Key Questions for ABC – What? So what? Then what?

Gary Cokins SAS gary.cokins@sas.com http://blogs.sas.com/cokins 919 531 2012 Cary, North Carolina ABC Forum May 5 , 2011 Oslo, Norway
Copyright © 2010 SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.

About Gary Cokins
B.S. Industrial Engineering & Operations Research; Cornell University, 1971 M.B.A. Finance & Accounting; Northwestern University, Kellogg Graduate School of Management, 1974

Previous Associations: - FMC Corporation - Consultant with: Deloitte, KPMG Peat Marwick, & Electronic Data Systems [EDS]
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Of 151 ABC titles, ranked by „bestselling‟ volume ..

… Gary Cokins‟ 2001 book ranks #1

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… Gary Cokins‟ 1996 book ranks #2
Copyright © 2010, SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.

000+ customer sites in 112 countries 4 Copyright © 2010.SAS is the World’s Largest Privately-Held Software Company (Prepackaged Software)  52 countries  11. . All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc.5 billion sales  More than 400 offices  2010 .115 employees  $2.2011 “Best Company to Work for” – Fortune Magazine  Hundreds of user groups  43.

Managers who intend to “champion” any or all improvement techniques and need a compelling call to action. 5 Copyright © 2010. . All rights reserved.Who will benefit from this presentation? Managers who have previously failed or are struggling at promoting or implementing ABC into their decision support systems. SAS Institute Inc.

SAS Institute Inc. . All rights reserved.Key questions What? So what? Then what? 6 Copyright © 2010.

Six Eras of Managerial Accounting standard cost accounting (to precious metal reflect Frederick and paper Winslow money piles. channels and customers Predictive Analytics A shift of emphasis from a historical to a predictive view of strategy and operations Industrial Rocks and stone piles. Medieval Ancient 20. Stage Of Costing Maturity The USA’s Great Depression resulted in regulatory reforms to protect investors (1930s). Taylor’s ultimately manufacturing leading to Consumer scientific double-entry methods. services. . 1910) bookkeeping Regulatory (Luca Pacioli. Compliance 1492).000 BC 1492 1910 1930 1980 2015 7 Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved. “Causal” cost tracing of increasingly diverse types of products.

8 Copyright © 2010.Will our young managers herald the BA era? http://www. . SAS Institute Inc.youtube. All rights reserved. The next slides demonstrate examples of how they answered university exam questions.com/watch?v=_CqgnZhb--Q Your young generation of managers are already very clever.

SAS Institute Inc. budgeting … and their root causes.  How to overcome the barriers  What does enterprise performance management look like? 9 Copyright © 2010. . All rights reserved.AGENDA  What is enterprise performance management?  What is business analytics?  Three barrier categories: technical. customer value management. accounting. design and organizational behavior  5 Design Barriers – obstacles and impediments with measurements.

SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved. . A simple explanation of ABC … 10 Copyright © 2010.Mistrust of the managerial accounting system … … for accuracy and transparency lead to applying activity based costing.

All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc.Multiple-Stage Cost Assignment Tracing Resources Resources Activities Activities Objects Objects Simple ABM Expanded ABM 11 Copyright © 2010. .

SAS Institute Inc.ABC/M Cost Assignment Network Resources (general ledger view) Salary. Interest. Tax Work Activities (verb-noun) Support Activities People Activities Equipment Activities “cost-to-serve” paths “Costs Measure the Effects” Final Cost Objects (1) Demands On Work Costs (2) Products. Travel Supplies Depreciation Rent. Fringe Benefits Direct Material Phone. Services Suppliers Customers Business Sustaining 12 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. .

.28 expenses = $ 2 profit Net Revenues Minus ABM costs = profit Unrealized profit revealed by ABM $ 2 profit 13 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.More important than a better costing method are its results. SAS Institute Inc. $ 30 sales .

All rights reserved. ABM provides insight for the product’s or service’s cost drivers and driver quantities.Activity Costs “pile up” into outputs. # of registrations) x Price/Fee (Revenue) Activity Costs Copyright © 2010. Work Activities each activity’s driver quantity unit activity driver cost (eg. SAS Institute Inc. 14 .

Key: Cost 15 Copyright © 2010. Lean Management. $ $ VA Business Processes $ $ $ $ NVA $ Supplier (direct material) $ Process A Enterprise ABM also provides unit costs of outputs for cost visibility and benchmarking. . SAS Institute Inc.Processes: Six Sigma. and Value Stream Mapping Processes include activities that have high to low value-adding content. All rights reserved.

. reliable. SAS Institute Inc. PM Models PM System (repeatable. All rights reserved.Rapid Prototyping with Iterative Remodeling Each iteration enhances the use of a PM system. relevant) #0 #1 0 1 2 3 #2 #3 16 Copyright © 2010.

Assignment error has a “zero-sum” property: Under Overcosted costed path $s path $s (-) (+) = 17 Copyright © 2010. ABC Error has “Offsetting” Properties The Two Path Views Resource Assignment View + - Activities Final Cost Objects + + - Contribution View Many-toOne + - One-toMany The “Dispersion of Error” contained in upstream assignments offset as each downstream paths aggregated into each final cost object. It dampens out. . All rights reserved. it is counter-intuitive that error does not compound.With ABC. SAS Institute Inc.

.Balancing Levels of Accuracy with Effort 100% Accuracy of Final Cost Objects A B World Class ABC System Design 0% Little Modest Great Level of Data Collection Effort 18 Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.

MCA November. SAS Institute Inc.THE ACCOUNTING REVIEW. All rights reserved. . London School of Economics. 4. 2007 (p. Vol. and Dr. Ghent University 19 Copyright © 2010. 939-962) by Dr. London School of Economics “A Simulation Analysis of Interactions among Errors in Costing Systems” -. Eva Labro. 2007 (p.Proof of “error dampening” from academics “ERRORS IN COSTING SYSTEMS SOMETIMES ONE MISTAKE COMPENSATES FOR THE OTHER! “ -. Mario Vanhoucke. 18-24) by Dr. 82 No. Eva Labro.

All rights reserved. .Correlation Analysis of Activity Drivers 20 20 Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc.

All rights reserved.Why are some customers more profitable than others? 21 Copyright © 2010. . SAS Institute Inc.

All rights reserved. largest factor for explaining the profit variation is Average Transaction Value Customers with lots of a small average transaction value are less profitable 22 Copyright © 2010. . SAS Institute Inc.Recursive Partitioning / Decision Trees The single.

Managing IT as a business
Managing IT as a business is now an imperative. No longer can IT be seen as a technology supplier – it must be seen to be adding value to the organization and providing strategic capability. IT performance management enables IT to become service oriented, aligning itself with the organization to provide internal customerdriven solutions to problems.

But … it is difficult to maximize returns from IT when the products and services appear to be free to internal customers.
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Two Types of IT expenses: Assets and People
Fixed Costs (virtual) IT assets become sunk costs immediately at purchase. The objective to is maximize capacity use. Flexible / Variable Costs (physical) People-related expenses (e.g., salaries) can be flexibly assigned to different work. Headcount is adjustable. The objective is to use people efficiently.
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Hardware

People

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IT Assets as a Visual “Tile Chart”

An existing Tile Chart as seen through the SAS Information Delivery Portal

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After 10 months.Asset Expenses are virtual (Fixed Costs) A tile chart illustrates how IT workloads can be analyzed and optimized. SAS Institute Inc. multi-core servers. . Under-utlized servers were removed and the existing workload was shifted to lower-cost. the chart on the right shows a fairly balanced workload (reds and oranges indicating workloads higher in processor utilization). All rights reserved. January “Optimizing the Factory” driven improvements October 26 Copyright © 2010. The left hand chart shows a number of servers that are significantly under-utilized (shaded blue).

accounting. SAS Institute Inc. budgeting … and their root causes.AGENDA  What is enterprise performance management?  What is business analytics?  Three barrier categories: technical.  How to overcome the barriers  What does enterprise performance management look like? 27 Copyright © 2010. customer value management. . All rights reserved. design and organizational behavior  5 Design Barriers – obstacles and impediments with measurements.

But what about the Other Below-the-GM-line “Calculated” Costs? Products and standard service-lines are not the only thing for which accountants should compute costs. 28 Copyright © 2010. . All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc. What about costs that have nothing to do with products and standard service-lines? The problem with traditional accounting’s gross margin reporting is you don’t see the bottom half of the picture.

Overhead cost -10 ---------------------------------------------= Gross profit margin $ 70 .administrative costs -10 ---------------------------------------------= Total Profit $ 10 The accountants report these by each product (but they are wrong without ABC). . ? We have no visibility of these costs by customer (except in total) ! 29 29 Copyright © 2010.marketing costs -20 . All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc.Product direct costs -20 .distribution costs -10 .selling costs -20 .What about Costs Below Product Costs ? INCOME STATEMENT Sales $ 100 .

SAS Institute Inc.Costs from Sales & Marketing are not Products Customer + Channel + Product Direct material. . Direct labor & Equipment Indirect expenses Distribution. Sales & Marketing General. and Administration 30 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.

Why Do Customer-related Costs Matter? The Perfect Storm # 1. # 2 – Sources of Competitive Advantage – As products and standard service-lines become commodity-like. then the shift is towards service-differentiation. SAS Institute Inc. .Customer Retention – It is relatively much more expensive to acquire a new customer than to retain an existing one. 31 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.

# 4 .Power Shift – The Internet is shifting power … irreversibly … from sellers to buyers.CRM‟s “One-to-One” Marketing – Pepper & Rodgers have hailed technology as the enabler to (1) identify customer segments. SAS Institute Inc. 32 Copyright © 2010. and (2) tailor marketing offers. . All rights reserved.Why Do Customer-related Costs Matter? The Perfect Storm # 3 .

. SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.33 Copyright © 2010.

Batch* Distribution-Related Outbound Freight Type* Order Type* Channel Type* Customer-Related Customer-Sustaining Unit-Batch* Business Sustaining xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx Channel & Customerrelated costs Operating Profit (Other ActvityAssignments traced based on informed (subjective) %s) xxx 8% * Activity Cost Driver Assignments use measurable quantity volume of Activity Output 34 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc. .Costs) $ xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx Margin % of Sales 98% 50% 48% 46% 30% 28% 26% 24% 22% 10% 8% Productrelated costs Product-Related Supplier-Related costs (TCO) $ xxx Direct Material Brand Sustaining Product Sustaining Unit.A Customer Profit & Loss Statement CUSTOMER: XYZ CORPORATION (CUSTOMER #1270) Sales $$$ Margin $ (Sales .

. All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc.Migrating Customers to Higher Profitability Very Profitable High (Creamy) Product Mix Margin Low (Low Fat) Low High Cost-to-Serve Types of Customers Very unprofitable 35 Copyright © 2010.

KPI Linkage of Customer Profits to the Scorecard Very Profitable High (Creamy) KPI Target Product Mix Margin Low (Low Fat) Low High Cost-to-Serve Types of Customers Very unprofitable 36 Copyright © 2010. . SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.

Customer Value Management Who is more important to pursue with the scarce resources of our marketing spend budget? Our most profitable customers? Or our most valuable customers? What is the difference? The “customer lifetime value” is intended to answer this question. 37 Copyright © 2010. . All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc.

Which Customer is more Important? Dentist A Dentist B Sales = $750.000 Age 25 Which is more profitable? Which is more valuable? 38 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. .000 profits = $100.000 Age 61 Sales = $375.Imagine you are pharmaceutical supplier. SAS Institute Inc.000 profits = $40.

Vol 20. European Mgmt. No. SAS Institute Inc. .Value Creation via CLV Customer Lifetime Value $ After a CLV (or CP) is calculated and rank-ordered highest to lowest customer. streamline 39 Copyright © 2010. 2002 retain develop. Journal. June. 3. then … Get more value from these Protect these Existing Customers Source: Customer Equity Marketing. All rights reserved.

Vol 20. European Mgmt. grow them Existing Customers* Source: Customer Equity Marketing.Actions for each customer produces Profit-lift Customer Lifetime Value $ Get more value from these What actions will lift the profit curve? Protect these. Journal. 2002 retain develop. June. . SAS Institute Inc. streamline * Ranked most to least valuable 40 Copyright © 2010. 3. No. All rights reserved.

3. 2002 Possible New Customers acquire do not acquire 41 retain develop. be prudent attracting new customers. Vol 20.Value Creation via CLV Customer Lifetime Value $ Be selective pursing these Get more value from these … also. streamline Copyright © 2010. grow them Existing Customers Source: Customer Equity Marketing. June. Protect these. SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved. No. European Mgmt. . Journal.

All rights reserved.Customer Care (S) Cost of Acquisition Probability for period t Discount Rate k i) I (P) (d) Probability for Churn Cross/Up Sale Willingness to expend more 42 Copyright © 2010.Retention (L) . Maintenance .Here is a real company’s CLV Formula CLV   I 0   t 0 T ( Rt   kit ) Lt  St i 1 N (1  d ) t P t Net Present Value of the Relationship (CLV) Revenues (R) Cost of Product i Sub. SAS Institute Inc. .

or recovering each customer segment? 43 Copyright © 2010. retaining. growing. retain. .My “which-type how-much” Hypothesis The spending budget for sales and marketing is critical … but it should be treated as a preciously scarce resource to be aimed at generating the highest long-term profits. grow. or win back? And which types are not? How much should we spend attracting. SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved. This means answering questions like: Which type of customer is attractive to newly acquire.

. 44 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. risk and uncertainty must be understood in the language of money. SAS Institute Inc. churn. offers.A Shift in the CFO’s Emphasis The CFO must now help Sales and Marketing … to better target customers. deals. Segmentation. predictability.

 How to overcome the barriers  What does enterprise performance management look like? 45 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. accounting. . perceptions.AGENDA  What is enterprise performance management?  What is business analytics?  Four barrier categories: technical. customer value management. SAS Institute Inc. budgeting … and their root causes. design and organizational behavior  5 Design Barriers – obstacles and impediments with measurements.

46 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc. -.Why is the budgeting process broken? The budget is typically a fiscal exercise by the accountants that is: -.disconnected from the executive team’s strategy.not based on future driver volumes. .

47 Copyright © 2010. Tradition – incremental / decremental cost center lineitem without cost driver interdependencies.What are the Organizational Behavior Barriers? Budgeting (and Rolling Financial Forecasts) Excess power of managers with the loudest voice or strongest muscles and with sandbag padding expertise. All rights reserved. Excel Hell. SAS Institute Inc. .

00 Travel $ 30.000.000. The Value Creation Group 48 Copyright © 2010.00 Source: John Antos.Spreadsheet Budgeting – It’s Incremental ! a b c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Current Year Budget Year Wages $ 400.00 Copy down Computer $ 40.000. All rights reserved.000.000.000.000.00 Phone $ 20.00 Total Sheet 1 $ 560.00 Formula = Column B * 1. SAS Institute Inc.05 Supplies $ 50. .00 Rent $ 20.

.com 49 Copyright © 2010. www. SAS Institute Inc.Match the Budget Method to its Category Demanddriven Integrated Budget (Rolling Financial Forecasts) Projectdriven Source: Mike Tinkler. All rights reserved.synerma.

SAS Institute Inc. Initiatives. But this problem is solved if management funds the managers‟ projects. 50 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.period results -------> X Budgeting is typically disconnected from the strategy.(1) Non-Recurring Expenses // Strategic Initiatives Measurement Period. . 1st Quarter Identify Projects. or Processes Strategic Objective KPI Measure KPI Target KPI Actual comments / explanation Executive Team Managers and Employees X X X X their score <----.

.Starts with known: spending driver measures output quantities .Calculates “costs”  Activity-Based Planning - Predictive Requires capacity analysis Starts with estimated outputs Applies ABC/M rates Solves for Resource “expenses” 51 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved.(2) Recurring Expenses // Future Volume & Mix ABC/M ABP Past Now Future  Activity-Based Costing . SAS Institute Inc.Historical & Descriptive .

Operational Resource Capacity Planning inputs Resources Process Costs Output & Outcome Costs Resource expenses can be calculated with “backwards ABC/M” Customers and Service-recipients Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc. 52 . All rights reserved. Start Here.

The Shift towards Predictive Accounting ABC/M ABP Past ABC/M Now ABP Future Known ? resources work activities cost objects 53 Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc. Provides consumption rates ? . All rights reserved.

The Shift towards Predictive Accounting ABC/M ABP Past ABC/M Now ABP Future resources work activities cost objects Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc. ? ? Estimated 54 . All rights reserved.

SAS Institute Inc.Match the Budget Method to its Category Budget method Demanddriven Recurring expenses volume & mix of drivers production and ABP/B Integrated Budget (rolling financial forecasts) Projectdriven Non-recurring expenses Strategic & risk mitigation projects strategy map and risk grid 55 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. .

g.g. Pounds. and create strategy map Strategic objectives Financial Modeling Operational Modeling (by employee teams) Identify and manage strategic initiatives priority projects and processes KPI dashboard feedback Driver volumes and mix Driver consumption rates Traditional and driver-based budgeting (e. sales) . SAS Institute Inc.g.. PBB) Changes and responses Manage and improve core processes Results and outcomes Create balanced scorecard KPI targets Forecast drivers (e. . hours.Linking Strategy and Risk to the Budget Strategy Modeling (by executives) Strategy methods (e..g. $) Derived budget (and rolling financial forecasts) OK Yes 56 Copyright © 2010..g. All rights reserved. Activity-based Costing) Define and adjust strategy and risk. # employees Approve strategy risk and capital budget (2) capital budget (3) strategy budget (4) risk budget Capacity resource plan Revise plan No Acceptable? (1) Operational budget = financial information (e.g. develop production plan e. SWOT) Managerial Accounting knowledge (e.

. avoidable) 57 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. customers. SAS Institute Inc. channels. sustaining sunk unused fixed (unadjustable) used variable (adjustable capacity.Historical versus Predictive Accounting Descriptive Predictive Accounting Treatments and Behavior of Capacity (expenses) Past Now Future unused Traceable to products.

SAS Most organizations are typically at lower levels of maturity in adopting progressive managerial accounting practices. All rights reserved. 58 Copyright © 2010. .International Federation of Accountants Report Evaluating the Costing Journey: A Costing Levels Continuum Maturity Model By Gary Cokins. methods and systems. SAS Institute Inc.

g. channel & customer rationalization • Outsourcing & make vs. Future High value-add 59 . All rights reserved. 2010 Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc. GAAP.ACCOUNTING Source data capture (transactions / bookkeeping) Tax Accounting Financial Accounting Managerial Accounting Non-financial data capture Cost Accounting Financial Reporting regulatory compliance •[e. corrective actions • Fully absorbed & incremental pricing • Driver-based budgeting & rolling financial forecasts • What-if analysis • Product. COQ) • Performance measures • Learning. IFRS] •Costs of goods sold •Inventory valuation Cost Measurement Cost Reporting & Analysis (feedback on performance) • Spending vs. lean. budget variance analysis • Profitability reporting • Process analysis (e..g.. buy analysis Decision Support/ Cost Planning The Domain of Costing History Low value-add Modest value-add Source: “A Costing Levels Continuum Maturity Model” by Gary Cokins published by the International Federation of Accountants. benchmarking.

1D 2D 3D 4D 5D Product costs % G/L acct. Incrementa l 2P (TDABC). Forecast driver quantities X unit consumptio n rates. Forecast driver quantities X time consumption rates. All rights reserved. Level 9 with proportional costing at direct and support depts. 2010 Copyright © 2010 SAS Institute Inc. Job order costing 0P Source: “A Costing Levels Continuum Maturity Model” by Gary Cokins published by the International Federation of Accountants. Project acct.Costing Continuum / Levels of Maturity (most companies are Level 4D and 0P) (1) Descriptive Continuum EXPENSE TRACKING. 60 . Output Visibility Blind Process Visibility Level 6 with Channel and customer profitability Reporting. Cost-to-serve 3P (RCA). 6D Resource Consumptio n Accounting Simulation 4P Ultimate in consumptio n rates. Driver based budgeting process and bookkeeping Lean accounting Direct costs without (3) and with (4) support costs to output groups Standard costing to individual outputs. Repetitive work conditions 1P (ABRP). Direct cost focus. COST REPORTING and CONSUMPTION RATES Improved Treatment of Indirect Costs Customer Demand Sensitive Unused Capacity Aware (2) Predictive Continuum DEMAND DRIVEN PLANNING with CAPACITY SENSITIVITY 8D Unused capacity costs (estimate d) Pull Activitybased Resource Planning Timedriven ABC Level # 7D Improved Output Information/ Approximate Push Accuracy ActivityBased costing (ABC).

accounting. SAS Institute Inc. perceptions. design and organizational behavior  5 Design Barriers – obstacles and impediments with measurements. All rights reserved. . budgeting … and their root causes. customer value management.  How to overcome the barriers  What does enterprise performance management look like? 61 Copyright © 2010.AGENDA  What is enterprise performance management?  What is business analytics?  Four barrier categories: technical.

. All rights reserved.Key questions What? So what? Then what? 62 Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc.

Data Information Knowledge Intelligence Transactional systems (e. ERP) “the reptilian brain stem” (breathing.g. digesting) Business Analytics and Performance Management “the cerebral cortex” (thinking and decision making) 63 Copyright © 2010. blinking. SAS Institute Inc. ..The Intelligence Hierarchy Power of Information Predictive Modeling Descriptive Modeling (with analytics) Optimization $ROI Raw Data Ad hoc Reports & Standard OLAP Reports Two types of software are like a brain’s two halves. All rights reserved.

etc. All rights reserved. . CRM Supplier Inputs Scorecards Organization‟s Resources (capacity) ROI $ Shareholders 64 Copyright © 2010. Mission Customer Satisfaction ERP. SAS Institute Inc.How Does It All Fit Together? Strategy.

All rights reserved. etc. SAS Institute Inc. Strategy.In Summary … first. we energize with good managerial accounting. Scorecards Organization Resources (capacity) Shareholders Managerial accounting 65 Copyright © 2010. . Mission Customer Satisfaction CRM Supplier Inputs ROI $ ERP.

PM is Circulatory and Simultaneous Shareholder Wealth Creation is not a goal. Targeting CRM Order fulfillment Scorecards KPI Scores Feedback Organization‟s Resources (capacity) ROI $ Supplier Inputs Shareholders 66 Copyright © 2010. It is a result! Strategy. SAS Institute Inc. . etc. Strategy map.. Mission Risk Mgmt. All rights reserved. KPIs needs Customer Satisfaction ERP.

. All rights reserved.. etc.PM is Circulatory and Simultaneous Shareholder Wealth Creation is not a goal. Mission Risk Mgmt. Targeting CRM wasted resources Order fulfillment Scorecards KPI Scores Feedback Organization‟s Resources (capacity) ROI $ Supplier Inputs Shareholders leakage (waste) 67 Less productivity reduces Shareholder Wealth Copyright © 2010. Strategy map. KPIs needs Customer Satisfaction ERP. It is a result! Strategy. SAS Institute Inc.

nlps.A 30 Minute Webcast of points made during this presentation http://videoplayer.smartpros.com/?FMN_SEPT09_SEG2 By www. . All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc.com Financial Management Network 68 Copyright © 2010.

The Complete Vision of Analytics-based Performance Management Make the RPM of the PM and BA gears spin … … better. faster. . cheaper … and smarter 69 Copyright © 2010. All rights reserved. SAS Institute Inc.

. 70 Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.From Theory to Practice Your success depends on how well and how fast the right information and intelligence gets to the right people.

com 71 Copyright © 2010. SAS Institute Inc.cokins@sas.sas.com 919 531 2012 gary.Thank You Visit our corporate Web Site: www. . All rights reserved.sas.com Or feel free to contact: Gary Cokins. CPIM SAS Performance Management www.

.Copyright © 2010 SAS Institute Inc. All rights reserved.