can disrupt emotional balance. PhD. These changes are permanent. director of the Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program. which can result in dramatic shifts in mood and personality. Changes to the limbic system can result in epileptic seizures and abnormal electroencephalograms (EEG). the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry reported that early emotional abuse can distort the processes of attachment and affective development. the part of the brain involved in emotion. Deficient Development of the Left Side of the Brain.

II. The most prominent one among the causes is mental illness. and child safety. as well as psychological problems. parent education. Stress could also be a root cause of child abuse. Also. on the other hand. • Lend an ear to a parent or child in crisis. whether intentional or not. There are many causes of child abuse. leading to lifelong emotional and social difficulties. family counseling. Every one of us can help stop child abuse • Help out a parent under stress with a few hours of child care or assistance with other chores. financial problems could invoke parents or other members of the family to abuse children as an outlet of their emotions. Sexual abuse.What Are The Causes and Effects? Children have that right to be loved.Child abuse and neglect could also impair the individual’s capacity to develop appropriate emotional responses. family problems are major causes of child abuse. or not giving them proper nutrition. Causes of Child Abuse Like any other abuse. 5 I. Child Abuse . This is one of the worst cases of child abuse. Child abuse could either be physical. The tendency is that people who are not in their right minds. as well as scolding them often that lower their self esteem. Emotional abuse or mental abuse. This might have certain adverse effects on the child so they must be given extra support and attention. • Support programs that offer child care. mental or sexual abuse to children. is about abuse in children which affects primarily their emotions. This means hurting the children physically. Plus. child abuse also has a cause. • Call a Parental Stress program for resources and support. Physical abuse concerns maltreatments of children in a physical way. Effects of Child Abuse in Children . This includes saying hurtful words to children. could easily do harm to children. Parents under the power of drugs could easily hurt their children. however. But there are those who suffer child abuse in the very sense of the word. It is good to know the cause of abuse on a certain child so that the treatment and the actions could be well defined. is abuse that concerns the sexual attributes of a child.

People who would not dream of hitting a colleague or an acquaintance when they are angry may think nothing of hitting their children. The effects of child abuse on a child depends on how great the abuse is. nevertheless. as well as preventing child abuse. Everyday stresses. low self image. Raising a child is not easy. and sporadic upheavals in family life. stress and trauma are also some of the effects of child abuse in children. Murray A. The 1975 National Family Violence Survey and the 1985 National Family Violence Resurvey. Gelles. This could be prevented by having family planning seminars to parents which would invoke them to take care of their children more. Children are important part of the society. The deeper intimacy and greater commitment in a family make emotionally charged disagreements more frequent and more intense. they still resort to violence. cause most parents to feel angry at times. especially those who were involved in sexual abuse. For cases like this. a child might have suicidal tendencies because of this. Abused children also exhibit conditions like difficulty in building up relationships in people. Depression. the greater the effect on the overall state of the child. Some feel remorse after hitting a loved one. so utmost love and care should be given to them. the greater the abuse. are the most complete studies of spousal and parent-child abuse yet prepared in the United States. The family. strains. psycho therapies are being done to address the problem of the concerned child. which is the center of love and security in most children's lives. Straus and Richard J. experts in child abuse research. conducted by Straus and Gelles. as well as physical disabilities. coupled with the normal burdens of child care. Teaching proper parenting to children is also a program involved in treating. 6 Child Abuse Treatments Most of the children who have experienced child abuse have traumas. sometimes physically. believe that cultural standards permit violence in the family. Child abuse could also lower the self worth of the child who experienced it.Children who have experienced child abuse are likely to have some emotional and psychological problems whether they display them or not and in worse cases. when they are angry. Child abuse is a matter that needs utmost attention since it involves the future generation of this world. There are also certain organizations like UNICEF which specializes in treating such problems. is also the place where the child is punished. eating disorders. The major difference between these two surveys and most other surveys .

The next most common cause of physical abuse deaths is punches or kicks to the abdomen. Caregivers may fail to provide food and nurturing to their child. and the actual number of abuse and neglect deaths is estimated to be much higher than that reported by vital statistics data. Most child maltreatment deaths result from physical abuse. leading to more serious illness and death. starvation or dehydration.Young children are the most vulnerable victims. 1990. Known as abusive head trauma. resulting in bathtub drowning. There have been major improvements in the ability to diagnose abusive head trauma and in investigators’ abilities to recognize when a caregiver’s explanation for injuries do not match the severity of the injuries. suffocations. it is now widely accepted that falls from short heights or a child being accidentally dropped rarely cause extensive and severe head injuries. is severely struck or when a child is violently shaken. For example. Fatalities from neglect include a number of different ways in which caregivers fail to adequately provide for or supervise their children. Other forms of fatal physical abuse include immersion into hot water. these injuries occur when a child’s head is slammed against a surface. It is reported that more than 2. (Straus and Gelles incorporated research from the two surveys and additional chapters into the book Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8. not from cases that came to the attention of official agencies and professionals.) 7 IV. The most common reason given by caretakers who fatally injure their children is that they lost patience when the child would not stop crying. drowning and smothering. National statistics show . Child Abuse and Neglect Fatal child abuse or neglect is the fatal physical injury or negligent treatment of a child by a person who is responsible for the child’s welfare. leading to malnutrition. New Brunswick. NJ: Transaction Publishers.discussed in Chapter 4 is that the data from these surveys came from detailed interviews with the general population.III. failure to thrive. Other common reasons given by the abusers include bedwetting. especially children receiving injuries to their heads. die of child abuse and neglect each year.S. fussy eating and disobedient behavior. Straus and Gelles had a more intimate knowledge of the families and an awareness of incidences of child abuse that were not reported to the authorities. poisonings and other types of fatal incidents. leading to internal bleeding. Neglect cases can also result from intentional or grossly negligent failure to adequately supervise a child. but a one-time event often causes a death. Many children who die from physical abuse have been abused over time.145 Families. Caregivers may fail to seek medical care when their child is ill.000 children in the U.

S. mothers are more often at fault in the neglect fatalities. domestic violence and substance abuse. yet many children had previous injuries that were not reported to CPS systems. 8 IV. In the U.that children under six years of age account for 86% of all maltreatment deaths and infants account for 43% of these deaths. studies find that the majority of child victims and their perpetrators had no prior contact with Child Protective Services (CPS) at the time of the death.3 Child sexual abuse has been found to be associated with the development with a wide variety of mental health and social problems in childhood and adulthood 4-6 : Short-Term Problems Long-Term Problems • fear and anxiety • sexualized behaviors • nightmares • social withdrawal or isolation • sleep problems • anger/acting out • somatic difficulties • school difficulties • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) • traumatic sexualization • betrayal • stigmatization • powerlessness • difficulty regulating emotional responses • interpersonal problems • effects on self-perception • depression • anxiety disorders .000 new cases of CSA are reported in South Carolina each year. 1Prevalence rates. Treatment of child victims of child abuse Child Sexual Abuse Child sexual abuse is a social problem of significant magnitude. National studies report that it is difficult to predict a fatal abuse event.IV. Estimates suggest that approximately 20.. Fathers and mothers’ boyfriends are most often the perpetrators in the abuse deaths. 2. Fatal abuse is interrelated with poverty. obtained from studies of adults indicate that as many as one in three women and one in six men have experienced sexual abuse in childhood.

It is interesting to note that research suggests that a minority of children (roughly 20 .40%) who have been sexually abused appear to suffer few dramatic psychological or social symptoms of distress. It is not clear whether these individuals would benefit from some type of treatment immediately after disclosure of the abuse. degree of support from non-offending parents. 9. suppressing.• substance abuse • suicidality • sexual dysfunctions • interpersonal difficulties • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 9 The experience of child sexual abuse varies from individual to individual. 6-8. Assessment It is difficult to make a general statement regarding the treatment needs of child victims of abuse or neglect. Thus. quality of family functioning. therefore. even though there may be an absence of symptoms at that time. each child victim should be assessed carefully and a treatment plan should be developed that is specific to that child’s response to the abuse and living context. age of the child. and specific nature of the abuse all affect the type and severity of effects seen in the child victim. Many practitioners believe that it is important to provide support and education to children who have been sexually abused but who show few overt symptoms in order to prevent the development of difficulties in the future. In addition. level of acknowledgment by the perpetrator. children may have difficulty expressing their . nor do all (or even the majority of) children who have been sexually abused display any one symptom. relationship between the child and perpetrator. extent of violence. and frequency. it is important to note that no one symptom profile is unique to children who have been sexually abused. The timing of the assessment in relation to when the disclosure occurred may also affect the child's immediate treatment needs. or avoiding difficulties. Logically.Some children may display what are thought of as "sleeper effects" or the development of serious symptoms some time after termination of the abuse. the contexts in which these experiences occur. 6-8. It may be difficult to determine whether a child who is not displaying symptoms is coping adequately with his/her experience or is denying. the effects of such experiences. 7. Severity. and the nature of the family's response to disclosure are so varied. intensity. as noted above. since.

. Finally. 19Young children may lack the ability to communicate clearly about their emotional responses. parents may be poor reporters of their children's reactions. The support-group structure and visiting home nurse or social-worker visits are not mutually exclusive. is a very complex matter and includes these measures: A support-group structure is needed to reinforce parenting skills and closely monitor the child's well-being. Older children may be mistrusting of professionals. "hot lines") encourages the reporting of potential instances of child abuse. • • • • Parents should make sure that their child's daycare center is licensed and has an open-door policy regarding parental visitation. skateboarding.bad touch" can provide children with a forum in which to role-play and learn to avoid potentially harmful scenarios. • • . • consistent use of helmets for bicycling. too. an abuse offender may have a motivation to minimize the child's emotional reactions. firearm safety. Many studies have demonstrated that the two measures must be coupled together for the best possible outcome. 10 IV. That is. including: • proper use of car seats and seat belts. pool and water safety. fears.. A neglectful mother may have a psychiatric impairment which would also distort her perception of her child. or questions directly to a professional. and skiing/snowboarding.concerns. • Public-awareness programs regarding child abuse and neglect can be informative. • Developing free and anonymous support systems (for example. How can child abuse be prevented? • This.V. What more can be done to prevent child neglect? As children's advocates. Children's school programs regarding "good touch. Visiting home nurse or social-workervisits are also required to observe and evaluate the progress of the child and his/her caretaking situation. we wish to remind parents about the importance of preventative child health care.

inappropriate clothes for the weather. emotional . ○ acting like a much younger child. • Child has behavioral and emotional signs such as: ○ difficulty eating or sleeping. ○ stained or bloody underwear. Fearful behavior. Injuries that are in the shape of an object (belt buckle.Signs of possible abuse include: Physical Abuse • • • • • • • • • • • • Unexplained or repeated injuries such as welts. For example. itching.Verbal Abuse Aggressive or withdrawn behavior. redness. However.• preventing community violence. ○ genital or rectal pain. or burns. whether adult or child. Child Abuse Child abuse is harm to. ○ excessive crying or sadness. ○ withdrawing from activities and others. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. etc. relatives. and income groups.) Injuries not likely to happen given the age or ability of the child. Child has physical signs such as: ○ difficulty in walking or sitting. Obvious neglect of the child (dirty. Child abuse happens in all cultural.VI. Child abuse can be physical. Sexual Abuse Child tells you he/she was sexually mistreated. in dealing with parents. a child by another person. 11 IV. Unreasonable explanation of the injury. church or other support systems. Disagreement between the child's and the parent's explanation of the injury. regardless of any special characteristics. ○ soiling or wetting pants or bed after being potty trained. or neglect of. or discharge ○ bruises or other injuries in the genital or rectal area. Abuse can happen in any family. undernourished. Shying away from physical contact with parents or adults. . ethnic. broken bones in a child too young to walk or climb. lack of medical or dental care). and • poisoning prevention. swelling. sexual or through neglect. Afraid to go home. Emotional . electric cord. be aware of characteristics of families in which abuse may be more likely: • Families who are isolated and have no friends.verbal. bruises. ○ talking about or acting out sexual acts beyond normal sex play for age.

and. Child abuse will have a variety of effects on children. move often). Parents who are under a lot of stress. Physical effects of sexual abuse include:  Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Children victimized by sexual abuse are more often affected psychologically and emotionally. gender.  Unusual smells or bleeding.  Bruises or wounds on the genitalia and mouth. manifesting in their behavior. Parents who are very critical of their child. Parents who show too much or too little concern for their child. duration of abuse. as they are socialized to be more aggressive.  Urinary tract infections. who the offender is. Males tend to externalize their anger. Females tend to internalize their anger. ANGER is a behavioral effect generally manifested differently with males and females.VII.• • • • • • • • Parents who tell you they were abused as children.  Difficulty walking or sitting. not only in the relationship. even turning it onto themselves. Whatever signs the child shows will depend further on their age. depending on the child’s age. Parents who feel they have a difficult child. Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Victims All abuse is traumatic and harmful to victims. among others. POWERLESSNESS or LEARNED HELPLESSNESS occurs most often when the offender is close to the child and family. Families who are often in crisis (have money problems. social support and gender. boys are also victimized. The child feels there is nothing he/she can do. but often in other aspects of . Parents who abuse drugs or alcohol. coping mechanisms. At times their anger turns into depression. most sexual offenders leave no easily visible physical signs or evidence of their abuse. Parents who are very rigid in disciplining their child. Their anger turns into blaming others or into destructive behavior against people and things. Although girls are more vulnerable to sexual abuse. the type of abuse.  Pregnancy at a young age. and exerting power over the child. degree of violence used. Thus they become compliant. However. 12 IV. their own mental health.

Summary/Conclusion Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes. [45] See also Infanticide (zoology). It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary care-taker of the children. were much more likely to mistreat their children. Child Abuse – Signs and Symptoms Although these signs do not necessarily indicate that a child has been abused. and heroin. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse. they may help adults recognise that something is wrong. [36] However. The possibility of abuse should be investigated if a child shows a number of these symptoms. 13 I. Now that the father was in that role.[40] and lower mother-child relationship quality.[36]Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected. One U. and between cocaine and sexual abuse. An evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that using resources in order to take care of another person’s biological child is likely not a good strategy for increasing reproductive success. mental and emotional development lags Sudden speech disorders . the children began to come in with injuries. and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments. most commonly alcohol.[35] Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children.[44]Studies have found that not biologically related parents (like stepparents) are up to a hundred times more likely to kill a child than biological parents.[39] and there is an increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy. or any of them to a marked degree: Emotional Abuse • • Physical. it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse.[40] They also result in poorer maternal mental health.[40] Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse.[34] Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse. unintended pregnancies are more likely than intended pregnancies to be associated with abusive relationships.S.[37][38] In addition. cocaine.[41] Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. study found that parents with documented substance abuse. or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the[43] In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession.[42]Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse.

ph/#hl=fil&cp=14&gs_id=1g&xhr=t&q=what+is+child+a buse&pf=p&sclient=psyab&site=&source=hp&pbx=1&oq=what+is+child+&aq=0&aqi=g4&aql=&gs_sm =&gs_upl=& self-mutilation) Extremes of passivity or aggression 14 • • • • • &id=1149170 http://www. Bibliography http://ezinearticles.osb&fp=59af91458e55dfc3&biw=1360&b ih=677 http://www.r_gc.or.osb&fp=59af91458e55dfc3&biw=1366&bih=641 hair ld+abuse+can&aq=3L&aqi=gL4&aql=&gs_sm=c&gs_upl=0l0l2l1497l0l0l0l0l0l0l0l0ll0l0&bav=on..• Continual self-depreciation (‘I’m http://www.html http://www.gc.html http://www. etc’) Overreaction to mistakes Extreme fear of any new situation Inappropriate response to pain (‘I deserve this’) Neurotic behaviour (rocking.htm ugly.justice. .r_gc.htm pw.html http://www.

org/wiki/Child_abuse 15 .http://en.wikipedia.