qqkrw

krm AMk
ivSw
pMnw
1.
mwJy dw BUgoilk ic`qr
15
2.
izlHyvwr mwJy dI vsoN dy vyrvy
16
3.
mYN qy myrw mwJw
17
4.
pMjwb dw ipCokV
20
5.
mwJw- ie`k pMCI Jwq
23
pihlw AiDAwie
(mwJy dw Dwrimk pihlU,sMpRdwvW Aqy hor m`q-mqWqr)
6.
rwm qIrQ
33
7.
AMimRqsr
35
8.
sRI Akwl q^q swihb
37
9.
jilHAWvwlw bwZ
38
10.
durigAwnw mMidr
39
11.
^wlsw kwlz AMimRqsr
40
12.
gurU nwnk dyv XUnIvristI
44
13.
iklw goibMd gVH AMimRqsr
45
14.
sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI
47
15.
sRI drbwr swihb qrn qwrn
50
16
gurduAwrw nwnk sr (vyrkw)
53
17
sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI Aqy btwlw
55
18
gu: colw swihb fyrw bwbw nwnk
58
19
sRI gurU hrgoibMd jI
59
20
bwbw bu`Fw jI
63
21
BweI gurdws jI
66
22
ShId bwbw dIp isMG jI
68
23
bwbw swihb isMG jI bydI
72
24
sRI gurU qyZ bhwdr jI Aqy bwbw bkwlw
74
25
bwbw p`lHw jI (ipMf buqwlw)
77
26
gurduAwrw cohlw swihb
79
27
^fUr swihb
81
28
is`KI dw Durw:- goieMdvwl swihb
84
29
bIbI rjnI
86
30
AcwrIAw bwbw sRI cMd jI audwsIn sMpRdwie
88
31
fyrw bwbw jYml isMG Aqy rwDw suAwmI m`q ibAws 91
32
bwbw hMdwl jI Aqy inrMjxI m`q (jMifAwlw gurU )
95
33
dmdmI tkswl mihqw (izlHw AMimRqsr)
97
34
bwbw lwl jI g`dI iDAwn pur (izlHw gurdwspur) 101
35
AihmdIAw m`q kwdIAW (izlHw gurdwspur)
104
36
sMpRdwie bwbw ibDI cMd, sur isMG
110
37
Bgq jlHx dws jI
112
38
Bgq sYx jI
115
39
bwbw lMgwh jI ( Jbwl)
118
40
bwbw Sy^ P`qw
121
41
mweI Bwgo (Jbwl)
122
42
BweI su`Kw isMG jI Aqy mihqwb isMG jI
123
43
ShId bwbw jIvn isMG (BweI jYqw jI)
127
44
BweI bGyl isMG jI
129

45
46
47
48
49
50
51

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88

BweI qwrw isMG ipMf vW
ShId BweI qwrU isMG jI
ShId BweI mhW isMG jI
bwbw ibDI cMd jI ‘CInw’
ShId bwbw boqw isMG Aqy grzw isMG jI
bwbw bIr isMG jI
mwqw sul`KxI
AiDAwie dUsrw
(rwjnIqI Aqy mJYl)
sR: j`sw isMG rwmgVHIAw
jrnYl Swm isMG AtwrI
ShId drSn isMG jI ‘PyrUmwn’
jQydwr aUDm isMG jI ‘nwgoky’
bwbw ^Vk isMG jI (bIV swihb vwly)
Bgq pUurn isMG jI
jQydwr mohx isMG jI ‘nwgoky’
kwmryf sohx isMG jI ‘joS’
sR: prqwp jI “kYroN”
sR: sohx isMG jI ‘zlwl ausmw’
eISr isMG jI mJYl
igAwnI krqwr isMG jI
sR: guridAwl isMG jI ‘iFloN’
jQydwr mohx isG jI ‘quV’
sR: mnohr isMG jI ‘ig`l’
kwmryf ivmlw fWg
ikrn bydI AweI.pI. AYs
AiDAwie qIsrw
(swihq, sMgIq, koml klwvW Aqy
mwDo dws-hUsYn
bwbw bu`lHy Swh
hwSm Swh
mhW kvI BweI sMqoK isMG jI
sR: idAwl isMG jI mjITIAw
Swh muhMmd
mOlvI gulwm ‘musq&w’
hwSm Swh ‘mu^ls’
fw: crn isMG jI
fw: BweI vIr isMG jI
bwvw bu`D isMG jI
gurbKS isMG pRIqlVI
sR: nwnk isMG jI glpkwr
cmn lwl Sugl
eISvr cMdr nMdw
lwlw DnI rwm ‘cwiqRk’
mOlw b^S kuSqw
sohx isMG sIql
i&rozdIn ‘Sr&’
bwvw blvMq

131
133
135
140
142
144
146

149
154
160
163
166
169
171
175
178
181
183
186
188
195
198
201
204
mJYl)
209
213
218
222
225
228
230
231
232
234
237
240
243
245
248
251
253
255
261
263

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
97
98

99
100
101
102

103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121

BweI mohx isMG jI vYd
265
fw: rqn isMG jI hoimaUpYQ
268
pdm sRI soBw isMG jI Awritst
271
jI AYs sohx isMG jI Awritst
273
PUlW rwxI ic`qrkwr
276
sR: Arjn isMG jI cIP eyAr mwrSl
278
sR:krm isMG jI ihstorIAn (Jbwl)
281
muhMmd rPI
285
mihMdr kpUr jI
289
iSv kumwr btwlvI
292
gurmIq bwvw
294
AiDAwie cOQw
(Kyf jgq Aqy mJYl)
mJYl Aqy hwkI
297
pihlvwnI Aqy mJYl
300
kb`fI Aqy mJYl
309
mwJy dIAW kb`fI iKfwrnw
311
AiDAwie pMjvW
(svqMqrqw sMgRwm, gurduAwrw suDwr lihrW,
kUkw lihr Aqy swikAW ‘c mJYlW dw Xogdwn)
BweI mhwrwj isMG jI
314
kUkw AMdoln Aqy mJYl
320
Cotw GlUGwrw
325
morcw gurU kw bwZ
328
kwmryf sohx isMG jI ‘Bknw’
331
ShId sohx lwl pwTk
334
bwbw gurid`q isMG jI (hIro kwmwgwtw mwrU )
339
ShId s: myvw isMG lopoky
345
BweI gihl isMG C`jlv`fI
347
sMq bwbw vswKw isMG jI ddyhr swihb
350
ShId BweI nrwiex isMG jI(swkw nnkwxw swihb) 353
ShId mdn lwl FINgrw
356
kwmryf qyjw isMG suqMqr
359
kwmryf A`Cr isMG CInw
361
jQydwr qyjw isMG jI ‘Bu`cr’
365
Arjn isMG ‘gVg`j’
368
ShId BweI AmrIk isMG jI ‘^wlsw’
374
bwbw ieMdr isMG jI vyrkw
376
bwbw jvwlw isMG T`TIAW
378

***

mwJy dw BUgoilk ic`qr

mwJy dw izlHyvwr vyrvw
(AMkVy mrdm SumwrI-2001 Anuswr )
izlHw AMimRqsr
qihsIlW dw vyrvw:
blwkW dw vyrvw:rkbw:kul ipMfW dI igxqI:izlHy dI ku`l vsoN:-

(4) AMimRqsr 1, AMimRqsr 2,Ajnwlw
Aqy bwbw bkwlw[
8 (Ajnwlw, cugwvW, jMifAwlw, mjITw, vyrkw, reIAw, hrsw
CInw, qris`kw)
2647 vrg iklo mItr
699 ipMf
21,57,020 (11,52,821 mrd Aqy 10, 04, 199 AOrqW)
izlHw qrn qwrn

qihsIlW dw vyrvw:blwkW dw vyrvw:kul rkbw:kul ipMfW dI igxqI:izlHy dI ku`l vsoN:-

iqMn (3) qrn qwrn, p`tI, ^fUr swihb
A`T (8) qrn qwrn iBKIivMf, vltohw, p`tI, cohlw swihb,
^fUr swihb Aqy nuiShrw pMƒAW[
2449 vrg iklo mItr
671 ipMf
9,39,057 (4,97,768 mrd Aqy
4,41,289 AOrqW )
izlHw gurdwspur

qihsIlW dw vyrvw:kul rkbw:blwkW dw vyrvw:kul ipMfW dI igxqI:izlHy dI ku`l vsoN:-

kul ipMf dI igxqI:blwk:mwJy dI kul vsoN:mwJy dw kul rkbw:-

(4) gurdwspur,pTwnkot, btwlw Aqy fyrw bwbw nwnk[
3564 vrg iklo mItr
16
1617 (v`soN vwly = 1532 Aqy by-crwZ=85)
21, 04, 011 (mrd 11,13,077 AOrqW, 90, 934)
mwJy dy kul ipMf Aqy vsoN

2987
32
52,00,088
8660 vrg iklo mItr

***

mYN qy myrw mwJw
ieh myrw h`Qlw ivSw ijs ƒ lY ky mYN ilKxw SurU kIqw sI mYƒ bVI hI sOKI ijhI
g`l l`igAw sI[ mYN jdoN fwktr inrml isMG jI horW ƒ lWbVy imlx igAw qW aunHW
h`sidAW hoieAW ikhw sI, “Xwr! qUM mJYl eyN[mwJy dy ^wsyy bwry qUM swfy nwloN ijAwdw
jwxdw eyN[ ielwky dI nwV nwV qoN vwik& eyN[qUM Awpxy mwJy bwry ikauN kuJ nhIN ilKdw?”
mYN aunHw dI ies g`l ƒ gMBIrqw nwl ilAw sI Aqy Gr Aw ky iqVy-iqVy ny ies ivSy qy
pMj ku siPAW dw ie`k lyK ilK ky aunHW ƒ dUsrI imlxI qy ivKwieAw sI[ myrw lyK pVH ky
auh h`s pey sn[aunHW isr mwr ky kih id`qw sI, “ C`f Xwrw! ieh mwJw ey, mwJw ? ies
iK`qy iv`c v`sx vwilAW lokW dy id`l ij`fy ivSwl ny aunW hI ieh vI bhuq ivSwl ey[ mYN
mwJy qoN bwhr bYT ky vI qyry nwloN ijAwdw jwxdw hW[”
mwJy dy mJYlW vwlI Ax^ idl iv`c jwg peI sI[ ieh audoN hor vI ijAwdw m`c
au~TI sI jdoN mwJw pMjwbI s`Q buqwlw dy slwnw snmwn smwroh iv`c aunHW ny Bry iek`T
iv`c styj qoN kih id`qw ik “mYN rGbIr isMG ‘qIr’, jo mwJw pMjwbI s`Q qrn qwrn dw
mu`K syvwdwr vI hY, dy ijMmyN lwauNdw hW ik auh ie`k ikqwb rUp iv`c mwJy dy drSn
krvwaux[” mYN ausy idn qoN mn iv`c Dwr ilAw ik ies ivSy qy ilKxw hY[ sOKw ijhw kMm
smJ ky smuMdr iv`c Cwl mwr id`qI[ ijauN ijauN mYN ^oj krdw igAw ieh hƒmwn dI pUC
vWg v`DdI hI geI[ iknwrw ik`Dry lBdw hI nhIN sI[
Awpxy dosqW im`qrW nwl jdoN vI bYTdw b`s iesy ivSy qy hI g`lW krdw rihMdw [
hr koeI nvIN qoN nvIN g`l d`sdw irhw[mYN au~Dr hI dOV pYNdw[ ipMf ipMf BivAW[ mwJy dy
drSn lMmy hI huMdy gey[mJYlW vwlI ij`d nw C`fI[ kdI qW r`b bOhVU eI[ bwbw jlHx dy
dr q`k pu`ijAw, AwzwdI sMgrwmIAW dy bUhy ^t^twey, ShIdW dy kwrnwmy ilKx leI QW QW
BivAW[dOV lMmI hI huMdI geI Aqy mYN dOVdw hI irhw[ hux ies kMm iv`c AwnMd Awaux
l`gw sI Aqy mn KuSI nwl Brdw jWdw sI[kdI kdI mn ieh vI cwhuMdw sI ik ieh kMm
kdy mu`ky hI nw qy mY aunHW QwvW dI Bwl krdw rhW, ij`Qy bhuq kuJ vwpirAw sI, jilHAW
vwlw bwZ, swkw nnkwxw swihb, nwmDwrI ShIdW dIAW QwvW Awid[
iqRpqI huMdI geI kwrvW c`ldw igAw[ieh kwrz hI ieMnW ivSwl sI ik myry iek`ly
vwsqy ies ƒ klwvy iv`c lY lYxw sOKw nhIN sI jwpdw sI[ mYN Awpxy kuJ XwrW dosqW ƒ vI
sihXog leI vMgwirAw ijnHW ny ies kwrj iv`c myrI is`Dy jW Ais`Dy qoOr qy mdd kIqI[
aunHw ƒ mYN ie`Qy Xwd nhIN krdw qW AikRqGxqw hovygI[
mYN irxI hW sRv sRI blbIr ‘Awsl’ jI, DrivMdr isMG ‘AOlK’,s: bKSIS isMG
pRymI Awrirst ijs koloN mYƒ sbMDq qsvIrw dw sihXog imilAw, sMqoK isMG ‘gurwieAw’,
Cotw vIr sul`Kx ‘idaul’,gurijMdr isMG biGAwVI,sR: Swm isMG jI nwmDwrI qrn qwrn,
sR:sqnwm isMG jI ‘CInw’ izlHw lok sMprk ivBwg qrn qwrn dw ijnHw ny mYƒ ipAwr
Aqy pUrn sihXog id`qw hY[ jy kr mYN ie`Qy bhuq hI siqkwrXog AibnwSI isMG jI “ggn
mY Qwlu” jMifAwlw gurU vwilAW dI smyN smyN mYƒ id`qI syD Aqy myry v`loN mMgI hr qrHW dI
mdd dI aunHW v`loN kIqI pUrqI dw ijkr nhI krdw qW ieh myrw AprwD hovygw[ purwxy
swihqkwrW, ilKwrIAW Aqy klwkwrW dIAW qsvIrW Aqy kuJ BulyiKAW dI nivrqI kr ky
aunHW jo Aihswn kIqw hY mYN aus dw sdw irxI rhWgw[
mYN ieh piVHAw hoieAw sI ik “mnu`K dI kwmXwbI ip`Cy AOrq dw h`Q huMdw hY[”
ies g`l dy AslI mwAny hux myrI smJ iv`c Awey hn jdoN ies kwrz iv`c myrI supqnI
surjIq kOr ny mYƒ GrylU aulJxW qoN dUr r`K Ais`Dy qOr qy myrI ies kwrz is`DI iv`c
Aid`s rUp iv`c mdd kIqI hY[ mYN ies Xogdwn leI aus dw vI DMnvwdI hW[
auprly swry ibrqwq dw ikDry vI myrw ieh Bwv jW soc nhIN hY ik mYN ies g`l dI
fINg mwr irhw hW ik ieh ikqwb mYN Awpxy b`lbUqy qy ilKI hY[ieh sB kuJ jo ie`Qy drz
hY pihlW hI mOjUd sI[ ieh quhwfIAW A`KW jW izhn iv`coN guzr cu`kw hovygw, ieiqhwsk
ikqwbW, A^bwrW,rswilAW jW sInw-b-sInw sux ky[ mYN qW kyvl qy kyvl ieMnHW iK`lry hoey
moqIAW ƒ iek`qr kr ky ie`k mwlw dw rUp hI id`qw hY[

ies kwrj pUrqI leI ijhVIAW pusqkW dw mYN AiDAn kIqw Aqy ies ivSy leI
mswlw jutwieAw aunHW iv`c is`K imSnrI kwlj(rij:) luiDAwxw v`loN smyN smyN jwrI
pusqkW vI myrw p`Q drSk bxIAW hn[ mYN ies sMsQw dw vI qih idloN DMnvwdI hW jo
is`K jgq ƒ Awpxy ivrsy nwl joVn leI v`fmu`lw Xogdwn pw rhI hY[ mYN AwBwrI hW
kYptn sR:ipAwrw isMG jI ieMcwrj BweI mohn isMG is`K lwiebRyrI qrn qwrn dw ijnHW
ny smyN smyN ies ivSy nwl sbMDq pusqkW jwrI kr ky myry kMm ƒ suKwlw bxwieAw[ v`K
v`K QwvW qy srvy krn smyN AnykW hI SuB icMqkW ny myrI mdd kIqI hY[ mYN aunHw dw vI
qih idloN DMnvwdI hW[ rojwnw AKbwrW iv`c sbMDq jwxkwrIAW iek`TIAW kr ky mYN ies
kwrz dI pOVI pOVI ciVHAw hW[ mYƒ A^bwrW dIAW k`itMgz r`Kx dw jo SONk bcpn qoN hI
hY[ auh SONk vI myry kMm AwieAw hY[ bhuq swrI jwxkwrI A^bwrW ny pRdwn kIqI hY[
ies qoN ibnW “ sRI AMimRqsr jI dy drSn ieSnwn Aqy 500 swlW dI ieiqhwsk
fwierYktrI” vI vyrvy Aqy sbMDq qwrI^W vyKx leI shweI hoeI hY[
ieh kihMidAW hoieAW mn ƒ sMqwp vI huMdw hY ik A`j k`lH dy nOjvwn Aqy b`cy
Awpxy gOrmeI ivrsy nwloN tu`tdy jw rhy hn[ Awpxy sUrbIrW, gurUAW-pIrW, ShIdW Aqy
svqMqrqw sMgrwmIAW ijnHW ny ies sMgrwm iv`c ih`sw pwieAw Aqy h`sdy-h`sdy PWsIAW dy
q^iqAw qy JUul gey sn[ienHW kOmIN pRvwinAW dI bdOlq hI A`j AsIN AwzwdI dw in`G
mwx rhy hW[ auh ienHW dIAW kurbwnIAW ƒ ivsrdy jw rhy hn[ijhVIAW kOmW Awpxy
ivrsy, mW bolI Aqy ieiqhws ƒ Bu`l jWdIAW hn auh ijAwdw icr ijMdw nhI rihMdIAW[
Bu`l-BulyKy jy kr ienHW ƒ dsW gurUAW dy nW qrqIbvwr d`sx leI kih id`qw jwvy qW ieh
aunHW leI Alzbry dy AOKy svwl vrgI g`l ho jWdI hY jdoN ik iPlm jgq dy iksy hIro
jW hIroien dy nW auh qoqy dI qrHW bol jwxgy[
ies pusqk dI sucwrU ivauNqbMdI leI ies dy v`K-v`K iviSAW nwl sbMDq hyT
Anuswr AiDAwie bxw id`qy gey hn qW jo pwTk ƒ loVINdw ivSw l`Bx iv`c suivDw
rhy[ivSy vwr AiDAwie hyT Anuswr hn:(1) pihlw AiDAwie:-mwJy dIAW Dwrimk hsqIAW,AsQwn,sMpRdwvW Aqy hor m`qmqWqr[
(2) dUsrw AiDAwie:- rwjnIqI Aqy mJYl
(3) qIsrw AiDAwie:- swihq jgq, koml klwvW Aqy mJYl
(4) cOQw AiDAwie:Kyf jgq Aqy mJYl
(5) pMjvW AiDAwie:- swky, kUkw lihr, svqMqrqw sMgrwm, Cotw GlUGwrw, gurduAwrw
suDwr lihrW Aqy aunHW iv`c mJYlW dw Xogdwn[
ADuink Xu`g kMipaUtr dw Xu`g hY[mYN smJdw hW ik swfy nwloN A`j dI pIVHI ies ƒ
CyqI smJdI hY[myry kMipaUtr dy kMm iv`c myry poqry swihbdIp isMG dI kIqI mdd ƒ vI
mYN A`KoN proKy nhI kr skdw[ieh ikqwb ilK ky myry mn ƒ skUn vI imilAw hY qy ieh
Aws vI hY ik jy kr 100 iv`coN 10 nOjvwn vI ieh ikqwb pVH ky Awpxy ivrsy nwl juV
gey qW mYN smJWgw ik myrw ilKxw swrQk hoieAw hY[

***

pMjwb dw ipCokV
pMjwb do SbdW dw joV hY, pMj+Awb[ iehnW do SbdW dy smyl qoN bixAw Sbd
pMjwb hY[ies dy SbdI ArQ hn pMj pwxI, Bwv pMj dirAwvW dI DrqI[iehI pMjwb
pihlW kdy spq isMDU dy nwm nwl jwixAw jWdw sI ijs iv`c aus smNy s`q dirAw
ibAws, sqluj, jyhlm, rwvI, cnwb, isMD Aqy G`gr vgdy sn[smyN smyN ielwkweI vMf
hox krky pMjwb iv`c kyvl pMj dirAw hI rih gey[ihMdusqwn dI vMf qoN pihlW vwly
pMjwb dIAW h`dW ie`k pwsy kwbl nwl lgdIAW sn qW dUsry pwsy ies dw pswrw id`lI
dIAW h`dW nwl lgdw sI[
APgwinsqwn dy drw ^Ybr rwhIN jrvwxy Bwrq qy Awm krky hmly krdy rihMdy
sn Aqy ieQoN lutmwr krky lY jWdy sn[ iehnW lutyirAW dw swhmxw sB qo pihlW pMjwb
vwsIAW nwl hI huMdw sI Aqy auhnW ƒ iehnW nwl lohw lYxw pYNdw sI[iehnW DwVvIAW
iv`c mhwn skMdr vrgy joDy, nwdrSwh, mihmUd gznvI Aqy AihmdSwh AbdwlI vrgy
DwVvI Kws qOr qy vrnx Xog hn[ ieh DwVvI AwauNdy lu`tmwr krdy, jvwn AOrqW ƒ ByfW
b`krIAW vWg ih`k Awpxy nwl lY jWdy ijhnW ƒ gznI dIAW mMfIAW iv`c jwnvrW vWg
vyicAw jWdw sI[ Bwrq dw ieh srh`dI sUbw hox krky ies ƒ hI ies julm dI B`TI iv`c
Julsxw pYNdw sI[ ieQoN dw jn jIvn bVw hI byBrosgI vwlw sI[ hOlI hOlI ie`QoN dy vwsI
vI iehnW nwl inptx leI qqpr ho gey[ auh iehnW iv`c rl ky iehnW jrvwixAW nwl
lu`tmwr krn jWdy Aqy auhnW dI vwpsI qy auhnW ƒ hI l`ut lYNdy sn[ lutyirAW nwl jUJxW
in`q dw kMm ho igAw sI[ iesy leI iksy TIk hI ikhw hY:“pMjwb dy jMimAW ƒ in`q muihMmW”
AihmdSwh AbdwlI dI lu`t mwr ny qW lokW dy id`lW iv`c Aijhw fr pYdw kIqw
hoieAw sI ik rozwnw dI ijMdgI nrk bx ky rih geI sI[ pqw hI nhIN sI huMdw ik kdoN
ieh DwVvI ByfW dy ie`jV qy Syr vWgUM Aw pYxgy[ auhnW idnw iv`c Awm krky ieh khwvq
lokW dy mUMh qy huMdI sI:“KwDw pIqw lwhy dw, bwkI Aihmd Swhy dw[”
iehnW hlwqW iv`c ieh pMjwbI lok hI sn jo fWg qy fyrw r`KI iehnW DwVvIAW dw
mukwblw kirAw krdy sn[
msW msW ie`k blw gloN l`QI sI ik dUsrI gl Aw peI[
ieh sI “eIst ieMfIAw kMpnI”, ijs ny AwpxI kutl nIqI dy shwry rwjy rjvwiVAW dI
AwpsI Pu`t dw Pwiedw lYx leI “pwVo qy rwj kro”(Divide & Rule) dI nIqI Apxw ky
hOlI hOlI Bwrq ƒ gulwmI dIAW jMjIrW iv`c jkV ilAw sI[ AMgryjW qoN AwzwdI leI
vqn- pRsqW ny AwpxIAW AhUqIAW ies blI vydI qy dyxIAW SurU kr id`qIAW
sn[ieiqhwskwr bySk 1857 dy Zdr ƒ AzwdI dI pihlI lVweI mMndy hn pr ieh s`c
nhIN hY[ ieh gdr qW auhnW rwjy rjvwiVAW v`loN muV rwj s`qw pRwpqI dw ie`k auprwlw
sI, ijs ƒ lok lihr nhI ikhw jw skdw[ lok lihr jo Asl AzwdI pRwpqI dw ArMB
sI ies qoN kwPI pihlW sMn 1850 iv`c BweI mhwrwj isMG v`loN ArMB kIqw jw cu`kw sI
ijhVw 1862 eI: iv`c kUkw lihr dy rUp iv`c auBirAw[ ieiqhwskwrW v`loN iehnW joiDAW
dIAW kurbwnIAW ƒ A`KoN proKy krky is`K kOm dIAW kurbwnIAW nwl v`fw D`kw kIqw jw
irhw hY[ kUkw lihr iv`c AMgryj rwj dy ivru`D auTweI Awvwj nUM dbwaux leI auuhnW ƒ
qopW A`gy bMnH ky aufwaux dw swkw AwzwdI dy jMg dw hI ie`k rUp sI[
ShIdW dw KUun rMg ilAwieAw[ AzwdI qW iml geI pr ies leI pMjwb ƒ jo mu`l
qwrnw ipAw auh bhuq v`fw sI[sMn 1947 iv`c mulk dI vMf smyN pMjwb dy do toty ho gey[
pwiksqwn qoN Bwrq Awaux leI 50 l`K qoN v`D ihMdU Aqy is`KW ƒ ihjrq krnI peI[
iesy qrHW Bwrq qoN 60 l`K qoN v`D muslmwn pwiksqwn ihjrq krky gey sn[ ies
Adlw-bdlI iv`c 10 l`K qoN v`D lok mwry gey[ ie`k l`K dy krIb bIbIAW-BYxW dw
zbrdsqI mjHb qbdIl krky srh`doN aurwr jW pwr GrIN pw leIAW geIAW sn[jy ieh
kih ilAw jwvy ik iehnW lokW ƒ KUun dw dirAw pwr krnw ipAw sI qW koeI AiqkQnI
nhI hovygI[mwl fMgr dI lu`t, iejqW dI lu`t, AwpixAW qoN ivCoVy iehnW lokW dy id`lW dw
nwsUr bx igAw sI[aus smyN lwhOr Sihr pMjwb dI isAwsq dw gVH Aqy rwjDwnI sI[ jy

ieMj kih ilAw jwvy ik lwhOr pMjwb dy qwj dw hIrw sI qW glq nhI hovygw[ ies vMf
iv`c lwhOr pwiksqwn dI JolI pY igAw jo A`j k`lH ‘lihMdw pMjwb’ AKvwauNdw hY[
Bwrq dy ih`sy Awey pMjwb, ijs ƒ‘cVHdw pMjwb’kihMdy hn iv`c AMimRqsr Sihr jo
ik rUuhwnIAq dIAW dwqW dw Kzwnw Aqy kpVy dy ivaupwr dw kyNdr sI nwl hI sbr
krnw ipAw[ ies qrHW lwhOr Aqy AMimRqsr do sky Brw isAwsq dI jwlm kYNcI dI
Byt cVH gey[pMjwb dy do tuu`kVy qW hoey hI pwxIAW dI vI vMf ho geI[ieh pMjwb jo pMjW
dirAwvW dI sr zmIn sI, hux BwrqI pMjwb (cVHdy pMjwb) iv`c kyvl sqluj, ibAws
Aqy rwvI dirAw dw kuJ ih`sw hI rih igAw hY[ies vMf iv`c pMjwb ƒ lhU dy A`QrU roxy
pey sn ijhnW ƒ vyK ky AMimRqw pRIqm dI klm vI ro peI sI:“auT drdmMdW idAw drdIAw, qk Apxw pMjwb,
A`j byly lwSW ivCIAW, qy lhU dI BrI cnwb[”
Bwrq pwiksqwn dI vMf qoN auprMq cVHdy pMjwb dIAW musIbqW dw Swied Ajy AMq
nhI sI hoieAw[ sMprdwiek vwA-vroilAW ny ies dI rihMdI KUMhdI Swn vI im`tI iv`c
imlw dyx dI TwxI hoeI sI[AMimRqsr kpVy dI s`nq dw Gu`g v`sdw Sihr sI[ ies dI
ieh s`nq hOlI hOlI pMjwb qoN bwhr PrIdwbwd v`l mMUh kr geI[ pMjwb dy btwlw Sihr
dI lohy dI s`nq vI AwKrI swh lY rhI hY[ isAwsI cwlW dI qlvwr ( pMjwbI sUbw lihr
) ny dubwrw pMjwb dy iqMn tukVy kr id`qy[ ies pMjwb iv`coN hI hirAwxw Aqy ihmwcl
pRdyS nvyN pRWq KVy kr id`qy[ ies qrHW Ajokw pMjwb l`qW bwhvW qo ibnW ie`k ‘loQVw
pMjwb’ bx ky rih igAw hY[
ies nvyN bxy pMjwbI sUby jo Asl iv`c ie`k sUbI hI rih igAw hY ƒ BUgoilk vMf
Anuswr iqMn ihisAW iv`c vMifAw jWdw hY[ies vMf dI h`dbMdI vI dirAw hI krdy hn[
dirAw sqluj Aqy ibAws dw sMgm hrIky p`qx qy huMdw hY ij`Qy mwlvy, mwJy Aqy duAwby
dIAw nu`krW imldIAW hn[dirAw sqluj dy auprly kMFy dy nwl l`gdw ielwkw ijs iv`c
Ajoky iProjpur,PrIdkot, biTMfw, brnwlw,mwnsw, PqihgVH swihb, ropV, muhwlI
,mukqsr, mogw, luiDAwxw, pitAwlw Aqy sMgrUr izlHy AwauNdy hn ‘mwlvw’ AKvwauNdw hY[
dirAw sqluj Aqy dirAw ibAws dw ivckwrlw ielwkw ‘duAwbw’ijs dw l&jI
ArQ hY do+Awbw, Bwv do dirAwvW dy drimAwn dw ielwkw[ ies ielwky iv`c jlMDr,
kpUrQlw, nvW Sihr (hux ShId Bgq isMG ngr) Aqy huiSAwrpur dw ielwkw AwauNdw
hY[ieQoN dy vsnIkW ƒ “duAwbIey” AwKdy hn[ ie`QoN dy lok izAwdw krky bwhrly dySW
iv`c v`sy hox krky AwriQk p`KoN kwPI KuShwl hn[

***

mwJw:- ie`k pMCI Jwq
dirAw ibAws Aqy dirAw rwvI dy ivckwrly ielwky ƒ‘mwJw’ ikhw jWdw hY[ies
ielwky dI AbwdI Aqy zmIn dUsirAW BrwvW nwlo QoVHI hY[ ies iv`c AMimRqsr,
gurdwspur Aqy nvW bixAw izlHw qrn qwrn jo pihlW AMimRqsr izlHy dw hI ih`sw
sI,AwauNdy hn[ mwJy dw pswr ienHW iqMn izilHAW AMdr hI hY[ gurdwspur izlHy AMdr
kwdIAW, hrcovwl, kwhƒvwn Aqy sRI hrgoibMdpur dw ielwkw ‘irAwVkI’ AKvwauNdw hY
ij`QoN dy mWh kdy bhuq hI mShUr huMdy sn[ gurdwspur izlHy dw hyTlw ielwkw jo ik
AMimRqsr nwl lgdw hY Bwv btwlw, fyrw bwbw nwnk klwnOr Awid bolI dy ADwr qy gUVH
mwJy dw ihsw hY[ bwbw bkwlw qoN lY ky fyrw bwbw nwnk q`k dI p`tI mwJy dw hI ih`sw hY[
gurdwspur dw auprlw ‘Dwr blwk’ dw ielwkw bolI dy AwDwr qy mwJy qoN Awpxy Awp ƒ
inKyVdw hY, pr ies dw ieh mqlb nhIN ik gurdwspur mwJw nhIN hY[pTwnkot dI A`D pc`DI, gurdwspur,btwlw qy fyrw bwbw nwnk dIAW qihsIlW mwJy dw au~qrI ih`sw hY [
jdoN ik Kymkrn Aqy p`tI iehdw d`KxI Bwg hY ijs ƒ ‘Kwrw mwJw’ ikhw jWdw hY[ies
qrHW AMimRqsr , qrn qwrn Aqy gurdwspur dy izlHy mwJy dI sr zmIn hY[qrn qwrn
iv`c pYx vwlw ielwkw mwJy dw gVH jW mwJy dI DurI mMinAw jWdw hY[
mwJy iv`c v`sx vwly lok ‘mJYl’ AKvwauNdy hn[ieh h`fW-pYrW dy Ku`lHy, suhxI
fIl-fOl, K`ulHw Kwx-pIx dy AwdI, s`jxW dy s`jx Aqy duSmxW leI duSmx suBwE r`Kx
vwly lok hn[iehnW dI dosqI dI qulnw qUq dy moCy nwl huMdI hY jo CyqI kIiqAw nhIN
tu`tdw[jy kr iehnW dI dosqI dw ieh Awlm hY qW duSmxI dw vI kI kihxw! ieh vI
isry dI huMdI hY[ iehnW dw vYr Joty vrgw huMdw hY[ ieh vYrI leI idloN vYr nhIN BulwauNdy
sgoN ieh vYr keI pIVHIAW q`k c`ldw hY Aqy t`brW dy t`br Kw jWdw hY[ieh h`QkVIAW
Aqy byVIAW iv`c b`Jy jdoN kcihrIAW iv`c qrIkW Bugqx AwauNdy hn qW ieh iehnW
CxkdIAW h`QkVIAW Aqy byVIAW nUM Awpxw gihxw dsdy hn[ iehnW dw A`KV suBwA
Aqy mOq ƒ mKOl krn dI Awdq hI iehnW ƒ dUusirAW nwloN inKyVdI hY[
“mwJy dy mJYl nwl kOx m`Qw lwaUgw?
nwl iehdy Kih ik`dW su`kw jaUgw?
h`s h`s dyS leI ieh jwnW vwrdy,
s`cI g`l khW ieh qW Bu`Ky ipAwr dy[
mwJy qoN hY ‘qIr’ vwrI sdky,
mwJy dy mJYl sdw rihx v`sdy[”
mwJy dI pRhuxwcwrI vI kmwl dI hY[ipMf iv`c ie`k dw pRwhuxw swry ipMf dw pRwhuxw
huMdw hY[jykr koeI rwhgIr iksy dw Gr pu`C lvy qW ieh mJYl lok pihlW aus dI jlpwxI nwl syvw krdy hn iPr Awp nwl jw ky jW koeI AwdmI aus nwl Byj ky aus ƒ QW
isr phuMcwaux iv`c AwpxI ie`zq Aqy mwx smJdy hn[myly Aqy mJYl dw nhuM mws dw
irSqw hY[ ij`Qy mJYl ikrswn AwpxI KyqI dI sWB sMBwl leI Awpxw psInw im`tI iv`c
folHdw hY au~Qy ivhly vyly auh myilAW dIAW rOxkW mwnxo vI ip`Cy nhIN rihMdw[ Swied kvI
DnI rwm‘cwiqRk’ ny iesy vyly dw ic`qr AwpxI kivqw “myly iv`c j`t” iv`c iK`icAw hY:qUVI qMd sWB hwVHI vyc v`t ky,
lMbVW qy SwhW dw ihswb k`t ky[
mIhW dI aufIk qy isAwV k`F ky,
mwl tWfw sWBxy ƒ kwmw C`f ky[
p`g-J`gw-cwdrw nvW svwey ky,
sMmW vwlI fWg auqy qyl lwey ky[
k`Cy mwr vMJlI AwnMd Cw igAw,
mwrdw dmwmyN j`t myly Aw igAw[”
smu`cy qOr qy pMjwb ikrswxI pRDwn sUbw hY[ SihrIkrx ny bySk ipMfW dI vsoN ƒ
SihrW v`l iK`icAw hY pr Ajy vI duAwby mwlvy vWg ie`QoN dI izAwdw vsoN ipMfW iv`c hI

v`sdI hY Aqy ikrswxI nwl hI juVI hoeI hY[mwJy dI zmIn bhuq hI aupjwaU hY ijs ƒ
isMjx leI nihrI pwxI Aqy pihlW KUhW dI vrqoN kIqI jWdI rhI hY[KUhW dy pwxI nwl
isMjI jwx vwlI zmIn ‘cwhI’ AKvwauNdI hY[ies ielwky iv`c vgx vwlIAW mu`K nihrW
Apr bwrI duAwb Aqy loAr bwrI duAwb hn jo mwDo pur qoN inkldIAW hn[imsr dI
nIl ndI vWg Apr bwrI duAwb AMimRqsr iv`coN dI v`gdI hoeI pYlIAW ƒ isMjdI hY jd
ik loAr bwrI duAwb gurdwspur, fyrw bwbw nwnk, PqihgVH cUVIAW dy ielwky dw isMcweI
sroq hY[
cwhI vwhI dy qW smyN hI l`d gey hn jdoN phu-Putwly qoN pihlW hI bldW dy g`l
peIAW mhylW dI im`TI mDur Awvwz kMnIN ipAw krdI sI Aqy hwlI zmIn vwh ky ipMf
v`l mUMh cu`k JwikAw krdy sn ik kdoN svwxIN aunHW leI B`qw lY ky AwvygI[mSInIkrx ny
qW vwhI dw muhWdrw hI bdl ky r`K id`qw hY[ mSInW ny qW bYlW dIAW joVIAW, mhylW,
KUh dIAW itMfW dw kl-kl krdw vgdw pwxI,KUh dy ku`qy dI it`k-it`k,cwtI iv`c pweI
mDwxI dI GuMmkwr sB BUuq kwl dIAW ikqwbI g`lW bxw ky r`K id`qIAW hn jo dwdy Aqy
dwdIAW Awpxy poqirAW-dohqirAW ƒ prI lok dIAW khwxIAW vWg suxwieAw
krngy[mwJy dI vwhI iv`c pihlW kmwd, kpwh Aqy kxk mu`K PslW sn pr hux JonW Aqy
kxk hI mu`K PslW rih geIAW hn[KUhW dI QW hux itaUbvYlW (bMbIAW) ny m`l leI hY[
pSUAW leI p`Ty kuqrn dw kMm kdI ksrq huMdw sI pr hux qW ibjlI dw btn d`ibAw qy
p`iTAW dw kuqrw ho igAw[
jwq brwdrIAW auproN bx ky nhIN sn AweIAW[ ieh swfy smwj dI hI dyx
hn[mƒ ismrqI Anuswr mu`K qOr qy ieh vMf chuM vrxW bRwhmx,K`qrI, vYS Aqy SUdr
iv`c kIqI geI sI[ ieh jwq vMf nhIN sI sgoN ieh qW kMm vMf sI jo A`gy c`l ky lohy qy
lkIr vrgI ho geI Aqy AwpsI iBMnqw dw rUp Dwr geI hY[iesy ‘coN Byd Bwv dw bIj
puMgirAw[aUc-nIc Aqy durkwr vrgI lwhnq vI iesy rUVIvwdI ivcwrDwrw dI hI dyx
hn[ienHW vrxW dw kMm iv`idAw pRdwn krnw,dyS dI rwKI krnw,ikrswxI Aqy bwkI
rihMdy Coty-moty (sPweI dw kMm jW kwmyN lok ijnHW ƒ mgroN nIvIAW jwqW dw ikhw jwx
l`gw) kMm krnw sI[ Asl iv`c ieh kMm vMf qoN v`D kuJ vI nhIN sI pr smyN dy Pyr ny
ieh qRyV AYfI v`fI kr id`qI ik ieh pwVw vDdw hI igAw Aqy nIvIAW jwqW leI ie`k
srwp bx igAw[mwJy iv`c v`K-v`K jwqW,goqW Aqy brwdrIAW dy lok v`sdy hn ijnHw iv`c
izAwdw vsoN j`tW dI hY[j`tW iv`c rMDwvw,iF`loN, kwhlo, irAwV,m`lHI, bwjvw, Bu`lr Awid
goqW hn[ goieMdvwl dy ielwky dy Awly-duAwly kMboA brwdrI dy lok v`sdy hn, ijhVy
bhuq hI imhnqI Aqy kmwaU iksm dy lok hn[ienHW bwry mShUr hY:“kukV, kW kMboA kbIlw pwlxw[j`t, mihAW sMswr kbIlw gwlxw[”
AMimRqsr Aqy qrn qwrn izilHAW iv`c j`tW dIAW b`l ,Kihrw,iF`loN, mwn, ig`l ,BYl,
B`ulr goqW hn[KfUr swihb dw ielwkw ijhVw pihlW KihirAw dw KfUr AKvwauNdw sI dy
Awly-duAwly Kihrw goq dy lok v`sdy hn[ j`tW qoN ibnW mwJy iv`c hor vI brwdrIAW
v`sdIAW hn[
rwmgVHIAw brwdrI:- l`gp`g swry pMjwb iv`c hI ies brwdrI dy lok v`sdy hn pr
izAwdw krky ies brwdrI dy lok izlHw AMimRqsr Aqy qrn qwrn iv`c v`sdy hn[ies
brwdrI dw is`K-Drm, rwjnIqI, Bvn klw, ic`qr klw, suDwr lihrW Aqy svqMqrqw
sMgrwm iv`c v`fw Xogdwn irhw hY[koeI Aijhw sMgrwm nhIN hovygw
ijs iv`c ies kOm dy mrjIviVAW ny Awpw nw vwirAw hovy[ j`sw isMG rwmgVHIAw vrgy
jrnYl (rwmgVHIAw imsl) ijs dI rwjDwnI sRI hrgoibMdpur sI Aqy ijs dy jwho -jlwl
dIAW DuMmW cwry pwsy sn, ƒ kOx nhIN jwxdw[ ies brwdrI dIAW goqW:- bmrwh, BUeI,
ivrdI, klsI, pnysr, iF`loN, s`gU, Bu`lr, mTwVU, sMDU, Bogl, sOND, mwn, nwgI, sihMbI,
jMfU Awid hn[
AroVw brwdrI dI vsoN izAwdw krky SihrW iv`c hY[ qrn qwrn Sihr iv`c ies
brwdrI dy bhuq lok v`sdy hn[ieh lok kwPI AmIr hn Aqy ienHW dw mu`K pySw ivaupwr
hY[

mhwSy:- ies brwdrI iv`c sYxI Aqy rwjpUq goqW dy lok AwauNdy hn, ijhVy izlHw
gurdwspur dy pTwnkot dy ielwky iv`c v`sdy hn[
mjHbI is`K:-ienHw dI izAwdw vsoN qrn qwrn dy Awly-duAwly dy ipMfW iv`c hY[ieh
izAwdw krky ijmIdwrW nwl vwhI-joqI dw kMm krdy hn pr A`j k`lH ienHW dy b`cy pVHilK ky cMgIAW nOkrIAW qy l`gy hoey hn[l`gdw hY ijvyN ienW ny j`t dw jUlw Awpxy gloN
lwh dyx dI Dwr leI hY[
pMifq,K`qrI Aqy bwxIey:- mwJy iv`c ienHW dI vsoN Awty iv`c lUx brwbr hI hY[ieh
izAwdw krky mwlvy iv`c v`sdy hn[
rwA is`K:-ies brwdrI iv`c lubwxy Aqy sYxI goq nwl sbMDq lok hn ijhVy dirAw
rwvI dy kMiFAW dy nwl nwl izlHw gurdwspur dy sRI hrgoibMdpur dy ielwky iv`c vsdy hn[
mwJy dw pihrwvw
iksy dI pihcwx krn leI iqMn cIjW ƒ iDAwn iv`c r`iKAw jWdw hY:- r&qwr,
gu&qwr Aqy dsqwr [Bwv iksy dI cwl,bolcwl Aqy pihrwvw[mJYl dI pihcwx ienHW
iqMMn g`lW dy ADwr qy kridAW swhmxy AwauNdw hY ik auh bVI mtk nwl qurdw hY[aus dI
qor iv`c hwQI vrgI msqI vyKx ƒ imldI hY[srIrk zor dw ivauN Aqy kmwieAw hoieAw
j`usw aus ƒ dUsirAW nwloN inKyVdw hY[ bolcwl iv`c auh dUsry ƒ ipAwr nwl “BwaU” kih
ky blwauNdw hY ijs dy ArQ hn-Brw[ aus dw pihrwvw Smly vwlI p`g,qrIzW vwlw gl
kuVqw, qyV DUvW cwdrw Aqy h`Q iv`c PiVHAw koikAW vwlw KUMfw duUroN d`s idMdw hY ik ieh
mJYl hY[
mwJy dI bolI
auNj qW ikhw jWdw hY ik bolI hr bwrHW kohW qy bdl jWdI hY qy ieh s`c vI
hY[qrnqwrn dw ielwkw mwJy dI DurI mMinAW jWdw hY[ie`QoN dy lok tkswlI pMjwbI bolI
boldy hn[ienHW dI bolI vI ienHW dy suBw vWg Ku`lHI-f`ulHI Aqy ipAwrI hY[izlHw gurdwspur
dw au~prlw ielwkw (Dwr blwk) bolI dy ADwr qy Awpxy Awp ƒ mwJy nwloN v`Krw krdw
hY[ies ielwky dI bolI ny phwVI bolI dw Asr kbUilAw jwpdw hY[ mJYyl Awm krky
dUsry ielwky dI bolI dy SbdW nwloN v`K boldy hn[ imswl vjoN:1. swiekl ƒ SYkl
2. hjwrw isMG ƒ jwrHw ishuM
3. GrvwlI ƒ bu`FI
4. swiekl dI cYn ƒ mwhl
5. qyry p`ly kI hY ƒ qyry mu`F kI ey[
Awid Sbd mJYlW dI bolI dw mu`K AMg rhy hn[ ADuink Xug ivigAwn dw Xug hY,
iv`idAw dw Xu`g hY ijs iv`c nOjvwn pIVHI pVH-ilK geI hY ijs krky aunHW dI bolI iv`coN
ieh lPj Alop huMdy jw rhy hn[rojwnw dI bolbwxI iv`c TyTqw qy SuDqw ny QW lY leI hY[
purwxy lokW dy iehnW Boly-BwA boly jwx vwly SbdW ƒ qW hux kMn qrsdy hn[
mwJy dw pSU Dn
mwJy dy vsnIk Ku`lHw Kwx-pIx dy SOkIn hox krky GrW iv`c lvyrw r`Kx dy AwdI
hn[purwxy simAW iv`c GrW iv`c m`JW gwvW dI bhuqwq sI pr hux ies dw ruJwn Gtdw
jw irhw hY[ikrswxI pySy iv`c Psl bIjxw, KUh gyVny, ghweI dw kMm, Psl dI KyqW ‘coN
FoAw-FuAweI vrgy kMm mu`K kMm sn ijs leI fMgrW dI loV pYNdI sI[ ies g`l dI pUrqI
leI Joty,bld Aqy aUT dI loV sI[ pSU Dn dI loV Gt jwx dw mu`K kwrn mSInIkrx
dw ijMn qW bixAw hI hY pr ies dw ieh mqlb nhI ik ieh Dn pUrn qOr qy Alop ho
igAw hY[Ajy vI GrW iv`c gwvW m`JW du`D dI loV pUrI krn leI r`KIAW jWdIAW hn[hux
vI AMimRqsr Aqy qrn qwrn dIAW mwl mMfIAW iv`c ivswKI, dIvwlI Aqy m`isAw qy
pSUAW dI KrId-vyc huMdI hY Aqy loVvMd fMgr KrIddy-vycdy hn[

mwJy dy ru`K
“ie`k ru`K sO su`K” ie`k At`l scweI hY[‘Awm ky Awm, guTlIEN ky dwm’ vwlI
khwvq aus bwby dI Xwd qwzw krvw idMdI hY ijs ny AMb Kw ky guTlIAW ies Aws nwl
bIj id`qIAW sn ik ies ‘coN inklx vwly AMbW dy bUitAW qy l`gx vwly AMb aus dy pu`q poqry Kwxgy[hirAwlI p`KoN mwJw pUrI qrHW Dnvwn irhw hY[ies ielwky iv`c twhlI,
jwmn, ik`kr, byrI, AMb,qUq (Swied iesy krky hux vI gIqW iv`c Swier lok qUqW vwly
KUh dI g`l krdy hn), SihqUq, inMm Awid bhuq ru`K huMdy sn[ sB qoN pihlW mur`bybMdI dI
kuhwVI ienHW ru`KW qy eynIN byrihmI nwl c`lI ik vMf smyN KyqW iv`c Awaux vwly ru`K ies dI
Byt cVH gey[hor ru`K lwaux dw ruJwn vI iP`kw pYNdw igAw[ GrW iv`c bwlx, PrnIcr,
bUhy bwrIAW dI loV pUrI krn leI ru`K v`FIdy rhy Aqy igxqI GtdI geI[A`j ieh hwl
hY ik ies ielwky iv`coN twhlI, ikkr, inMm, AMb, jwmn Aqy ie`QoN q`k ik byrIAW dy ru`K
vI Alop ho gey hn[ kdI qrn qwrn ielwky dy ipMf pMforI dy byr bhuq mShUr huMdy sn
ikauNik au~Qy byrIAW bhuq huMdIAW sn[bjwrW iv`c hoky l`igAw krdy sn:“byr pMforI dy[im`Ty qy Sihd byr pMforI dy[l`fU byr pMforI dy[”
mwJy dy rsmo-irvwz
vYsy qW swry pMjwb iv`c hI rsmo-irvwj Awps iv`c myl KWdy hn pr iPr vI mwJy
dI Awpxy rsmo-irvwjW pRqI rIJ v`K hI hY[pihly simAW iv`c ipMf AweI hoeI brwq ie`k
Kws Gr dI nhIN sI huMdI sgoN ieh swry ipMf dI sWJI smJI jWdI sI[ brwqW ƒ do do,iqMn-iqMn idn r`iKAw jWdw sI[ vwrI vwrI ipMf dy muhqbr AwdmI brwq dI tihlsyvw dI ijMmyvwrI Awpxy qy lY lYx iv`c &Kr mihsUs krdy sn[ieh aunHW dw AwpsI
ipAwr Aqy BweIcwry dw pRqIk huMdw sI[ ipCly simAW iv`c izAwdw krky jM\W GoVIAW qy
jwieAw krdIAW sn[ GoVIAW dy dwxy-p`Ty dw pRbMD ipMf vwilAW v`loN hI kIqw jWdw sI[
jM\ iv`c hiQAwr (bMdUkW Awid) lY ky Awaux dw irvwz sI[hux kwrW, motrW, motr
swieklW, b`sW ny qW GoVIAW qy jM\W jwx dI g`l ƒ prI dyS dIAW khwxIAW vrgw bxw
id`qw hY, jdoN koeI rwj kumwr GoVy qy cVH ky dUsry dyS dI rwj kumwrI ivAwhux jWdw huMdw
sI[
ipMf dI DI swry ipMf dI DI Aqy jvweI swry ipMf dw jvweI smiJAw jWdw sI[
kwhl, Awpo-DwpI Aqy ^udZrzI ny ies imTws ƒ c`t hI ilAw lgdw hY[ mwJw vI ies
mwr qoN bc nhIN sikAw[lVky-lVkI dy ivAwh smyN vtxw lwauxw, suhwg dy gIq gwauxw,
GoVIAW gwauxw, jwgo k`FxI, nwnikAW dwdikAw dw ie`k dUsry ƒ is`TxIAW dyxIAW Aqy
jM\ bMnHxI ivAwh dy smyN ƒ hor vI im`Tw Aqy ^uSZvwr bxw idMdw sI[APsos! ies
imTws iv`c hux ifsko dw rOlw Aw viVAw hY ijs ny swfy rIqI irvwjW dI jVH hI pu`t
su`tI hY[
ivAwh smyN imlxI krnI, brwq au~qoN pYsy su`txw mwJy dIAW rIqW dw ie`k ivl`Kx
AMg hY[ mJYl audoN q`k ivAwh jwxw hI nhIN smJdw jdoN q`k h`Q iv`c bMdUk lY ky do cwr
Pwier nhIN kr lYNdw[ ie`k dUsry ƒ sYNt lw ky hr koeI AwpxI srdwrI dw rohb vI
pwauxo nhIN tldw[ ies nzwry ƒ mn iv`c Xwd kridAW pRo: mohx isMG dIAW ieh sqrW
Xwd Awaux qy AMdroN ie`k hOkw ijhw inkl jWdw hY:“ik`Qy ny auh swlU sUhy, ik`Qy ny auh iQMDy bUhy?
cu`k A`fIAW pMjw lwieAw, kuVIAW gwey sohly[”
mwJy dy iqauhwr Aqy qIAW (swvyN)
duAwby mwlvy dI qrHW mwJy iv`c vI kuVIAW-icVIAW Aqy s`j ivAwhIAW swvx dy
mhIny qIAW iv`c jwxw locdIAW hn[ nv-ivAwhIAW dy mwpy AwpxIAW lVkIAW ƒ pihly
swvx pyky Gr lY AwauNdy hn[ qIAW qy bx-Tx ky jwxw hr lVkI dI rIJ huMdI hY[
swivAW iv`c auh AwpxIAW sKIAW shylIAW nwl id`l KolH ky Awpxy shury Gr dIAW, pqI

dIAW, jyT-ijTwxI dIAW isPqW jW cuglIAW krdIAW hn[ qIAW iv`c iek`Ty hox dI QW
ipMf qoN bwhr iksy C`pV kMFy huMdI hY ij`Qy ip`plW- bohVW qy peIAW pIGW qy jvwnI dw zor,
p`qy qoV ky AwpxI jvwnI dw pRdrSn krdw hY[
swvx dy mhIny qIAW (swivAW) smyN KIr Aqy pUVy pkwauxy ie`k suZwq smJI jWdI
hY[Swlw! ieh rIJW sdw jvwn rihx[
pMjwbIAW ƒ myly-mswDy Aqy iqauhwr mnwaux dw bhuq sONk hY[qrn qwrn dI
m`isAw jwxw mJYlW leI ivAwh vrgw idn huMdw hY[ auh Awpxy swry kMm C`f ky m`isAw
jwxw nhIN Bu`ldy[keI lokW ny qW m`isAw su`KIAW huMdIAW hn ijnHW ƒ auh hr kImq qy
drbwr swihb qrn qwrn Aw ieSnwn kr pUrw krdy hn[ ievyN hI mwJy dy Sihr
AMimRqsr dI dIvwlI Aqy ivswKI jgq pRis`D hY[ dIvwlI Aqy ivswKI dy mOky pSUAW dI
BwrI mMfI lgdI hY[AMimRqsr dI dIvwlI bwry qW mShUr hY:“dwl rotI Gr dI, dIvwlI AMimRqsr dI[”
mwJy dIAW Awnwj mMfIAW
smu`cy qOr qy pMjwb swry dyS dw AMndwqw hY[mwJy dIAW A`j k`lH bIjIAW jwx
vwlIAW mu`K PslW kxk Aqy Jonw hI rih geIAw hn[bySk mwJy dy kuJ ielwky iv`c ij`Qy
KMf im`lW hn au~Qy kmwd vI bIjAw jWdw hY pr kmwd hyTlw rkbw G`tdw jw irhw
hY[mwJy dy iqMn izlHy hn ijnHW dIAW mu`K Anwj mMfIAW hyT Anuswr hn:AMimRqsr:- BgqWvwlw, reIAw, Ajnwlw, rmdws,mjITw,vyrkw, jYNqIpur Aqy jMifAwlw
gurU [
qrnqwrn:- qrnqwrn,p`tI,KfUr swihb, iB`KIivMf, Jbwl,AtwrI, goieMdvwl [
gurdwspur:- gurdwspur,btwlw, kwdIAW, fyrw bwbw nwnk, sRI hrgoibMdpur, kotlI sUrq
m`lHI, dInw ngr, pTwnkot [
mJYl Aqy pRvws
mwJy dIAW do kOmW j`t Aqy mjHbI is`KW ny AMgryz rwj smyN POj iv`c BrqI ho ky
dyS dI r`iKAw dy kMm iv`c pUrw sihXog id`qw sI[ POj ‘coN syvw mukq ho ky ieh mJYl hI
sn ijnHW ny AwpxI rojI-rotI leI AwpxIAW muhwrW bwhrly mulkW mlwieAw, isMgwpur,
mwltw, iPjI, APrIkw Aqy AmrIkw v`l moV pRvws ƒ jnm id`qw sI[ ikauNik ieh lok
izAwdw pVHy-ilKy nhIN sn ies krky au~Qy ieh lok izAwdw kr cOkIdwrw hI krdy sn[
ienHW lokW ny au~Qy Awpxy gurduAwry auswry jo A`gy c`l ky Zdr pwrtI dy kwrkuMnW dy iek`Ty
hox dw itkwxw bxy sn[ ienHW gdrI bwibAW iv`c bwbw sohx isMG jI Bknw,bwbw guridq
isMG, bwbw vswKw isMG, pMifq sohx lwl pwTk, mdn lwl FINgrw swry hI mwJy dy sn[
mJYl dy h`Q iv`c qyl nwl copVI sMmW vwlI fWg, koikAW nwl miVHAw KUMfw,
DrqI hUMJdw hoieAw qyV bMinHAW cwdrw Aqy kMn qy C`ifAw hoieAw Smlw aus nUM hornW
sBnw nwloN inKyVdw hY[ AijhI id`K iv`c jdoN hvw nwl aus dI qyV bMnHIN hoeI cwdr au~f
ky ie`k pwsy huMdI hY qW aus dy p`tW dIAW C`lIAW qy peIAW hoeIAW mornIAW auf jwx ƒ
kwhlIAW jwpdIAW hn[mJYl Gr dI Srwb k`F ky pIxI, b`kry v`Fxy Aqy iPr KuSI iv`c
b`kry bulwauxy AwpxI Swn smJdy hn[ Gr Awey hoey pRwhuxy dI syvw Srwb Aqy kbwb nwl
nw hovy qW auh ies ƒ syvw hI nhI smJdy[APsos! niSAW dI mwr kwrn KUMfy hux qurn
leI KUMfIAW iv`c v`tdy jw rhy hn[ r`b KYr kry! jy kr myry rMgly mwJy dw ieho ruJwn
irhw qW mYƒ ^dSw hY ik ikDry mwJw mlIAw myt hI nw ho jwvy[ ieh fr ie`k fwiex
vWg roj dI roj AMdr hI AMdr KweI jw irhw hY[
ieh g`l kihMidAW idl frdw vI hY ik hux pihlW vrgw srU vrgw mJYl nhIN
irhw[ auh du`D v`l ip`Cw kr cwh dw dIvwnw hY[ksrq krnI qW dUr dI g`l auhƒ bY~f
tI qoN ibnW ibsqry ‘coN au~Txw vI AOKw lgdw hY[ Jony dI ibjweI ny DrqI dy pwxI dw ql
bhuq hI hyTW lY AWdw hY ijs krky fr hY ik ikDry ieh hirAw BirAw mwJw ryigsqwn
hI nw bx jwvy[ Ajoky mJYyl muMfy hux hlW dI jMGI nhI PVHdy sgoN auh motr swieklW dy

hYNflW dy SukIn ho gey hn[ikrswnI v`l ruJwn nw ho ky aunHW dw ruJwn ivdySw v`l ho irhw
hY[ mihMgIAW kIt nwSk dvweIAW, spryAW, KwdW dw boJ ikrswnI dw kcUmr k`FI jw
irhw hY[ies mwJy dw kI bxygw soc ky mn iv`c ie`k cIs ijhI au~TdI hY[ r`b Blw kry!

“ qwrU pMj dirAw dw fu`b irhw ipAwly[”

***

AiDAwie:-pihlw
mwJy dIAW Dwrimk hsqIAW,
AsQwn, sMpRdwvW
Aqy
m`q-mqWqr

rwm qIrQ
(izlHw AMimRqsr)

mwJw drSn dy ies ivSy ƒ jo A`j dw h`Qlw ivSw hY dy ipCokV v`l Jwq mwirAW
ies dIAW qMdW aus AqIq nwl jw juVdIAW hn, ijs dI ip`T BUmIN irSI bwlmIk jI dI
ric`q rmwiex dw auh Bwg hY jdoN mirXwdw pRSoqm sRI rwm cMdr jI AwpxI pqnI sIqw
ƒ rwvx dy cuMgl iv`coN Cufw ky,rwvx ƒ mwr ky, lMkw dw rwj BbISn ƒ dy ky Awp
AXuiDAw Aw ky rwjy dy rUp iv`c ivcr rhy sn[smyN ny Aijhw gyVw KwDw ik ie`k DobI dI
lweI hoeI quhmq qy Awpxy AwdrS dI pwlxw krn leI rwm dy hukm qy rwm dw Cotw Brw
lCmx AwpxI BrjweI sIqw ƒ bnvws dy rUp iv`c jMglW iv`c C`f AwieAw sI[ieh
Dwrnw hY ik ieh jMglW dw ielwkw mwJy dI DrqI qy hI sI, ijs dw Ajokw nwm ‘rwm
qIrQ’ krky pRis`D hY[
rwm qIrQ dw ielwkw jo ihMdUAW dw purwqn qIrQ AsQwn hY AMimRqsr qoN cugwvyN
v`l jWidAW hoieAW 10 iklo mItr dI dUrI qy siQq hY[pihly simAW iv`c ieh swrw
ielwkw jMgl-bIAwbwn hI sI ij`Qy sIqw ƒ bnbwsI jIvn bqIq krn leI rwm cMdr jI
v`loN bnbws ByijAw igAw sI[ieh ielwkw Ajoky pMjwb dy izlHw AMimRqsr iv`c hI pYNdw
hY[ ies QW qy hI rwm pu`qr lv Aqy kuS ny rwjw rwm dy ASv-myv-X`g dy GoVy dIAW
vwgW PVHIAW sn Aqy GoVw moVn qoN ienkwr kr id`qw sI[ ies dy Pl svrUp aunHW
bhwdrW ny rwm dy BrwvW nwl Xu`D krky aunHW ƒ pCwiVAw sI Aqy Awpxy bwhU bl dw lohw
mnvwieAw sI[ieh bhwdr bwlk ‘lv’ Aqy ‘kuS’ koeI hor nhIN sn,sgoN aus smyN dy
‘mJYl’ hI sn ijhnW dy A`KV suBw dI Jlk A`j dy mJYlW iv`c vI vyKI jw skdI hY[
rmwiex kwiv ƒ mYN ‘im`Q’ mMn ky kuJ vI kihx leI iqAwr nhI hW ikauNik ies
nwl iksy Drm dIAW BwvnwvW juVIAW hoeIAW hn Aqy myrw auh kihx dw koeI AwSw nhI
ijs nwl iksy dIAW Dwrimk BwvnwvW ƒ Tys pu`jy[ ies lok Dwrnw ƒ mMnidAw hoieAW ik
SRI rwm cMdr jI dy bhwdr spUqW lv Aqy kuS ny Awpxy ipqw nwl hI (audoN aunHW ƒ ies
g`l dw igAwn nhI sI ik rwm cMdr jI aunHW dy ipqw hn) t`kr lYx dw swhs kIqw sI[
myrw qW kyvl ieMnW hI ivSw hY[
GrylU vMf swfI smwijk sm`isAw hI nhIN ipqw-pur^I s`c hY[Brw-Brw iv`c GrylU
vMf huMdI AweI hY[iPr lv Aqy kuS qW dovyN hI bhwdr sn, sUrbIr sn[kOx iks dI kdoN
q`k eIn mMndw? mY vI rwxI qUM vI rwxI kOx Brygw pwxI (I stout thy stout, who will
carry the dirt out) v`sdy pRvwrW iv`c vMf qy ivKryvW lwjmIN sI[sInw-b-sInw suxn iv`c
AwieAw hY ik ielwkweI vMf ƒ lY ky lv Aqy kuS dI vMf ies qrHW d`sI jWdI hY ik lv
ny ijhVy ielwky ƒ AwpxI j`d hyTW ilAw sI aus ƒ ‘lwhOr’ dw ielwkw ikhw jwx l`gw
sI Aqy ijhVw ielwkw kuS ny m`ilAw sI aus ƒ ‘ksUr’ ikhw jwx l`igAw[ieh dovyN
ielwky AxvMfy pMjwb dy mwJy dy ielwky hI sn[

***

AMimRqsr is&qI dw Gr

ifTy sBy Qwv nhI quD jyihAw]
mwJy dI ieh DrqI ijs nUM gurUAW- pIrW,sMqW-mhwqmwvW dI crn Coh pRwpq hY
iv`c hI AMimRqsr dI piv`qr ngrI hY, ij`Qy sRI ‘hirmMdr swihb’ ijs nUM ‘svrn mMidr’
vI ikhw jWdw hY , siQq hY[ ijs qrWH muslmwn AwpxI SrDw dw iezhwr krn leI m`ky
h`j krn jWdy hn auvNy hI AMimRqsr is`KW dw m`kw hY , ij`QoN hr Drm, jwq,kOm dw pRwxI
rUhwnIAq dI sugMDI ibnW iksy ivqkry Aqy Byd Bwv dy pRwpq krdw hY[
sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dw izlHw AMimRqsr nwl gUVHw sbMD irhw hY[Awp dy dwdw
BweI iSv rwm jI dy v`fy-vfyirAW dw j`dI ipMf jwmw rwey (fyrHw swihb) sI jo hux izlHw
qrn qwrn iv`c pYNdw hY[ auh jdoN vI sulqwnpur loDI qoN AwpxI BYx nwnkI ƒ iml ky
AwauNdy sn qW ie`Qy Fwb dy kMFy qy bYT ky BweI mrdwny dI rbwb dIAW DuMnW qy AlwhI
bwxI dw gwien kirAw krdy sn[ieh ielwkw aus smyN ie`k jMgl sI ij`Qy AMbW Aqy
byrIAW dy bhuq swry ru`K sn[ies QW qy hI gurU Gr iv`c ivSvwS r`Kx vwlI bIbI rjnI
dy kohVy pqI dw kohV dUr hoieAw sI[ ieh auh hI C`pVI hY ijs ‘coN kwly kW tu`BI lw hMs
bx inkly sn[ sMn 1571 eI: iv`c gurU Amrdws jI ny gurU rwmdws jI ƒ ies QW ‘qy
ilAw ky hukm kIqw sI:“gRwm quMg qy AhY auryry[ iglvwlI qy lKhu pryry[ hY sulqwnivMf ijs nwmUM[ iqs qy
pscm ids AiBrwmMU[ qhW jwie kir grwm vswvhu[ suMdr Awpxy sdn bnwvhu[” (sUrj
pRkwS)
sMn 1573 iv`c gurU rwmdws jI ny ies QW qy Aw ky Akbr dy smyN prgxw Jbwl
dy ipMf sulqwnivMf, quMg, gumtwlw, cwtIivMf Aqy iglvwlI dI pMj sO ivGw Swmlwt 12
mur`bw mIl QW 700/- rupey iv`c KrId ky ies dy iv`ckwr ie`k ngr vswaux leI bwbw
bu`Fw jI koloN ie`k mohVI gfvw ky ies ngr dw AwrMB kIqw[ aus smyN pMjwb dw v`fw
ngr lwhOr hI sI[ A`j dy Sihr iv`c ieh QW gurU bzwr iv`c hY[ies QW ƒ ‘c`k
rwmdws’ ikhw jwx l`gw[ 13 jUn,1577 eI: ƒ ieh ngr Awbwd ho igAw ijs ƒ ip`CoN
rwmdws sr’ vI ikhw jwx l`gw[ sMn 1578 iv`c bwbw sRI cMd jI gurU rwmdws jI ƒ
imlx Awey qW srovr vyK ky aunHW bcn kIqw sI:“ieh qo hY hir jI kw Dwmu, qwl nwm AMimRqsr rwKyN[
iriD isiD bwsY ies QW hI, bwsnhwr duK pwvih nwhIN[”
ies Fwb vwlI QW qy, ij`Qy byrI dw ru`K sI, gurU rwmdws jI ny 13 jUn, 1578 eI:
ƒ srovr dI KudweI dw kMm ArMiBAw sI Aqy ies byrI ƒ “du`K BMjnIN byrI” dw nW vI
gurU rwmdws jI ny id`qw sI[ 1581 eI: iv`c gurU rwmdws jI goieMdvwl swihb cly gey
sn ij`Qy aunHW ny pihlI sqMbr, 1581 ƒ gur g`dI Awpxy pu`qr gurU Arjn dyv jI ƒ sONp
id`qI sI[
m`Gr dI sMgrWd 13 jnvrI,1588 ƒ srovr dy ivckwr hirmMdr swihb dI nINh
lwhOr dy nwl lgdy ipMf mIAW mIr dy muslmwn sUPI &kIr pIr sweIN mIr muXIn-aul
Aslwm (hzrq mIAW mIr jI) dy h`QoN rKvweI sI[ gurU jI ny aus smyN dy iksy vkqI
hwkm jW bwdSwh ƒ ieh kMm nhI sI sONipAw[ ies AlOikk nzwry bwry mOlwnw z&r
AlI z&r ny KUb ikhw hY:-

“hirmMdr kI buinAwd kI eINt hY dy rhI gvwhI,
ik kBI pihly muswihb my dosqI muskweI QI[”
ieh hirmMdr swihb dI iemwrq ijs QVyH qy bxweI geI hY aus dw Awkwr 66’ x 66’ dw
hY[ ies dy auprly guMbd dI Skl A`D iKVy kMvl vrgI hY Aqy ies dw ivAws 18’ cOVw
Aqy 8’ au~cw hY Aqy ies dIAW 16 PwVIAW hn[ drbwr swihb dw ieh kmrw ijs iv`c
kIrqn huMdw hY 40’ x 40’ dw hY[ hir kI pOVI drbwr dy ipCly pwsy hY ij`QoN hr Drm
dy pRwxI ibnHW iksy Byd Bwv dy AMimRq dw cUulHw lYNdy hn[ gurU swihb ny sB DrmW dI
sWJIvwlqw dw pRgtwvw krn leI hI ies dy cwr drvwjy r`Ky sn jo ies g`l dw pRqIk
hn ik ie`Qy Awaux leI iksy Drm jW jwq dw ivcwr nhI hY[ ieh sB dw swJw mMidr
hY[hir mMdr swihb dI iemwrq sMn 1590 iv`c mukMml ho geI sI[hirmMdr swihb pu`jx
leI cOhW hI pwisAW qoN pOVIAW cVH ky nhIN sgoN hyTW au~qr ky AMdr dwKl hoxw pYNdw hY[
gurimq ivcwrDwrw Anuswr nIvyN hox qoN bgYr qusIN prm-s`c dI Qwh nhIN pw skdy[

***

sRI Akwl q^q swihb
(AMimRqsr)

is`K Drm iv`c pMjvIN pwqSwhI q`k kyvl nwm ismrn qy hI zor id`qw jWdw sI
pr julm ƒ T`lH pwaux leI Aijhw smW Aw iugAw sI jdoN BgqI dy nwl nwl SkqI dw
pRdrSn krnw vI jrUrI ho igAw sI[ iesy AwSy nwl hI gurU hrgoibMd jI ny ‘mIrI Aqy
pIrI’ dy icMnH vjoN do qlvwrW pihnIAW sn[is`KW dy PYsly krn leI loV sI AwpxI
srvoqm Adwlq dI[iesy AwSy nwl hI Akwl q^q dI sQwpnw kIqI geI sI[ies QW qy
sMn 1578 iv`c ksrq krn leI A^wVw huMdw sI[
Akwl q^q ijs ƒ ‘Akwl pur^ dw s`cw q^q’ ikhw jWdw hY, gurU hrgoibMd jI
ny sMn 1609 eI: iv`c iqAwr krvwieAw sI[ieh iemwrq hirmMdr swihb dy iblkul
swhmxy bxweI geI sI[gurU jI Awp ie`Qy bYT ky is`KW dy hr qrHW dy msilAW dw inptwrw
kirAw krdy sn[aus smyN dI mugl srkwr leI ieh ie`k qrHW nwl Ku`lHw cYlMj sI[ies
QW qoN jwrI hox vwly hukm nwimAW ƒ hr is`K isr Jukw ky pRvwn krdw hY[gur iblws pw:
CyvIN Anuswr:SWq rUp hY mY rho hirmMdr kY mwih
rjo rUp ieh TW rho Akwl q^q suK pwie]
swkw ‘nIlw qwrw’ smyN ieh iemwrq Fih FyrI ho geI sI ijs ƒ dubwrw sMn 1986
iv`c bxwieAw igAw hY[Akwl qKq dy nyVy do inSwn swihb vI JuUldy idKweI idMdy
hn[hirmMdr swihb dI pRkrmw iv`c ‘byr bwbw bu`Fw jI’, ‘ShId bwbw dIp isMG jI’,
‘lwcI byr’(ijs nwl m`sy rMGV dw isr k`tx smyN su`Kw isMG qy mihqwb isMG ny GoVy bMnHy
sn)vyKxXog QwvW hn[gurduAwry dy nyVy hI ‘bwbw At`l’ dw gurduAwrw vI hY[Akwl q^q
dI sQwpqI ny JUTy duinAwvI bwdSwhW dI QW ‘s`cy pwqSwh’ dw skMlp sMswr swhmxy pyS
kIqw[ is`KW ƒ sMqpuxy dy nwl nwl ispwhI bx ky jIvn jIaUx dw mwrg drswieAw[

***

jilHAWvwlw bwg
(AMimRqsr)

AMimRqsr dI piv`qr DrqI qy 13 AprYl, 1919 ƒ AMgryz srkwr v`loN ^Un dI
holI KyfI geI sI ijs iv`c iksy vI jwq, kOm, rMg-rUp dw ivqkrw nhI sI[ sB hI
BwrqI sn Aqy swry hI Awpxy dyS dI AwzwdI leI soc ivcwr leI iek`qr hoey sn[aunHW
dI ie`k hI pRbl ie`Cw sI, Awpxy gloN gulwmI dw jUlHw lwhux dI[ienHW inrdoS lokW dy fu`lHy
hoey ^Un ny insPl qW jwxw nhI sI[ies Gtnw ny AwzwdI dI blI vydI qy h`s h`s jwnW
vwrn vwly kOmIN pRvwinAW ƒ jnm id`qw sI[
ies idl kMbwaU Gtnw dw ipCokV 1919 dy rolt AYkt nwl juVdw hY ijs rwhIN
puils Aqy mYijstRytW ƒ AQwh AiDkwr iml gey sn ijs dI vrqoN kr ky auh iksy
AwdmI ƒ vI S`k dy AwDwr qy hI igRPqwr kr skdy sn Aqy koeI vI sjw dy skdy
sn[ies iGnwauxI Gtnw ƒ ieMzwm dyx vwlw bu`cV aus smyN mweIkl aufvwier sI ijs
ny inh`Qy lokW qy golI clwaux dw hukm id`qw sI[ie`k rIport Anuswr ies kWf iv`c
1200 lok ShId hoey sn Aqy 3000 qoN v`D j^mI hoey sn[
ies dw bdlw lYx leI ies Gtnw qoN 21 swl bwAd 13 mwrc,1940 ƒ lMfn dy
kYkstn hwl iv`c s: aUDm isMG ijs ny ies ^UnI swky ƒ AwpxIAW A`KW nwl vyiKAw
sI,psqOL dIAW golIAW nwl mweIkl aufvwier ƒ kql kIqw sI[cyqy r`Kx vwlw q`Q hY
ik s: aUDm isMG ^wlsw XqImKwnw puqlI Gr AMimRqsr iv`c hI piVHAw qy bcpn qoN
jvwnI iv`c pRvwn ciVHAw sI[aus ny ies qrHW kr ky BwrqIAW dy ^Un dw bdlw lY ilAw
Aqy Awp h`sdw- h`sdw PWsI dy q^qy qy JUl igAw sI[
AY! SmW qyry jlny kI ksm, XUM hI jlqy rihnw[
dubwrw jnm ly kr AwaUgw, mYN iPr jlny ky lIey[

***

durigAwnw mMidr

(AMimRqsr)

AMimRqsr Sihr dy bwrW drvwzy hn ijnHW iv`coN hwQI drvwzw ie`k hY[ies drvwzy
dy bwhrvwr pRis`D durigAwxw mMidr bixAw hoieAw hY[ieh mMidr 10 jUn 1927 eI: ƒ
pMifq mdn mohn mwlvIAw jI ny sQwipq kIqw sI[ ies qoN pihlW swry DrmW dy lok
ijnHW iv`c ihMdU Drm dy lok vI Swml sn[auh sRI hirmMdr swihb bVI SrDw Bwvnw nwl
nqmsqk huMdy sn[ aus smyN ihMdUAW dy dyvI dyviqAw dIAW mUrqIAW drbwr swihb dI
pRkrmw iv`c bxIAW koTVIAW iv`c s`jIAW huMdIAW sn ijnHW qy SrDwlUAW v`loN cVHn vwlw
cVHwvw pujwrI sWB lYNdy sn[ieMnHIN idnIN gurduAwrw suDwr lihr zorW qy sI Aqy hirmMdr
swihb dy pRbMD leI SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI bVI jdo-jihd nwl hoNd iv`c Aw geI
sI ijs ny gurduAwry dI pRkrmw iv`coN mUrqIAW cukvw id`qIAW sn[
snwqnI m`q dy vIrW ny Awpxw v`Krw mMdr bxwaux leI ie`k kmytI 4 jnvrI,
1921 ƒ ‘durigAwxw mMdr kmytI’ dy nW hyTW giTq kr leI sI ijs ny ies mMidr dI
sQwpnw dw kMm AwrMB id`qw sI ‘qy ies dw nW “durigAwxw mMidr” r`iKAw sI[ies
mMdr dw nkSw vI hirmMdr swihb vrgw hI bxwieAw igAw hY[ihMdU m`q ƒ mMnx vwly
ies mMdr iv`c r`KIAW hoeIAW rwm- sIqw, lkCmx, Brq, SqrUGx Aqy hƒmwn dIAW
mUrqIAW, rwm drbwr qoN ielwvw lkSmI- nrwiex, iSv-pwrvqI ,rwDw -ikRSn Aqy
sIqlw durgw mwqw dIAW mUrqIAW hn ijnHW dI lok pUjw krdy hn[ ikhw jWdw hY ik ies
AsQwn dw nW pihlW ‘sIqlw mMdr’ sI [ ie`k kQw Anuswr jdoN rwm pu`qrW ny rwm dy
GoVy ƒ PiVHAw sI qW rwm qIrQ dy AsQwn qy hoey Xu`D iv`c aunHW ny hƒmwn ƒ ie`Qy ie`k
bohV dy ru`K nwl bMinHAw sI[iesy Xwd iv`c ie`Qy hƒmwn dw vI mMdr hY[ ijs qrHW
hirmMdr swihb swrw idn Ku`lw rihMdw hY ieh mMdr swrw idn Ku`lHw nhI rihMdw[

***

is`K iemwrqswzI dw Swhkwr
^wlsw kwlz AMimRqsr

sMn 1860 dy nyVy-qyVy cotI dy is`K AwgUAW ny ieh AnuBv kIqw sI ik ies kOm
kol cMgI ividAk sMsQw dI Gwt hY[ies g`l dI pUrqI leI is`K bu`DIjIvIAW Aqy ArQ
SwsqrIAW ny koiSSW jwrI r`KIAW sn[AMgryz srkwr ny 1865eI: iv`c lwhOr ivKy BwrqI
BwSwvW dw ie`k ErIAYNtl kwlz SurU kIqw[ 1872eI: iv`c s: Aqr isMG jI dIAW
koiSSW sdkw pMjwbI BwSw dIAW gurmu`KI il`pI iv`c XUnIvristI p`Dr qy CpIAW 389
pusqkW pyS krky aunHW ieh is`D kr id`qw sI ik pMjwbI ihMdI nwloN v`KrI BwSw hY(
AwrIAw smwjI ieh kihMdy sn ik pMjwbI koeI v`KrI BwSw nhI)[s`c ƒ AWc nhI huMdI[
ies leI s`c swhmxy Aw jwx qy BweI gurmu`K isMG jI (1848-1898) ƒ XUnIvristI dy
lwhOr kwlz iv`c pMjwbI pVHwaux leI pihly AiDAwpk vjoN inXukq kr id`qw igAw sI[
pMjwbI ividAw pRwpqI v`l ieh pihlw kdm sI[
AkqUbr 14, 1882 eI: iv`c ies kwlz ƒ pMjwb XUnIvristI iv`c qbdIl kr
id`qw igAw sI[ 1947 eI:iv`c dyS dI vMf ho jwx qy ies ƒ do BwgW iv`c vMf id`qw igAw
sI[ ie`k Bwg lwhOr iv`c Aqy dUsrw cMfIgVH iv`c[swieMs ivSy qy nobl ienwm jyqU fw:
hrgoibMd ^urwnw Aqy fw: Abds swlwm dovyN hI pMjwb XUnIvristI dy ividAwrQI rhy
sn[AwrIAw smwjIAW ny qW p`CmI swieMs dI iv`idAw leI 1886 eI: iv`c Awpxw
fI.ey.vI kwlj lwhOr ivKy kwiem kr ilAw jdoN ik is`K AwgU vI kwlz KolHx leI kwhly
sn[ aunHW dI mnSw sI ik Aijhw kwlz bxwieAw jwvy jo “^wlsw” inSwny dw pRqIk
hovy[
isMG sBw dy AwgUAW ny vI ies kwrz is`DI leI pUrI lgn nwl koiSSW ArMB
id`qIAW sn[ sMn 1890 iv`c “^wlsw kwlz sQwpnw kmytI” dI sQwpnw ho geI ijs dy
is`iKAw fwierYktr pMjwb,imstr hOlrwief ƒ QwipAw igAw Aqy fblXU. bYl ijhVy ik
gOrimMt kwlz lwhOr dy ipRsIpl sn ƒ ies dw sk`qr inXukq kIqw igAw[imstr
PrYfirk ipMnkot ijhVy ik lMdn iv`c mShUr ivdvwn sn ny vI ies kwlz lihr ƒ
Awpxw pUrw smrQn dyx dw Brosw id`qw [ijhVy is`K AwgU ieh kmytI bxwaux leI
srgrm sn aunHW ‘coN vI vrnxXog ieh 121 mYNbrI kmytI iv`c ley gey sn-- sr Aqr
isMG jI, s: guridAwl isMG jI mwn (nwBw),dIvwn gurmu`K isMG jI (pitAwlw),mhMq
kwhn isMG jI( ijnHW ƒ Awm krky BweI swihb kihMdy sn), pRo: gurmu`K isMG jI Aqy BweI
jvwhr isMG jI[
ies giTq kmytI dw AwSw sI ies kMm iv`c is`K irAwsqW dy rwijAW/
SihjwidAW qoN vI AwriQk mdd leI jwvy[ mhwrwjw pitAwlw ny AwriQk mdd dy ky
kwlz dw srpRsq bxnw vI kbUilAw sI[kmytI dy kwrkun 26 dsMbr,1890 ƒ mhwrwjw
hIrw isMG nwBw Aqy 21jnvrI,1891 ƒ mhwrwjw jgqjIq isMG kpUrQlw ƒ imly sn
ijnHW ny mwlI mdd id`qI sI[
ies kmytI ƒ audoN D`kw l`gw sI jdoN “^wlsw dIvwn lwhOr” Aqy “^wlsw dIvwn
AMimRqsr” dy ivcwrW iv`c ies g`l qy mqByd ho gey ik kwlz dI iemwrq ik`Qy bxweI
jwvy[ieh Sbd- Xu`D v`Ddw hI jw irhw sI ik AMimRqsr vwilAW ny sQwpqI kmytI A`gy

ie`k pRwQnw p`qr, ijs qy ienHW nwl sihmqI r`Kx vwly 46,698 lokW dy hsqw^r sn Aqy
ies dI lMbweI 2000 Pu`t dy krIb sI r`K id`qw[ies g`l dw PYslw sr zymz lwiel,
lYPtInYNt gvrnr, pMjwb qy C`f id`qw igAw, ijs ny Awpxy PYsly iv`c lwhOr nwloN
AMimRqsr iv`c kwlz bxwaux ƒ qrzIh id`qI [hux mslw sI kwlz dI QW cuxn dw[ ies
cox iv`c v`fI soc ieh sI ik ieh Sihr dy mwrU mwhOl qoN dUr bxwieAw jwvy jW Sihr dy
nyVy[ lYPtInYt gvrn, pMjwb ies soc dy sn ik kwlz Sihr qoN izAwdw dUr nw ho vy sgoN
nyVy hovy qW ju smwgmW qy Awaux smyN rwijAW/SihjwidAW Aqy dUsrIAW pRmu`K hsqIAW ƒ
sur`iKAw shUlqW auplbD ho skx[
sr zymz lwiel,gvrnr pMjwb v`loN ieh suJwA srv pRvwn hox qy “^wlsw
kwlz AMimRqsr” dw nINh p`Qr 5 mwrc, 1892 ƒ r`iKAw igAw[ ies ƒ imfl q`k
dIAW jmwqW leI 22 AkqUbr, 1893 ƒ KolH id`qw igAw[ ies dy ArMBkI smwgm dI
rIport iv`c ies qrHW drj hY:“^wlsw skUl 22 AkqUbr, 1893 ƒ hwl gyt dy nyVy svrgvwsI pMfq ibhwrI lwl dy
Gr iv`c KoilHAw igAw[ Awsw dI vwr dy piv`qr pwT auprMq is`iKAq sMgIqkwrW v`loN
Sbd kIrqn krn auprMq kVwh pRSwid vrqwieAw igAw[”
ie`k swl dy smyN iv`c hI Kwlsw kwlz ie`k au~c drjy dw ividAwlw bx igAw sI
ijs iv`coN pRo:gMfw isMG Aqy pdm ivBUSn BweI vIr isMG vrgy skwlr Aqy pMjwbI swihq
dy p`Q drSk pVH ky inkly sn[ieh kwlz hux is`KW dI Swn dw pRqIk hY[ Kwlsw kwlz
dw kYNps 330 eykV iv`c hY ijs iv`c kwlz dI bxI “BwrqI-mugl SYlI ‘co ivksq is`K
iemwrqswzI dI ieh bxI iemwrq rlvyN pRBwv dw Jwaulw pwauNdI hY[ ies iv`c bxy hoey
hostl:- pitAwlw, nwBw, PrIdkot, hrgoibMd,jINd Aqy mwqw swihb kOr grlz hostl
360 ividAwrQIAW dy rihx Xog hY[ ies qoN ielwvw kYNps iv`c ie`k gurduAwrw,
izmnyzIAm, ishq kyNdr, fyhrI Pwrm, kirkt styfIAm, sivMimMg pUl Aqy ivSwl
lwiebRyrI vI hY[ ies kwlz dy rih cu`ky kuJ ipRMsIplW dw vyrvw:1. krnl fbXU.Awr.hOlrwief (1890-1897 eI: ƒ pihly pRDwn pRbMDkI kmytI Kwlsw
kwlj)
2. fw: jOhn kYNpbYl aumwn (1898-1899 eI:)
3. ikSn isMG kpUr (1899-1900 eI:) pihlw is`K ipRMsIpl
4. imstr AYm.jI.vI kOl (jUn 13,1900 -7 AprYl, 1910)
5. imstr Awr.jI rweIt (7 AkqUbr, 1910-15 sqMbr, 1915)
6. imstr jI.ey.vwQn (15 sqMbr, 1915 -13 mwrc, 1924)
7. rwey bhwdr mnmohn (31 meI, 1924 -5 jnvrI, 1928)
8. imstr gopwl rwE (5 jnvrI, 1928 - 21 meI, 1928)
9. s:bhwdr ibSn isMG (4 AkqUbr, 1928 - 28 sqMbr, 1936)
10. s: bhwdr BweI joD isMG (28 sqMbr, 1936 - 21 sqMbr, 1952)
11. sR: ieMdr isMG (22 sqMbr, 1952 - sqMbr, 1957)
12. fw: hrbMq isMG (9 jUn, 1958 - 17 AprYl, 1961)
13. sR: blvMq isMG AnMd (20 Agsq, 1962- 30 jUn, 1963)
14. sR: ibSn isMG smuMdrI (12 mwrc, 1964 - 31 AkqUbr, 1969)
15. sR:Swm isMG kpUr (27 nvMbr, 1970 - 30 AprYl, 1971)
16. sR: hrbMs isMG (19 meI, 1971 - 15 dsMbr, 1975)
17. sR: gurb^S isMg Syrig`l (15 dsMbr, 1975 - 24 AkqUbr, 1989)
18. sR: hrBjn isMG soc (1 dsMbr, 1989 - 14 julweI, 1995)
19. fw: AYm. AYs.iF`loN (15 julweI, 1996 - 31 julweI, 2003)
20. dljIq isMG (2005 qoN 2008 eI: hux q`k)
hux ^wlsw kwlj dI pRbMDk kmytI keI hor ividAk sMsQwvW iesy kYNps iv`c ‘qy
AMimRqsr AMdr hor keI QwvW qy clw rhI hY[ienHW iv`c ^wlsw grlz kwlj, ^wlsw
kwlj Pwr AYjUkySn, ^wlsw kwljIeyt sInIAr sYkMfrI skUl, ^wlsw kwlj mwfl skUl

Aqy ADuink ividAw dy pswr vwsqy ikMny hI hor hor iviSAW dy kors vI cwlU kIqy hn[
KyfW dy ^yqr iv`c ies kwlj dw sdw hI ivSyS sQwn irhw hY[ swihq, rwjnIqI, Drm,
ArQcwry Aqy ivigAwn dy ^yqr iv`c ies sMsQw dw au~qrI Bwrq iv`c ivl`Kx Aqy
slwhxXog Xogdwn irhw hY[
jy kr ies sMsQw dy kwrnwimAW dIAW prqW KolHIAW jwx qW ies dy rMgW iv`c hor
vI vwDw huMdw hY jdoN aunHW s^SIAqw dw ijkr AwauNdw hY ijnHW ny ies ividAwly qoN
ividAw pRwpq krky smwj iv`c bulMdIAW ƒ CoihAw[ aunHW ƒ Xwd nw krnw Xog nhIN
hovygw[ auh hsqIAW hn--sR: pRqwp isMG jI kYroN swbkw mu`K mMqrI pMjwb, sR: drbwrw
isMG jI swbkw mu`K mMqrI pMjwb, s: qyjw isMG jI smMudrI, jnrl rijMdr isMG jI
“spyro”, s: sohx isMG jI joS, s: inrMjn isMG jI ‘qwilb’, s: guridAwl isMG jI
‘iF`loN’, s: hukm isMG jI, mulK rwj AwnMd, BISm swhnI, s: dljIq isMG jI (h`fIAW
dy mwihr), fw: pwTk jI (pihly fwierYktr pI.jI AweI), jsits hMs rwj jI KMnw, s:
mnohr isMG jI ‘igl’ Aqy ibSn isMG jI bydI ijnHW ny ikRkt jgq iv`c Awpxw nW cmkw
ky ies kwlj dy nW ƒ cwr cMn lwey hn[ ies kwlz ƒ mwx hY aunHW hsqIAW dw ijnHW ny
ies dI Swn ƒ vyKx leI ies iv`c Awpxy kdm r`Ky[ auh hn--mhwqmw gWDI jI
(1920) Aqy AYfvrf ATvW XU.ky. (1921).

***

gurU nwnk dyv XUnIvristI -AMimRqsr

Sihr qoN AtwrI v`l jWidAW rsqy iv`c ksbw Cyhrtw nyVy gurU nwnk dyv
XUnIvistI dw ivSwl Adwrw AwauNdw hY, ij`Qy ividAwrQI au~c ividAw pRwpqI leI dyS
bdyS qoN AwauNdy hn Aqy Awpxy igAwn dw dwierw ivSwl krky Awpxy GrW ƒ prqdy
hn[ieh ividAk cwnx munwrw 1969 eI: iv`c gurU nwnk dyv jI dy pMj sO swlw jnm
purb vyly sQwipq hoieAw sI[KyfW, jYnyitks qy Drm AiDAYn qoN A`gy lwhOr dI pMjwb
XUnIvristI nwl sbMD bxwaux iv`c ies XUnIvristI ny m`lW mwrIAw hn[

rwm bwg

ieh bwZ vI.jy. hspqwl dy njdIk hY jo mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG jI ny bxvwieAw
sI[ies iv`c Pldwr bUty l`gy hoey sn jo ik smyN dI mwr Aqy lwpRvwhI kwrn G`tdy jw
rhy hn[A`j k`lH lok ie`Qy Swm svyry sYr krn vwsqy AwauNdy hn[ieh QW bVI hI rmxIk
qy suMdr hY[
AMimRqsr Sihr dy Awly duAwly vI ieiqhwsk AsQwn hn ijnHW iv`coN sMnH swihb
gurduAwrw, Cyhrtw swihb, v`lw swihb (vyrkw), ShId gMj (ShId bwbw dIp isMG)
cwtIivMf drvwzw, gurU kI vfwlI, gurU ky mihl, gurduAwrw BweI swlHo jI, cOrsqI AtwrI
Kws vrnx Xog hn[ purwxy Sihr dy duAwly cwr duAwrI bxI hoeI sI ijs iv`c bwhr
jwx leI drvwjy l`gy hoey sn[ienHW dy nW ies qrHW hn:(1) hwl drvwjw, (2) rwm bwZ drvwjw, (3) mhW isMG drvwjw (4) sulqwnivMf
drvwjw, (5) cwtIivMf drvwjw, (6) iglvwlI drvwjw, (7) BgqW vwlw drvwjw (8)
hkImW vwlw drvwjw, (9) ^jwnw drvwjw, (10) lwhOrI drvwjw (11) lohgVH drvwjw Aqy
(12) gyt hwQI drvwjw[

***

is`K rwj dI ie`k Anmol Xwdgwr

iklHw goibMdgVH AMimRqsr

is`K rwj smyN pMjwb iv`c 12 imslW rwj krdIAW sn ijNnHW ‘coN ie`k imsl
BMgIAW dI imsl vI sI ijs ny AMimRqsr iv`c ieh iklHw bxwieAw sI jo “BMgIAW dw
iklHw” dy nW nwl jwixAw jWdw sI[ieh iklHw 1760eI:iv`c auswirAw igAw
sI[ieiqhwskwrW Anuswr 1808 eI: iv`c ieh iklHw “iklHw gujr isMG BMgI” dy iklHy vjoN
jwixAw jWdw sI[bwAd iv`c ieh iklHw dubwrw mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG ny joD isMG dI
mdd nwl auswirAw sI Aqy dsvIN pwqSwhI sRI gurU goibMd isMG dy nW qy ies dw nwm
“iklHw goibMdgVH” r`iKAw igAw[Syr-ey-pMjwb mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG ny ies iklHy ƒ
sur`iKAw dy p`KoN ies dI dubwrw iklHwbMdI kIqI sI Aqy ies iv`c auh Awpxw ^jwnw
r`iKAw krdy sn ijs leI “qoSw^wnw” bxwieAw igAw sI[iklHy dy ivckwr aunHW ny
Anwj gudwm bxvwieAw,ijs iv`c Anwj BMfwr kIqw jWdw sI[ iklHy dy AMdr jwx leI
pRvyS duAwr dw nwm “nlvw gyt” mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy jrnYl hrI isMG nlvw dy nW
qy r`iKAw sI[
pMjwb qy AMgryzW dy kbjy auprMq ieh iklw imltrI dI CwauxI bx igAw sI Aqy
audoN qoN lY ky hux q`k ieh imltrI dy kbjy iv`c irhw hY [dyS dI AwzwdI qoN ip`CoN vI ieh
iklw imltrI dy kbjy iv`c hI sI pMRqU sqMbr, 2006 iv`c mOjUdw pRDwn mMqrI sR:mnmohn
isMG jI ny ies dy kbjy vjoN ie`k sMkyqk cwbI mu`K mMqrI sR:AmirMdr isMG jI ƒ sONpI sI
pr ies dw kbjw imltrI dy “pYNQr fvIXn” kol hI irhw sI[ hux Awpxw vwAdw pUrw
kridAW hoieAW imqI 6 AkqUbr, 2008 ƒ ies dw kbjw pUrn qOr qy myjr jnrl
pI.AYs. pwl v`loN AMimRqsr dy ifptI kimSnr s:kwhn isMG “pMƒ” jI ƒ dy id`qw igAw
hY[ ies qrHW 150 swl dy lMmy smyN auprMq ieh ieiqhwsk iklHw muV pMjwb pRSwsn dy
AiDkwr iv`c id`qw igAw hY[
AMgryz rwj dy smNy ies iklHy iv`c kuJ qbdIlIAW vI kIqIAW geIAW sn[ ies
iv`c drbwr hwl, hvw mihl Aqy &WsI Gr bxwieAw igAw sI[ies &WsI Gr iv`c jMgy
AwzwdI dy pRvwinAW ƒ &WsI id`qI jWdI sI[ies iklHy dI ie`k ^ws mhqqw ieh vI hY ik
&WsI Gr dy iblkul swhmxy dw kmrw ijs iv`c irhwieS Aqy dPqr dI suivDw sI
jnrl aufvwier ƒ id`qw hoieAw sI ijs ny 1919eI: iv`c ivswKI vwly idn inh`Qy Aqy
bydoSy ihMdusqwnIAW qy golIAW dw mINh vrsw ky aunHW ƒ mOq dy Gwt auqwr id`qw
sI[Aijhw Swied aus dI surKSw ƒ iDAwn iv`c r`K ky kIqw igAw sI[ieh vI ikhw
jWdw hY ik fwier ikhw krdw sI ik &WsI Gr iv`c &WsI l`gx vwilAW ƒ vyK ky aus ƒ
bhuq AnMd imldw hY[ieh &WsI Gr aunHW dyS BgqW dI Xwd inSwnI hY ijhVy h`s-h`s ky
&WsIAW JUt gey sn[ies dIAW cu`p dIvwrW ijnHW ny idl ihlw dyx vwly nzwry vyKy hn
A`j vI cu`p hn[
pMjwb iv`c ipClI kWgrs srkwr dy smyN ies iklHy ƒ kOm dy ivrsy vjoN sMBwlx
leI 150 kroV dw tIcw bjt iv`c r`iKAw igAw sI pr audoN Ajy ieh ieiqhwsk iklHw

imltrI dy kbjy iv`c hI sI[pMjwb srkwr ny qW pihlW qoN hI ies ƒ tUirzm ivBwg
rwhIN ies dw ivkws krn dw mn bxwieAw hoieAw hY Aqy “iklHw goibMd gVH” ƒ kOmWqrI
Ajwieb Gr dw drjw dyx dI qjvIj hY[jy kr ieh ikhw jwvy ik A`j dw idn ie`k
ieiqhwsk idn hY qW koeI AiqkQnI nhIN hovygI[ hux Awm jnqw ƒ ies ƒ vyKx dw
mOkw iml skygw[

***

ShIdI sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI

auNJ qW swrw hI is`K ieiqhws kurbwnIAW, zulm ivru`D jUJidAW ShwdqW, gaU
grIb leI pRwx inSwvr krn Aqy dyS dI AzwdI leI h`s-h`s ky &WsIAW qy JUl jwx
vrgIAW GtnwvW nwl BirAw ipAw hY pr is`K ieiqhws dy pMinAW iv`c ie`k Aijhw
sunihrI pMnw vI drz hY ijs iv`c drz Shwdq dw swnIN ies dunIAW qy dUsrw koeI
nhI[ ieh Dwrimk pr zulm A`gy isr nw Jukwaux vwlI hsqI ny srb SkqImwn huMidAW
hoieAW vI krqwr dy Bwxy ƒ im`Tw krky mMinAw sI Aqy mUMhoN sIA nw aucwridAW hoieAW
Awpw Drm Aqy kOm dI Kwiqr vwr ky AijhI imswl pYdw kr id`qI ijs dy siqkwr vjoN
aunHW ƒ “ ShIdW dy srqwj” vjoN jwixAw jWdw hY[ ies mhwn Awqmw dw nW sI, sRI gurU
Arjn dyv jI jo is`KW dy pMjvyN gurU sn[
gurU jI dw jnm 2 meI sMn 1563 (19 vYswK, sMmq 1620) ƒ goieMdvwl swihb
ivKy cOQy gurU sRI gurU rwmdws jI dy gRih ivKy mwqw BwnI jI dy audr qoN hoieAw sI[ Awp
pihly Aijhy gurU sn ijnHW ƒ jMmidAW hI gurmiq dI guVHqI imlI[ Awp dy nwnw gurU
Amr dws jI aus smyN gurg`dI qy ibrwjmwn sn, ijnHW dI god iv`c Awp Kyfy Aqy aunHW
koloN hI Awp ƒ “ doihqw bwxI kw boihQw” dw vrdwn imilAw[ gurU rwm dws jI dy joqI
joq smwaux auprMq gurU Arjn dyv jI ƒ bwbw bu`Fw jI ny iqlk lw ky gur g`dI qy
ibTwieAw[ gurg`dI iml jwx qy gurU jI dw Brw ipRQI cMd iqlimlw au~iTAw sI Aqy aus
ny gurU Gr dy doKIAW nwl gMF-qrup kr ky hr qrHW nwl Awp dw ivroD krnw SurU kr
id`qw sI[ aus ny gurU Gr ƒ AwriQk s`t mwrn leI gurduAwry dI nwkwbMdI krvw id`qI
sI ‘qy jo vI rsd jW mwieAw gurU Gr leI syvk lY ky AwauNdy sn auh bwhroN hI aunHW
koloN lY leI jWdI sI[ aunHW ƒ gumrwh kIqw jWdw sI[gurU drbwr iv`c kIrqn krn vwly
BweI blvMf Aqy s`qw BrwvW ƒ gurU jI dy ivruD BVkw ky kIrqn krn qoN vI rok id`qw
igAw sI qW jo drbwr iv`c kIrqn smyN SrDwlUAW v`loN cVHwvy dy rUp iv`c id`qI jwx vwlI
mwieAw AwauxI bMd ho jwvy Aqy gurU jI leI AwriQk AOkVW pYdw kIqIAW jw skx[aus
dI ieh soc sI ik AijhI siQqI iv`c gurU Arjn dyv jI inh`Qy ho ky aunHW dIAW imMnqW
qrly krngy Aqy aunHW dy mgr mgr iPrngy[ aus dI ieh cwl kwmXwb nw ho skI
ikauNik gurU jI Awp ie`k cMgy kIrqnIeyN sn Aqy aunHW ny sMgq dy sihXog nwl Awp
kIrqn krnw AwrMB kr id`qw sI[
ieMnHIN idnIN hI gurU jI ny is`KI dw kyNdrI Sihr“gurU kw c`k” (AMimRqsr) bxwauxw
AwrMiBAw hoieAw sI ijs leI bhuq swry Dn dI loV sI[gurU jI ny sMgqW ƒ hukm kIqw
ik auh AwpxI kmweI dw dsvW ih`sw gurU dI golk iv`c pwieAw krn[ ies pRQw ƒ
“dsvMD” dw nW id`qw igAw jo A`j q`k is`K jgq iv`c pRcilq hY[ ies nwl AwriQk
qot iv`c kuJ kmI AweI[ gurU jI dI SwdI sMn 1589eI: (sMmq 1646) iv`c PlOr qihsIl
dy ipMf mwE dy vwsI sRI iksn cMd dI spu`qrI (mwqw) gMgw jI nwl hoeI ijMnHW dI ku`KoN gurU
hrgoibMd jI dw jnm hoieAw [
gurU jI dy Drm pRcwr nwl Aqy lok kilAwx dy kwrzW kwrn auhnW dw j`s cwry
pwsy PYl irhw sI[ aunHW ny Awid gRMQ dI rcnw krn dw auprwlw ArMiBAw , ijs iv`c
pihly cwr gurUAW dI bwxI dy nwl nwl BgqW dI bwxI vI drj kIqI jw rhI sI[ ieh

sux ky kwhnw Bgq, pIlo Aqy Swh hUsYn vI AwpxI ilKq bwxI drz krvwaux dy AwSy
nwl gurU jI kol Awey sn pr gurU jI ny ies ƒ k`cI bwxI kih ky inkwr id`qw sI[Awid
gRMQ dI ieiqhwsk bIV gurU jI ny BweI gurdws jI koloN ilKvw ky pUrn kIqI ijs iv`c 30
rwgW iv`c bwxI drj hY[ ieh rwg hn:- sRI rwg, mwJ, gauVI. gUjrI, dyvgMDwrI,
ibhwgVw, vfhMs, soirT, DnwsrI, jYqsrI, tofI, iqlMg, bYrwVI, sUhI, iblwvlu, goNf,
rwmklI, nt, nrwiex, mwlI gauVw, mwrU, quKwrI, kydwrw, BYrau, bsMq, swrMg, mlwr,
kwnVw, kilAwn Aqy pRBwqI[ Awid gRMQ dI bIV dI swrI bwxI BweI gurdws jI ny
l`g p`g fyV swl dy smyN iv`c pUrI kIqI[ A`goN ies bIV dy auqwry vI krvwey gey sn
ijnHW iv`coN BweI bMnoN vwlI bIV vI vrnxXog hY[gurU jI ny Awpxy smyN iv`c keI ngr vI
vswey , gurU Gr iv`c SrDw Bwvnw pYdw krn leI dsvMD dI rIq SurU kIqI, Drm pRcwr
leI Aqy sKI srvr m`q dy vD rhy pRBwv ƒ T`lH pwaux leI 10 swl lgwqwr mwJy iv`c
gurmiq pRcwr kr ky is`KI dw gurU Gr iv`c ivSvwS fUMGw kIqw sI[Awp ny Cyhrtw, qrn
qwrn Aqy krqwrpur soFIAW ngr vswey[eIrKw dw bIj Gr qoN hI Pu`t inkilAw sI[
Bgq kwhnw jo cMdU dw irSqydwr sI, dI bwxI drj nw hox krky nrwz sI[ Akbr dI
mOq qoN ip`CoN jhWgIr g`dI qy bYTw ijs dy ivroDIAW Aqy bIrbl ny kMn Br ky jhWgIr ƒ
gurU jI ivru`D BVkwieAw[ jhWgIr ieh vI smJdw sI ik ^usro dI bgwvq smyN gurU jI ny
aus dI shwieqw kIqI sI[ ies g`l dw aus dy mn iv`c v`t vI sI[ ienHW swry hwlqW dw
vwA-vrolw gurU jI dy duAwly mMfrw irhw sI[ gurU jI jwxdy sn ik “bwbr ikAW” Aqy
“bwby ikAW” iv`c t`kr zrUr hovygI[AwpxI ShIdI dI sMBwvnw sbMDI aunHW ny pihlW hI
Awpxw S`k pRgt kridAW hoieAW aucwirAw sI :-“swfw lgygw sIs,ieh inscw
AwieAw[AsW hoAw qurkW iv`c jwxw, aunHW krxI hY huzq, srIr hY Cutxw, sMsw nhIN
koeI, rjwie KwvMd dI hY, ies qrHW hoeI[”
A^Ir murqzw KW ny gurU jI ƒ igRPqwr krvw ky lwhOr lY AWdw sI Aqy qsIhy dyxy
SurU kr id`qy sn[cMdU dI bynqI qy ik auh AwpxI hyTI dw bdlw lYxw cwhuMdw hY, ies leI
gurU jI ƒ aus dy hvwly kr id`qw jwvy[ Aijhw hI kIqw igAw sI[cMdU ny gurU jI ƒ q`pdI
qvI qy bYTw ky auproN grm ryqw sIs qy pwaux vrgy qsIhy dyxy SurU kr id`qy sn[ ieh
zulm huMdw sux ky sweIN mIAW mIr ny vI Awh! dw nwhrw mwirAw pr gurU jI ny aus ƒ
krqwr dy Bwxy’c rihx dI slwh dy ky ikhw ik ieh aus krqwr dw Bwxw hY ies iv`c
dKl dyxw TIk nhIN[gurU jI qsIhy sihMdy hoey imqI 16 jUn, sMn 1606 eI: (2 hwV sMmq
1663) ƒ joqI joq jw rly sn[ aunHW dy srIr ƒ dirAw rwvI iv`c su`t idqw igAw sI[
ies swky bwry munSI sohn lwl “aumdhqul-qvwrI^” iv`c ilKdw hY:“ky gurU Arjn dirAwie n boVXo[ ky gur qyg bhwdr sIs n qoVXo[
ky swihbzwdy n mrwey[SIr -Kur qoih nwih kuhwey[”

***

sRI drbwr swihb (qrn qwrn)

jpHau ijnu Arjnu dyv gurU
iPir sMkt join grB nw AwXau[
qrn qwrn Sihr AMimRqsr qoN hrI ky p`qx v`l jWidAw hoieAw 25 iklo mItr
dI dUrI qy siQq hY[ qrn qwrn qoN goieMdvwl swihb, ijs ƒ is`KI dw Durw ikhw jWdw hY,
22 iklomItr dI dUrI qy v`isAw hY[
ies ielwky iv`c sKI srvr m`q dw zor idn-b-idn vDdw vyK gurU Arjn dyv
jI ny ies ielwky iv`c kyNdrI ngr vswaux dw soicAw qW jo ie`QoN is`KI dw prcwr zor
nwl ArMiBAw jw sky[ies AwSy nwl is`KW dy pMjvyN gurU sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI ny sMn
1590 eI: bwbq 10 Bwdro sMmq 1647 ƒ nyVy lgdy ipMfW nUrdI, KwrHw au~qy plwsOr dy
cODrIAW koloN 1800 ivGw zmIn KrIdI sI[ aus smyN ie`Qy jMgl sI Aqy jmIn dI mwlkI
ipMf ^wrw, plwsOr Aqy nUrdI dy cODrIAW dI sI[
“swl 1931 dI mrdm SumwrI muqwbk ies Sihr dI jnsMiKAw 10,903 sI, ijs
iv`c 3234 is`K, 2535 ihMdU, 4053 muslmwn, 138 iesweI Aqy 1943 hor jwqW dy
sn[”A`j k`lH ies ngr dI AbwdI ie`k l`K dy nyVy qyVy hY Aqy ie`Qy imaUNspl kmytI vI
hY ijs dy 19 imaUNspl kOslr hn[” (jIvn BweI mohn isMG jI vYd iv`coN)
ies m`isAw vwly idn gurU jI ny 48 ivGw zmIn iv`c ie`k suMdr srovr (qlwb)
bxwaux leI Awp pihlw t`p lwieAw[ qlwb dI putweI dw kMm Cy swl iv`c pUr w
hoieAw[ cyq dI m`isAw vwly idn sMmq 1653 (sMn 1596eI:) ƒ gurU jI ny ngr dI
auswrI vwsqy Awpxy kr kmlW nwl pihlI ie`t r`KI[ A`j k`lH vI cyqr Aqy BwdroN dI
m`isAW dw bhuq v`fw mylw l`gdw hY[

sroovr
ies gurduAwry dy nwl hI ie`k bhuq v`fw srovr hY ijs dI lMbweI 999 Pu`t,
cuVweI 990 Pu`t Aqy fuMGweI 30 Pu`t hY[ies qlwb dI KudweI 6 swl q`k cldI rhI sI
Aqy sMn 1653 iv`c ies dI pRkrmw p`kI krn leI pihlI ie`t lgweI geI sI[ieh
piv`qr srovr sRI gurU Arjndyv jI ny ‘^wrw’ Aqy ‘plwsOr’ ipMfW dI 48 ivGy jmIn
ie`k l`K sqvMjw hjwr rupey dI mu`l KrId ky 17 vYswK, sMmq 1647 ƒ KudvwieAw
sI[sMmq 1653 iv`c gurU Arjn dyv jI ny srovr p`kw krn leI Awvy lgvwey sn pr
ies kMm iv`c ivGn pwaux leI zwlm AmIr dIn srwey nUrdIn vwly ny ie`tW curw
leIAW sn[sMmq 1823 iv`c s: j`sw isMG rwmgVHIey ny qlwb dy do pwsy p`ky krvwey
sn[ bwkI do pwsy mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG ny Awpxy kwrkun moqI rwm rwhIN p`ky krvwey
sn[ srovr dI pRkrmw p`kI krvwaux dI syvw kMvr nO inhwl isMG ny krvweI sI[ ies
iv`c SrDwlU SrDw nwl ieSnwn krdy hn[ies dy AMimRq jl bwry d`isAw jWdw hY ik

swl iv`c ie`k kohVI rwjI ho jWdwhY[ies srovr iv`c znwnIAW dy ieSnwn krn leI poxyN
bxy hoey hn ij`Qy auh ieSnwn kr skdIAW hn[ieh srovr 999x990 cOVw Aqy 30’ fUMGw
hY[ ies iv`c ieSnwn krn AOrqW vwsqy poxy bxy hoey hn[

gurU kw KUh
qrn qwrn Sihr dI d`Kx dI bwhI v`l iek KUh hY ijs ƒ ‘gurU kw KUh’ ikhw
jWdw hY[ jdoN gurU Arjn dyv jI gurduAwrw drbwr swihb Aqy srovr dI KudweI krvw
rhy sn qW swry idn dy kMm kwj qoN ivhly ho ky Swm ƒ ies AsQwn qy cly jWdy sn ij`Qy
ies KUh qoN ieSnwn krky Awrwm kirAw krdy sn[ A`j k`lH ie`Qy Swndwr gurduAwrw hY
ijs ƒ gurduAwrw ‘gurU kw KUh’ dy nwm nwl jwixAW jWdw hY[ qrn qwrn Sihr iv`c ies
vyly lVikAW dw ‘gurU Arjn dyv kwlj’ Aqy skUl, lVkIAW leI vI sInIAr sYkMfrI
skUl dy nwl nwl lVkIAW vwsqy mwqw gMgw jI dy nW qy “mwqw gMgw grlz kwlj” Aqy
sInIAr sYkMfrI skUl vI hY[

mInwrw
mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy poqry kMvr nO inhwl isMG ny sMmq 1896 ibkrmI 1,
muqwbk sMn 1836 iv`c ieh iqMn mMizlw mInwr ijs dI aucweI 156 Pu`t 6 ieMc hY AwpxI
sRprsqI hyT bxvwieAw sI[ ies au~pr ciVHAW Aws pws dy 10-12
mIl q`k dy ipMf nzr AwauNdy hn[ is`K rwj vyly dI ieh Adu`qI
iemwrq suc`jI klw dI inSwnI hY[ies qoN ielwvw ie`Qy hor vI
ieiqhwsk AsQwn hn ijvyN:- bIbI BwnI dw KUh, gurduAwrw t`kr
swihb, JUlxyN mihl (nyVy ipMf dburjI)[ ies ngr dy nyVy nyVy dy
gurduAwry bOlI swihb (goieMdvwl),bIV bwbw bu`Fw jI (Jbwl) vI
ieiqhwsk AsQwn vyKxXog hn[is`K jgq iv`c kwrsyvw leI fyirAW
dw bhuq v`fw Xogdwn irhw hY[goieMdvwl v`l jwx vwlI sVk qy fyrw
bwbw jIvx isMG jI vI vrnx Xog hY jo gurduAwirAW dy kwrjW iv`c
bhuq v`fw Xogdwn pw irhw hY[
ies ielwky ‘coN is`K jgq v`loN pMj swl leI SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dy
jnrl hwaUs leI do mYNbr cux ky Byjy jWdy hn[lok sBw leI ie`k mYNbr Aqy ivDwn sBw
leI vI ie`k mYNbr ies ielwky iv`coN cuixAw jWdw hY[

***

gurduAwrw nwnk sr
(ipMf vyrkw izlHw AMimRqsr)

sUky hry kIey iKn mwih]
AMimRq idRSt sMic jIvwey]
AMimRqsr qoN btwly ƒ jWidAW ies SwhI mwrg ‘qy cwr ik: mI: dI dUrI qy
v`isAw ie`k ksbw ijs dw nwm vyrkw hY AMimRqsr dy v`sx qoN vI pihlW dw ngr hY, ijs
ƒ sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dI crn Coh pRwpq hY[pihly smyN iv`c ieh mulqwn qoN btwlw q`k
dw SwhI mwrg sI[ sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI sulqwnpur loDI qoN goieMdvwl dw p`qx pwr
krky hI ies rsqy, lwVw bx ky ivAwhux leI btwly pu`jy sn[ A`cl swihb jo ik btwly
dy njdIk hI ie`k ieiqhwsk AsQwn hY ij`Qy gurU jI jogIAW dw hMkwr qoVn auprMq
mulqwn ƒ jWdy hoey ies ipMf (vyrkw) ie`k jMf dy ru`K hyTW ibrwzy sn[ jMf dw auh ru`K
A`j vI gurduAwry iv`c sSoiBq hY[
ies krmW vwlI DrqI ny ie`k vyrW audoN vI gurU jI dI crn Coh pRwpq kIqI sI
jdoN auh gurU AMgd dyv jI ƒ ^fUr swihb imlx jWidAW hoieAw ie`k mweI dI bynqI Aqy
SrDw vyK ky kuJ smyN leI ie`Qy Tihry sn[ lokW dI kQnI Anuswr gurU jI jMf dy ru`K hyTW
AwpxI ibrqI aus Akwl purK nwl joVI bYTy sn Aqy AlwhI bwxI dw aucwrx kr rhy
sn[ ies ngr dI ie`k du`iKAwrI mweI aunHW dI Awvwz sux ky gurU jI pws AweI Aqy
aunHW dy drSn kr ky inhwl ho geI sI[ aus dw b`cw sokVy dI ibmwrI nwl pIVq sI[
aus dy mn iv`c iKAwl AwieAw ik jy kr aunHW dy drSn kr ky aus dw q`pdw hoieAw mn
Swq ho skdw hY qW ieh ikauN nhI ho skdw ik aus dw b`cw TIk ho jwvy[ auh Awpxw
ibmwr b`cw GroN cu`k ilAweI Aqy gurU jI ijhVy ik AwpxIAW A`KW mUMd ky bwxI gwien
kr rhy sn dy crnW qy iltw id`qw[ b`cy dy rox dI Awvwz sux ky gurU jI ny Awpxy nyqr
KolHy Aqy mweI dy d`sx qy gurU jI ny aus ƒ nyVy dI C`pVI qoN ieSnwn krvwaux dw AwdyS
id`qw sI[ Aijhw krn qy auh b`cw muskrwauNx l`g ipAw sI[ mwqw bhuq hI KuS hoeI
Aqy aus ny gurU jI ƒ Awpxy Gr pRSwdw Ckx leI bynqI kIqI jo gurU jI ny pRvwn krky
aus dy gRih ivKy pRSwdw CikAw Aqy ikhw ik ies b`cy ƒ ausy CpVI iv`coN pMj vwr
ieSnwn krvwauxw, ieh qMdrusq ho jwvygw[ gurU jI ikrq krn, nwm jpx Aqy vMf
Ckx dw aupdyS idMdy hoey A`gy cly gey[
A`j k`lH aus C`pVI vwlI QW qy srovr bixAw hoieAw hYY jo vI SrDw Aqy inscy
nwl sokVy dI mrz vwlw pMj ieSnwn krdw hY, auh TIk ho jWdw hY[ hr swl 12-13
cyqr (25-26 mwrc) ƒ eyQy do rojw joV mylw lgdw hY ijs iv`c dUr dUr qoN sMgqW
AwauNdIAW hn[

***

sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI
btwlw (izlHw gurdwspur)

gurduAwrw kMD swihb btwlw
AMimRqsr qoN gurdwspur ƒ jWidAW hoieAW rsqy iv`c btwlw ngr AwauNdw hY[ieh
ngr ‘B`tIAW’ v`loN vswieAw igAw sI ijs ƒ “B`tIAwlw” ikhw jWdw sI jo smyN dy gyV
nwl “B`tIAwlw” qoN btwlw bx igAw hY[ieh ngr izlHw gurdwspur dI qihsIl hY Aqy
lohw ieMfstrI vwlw Sihr hY[ Bwrq dI vMf qoN pihlW ieh Sihr Gu`g v`sdw sI pr dyS
dI vMf mgroN smyN smyN pMjwb dy tu`kVy huMdy gey ijs dI is`DI s`t ies ngr dI s`nq qy vIy
peI[ cVHdy pMjwb ‘coN hirAwxw Aqy ihmwcl dw ielwkw inkl jwx kwrn ieh ksbw
ies vMf dI mwr sih irhw hY[ srkwr v`loN vI ies s`nq ƒ koeI izAwdw auqSwh nw
imlx kwrn ieh s`nq AwKrI swh lY rhI hY[
btwlw lohw s`nq krky mwJy dI Swn hY hI sI, ies DrqI ƒ pihlI pwqSwhI sRI
gurU nwnk dyv jI dI crn Cuh vI prwpq hY[btwly dy nyVy hI A`cl swihb vI hY ij`Qy gurU
jI ny is`DW nwl goStI krky aunHW dw hMkwr qoiVAw sI qy d`isAw sI gRihsq jIvn hI sB
qoN au~qm hY[ swDUAW-sMqW, nwQW-jogIAW Aqy aunHW sBnw ƒ igRshqI dy drvwjy qy hI rotI
leI AlK jgwauNxI pYNdI hY ijs ƒ auh inMddy hn[ gurU jI SkqI ƒ vMgwr ky aunHW dy gurU
BMgr nwQ ny ikhw sI ik jy kr gurU AMqrXwmI hn qW auh d`sx ik krmMfl ik`Qy hY jo
aunHW ny Awp hI lukw id`qw sI[ gurU jI ny krmMfl dw pqw d`s ky aunHW ƒ hYrwn kr id`qw
sI Aqy auh gurU jI ƒ mMn gey sn[ gurU nwnk dyv jI lwVHw bx bIbI sul`KxI ƒ ivAwhux
btwly hI Awey sn, ij`Qy aunHW ny kOqk kr ivKwieAw sI[ khwxI ies qrHW hY:gurU jI lwVHy dy rUp iv`c ie`k k`cI kMD dI CW dw Awsrw lY ky bYT gey jo ik ^sqw
hwlq iv`c sI Aqy kdI vI if`g skdI sI[lwgoN lMGx vwlI ie`k mwqw ny Awp dy ichry
dw nUr vyK ky ikhw, “vy pu`qr! ieh kMD qW if`gx vwlI hY qy qUM ies dI CwvyN bYTw
eyN[ies qoN pryH ho jwh[” gurU jI ny h`s ky ikhw, “mwqw, ieh kMD qW jugW-jugW q`k
rhygI[” ieh kMD A`j vI kwiem hY[ ies kMD ƒ pRbMDkW v`loN SISy iv`c mVH id`qw hY,
ikauNik lok ies kMD dI im`tI ƒ piv`qr mMn ky ies coN im`tI k`F k`F ky leI jw rhy
sn[ A`j k`lH ies QW qy ie`k suMdr gurduAwrw “kMD swihb” sSoiBq hY[
btwlw Sihr ny swihq jgq ƒ ie`k AYsw hIrw pRdwn kIqw sI ijs ny AwpxI
CotI aumry hI swihq jgq iv`c DuMmW pw id`qIAW sn[ myrI murwd ‘iSv kumwr’ qoN hY ijs
ƒ ies Sihr ny Awpxw nW dy ky “iSv kumwr btwlvI” bxw id`qw sI[ aus dIAW
ikrqW:- lUxW, Awty dIAW icVIAW, pIVW dw prwgw Awid pusqkW A`j vI jgq pRis`D
hn[

***

gurduAwrw colw swihb
(fyrHw bwbw nwnk, izlHw gurdwspur)

Bwrq-pwiksqwn dI srh`d au~qy ksbw fyrw bwbw nwnk hY ijs dw ieiqhws iv`c
Awpxw ivl`Kx AsQwn hY[ ies DrqI ƒ pihlI pwqSwhI sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dI crn
Coh pRwpq hY[ Awpxy jIvn dIAW cwr audwsIAW krn auprMq auh Awpxy jIvn dw
A^Irlw smW bqIq krn leI krqwrpur ijhVw ik A`j k`lH pwiksqwn iv`c hY, Aw v`sy
sn qW aunHW ny ie`Qy Awpxw audwsI vwlw bwxw auqwr id`qw sI Aqy sMswrI kpVy pihn ley
sn[ie`Qy aunHW ny 17 swl 5 mhIny 9 idn KyqIbwVI kIqI Aqy mnu`K mwqr ƒ ikrq krn,
nwm jpx Aqy vMf Ckx dw aupdyS id`qw sI[JUTy krm-kWfW, AMD ivSvwSW Aqy vihmW
BrmW iv`c &sI hoeI mnu`Kqw ƒ ie`k pRmwqmw dI BgqI v`l pRyirAw sI[ aunHW ny sB DrmW
dw siqkwr krn dw aupdyS id`qw sI ik koeI ihMdU jW muslmwn nhI[ sB aus pRBU dI hI
sMqwn hn[
krqwrpur iv`c hI gurU jI joqI joq smwey sn[Awp dyh smyq hI Alop ho gey sn[AMq
smyN Awp ny jo cwdr au~pr leI hoeI sI auh hI rih geI sI[auh ihMdUAW Aqy muslmwnW
iv`c ieqny hrmn ipAwry sn ik dovyN hI aunHW ƒ Awpxw smJdy sn[ muslmwn kihMdy sn
ik ieh swfw pIr hY jdoN ik ihMdU aunHW ƒ Awpxw gurU mMndy sn[
“nwnk Swh &kIr ihMdUAW dw gurU muslmwnw dw pIr”
Awp jI dI AMiqm ikirAw leI dovyN hI lVdy sn ik auh Awpxy rIqI irvwjW Anuswr
AMiqm sskwr jW dPn krngy[ JgVw imtwaux leI dohW iDrW ny cwdr A`DI A`DI kr
leI geI Aqy AMiqm ikirAw krm AwpxI AwpxI rIqI irvwz Anuswr kr id`qw igAw
sI[
rwvI dirAw krqwrpur dy nyVy hI vgdw sI[ rwvI iv`c hVH Aw jwx krky
krqwrpur ƒ Fwh l`g geI sI[ gurU jI dy spu`qr bwbw sRI cMd jI ny Awp dI BbUqI vwlw
gVvw ie`QoN pu`t ky ie`QoN cwr mIl dI dUrI qy zmIn iv`c d`b id`qw sI ij`Qy A`j k`l Awp
jI dy nwm qy ngr fyrw bwbw nwnk v`isAw hoieAw hY[ Awp jI dI Xwd iv`c gurduAwrw
sRI drbwr swihb sSoiBq hY[
ie`Qy sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dw colw (gl pwaux vwlI kmIz/bsqr) vI hY[ ieh
colw Awp jI dy vMS iv`coN nOvIN pIVHI ‘coN bwbw kwblI m`l jI gurU nwnk dyv jI dy AMg dw
bsqr lY ky Awey sn[ audoN qoN hI ie`Qy hr swl 4 mwrc qoN 8 mwrc q`k bVw BwrI mylw
l`gdw hY ijs iv`c dUr dUr qoN sMgqW bVy hI joSo-^roS nwl AwauNdIAW hn[ieh AsQwn
mwJy dI Swn ƒ cwr cMn lw irhw hY[fyrHw bwbw nwnk dy nyVy hI gurdwspur izlHy iv`c ie`k
ksbw klwnOr hY ij`Qy mugl smrwt Akbr dI qwj poSI hoeI sI[

***

sRI gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI
(ipMf gurU kI vfwlI, izlHw AMimRqsr)

pMij ipAwly pMij pIr CTmu pIr bYTw guru BwrI]
Arjun kwieAw plit kY mUriq hrgoibMd svwrI]
clI pIVI soFIAw rUp idKwvix vwro vwrI]
dl BMjn guru sUrmw vf joDw bhu praupkwrI]
AMimRqsr Sihr qoN AtwrI v`l jWdI sVk rwhIN jWidAW hoieAw Cyhrtw ksbw
AwauNdw hY ijs dy nyVy hI lihMdy pwsy v`l ie`k Cotw ijhw ipMf hY ijs dw nwm ‘vfwlI’
hY[gurU hrgoibMd jI dw jnm 21 hwV sMmq 1652 (5 julweI,sMn 1595eI:) ƒ sRI gurU
Arjn dyv jI dy gRih ivKy mwqw gMgw jI dI ku`KoN ipMf vfwlI iv`c hoieAw sI jo A`gy c`l
ky ‘gurU kI vfwlI’ dy nwm nwl jwixAW jwx l`gw [jdoN bwlk (gurU) hrgoibMd jI dw
jnm hoieAw qW gurU Arjn dyv jI is`K Drm dy pRcwr kwrjW iv`c ruJy hoey sn[ ies
smyN mwJy iv`c s^q AOV kwrn iBAwnk kwl dI siQqI bxI hoeI sI, ijs leI shwieqw
vwsqy gurU jI ipMfo-ipMf phuMc ky pIVq lokW dI mdd krn iv`c l`gy hoey sn[ ies kwl
Aqy AOV dy smyN hI gurU jI ny ie`k Cy mwhlW vwlw KUh bwlk gurU hrgoibMd jI dy jnm dI
KuSI iv`c KudvwieAw sI ijs qy ie`ko smy Cy mwhlW cldIAW hn[A`j k`lH ies AsQwn
dw nwm ‘Cyhrtw’ hY[
ie`k pwsy qW gurU Arjn dyv jI lok BlweI kwrjW iv`c ju`ty hoey sn jdoN ik dUsry
pwsy aunHW dw Brw ipRQI cMd srkwrI Sih qy gurU jI nwl eIrKw, vYr Aqy ivroD dIAW h`dW
pwr krI jw irhw sI[dweI rwhIN QxW ƒ zihr lw ky Aqy spyirAW rwhIN zihrIly s`p
lVw ky hrgoibMd jI ƒ mwrn dIAW iGnwauxIAW koiSSW jwrI sn[“ijs ƒ r`b r`Ky aus
ƒ kOx mwry[” sB koiSSW inhPl swbq hoeIAW sn[ienHIN idnI mOsmIN qwp Aqy sIqlw
dw vI zor sI[bwlk gurU jI vI ies dy Asr hyTW Aw gey sn pr Akwl purK dI ikrpw
sdkw ies dw koeI mwrU Asr nhI sI hoieAw[ies smyN Awp dI aumr kyvl Cy swl dI
sI[ Awp dI ividAk Aqy Ssqr isKlweI leI gurU jI pws BweI gurdws jI Aqy
bwbw bu`Fw jI vrgy ivdvwn sn, ijnHW koloN Awp jI ƒ gurbwxI Aqy Ssqr ividAw pRdwn
krvweI geI sI[bwbw bu`Fw jI qW ikhw krdy sn, “ieh joDw muglW dy isr ieMj
BMnygw, ijvyN mu`kI mwr ky gMFw BMnIdw hY[”
Akbr dI mOq ip`CoN jdoN jhWgIr qKq qy bYTw sI qW doKIAW ny jhWgIr ƒ gurU jI
dy ivru`D BVkwieAw sI ijs krky gurU Arjn dyv jI ƒ igRPqwr krky lwhOr lY AWdw
igAw sI ij`Qy qsIhy dy ky aunHW ƒ 30 meI, 1606 eI: ƒ ShId kr id`qw igAw sI[ is`K
jgq iv`c A`j vI gurU jI ƒ ‘ShIdW dy isrqwj’ hox dw mwx hwsl hY[gurU jI dI
Shwdq ip`CoN bwlk hrgoibMd jI ƒ gur g`dI sOp id`qI geI[ gurU ipqw dI julm ivru`D
t`kr Aqy Drm leI id`qI Shwdq dw Awp dy mn qy fUMGw Asr sI[ Awp ny mn iv`c
PYslw kr ilAw sI ik Drm, mjlUmW Aqy gaU grIb dI r`iKAw leI hux qlvwr cu`kxI
zrUrI ho geI hY[Awp ny do ikrpwnW pihn ky ies g`l v`l ieSwrw kIqw sI ik hux BgqI

Aqy SkqI dw sumyl krnw smyN dI loV hI nhIN mMg vI hY[ies krm ƒ aunHW ny ‘mIrI Aqy
pIrI’ dw nW id`qw sI[ies smyN gurU jI dI AwXU 11 swl dI sI[
drSnW leI Awaux vwlIAw sMgqW koloN Bytw vjoN Ssqr Aqy GoVy Byt lYx dI pRQw
vI gurU jI v`loN hI SurU kIqI geI sI[ smyN dI nbj pihcwxidAW hoieAW Awp ny bIr rs
aujwgr krn leI rwgIAW FwfIAW ƒ joiDAW dIAW bIr rsI vwrW gwaux leI ikhw sI
qW jo murdw ho rhI kOm AMdr joS pYdw kIqw jw sky[ iSkwr Kyfx Aqy rwijAW vWg
drbwr lw ky PYsly krn, m`lW dIAW kuSqIAW krvwaux, SsqrW dw pRdrSn krn vrgy
kwrj AwrMB krnw smyN dI loV sI[Awp ny is`KW dI au~c inAW Adwlq dy qOrqy hirmMdr
swihb dy swhmxy sMn 1609 eI: iv`c “Akwl q^q” dI sQwpnw kIqI sI[ is`KW ƒ
SsqrW dI isKlweI dy ky ie`k jUJwrU Aqy zWbwj POj KVI kr id`qI geI sI jo zulm Aqy
zbr dw mUMh qoVvW au~qr dyx leI hr smyN q`qpr rihMdI sI[ ies POj iv`c ibnW ivqkry
dy dUsry DrmW dy sUrbIr vI Swml kIqy gey sn[ gurU swihb dy iqMn mihl (pqnIAW)
sn ijnHW dy nW hn:-dmodrI jI, nwnkI jI Aqy mhWdyvI jI[
gurU jI dI ZrIbW pRqI hmdrdI Aqy r`iKAw ny gurU jI dw siqkwr lokW dy mnW
iv`c bhuq vDw id`qw sI jo jhWgIr ƒ Pu`tI-A`K vI nhIN sI BwauNdw[ is`KW dI vD rhI
qwkq aus ƒ AwpxI bwdSwhq leI ^qrw AnuBv hox l`gw sI[auh hr dUsry Drm ƒ dbw
dyxw cwhuMdw sI[ iesy cwl qihq hI aus ny pihlW sMn 1619 eI: iv`c srhMd dy do pIrW
‘Sy^ Aihmd’ Aqy ‘Sy^ iebrwhIm’ ƒ gvwlIAr dy iklHy iv`c nzrbMd krvw id`qw sI[
jhWgIr kSmIr qoN muVdw hoieAw jdoN mwJy dy ielwky iv`coN lMiGAw qW aus ny gurU jI dI
ausqq lokW qoN suxI[ ieh aus ƒ kStdwiek lgdI sI ijs krky aus ny Awgry phuMc ky
gurU jI ƒ nzrbMd krn dy hukm jwrI kr gurU jI ƒ gvwlIAr dy iklHy iv`c njrbMd kr
id`qw[ 1621 eI: iv`c dubwrw kSmIr jwx smyN jhwgIr ny srhMd dy dovW &kIrW Aqy gurU
jI ƒ C`f dyx dy hukm zwrI kr id`qy[ gurU jI dy nwl hI 52 kYd kIqy rwijAW ƒ vI
irhweI idvwaux qy Awp dw nW “bMdI CoV” vjoN pRis`D ho igAw[ gurU jI dy AMimRqsr
phuMcx qy is`K sMgqW ny KuSI dw pRgtwvw krn leI dIpmwlw kIqI[
jhWgIr dI mOq ip`CoN aus dw pu`qr Swh zhwn q^q dw vwrs bixAw[ ies vyly
qkrIbn swry hI ihMdusqwn qy muglW dI hkUmq ho cu`kI sI[ swrw dyS v`fy-v`fy sUibAW
iv`c vMifAw hoieAw sI Aqy ienHW dy sUbydwr inXukq kIqy geyy sn[ pMjwb dy v`fy sUbylwhOr, mulqwn Aqy srhMd sn[ lwhOr drbwr v`loN keI qrHW dy bhwny bxw ky is`KW ƒ
dbwaux dIAW koiSSw kIqIAW jw rhIAW sn Aqy iesy hI kVI dw nqIjw sI ik muglW
v`loN gurU jI qy cwr vwr cVHweI kIqI geI ijs iv`c “lohgVH” dI lVweI vrnxXog hY[
is`K kONm dI pihlI ieiqhwsk jMg SwhI bwz nw moVn qoN Swh zhwn dy jrnYl mu^ils
KWn Aqy gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI drimAwn iklHw lohgVH qoN SurU ho ky c`by ipMf dI jUh
iv`c smwpq hoeI[ mu^ils KWn Awpxy swQIAW smyq ies jMg iv`c gurU jI h`QoN mwirAw
igAw[ ies jMg iv`c qyrW is`K vI ShId hoey ijnHW dy nwvW dw vyrvw ies pRkwr hY: BweI nMd isMG, BweI jYqw isMG, BweI iprwnw isMG, BweI qoqw isMG, BweI iqrlokw isMG,
BweI sWeIN dws isMG, BweI pYVw isMG, BweI BgqU isMG, BweI nMqw isMG, BweI
inhwlw isMG, BweI q^qU isMG, BweI mohn jI Aqy BweI gopwl jI[ ies lVweI iv`c is`K
ieiqhws Anuswr is`KW v`loN l`kV dI qop dI vrqoN kIqI geI sI[ ies lVweI dI Xwd
vjoN lohgV drvwjy dy AsQwn qy lohgVH gurduAwrw sSoiBq hY[
gurU jI ny Awpxy jIvn kwl dOrwn ipMfW iv`c Drm pRcwr v`l pUrw pUrw iDAwn
id`qw[ ie`k swl dy smyN qo v`D smyN q`k bwhr rih ky gurU jI vwps AMimRqsr prqy[ ies
ip`CoN iek swl dw smW mwJy iv`c is`KI pRcwr leI lwieAw[ BweI gurdws jI ibRD ho jwx
krky goieMdvwl jw ibrwjy sn ij`Qy aunHW dy Akwl clwxy dI ^br sux ky gurU jI
goieMdvwl swihb phuMcy Aqy is`K jgq dI ies mhwn hsqI dw AMiqm sskwr Awpxy
swhmxy krvwieAw[ Awp ny kIrqpur Sihr vswieAw Aqy Drm pRcwr PyrI smyN nwnk
m`qy vI gey[ ie`QoN gurU jI ipMf frOlI phuMcy Aqy Awpxy Bgq rUpy dy nW qy “rUpw” ngr

(sMn 1628 eI:), sRI hrgoibMdpur (1619 eI:) Aqy kIrqpur swihb (1616 eI:) iv`c
vswieAw sI[
ies Drm pRcwr nwl idn-b-idn gurU Gr dI SoBw vDdI jw rhI sI[ Drm
pRcwr iv`c nvIN rUuh PUkx leI gurU jI ny ‘audwsI’ inXukq kIqy[ ienHW audwsIAW dy auqr
pRdys, ibhwr, bMgwl Aqy Awswm q`k jwx krky is`K Drm ^Ub cmikAw[ bwbw gurid`qw
jI dy Akwl clwxw kr jwx qoN Cy swl bwAd gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI kIrqpur swihb
ivKy Awpxy poqry hir rwie jI ƒ gur g`dI sONp ky 6 cyqr, sMmq 1701 ArQwq 14 mwrc,
sMn 1644 ƒ joiq joq smw gey sn[ ies mJYl gurU ny is`KW AMdr ie`k nvI qrHW dI rUh
PUk ky lokW ƒ julm dy iKlwP t`kr lYx leI qlvwr cu`kx dw sunyhw id`qw sI, jo A`gy c`l
ky sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI ny Apxw ky ig`dVW qoN Syr bxwaux dw kMm pUrw kIqw[ dsm
ipqw dw ieh kQn smyN dI ksOtI qy ^rw auqrdw hY-“cUM kwr Az hmw hIlqy dr Zudsq[
hlwl Asq burdn bw SmSIr dsq[”

***

pu`qrW dw dwnI:-

bwbw bu`Fw jI
(ipMf k`QU nMgl, ijlHw AMimRqsr)

is`K ieiqhws iv`c bwbw bu`Fw jI dw nW bVy hI siqkwr Aqy ipAwr nwl ilAw
jWdw hY[Awp s`cy-su`cy Aqy krnI vwly mhW purS hoey hn ijnHW dw smW sRI gurU nwnk dyv
jI qoN lY ky CyvIN pwqSwhI gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI q`k irhw hY[Awp dw jIvn ie`k
guris`K dy nmUny dw jIvn irhw hY[bwbw bu`Fw jI ƒ pu`qrW dy dwnI vjoN vI jwixAw jWdw
hY[
bwbw dw jnm 7 kqk, sMmq 1563eI: ƒ ie`k rMDwvy j`t pRIvwr iv`c hoieAw sI[
bwbw jI dy ipqw dw nwm suGy rMDwvw Aqy mwqw dw nwm mwqw gOrW sI[ mwipAW ny Awp dw
nW ‘bUVw’ r`iKAw[ bwbw jI dw jnm AsQwn ipMf k`QU nMgl hY ijhVw ik AMimRqsrbtwlw sVk qy AMimRqsr qoN 18 ku ik: mI: dI duUrI qy siQq hY [
pyNfU muMifAW vWg bUVw jI vI bcpn iv`c fMgr cwirAw krdy sn[ jdoN bUVw jI dI
aumr bwrW ku swl dI sI qW aunHW dw imlwp sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI nwl hoieAw[ gurU jI
nwm ismrn krvwaudy hoey ipMf kQU nMgl lwgy Tihry hoey sn ik m`JIAW cwrdy hoey bUVw
jI vI ieDr Aw inkly, ijQy bwbw nwnk jI pRBU ipAwr iv`c lIn sn[SRI gurU nwnk dyv
jI nwl bUVw jI dI imlxI smyN hoeI vwrqwlwp ivc bu`iFAW vrgy ivcwrW qoN gurU jI bhuq
pRBwivq hoey sn[ bUVw jI dI fUMGI soc ƒ vyK ky gurU jI ny ikhw sI, “aumr iv`c qW qUM
b`cw eyN pr qyrIAW g`lW bu`iFAW bwibAW vrgIAW ny[ qUM b`cw nhIN qUM qW bu`Fw eyN[”
aus idn qoN hI Awp dw nW bUVw qoN ‘bu`Fw’ pY igAw sI[is`K sMgq siqkwr nwl
Awp ƒ bwbw bu`Fw jI vI kihMdI hY[ bwbw jI ny is`KI Dwrn kIqI Aqy gurU dy pUrn is`K
bxy[ bwbw bu`Fw jI ikrswnI krdy, nwmbwxI dw jwp krdy Aqy AweI swD sMgq dI syvw
krdy[ gurU nwnk dyv jI bu`Fw jI qy bhuq hI pRsMn sn[ gurU nwnk dyv jI ny jd gurU
AMgd dyv jI ƒ gurg`dI sONpI qW guirAweI dI rsm bwbw bu`Fw jI pwsoN hI Adw krvweI[
bwbw bu`Fw jI ny AwpxI dIrG AwXU iv`c dUsrI qoN CyvIN pwqSwhI q`k gurqw g`dI smyN
iqlk lwaux dI rsm inBweI [
pMjvyN gurU sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI ny jdoN sRI drbwr swihb AMimRqsr Aqy srovr
dw kMm ArMiBAw qW Awp syvw krn vwilAW iv`c moFI sn[ies syvw kwl dI Xwd vjoN
A`j vI pRkrmW iv`c auqr-pUrb dI bwhI ‘bwbw bu`Fw jI dI byrI’, mOjUd hY ijs hyTW bYT
ky bwbw bu`Fw jI c`l rhI kwr syvw dI ingrwnI kirAw krdy sn[ bwbw jI Awpxy h`QIN
vI syvw kirAw krdy sn[ hirmMdr swihb dI syvw pUrn hox ip`CoN bwbw jI Jbwl nyVy,
ijhVI A`j k`lH ‘bIV bwbw bu`Fw jI’ dy nwm nwl jwxI jWdI hY, iv`c gurU Gr dy fMgr
cwirAw krdy sn[ ieh ie`k r`K sI jo gurU Gr ƒ iksy SrDwlU v`loN Byt kIqI geI sI[
ies QW qy hI gurU Arjn dyv jI dI supqnI mwqw gMgw jI ƒ bwbw bu`Fw jI ny sMqwn
pRwpqI dw vr idMidAW hoieAw ikhw sI, “pYdw hox vwlw bwlk ie`k sUrbIr joDw hovygw jo
zwlmW dy isr ieMj BMnygw ijvyN mYN ieh gMFw BMn irhw hW[”

bwbw bu`Fw jI krnI vwly mhW purS sn ijnHW dw id`qw hoieAw vr s`c swbq
hoieAw sI Aqy gurU hrgoibMd jI pYdw hoey sn, ijMnHW ny is`K ieiqhws ƒ ie`k nvW moV
id`qw sI:- BgqI Aqy SkqI dy sumyl dw[ gurU Gr iv`c bwbw jI dw eynw mwx Aqy
siqkwr sI ik gurU hrgoibMd jI ƒ vI grumuKI, gur-ieiqhws dI pVHweI Aqy gurbwxI qoN
ielwvw Ssqr ividAw, GoV AsvwrI Aqy hor srIrk isKlweI leI bwbw jI dy kol hI
ByijAw igAw sI[sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI dI pihlI bIV jo ik BweI gurdws koloN sRI gurU
Arjn dyv jI v`loN ilKvweI geI sI, dw pihlw pRkwS hirmMdr swihb ivKy krn smyN
bwbw bu`Fw jI ƒ pihly gRMQI hox dw mwx b^iSAw igAw sI[gurU Arjn dyv jI dI ShIdI
auprMq gurU hrgoibMd jI ƒ aus smyN dy mugl bwdSwh jhWgIr ny gvwlIAr dy iklHy iv`c
kYd kr ilAw sI qW bwbw bu`Fw jI hI mwqw gMgw jI dy hukm nwl suK-sunyhw lYx leI
gvwlIAr gey sn[ bwbw jI ny rwq smyN ‘cOkIAW’ dw irvwz vI cwlU kIqw sI, ijs ƒ
gurU jI v`loN slwihAw igAw sI Aqy ies pRQw ƒ hmySw leI jwrI r`Kx dI qwkId kIqI
sI[
mwqw gMgw jI dy joqI joq smwaux auprMq gurU jI jMgW iv`c ruJ gey sn ies leI
bwbw bu`Fw jI ny gurU jI qoN AwigAw lY ky bwkI rihMdw smW bIV swihb rih ky hI guzwrn
dw mn bxwieAw sI[ ijs smyN gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI sRI hrgoibMdpur ivKy sn (ieh
ngr gurU hrgoibMd jI ny vswieAw sI) qW bwbw bu`Fw jI aunHw ƒ imlx leI au~Qy gey[
Awp ny ie`Cw pRgt kIqI sI ik hux auh ibRD ho gey hn ies leI bwkI dI ijMdgI dy
Aw^rI idn auh Awpxy ipMf k`QU nMgl pRBU BgqI iv`c guzwrnw cwhuMdy hn[ aunHW ny gurU
hrgoibMd swihb jI ƒ ieh vI bynqI kIqI sI ik aunHW dyy AMiqm smyN gurU jI drSn dyx
leI jrUr Awaux[
gurU jI qoN AwigAw lY ky bwbw bu`Fw jI Awpxy ipMf Aw gey sn Aqy AMq smyN q`k
ie`Qy hI pRBU BgqI iv`c lIn rhy sn[ jdoN aunHW ƒ ieh AnuBv ho igAw sI ik aunHW dw
AMq smW Aw igAw hY qW aunHW ny Awpxy mn iv`c gurU jI ƒ ie`k ic`q ho ky Xwd kIqw[
gurU jI aunHW ƒ imlx leI Aw gey sn[ gurU jI dy drSn kr ky bwbw jI 14 m`Gr, sMmq
1688 ƒ ieh pMj BuUiqk colw iqAwg gey sn[ aus smyN bwbw jI dI aumr 125 swl dy
krIb sI[ bwbw jI dIAW AMiqm rsmW gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI ny Awp hI inBweIAw
sn[ DMn hY ieh mJYl ijs ny gurU Gr dI syvw krky nwmnw hI nhIN K`itAw sgoN mwJy dy
nW ƒ cwr cMn vI lwey[

***

BweI gurdws jI
(ipMf bwsrky iglW, izlwH AMimRqsr)

BweI gurdws jI dw nwm is`K jgq iv`c bVy hI ipAwr Aqy siqkwr nwl ilAw
jWdw hY[ Awp gurU Gr dy pUrn guris`K, pRis`D Drm pRcwrk Aqy ivAwiKAwkwr sn[
BweI swihb sMsikRq, ihMdI, PwrsI Aqy pMjwbI dy au~c kotI dy ivdvwn sn[ irSqy iv`c
Awp gurU Amr dws jI dy BqIjy lgdy sn[
Awp dy jnm sbMDI ieiqhwskwrW iv`c v`K v`K rwvW hn[Awp dw jnm Aqy sMmq
purwxIAW ilKqW iv`c nhI imldI pr Pyr vI ieiqhwskwrW dw ivcwr hY ik BweI gurdws
jI dw jnm sMmq 1600 qoN 1610 dy ivckwr hoieAw hY[ ieh g`l vI p`kI qrHW nhIN khI
jw skdI ik Awp dw jnm Awp dy dwdky ipMf bwsrky ig`lW (izlHw AMimRqsr) iv`c
hoieAw sI jW goieMdvwl swihb (hux ijlHw qrn qwrn) hoieAw sI ij`Qy gurU Amr dws jI
Awpxy pRIvwr nwl Aw v`sy sn jo ik gurU Amrdws jI ny gurU AMgd dyv jI dy kihx qy
sMmq 1606 dy krIb vswieAw sI[
BweI gurdws jI jI dy ipqw dw nwm dwqwr cMd d`isAw jWdw hY[Awp dy bcpn
kwl bwry vI jwxkwrI iksy ilKq iv`c nhIN imldI pr ieh g`l mMnxXog hY ik Awp dw
pwlx-poSx Aqy bcpn gurU Amr dws jI dI dyK-ryK iv`c hI hoieAw sI[ ie`Qy hI Awp
ny gurU Gr dy pRym rs ƒ vI mwixAw sI,iesy krky gur is`KI dI pwx Awp ƒ cVHI hoeI
sI[ gurU jI dI AwigAw nwl hI Awp ƒ gur is`KI dy pRcwr leI cMby Aqy jMmU Awid
phwVI ielwikAW iv`c ByijAw igAw sI[ gurU Amrdws jI dy joqI joq smW jwx qy BweI
swihb gurU rwmdws jI dI syvw iv`c Aw gey sn[ aunHW dy gurAweI kwl iv`c Awp Awgry
vI gey Aqy is`KI dy pRcwr dy kMm ƒ bw^UbI inBwieAw sI[ ipRQI cMd dIAW cwlW ƒ n`Q
pwaux leI Awp ny bwbw bu`Fw jI, BweI swlHo jI, BweI pYVw jI Awid nwl slwh mSvrw
krky Sihr qoN bwhr nwky lvwey Aqy is`K jgq ƒ ipRQI cMd dI ies cwl qoN vwik&
krvwieAw sI[
sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI ny jdoN sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dI bIV rcx dw sMklp kIqw sI
qW aunHW ny BweI gurdws jI ƒ ies piv`qr kMm leI cuixAw sI ijMnHW ny AwpxI klm Aqy
suMdr ilKweI nwl ieh kMm ƒ nypry cwiVHAw sI [ies kMm ƒ pUrw hox iv`c keI swl l`g
gey sn[ BweI gurdws jI ny AwpxI bwxI vI ilKI sI ijs iv`c ‘BweI gurdws dIAW 40
vwrW’ Aqy 556 kib`q sveIey ^ws qOr qy vrnx Xog hn[Awp dIAW ieh rcnwvW TyT
pMjwbI bolI iv`c hn[bySk aunHW dI ilKI bwxI sRI gurU gRMQ swihb iv`c drj nhI sI kIqI
geI pr iPr vI gurU swihb v`loN ies ƒ ‘gurU gRMQ swihb dI kuMjI’ kih ky snmwinAw
igAw hY[
BweI gurdws jI qIsrI pwqSwhI qoN lY ky CyvIN pwqSwhI dy kwrj kwl q`k
guris`KI kwrjW iv`c ju`ty rhy[ Awp dI rihxI-bihxI, ivdvqw Aqy hor AnykW guxW krky
Awp jI dw swry hI bhuq siqkwr Aqy ipAwr krdy sn[ BweI swihb is`KI pRcwr leI
kWSI vI gey Aqy sPlqw pUrvk pRcwr kwrj ƒ inBw ky prqy sn[ iesy dy is`ty vjoN auQy
Awp ny s`q sO dy krIb pRwxIAW ƒ gurU Gr dy lV lwieAw sI[

hux BweI gurdws jI bhuq hI ibRD ho cu`ky sn ijs krky aunHW ny gurU jI pwsoN
AwigAw lY Awpxw itkwxw goieMdvwl swihb ivKy bxw ilAw sI Aqy Awpxw AMqlw smW
pRBU dI bMdgI iv`c bqIq kIqw sI[ sMn 1637 eI: iv`c Awp jI dw dyhWq ho igAw[ sRI
gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI ny BweI gurdws jI dw sskwr Awpxy h`QIN krky AMiqm rsmW
kIqIAW sn[

***

bwbw dIp isMG jI ShId
( ipMf phuuivMf,izlHw qrn qwrn )

jau qau pRym Kylx kw cwau[ isr Dr qlI glI myrI Awau]
ieiq mwrig pYr DrIjY[ isr dIjY kwix n kIjY]
is`K ieiqhws kurbwnIAW nwl BirAw ipAw hY[ jdoN kdy vI kurbwnI dI loV peI
qW is`K hmySW mohrlI kqwr iv`c vyKy gey hn[ svqMqrqw sMgrwm iv`c ienHW dIAW
id`qIAW hoeIAW kurbwnIAW dUsrIAW swrIAW kOmW dIAW kurbwnIAW imlw ky vI aunHW nwloN
ikqy izAwdw hn[Drm dy nwm qy id`qIAW jwx vwlIAW kurbwnIAW leI qW ieh hmySW hI
q`qpr rihMdy hn[Drm sMkt vyly mr im`tx leI ieh Awpxy AMdr AYsw zjbw r`Kdy hn
ijvyN pRvwny SmW dI lwt qy mr imtx leI iqAwr rihMdy hn[kurbwnIAW dI ilst qW
bhuq lMmIN hY pr bwbw dIp isMG jI dI kurbwnI sB kurbwnIAW nwloN ivl`Kx hY[ ies
vrgI imswl dunIAW dy ieiqhws iv`c hor ikDry vI nhIN imldI[
bwbw dIp isMG jI dw jnm AsQwn ipMf phu ivMf pihlW ijlHw AMimRqsr iv`c
pYNdw sI pr qrn qwrn nvW ijlHw bx jwx krky hux ieh qrn qwrn iv`c hY[ AMimRqsr
qoN Kymkrn ƒ sVk rwhIN jWidAW hoieAW iB`KIivMf ksbw AwauNdw hY[ ie`QoN lihMdy v`l
ksbw KwlVw v`l jWidAW hoieAW iB`KIivMf qoN iqMn ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy ieh AsQwn
hY[
bwbw jI dw jnm sMn 1862 eI: iv`c ipMf phuivMf iv`c hoieAw[ bwbw dIp isMG
jI dy ipqw dw nwm BweI Bgqw jI Aqy mwqw dw nwm mwqw jIaUxI sI[ bwbw jI dy ipqw
Dwrimk ivcwrW vwly is`K j`t sn[ bcpn iv`c Awp ƒ ‘dIpw’ kih ky bulwieAw jWdw
sI[ bcpn qoN hI Awp h`fW pYrW dy KulHy sn Aqy cMgI ishq dy mwlk sn[ jdoN Awp
Awpxy mwqw ipqw nwl AnMdpur swihb gurU goibMd isMG jI pws gey qW Awp ny au~Qy gurU
jI koloN AMimRq pwn kIqw[AnMdpur swihb rih ky hI Awp ny qlvwr bwjI, GoV AsvwrI
Aqy hor dUsry SsqrW dI isKlweI dy nwl nwl sYink isKlweI vI leI sI[
hor klwvW dy nwl nwl bwbw dIp isMG jI iv`c ieh gux vI sI ik aunHW dI
ilKweI bhuq suMdr sI[jdoN gurU goibMd isMG jI mukqsr dI jMg qoN ivhly ho ky sMn
1704eI: iv`c swbo kI qlvMfI Tihry sn qW auhnW v`loN Awp ƒ ipMfoN bulw ilAw igAw sI
qW jo BweI mnI isMG jI dI gurU gRMQ swihb jI dIAW bIVW ilKx iv`c mdd ho sky[sRI
gurU Arjn dyv jI ny jo bIV BweI gurdws jI koloN ilKvweI sI auh aus smyN krqwpur dy
DIr m`lIAW kol sI Aqy auhnW ny auh bIV gurU jI ƒ dyx qoN ienkwr kr id`qw sI[bIVW
dy auqwry krn iv`c bwbw jI ny BweI mnI isMG jI dI mdd kIqI[dmdmw swihb iv`c
Awp v`loN iqAwr kIqI bIV ‘dmdmI bIV’ dy nwm nwl mShUr hY[
ieh smW mugl rwj dy kihr dw smW sI[d`Kx v`loN Awey isMGW qoN bwbw dIp isMG
jI ƒ pqw l`gw sI ik gurU goibMd isMG jI joqI joq smw gey hn[gurU jI v`loN Byjy hoey bMdw
isMG bhwdr ny Coty swihbzwidAW dw bdlw lY ky srihMd dI ie`t nwl ie`t KVkw id`qI

pr smW pYx qy bMdw isMG iv`c kurIqIAW Aw geIAW sn[ ienHW kurIqIAW dw ivroD
kridAW hoieAW bwbw jI ny aus ƒ llkwirAw sI[Awp bVy hI idRV ierwdy vwly, inDVk
Aqy byKO& jrnYl sn[
bwbw bMdw isMG bhwdr ƒ mugl srkwr ny ‘gurdws nMgl’ dI gVHI iv`c Gyr ky
igRPqwr kr ilAw sI Aqy aus ƒ 19 jUn, 1716eI: ƒ ShId kr id`qw igAw sI[bwbw
bMdw isMG bhwdr dI mOq ip`CoN is`KW iv`c AwpsI mqByd v`D gey sn[ ijhVy gurU goibMd
isMG jI dy m`q dy DwrnI sn aunHW ƒ ‘q`q ^wlsw’ Aqy ijhVy bwbw bMdw isMG bhwdr dI
bhwdrI dy kwrnwimAW dy kwiel sn[ aunHW ƒ‘bMdeI ^lsw’ ikhw jWdw sI[ies smyN hI
is`KW dIAW jQybMdIAW ƒ do dlW ‘bu`Fw dl’ Aqy ‘qrnw dl’ iv`c vMf id`qw igAw sI[
qrnw dl dy A`goN pMj jQydwr Qwp id`qy gey sn[ ie`k jQy dy jQydwr bwbw dIp isMG jI
ƒ QwipAw igAw sI[
sUbw Abdul smd KW dI mOq ip`CoN aus dw pu`qr zkrIAw KW lwhOr dw sUbydwr
bixAw, ijs ny Awpxy bwp qoN vI v`D is`KW qy zulm krny SurU kr id`qy sn[ zkrIAw KW
ny is`KW ƒ jVHoN hI ^qm krn dw DeIAw kr ilAw sI[ is`KW ƒ AMimRqsr Awaux qoN rokx
leI ie`Qy ie`k puils cOkI ibTw id`qI sI qW ju is`K AMimRqsr Aw ky drSn ieSnwn nw
kr skx[ hrmMidr swihb dI byhurmqI ho rhI sI Aqy ie`QoN dw koqvwl m`sy rMGV ƒ Qwp
id`qw igAw sI[ auh hirmMdr swihb iv`c bYT ky Srwb pINdw Aqy muzry krvwauNdw sI[
ieh g`l isMGW dy idl qy s`p vWgUM lytdI sI[ iehnW ^brW ny bwbw jI ƒ lohw lwKw kr
id`qw[ bwbw jI ƒ ^br iml geI ik do bhwdr isMGW s: su`Kw isMG Aqy s: mihqwb isMG
ny m`sy rMGV dw isr v`F id`qw hY[
Aihmd Swh AbdwlI ny Bwrq qy A`T hmly kIqy hn[ hr hmly iv`c auh ie`QoN
DMn dOlq dy nwl nwl jvwn AOrqW ƒ vI lY jWdw sI Aqy gjnI dIAW mMfIAW iv`c fMgrW
vWg vycdw sI[ isMG aus dI POj qy hmlw krky aus qoN jvwn AOrqW ƒ Cufw ilAwauNdy
sn[ sMn 1757eI: ƒ Awpxy cOQy hmly smyN auh is`KW dw ^urw-^oj hI imtw dyx dI Dwr ky
AwieAw sI,ies leI aus ny Awpxy pu`qr qYmUr ƒ pMjwb dw sUbydwr QwipAw Aqy v`fy
&Ojdwr zhwn KW ƒ aus dw slwhkwr bxwieAw[ zhwn KW bVw hI zwlm, p`Qr idl Aqy
is`KW dw jwnI duSmn sI, ikauNik auh is`KW qoN Awp vI P`t Kw cu`kw sI[ auh jwxdw sI
ik AMimRqsr is`KW dw Aijhw qIrQ AsQwn hY ij`QoN auh ieSnwn krky mrn qoN vI nhIN
frdy[ ieh hI aunHW dw pRyrnw sroq hY[ aus dy hukm nwl hirmMdr swihb ƒ &Oj ny brUd
nwl aufw id`qw Aqy srovr dw swrw jl kFvw ky aus ƒ im`tI nwl pUr id`qw igAw sI[
gurduAwry Aqy is`K dw irSqw ies qrHW dw hY ijvyN srIr Aqy Awqmw dw[ is`KW
dw AMimRq-srovr Bwv Awby-hXwq (jIvn dyx vwlw jl) vwlw srovr pUr id`qw igAw sI[
auh cu`p ikvyN bYT skdy sn[bwbw dIp isMG jI ny isMGW ƒ vMgwirAw ik hux AMiqm lVweI
‘kro jW mro’ krn dw smW Aw igAw hY[ bwbw jI ny Ardwsw soD ky Awpxy jUJwrUAW
nwl AMimRqsr v`l kUc kr id`qw[ aunHW ny pihlw pVwA qrn qwrn swihb kIqw (ies
Gtnw dI Xwd iv`c A`j k`lH ie`Qy lkIr swihb gurduAwrw sQwipq kIqw igAw hY)[ jhwn
KW v`loN vI pUrI iqAwrI kIqI geI sI[ aus kol vIh hzwr ispwhI jmHW ho gey sn[ ienHW
dI pihlI t`kr ipMf ‘gohlvV’ qoN A`gy ipMf c`by kol hoeI ij`Qy Gmswx dw jMg hoieAw[
is`K AwpxI pUrI SkqI lgw ky Awpxy Drm dI ^wiqr lV rhy sn[ durwnIAW dw Gwx
krdy hoey isMG A`gy hI A`gy vDdy jw rhy sn, ijs nwl muglW dy hONsly psq ho rhy
sn[ies lVweI iv`c muglW dy XwkUb KW Aqy Amwn KW Awpxy AnykW ispwhIAW nwl mwry
gey[ is`KW dw vI bhuq nukswn hoieAw pr AwiKr mYdwn isMGW dy h`Q irhw[ Awpxw
kmwndwn mwry jwx krky durwnIAW dy hOsly psq ho gey sn Aqy auh ip`Cy htx l`gy
sn[ShIdI dl dy GoV AsvwrW dI AgvweI XoDw BweI idAwl isMG jI kr rhy sn[ieh
joSIly jWbwz muglW dI &Oj qy bwzW vWg pY rhy sn[ ies lVweI iv`c BweI idAwl isMG
dy h`QoN zhwn KW mwirAw igAw[ jhwn KW ƒ mwr lYx qy isMGW dy hONsly hor vI v`D gey[
AMimRqsr hux aunHW dI phuMc hyTW sI[

ipMf c`by qoN A`gy lVidAW hoieAW bwbw dIp isMG jI dy swQI bwbw nOD isMG jI
ShId ho gey (aunHW dI Xwd iv`c sVk qy ‘smwD’ bxI hoeI hY ij`Qy hr koeI vwhn ruk ky
Aqy nmSkwr kr ky A`gy jWdw hY)[ie`QoN A`gy v`Ddy hoey bwbw jI sMgrwxw swihb dy
swhmxy phuMc gey ij`Qy aunHW dw swhmxw durwnI &Ojdwr jmwl Swh nwl ho igAw (keI
ieiqhwskwrW ny ies dw nW AqweI KW vI iliKAw hY)[auh lVn leI bwbw jI dy swhmxy
AwieAw[bwbw jI dI aumr aus smyN 80 virHAW dy krIb sI jdoN ik zmwl Swh cVHdI
juAwnI iv`c sI[PYslw ieh hoieAw ik ieh dovyN joDy Awps iv`c lVngy[ aunHW dI lVweI
iv`c hor koeI dKl nhIN dyvygw Aqy ijhVw ij`q jwvygw auh dUsry dI POj ƒ ibnW koeI
nukswn phuMcwieAW inkl jwx dyvygw[dovW dy ie`k dUsry qy BrvyN vwr huMdy rhy[ Awi^r
dovW dy iek`Ty vwr nwl dovW dy isr DVW qoN v`K ho ho ky zmIn qy if`g pey[
ikhw jWdw hY ik bwbw jI dy iksy swQI ny bwbw jI ƒ Xwd dvwieAw sI ik aunHW ny
qW pRx kIqw sI ik auh Awpxw sIs hirmMdr swihb Byt krngy, auh qW ie`Qy hI rih c`ly
hn[bwbw jI ny iPr Awpxw sIs qlI qy itkw ilAw Aqy dUsry h`Q PVHy KMfy nwl duSmn dy
AwhU lwhuMdy hoey A`gy vDx l`gy[ibnW isr qoN lVidAW vyK ky duSmn dI POj iv`c BgdV
m`c geI [ies qrHW lVidAW hoieAW bwbw jI ny Awpxw sIs hirmMdr swihb jw Byt
kIqw[ Aijhw vwikAw hor iksy kOm dy ieiqhws iv`c nhIN imldw[
sUrw so pihcwnIey jo lrY dIn ky hyq[
purjw purjw k`t mrY, kbhUM nw Cwfy Kyq[
***

bwbw swihb isMG jI bydI
(fyrHw bwbw nwnk, gurdwspur)

is`K ieiqhws iv`c sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dI AMS iv`coN bwbw swihb isMG jI bydI
igAwrHvIN AMS sn[Dwrimk Aqy rwjnIqk hsqI vjoN Awp jI dw is`K ieiqhws iv`c
Aihm AsQwn hY[ Awp jI dw jnm 1756 eI: ƒ fyrHw bwbw nwnk iv`Ky bwbw AjIq isMG
jI dy Gr mwqw srUpW dyvI dI ku`KoN hoieAw sI[ikauNik Gr iv`c gurbwxI dw pRvwh Aqy
gurU Gr dw j`s huMdw rihMdw sI ies leI Awp jI dy ipqw bwbw AjIq isMG jI ny Awp ƒ
gurbwxI, is`K ieiqhws Aqy Dwrimk gRMQW dw AiDAn CotI aumr iv`c hI krvw id`qw sI[
sqwrW swl dI aumr iv`c bwbw swihb isMG jI ny AnMdpur swihb jw ky pMjW
ipAwirAW kolo AMimRq pwn kr ilAw sI Aqy do swl dy smyN q`k gupq vws iv`c rih ky
pRBU ismrn kIqw sI[ Awp dy bwry bwbw pRym isMG jI ilKdy hn, “Awp iv`c ie`k pUry
jrnYl dy gux Aqy pu`jI hoeI bMdgI vwlI Awqmw dw vwsw sI[ mYdwn-ey-jMg iv`c vYrI
nwl jUJidAW hoieAW ij`Qy Awp dI SmSIr ibjlI vWg kVkdI sI au~Qy jdoN Awp sRI gurU
gRMQ swihb dI qwibAw bYT gurbwxI aucwrn krdy qW Awp dy mu^wribMd qoN mwnoN Pu`l ikrdy
sn[
cVHdI jvwnI iv`c bwbw jI ny bwhUbl Aqy rwjnIqk sUJ-bUJ dy sdky ij`Qy
imslW, rweIsW Aqy srdwrW iv`c AwpxI v`KrI pihcwx bxw leI sI au~Qy hI aunHW ny nwl
nwl bwbw ^udw isMG kwbul vwly, BweI bsqI rwm lwhOr vwly, BweI du`K BMjn syvwpMQI,
bwbw vIr isMG jI nOrMgWbwd Aqy AkwlI PUlw isMG vrgIAW mhwn Dwrimk hsqIAW vI
bwbw jI dI suc`jI rihxI-bihxI vwly jIvn krky aunHW dw siqkwr krdIAW sn[ bwbw
jI ny hI 1801 eI: iv`c bwrW (12) imslW iv`c vMfI hoeI is`K kOm ƒ ie`k plYtPwrm qy
iek`Tw kr ky, rxjIq isMG ƒ rwj iqlk id`qw sI Aqy ‘vw &zly Awkwl,^wdmy kOm
vwlIey ^wlsw srkwr’ dw i^qwb dy ky mhwrwjw QwipAw sI[ aunHW dI smyN smyN mdd vI
kIqI sI Aqy is`K rwj dI sQwpnw iv`c Awpxw pUrn Xogdwn vI pwieAw sI[
mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG vI Awp ƒ bhuq siqkwr Aqy ipAwr idAw krdy sn[aunHW
ny Awp ƒ siqkwr vjoN bhuq swry nzrwny vI Byt kIqy sn[Awp dy bwry ie`k ieiqhwskwr
ilKdw hY, “sMmq 1835 qoN ip`CoN bwbw swihb isMG dw pRqwp bhuq viDAw[ bwbw jI dy
lMgr iv`c rozwnw 15 hjwr qoN G`t pMgq nhIN sI huMdI[”
Awp dy bwry BweI kwhn isMG jI nwBw ilKdy hn, “ieh v`fI krnI vwly Aqy
gurmiq dy pRcwrk hoey hn[ienHW ny Awpxy prw-kRm nwl bhuq swrw ielwkw Aqy rwjDwnI
aUnw QwpI sI[bwbw jI dw idhWq hwV sudI iqRXods sMmq 1891 eI:1834 ƒ aUnw iv`Ky
hoieAw sI[”
--mhwn koS pMnw 177
bwbw srbjoq isMG jI bydI dy kQn Anuswr---- “bwbw swihb isMG jI kOmI
pRvwny sn jo is`KI dI SmW ‘qy inswr hox leI hr vyly iqAwr rihMdy sn[ieh s`c hY ik
bwbw jI jdoN vwihgurU nwl surq joV ky h`Q iv`c SmSIr pkV GoVy dI kwTI au~qy Asvwr
huMdy sn qW iPr nw q^q dUr rihMdw sI qy nw hI iPr ieiqhws cu`p rihMdw sI[bwbw jI

v`loN ^wlsw rwj dI isrjxw dy Xqn gurU swihb jI dI soc Aqy s`cy kwrjW dI hI aupj
sn[ienHW kwrnw krky hI bwbw jI rwj-XogI Aqy is`K ieiqhws dI ivvyk SkqI kr ky
jwxy gey hn[is`K rwj dy Aijhy mhwn ausreIey, DrmI, rwjnIqk, kQnI krnI dy sUry,
zulm Aqy AiqAwcwr dy ivroDI bwbw swihb isMG jI dy jIvn dI ^oj krky pMQ -jgq
swhmxy r`KxI smyN dI bhuq v`fI loV hY[”
hr swl bwbw swihb isMG jI dw jnm idhwVw 26 qoN 28 mwrc ƒ aUnw swihb
ivKy mnwieAw jWdw hY[ies iv`c dUr-durwfy Aqy dyS-ivdySW qoN sMgqW phuMcdIAW hn[

***

sRI gurU qyZ bhwdr jI Aqy bwbw bkwlw
(izlHw AMimRqsr)

AMimRqsr qoN jlMDr jwx vwly kOmI mwrg qy reIAw b`s stwp AwauNdw hY ijs ƒ
lMG ky A`gy btwlw v`l sVk jWdI hY ijs qy cwr ku ik: mI:dI dUrI qy ie``k ksbw
AwauNdw hY ijs ƒ “bwbw bkwlw” ikhw jWdw hY[jdoN ATvIN pwqSwhI sRI gurU hrikRSn
swihb jI id`lI iv`c Awpxw srIr iqAwgx l`gy qW sMgqW ny pu`iCAw sI ik qusIN qW ieh
colw C`f rhy ho, mgroN AsIN iks dy lV l`gWgy? gurU jI ny do SbdW “ bwbw bkwly” kih
ky ieSwrw kIqw sI ik swfy qoN mgroN bxn vwly gurU ‘bkwly’ iv`c hn[ikauNik sRI gurU qyZ
bhwdr swihb jI irSqy iv`c sRI gurU hrikRSn jI dy bwbw l`gdy sn iesy leI aunHW ny sRI
gurU qyg bhwdr swihb jI leI ‘bwbw’ l&j vriqAw sI Aqy ipMf dw inKyVw krn leI
ipMf ‘bkwlw’ dw nW ilAw sI[audoN qoN hI ipMf bkwly dw nW bwbw bkwlw pY igAw
hY[gurg`dI dI dOV iv`c bhuq lok sn ies leI ies QW qy 22 mMjIAW Awpxy Awp ƒ gurU
hox dw dwAvw krn l`g pey sn[
sRI gurU qyZ bhwdr swihb jI dw jnm 18 AprYl, sMn 1621 (vYswK vdI 5,
sMmq 1678) ƒ AMimRqsr ivKy gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI dy gRih ivKy mwqw nwnkI spu`qrI
hrI cMd vwsI bkwlw dy audr qoN hoieAw sI[ bcpn iv`c Awp dw nW iqAwg m`l jI sI
pr jdoN Awp ny jMg iv`c qyZ dy jOhr ivKwey sn qW Awp ƒ qyZ bhwdr ikhw jwx l`gw
sI[ies qrHW auh iqAwg m`l qoN qyZ bhwdr jI bx gey sn[ ies mhwn Awqmw ny zulm
Aqy zbr nwl t`kr lYx leI Aqy AwpxI Awqimk SkqI ƒ aujwgr krn leI duinAwvI
JmyilAW ƒ iqAwg ie`k Bory iv`c pY 26 swl 9 mhIny 13 idn pRBU ismrn kIqw sI jdoN
ik bwhr 22 pKMfI Awpxy Awp ƒ gurU d`s ky BolI-BwlI jnqw ƒ lu`t rhy sn[ ie`k
AzIb Gtnw vwpr geI ijs ny s`c dy sUrj ƒ j`g pRgt kr id`qw sI[
m`Kx Swh lbwxw ie`k ivaupwrI sI jo Awpxw mwl Asbwb jhwz rwhIN dUsry
mulkW iv`c vycx leI lY ky jwieAw krdw sI Aqy au~QoN KrIidAw hoieAw mwl Awpxy
mulk iv`c ilAw ky vyicAw krdw sI[ie`k idn smuMdr iv`c qUPwn Awaux kwrn jhwz
fu`bx iknwry sI ik aus ny gurU A`gy bynqI kIqI sI Aqy bc inklx dI sUrq iv`c gurU
Gr jw ky 500 muhrW cVHwaux dw vI pRx ilAw[ aus dI Ardws pUrI hoeI Aqy auh ieh
mMnqw lwhux leI pu`Cdw pu`Cdw bwby bkwly phuMc igAw, ij`Qy pihlW qoN vI 22 lok Awpxy
Awp ƒ gurU hox dw dwAvw kr rhy sn[aus leI AslI gurU ijs ny aus dI mdd kIqI
sI l`Bxw AOKw ho igAw sI[Awpxy mn nwl ivcwr krky auh hr ie`k A`gy pMj -pMj muhrW
r`K ky m`Qw tykI jw irhw sI pr aus dw mn aus ƒ koeI SwhdI nhI sI Brdw ik ieh hI
gurU hY[
mn ASWq sI ik aus ny lokW koloN pu`iCAw ik hor vI koeI ie`Qy hY jo gurU hovy?
lokW ny d`isAw sI ik ie`Qy ie`k qyZw kmlw hY jo Bory iv`c hI rihMdw hY[ m`Kx swh ny
Bory iv`c jw ky gurU jI A`gy dUsirAW vWg hI pMj muhrW r`K ky m`Qw tyikAw Aqy jdoN auh
vwps muVn l`gw qW ip`CoN gurU jI ny Awvwz dy ikhw, “ikauN m`Kx Swh 500 muhrW su`K ky
hux pMjW nwl hI swr irhw eyN ? qyry jhwj ƒ moFw idMdy smyN vyK swfw moFw vI iC`ilAw

igAw sI[ jy nhI XkIn qW vyK lY ieh z^m[” s`c dw sUrj b`dlW qoN bwhr inkl
AwieAw sI[ m`Kx Swh ny koTy qy cVH ky p`lw Pyr id`qw ik AslI gurU l`B igAw hY:“ gur lwDo ry”
gurU jI ƒ imqI 11-08-1664 ƒ sRI gurU hr ikRSn jI dy joqI joq smwaux auprMq
gur g`dI id`qI geI sI[ Awp lgpg 11 swl q`k gurU rUp iv`c ivcry sn[ gurAweI kwl
smyN Awp ny 116 Sbd Aqy slok bwxI vjoN jYjvMqI rwg iv`c rcy jo bwAd iv`c gurU
goibMd rwie jI ( pMj ipAwry swj ky gurU jI ny vI aunHW koloN AMimRq pwn kIqw Aqy goibMd
rwie qoN goibMd isMG dw nW DwirAw sI) ny sRI gurU gRMQ swihb iv`c drz kIqy[ ienHW
slokW iv`c gurU qyZ bhwdr jI ny mnu`K mwqr ƒ vYrwgmeI bwxI rwhIN jIvn dw AslI
mnorQ sJwieAw hY[
“ jgq mY JUTI dyKI pRIiq]
Apny hI suKu isau sB lwgy
ikAw dwrw ikAw mIqu] (pMnw )
mOky dw hwkm mugl bwdSwh AOrMZzyb lokW qy Akih Aqy Asih zulm kr irhw
sI[ auh dUsry Drm dy lokW ƒ frw Dmkw ky jW lwlc dy ky ieslwm Drm iv`c pRvyS
krvw irhw sI[kSmIrI pMifq vI iesy zulm dy sqwey hoey gurU qyZ bhwdr jI kol
AwnMdpur swihb Awey sn[ gurU jI ijhVy pihlW hI jwxdy sn ik auh smW Aw irhw hY
jdoN zulm Aqy sbr dI t`kr hovygI, iesy krky hI aunHW ny AwpxI Awqimk SkqI pRcMf
krn leI bwbw bkwlw ivKy Bory iv`c pY 26 swl 9 mhIny 13 idn Akwl purK dI
ArwDnw kIqI sI[ gurU jI ny pMifqW ƒ idlwsw dy qoirAw ik “auh byiPkr ho ky jwx[
jy kr AOrMgzyb aunHW ƒ Drm qbdIl krn leI mnw lvygw qW swry hI ieslwm Drm
kbUl kr lYxgy[”
gurU jI dw ieh Ku`lHw cYilMj AOrMgzyb ƒ golI vWg l`gw sI[aus ny gurU jI ƒ
igRPqwr krvw ky idlI mMgvw ilAw[ AOrMgzyb ny AwpxI eIn mMnvwaux leI gurU jI ƒ
keI qrHW dy fr Aqy lwlc id`qy pr auh Awpxy ierwdy qoN t`s qoN m`s nhI sn hoey[gurU
jI jI nwl BweI idAwlw jI, BweI mqI dws jI Aqy sqI dws jI qoN ibnHW hor AnykW
is`K kYd kr ky ilAWdy gey sn ijnHW ƒ v`K v`K qsIhy dy ky ShId kr id`qw igAw[ ieh
sB vyK vI gurU jI Afol rhy [A^Ir 24 nvMbr 1675 eI: (11 m`Gr, 1732 sMmq) vwly
idn gurU jI ƒ zwlm AOrMgzyb dy hukm nwl cWdnI cOk iv`c ShId kr id`qw igAw sI[
gurU jI dI ieh kurbwnI “ihMd dI cwdr” bx inbVI sI[ aunHW dI Shwdq nwl julm dw
byVw grk igAw Aqy s`c dw sUrj cmk auiTAw sI[ ies kurbwnI ny A`gy c`l murdw kOm
iv`c nvIN rUh PUk id`qI sI[
“ TIkr Por idlIs isr pRBU pur ikXw ipXwn]
qyg bhwdr sI ikRAw krI n iknhU Awn]”
gurU jI dI Shwdq dI mihmw gwn kridAW hoieAW kvI sYnwpqI ny iliKAw hY:“pRgt Bey gurU qyZ bhwdr, sgly isRSt pY FwpI cwdr[”

***

bwbw p`lHw jI
(ipMf buqwlw, izlHw AMimRqsr)

ieh ieiqhwsk ipMf bwbw bkwlw qoN pUrb v`l 9 iklo mItr dI dUrI qy siQq
hY[ieiqhws p`KoN ieh ipMf AwpxI iv`Kxqw r`Kdw hY[ies ipMf dy ipCokV qy Jwq mwirAW
pqw l`gdw hY ik ieh ipMf ie`k Qyh qoN Awbwd hoieAw hY[ ies ipMf dy izAwdw kr lok
sKI srvr m`q ƒ mMndy sn[ p`lyH dI SwdI hox qy aus dI AweI Drm pqnI ny ies m`q
ƒ mMnx qoN ienkwr krn qy aunHW ƒ brwdrI ‘coN Cyk id`qw igAw sI pr aunHW dw inscw
gurU Gr qy p`kw sI[ies ipMf ƒ CyvyN pwqSwh sRI gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI dI crn Coh vI
pRwpq hY[ ies ipMf dy purwqn ieiqhws bwry d`sx Anuswr ies ipMf iv`c p`lHw nW dw
ie`k grIb ikswn rihMdw sI[ bySk auh AwriQk p`KoN grIb sI pr aus dw gurU Gr iv`c
in`scw prp`k sI[aus qy AwpxI mW sMqI dIAW is`iKAwvW dw fUMGw Asr sI[ aus dI mW
dI id`qI hoeI ivdvqw BrpUr is`iKAw dw hI Asr sI ik aus dw in`scw gurU Gr qoN nhI
sI foldw[ auh aus ƒ d`isAw krdI sI ik ies smyN gurU nwnk dI CyvIN joq sRI gurU
hrgoibMd jI hn[ auh grIb invwz hn[ auhnw dI imhr nwl swfI vI ieh grIbI dI
dSw suDr jwvygI[ qUM inscw r`K[
BweI p`lHy dy ccyry Brw b`lHo, SMkr Aqy cUhV AmIr sn Aqy kRmvwr ipMf dy
cODrI, muKiqAwr Aqy nMbrdwr sn[auh p`lHy dI grIbI dw mzwk aufwieAw krdy sn[
ienHIN idnI gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI muglW nwl jMg iv`c ru`Jy hoey sn[ auh jdoN sRI
hrgoibMdpur (gurdwspur) ivKy sn qW gurU jI ny bwbw bu`Fw jI dy ibmwr hox bwry
suixAw[gurU jI ƒ AMimRqsr v`l muVnw ipAw[ vwpsI qy gurU jI jdoN ipMf buqwly Awey qW
15, P`gx dw idn sI[ holIAW dy idn hox krky lokIN KuSI iv`c Fol vjw rhy sn Aqyy
BMgVy pw rhy sn[ gurU jI ny lokW ƒ pu`iCAw ik ies ipMf dw nMbrdwr kOx hY?”
p`lHy dy BrwvW ny mKOl nwl ikhw ik ies ipMf dw nMbrdwr p`lHw hY[ aus smyN p`lHw
Awpxy KyqW iv`c kMm kr irhw sI[ jdoN aus ny gurU jI dI ipMf iv`c Awmd bwry suixAw
qW auh drSnw leI dOiVAw AwieAw[ mW dIAW d`sIAW hoeIAw inSwnIAW aus ƒ Xwd
AweIAW[ gurU jI dy crnW qy aus ny guV dI roVI Aqy ie`k rupeIAw r`K ky m`Qw tyikAw[
gurU jI ny p`lHy ƒ AwpxI ie`Cw d`sI ik auh Aqy sMgq aus dy GroN pRSwdw Ckxw cwhuMdy
hn[ p`lHy ny AwpxI ivq Anuswr lMgr iqAwr krvwieAw,ijs ƒ gurU jI dI AwigAw nwl
kpVy nwl F`k kyy Ardwsw soiDAw igAw[ swrIAW sMgqW pMgqW iv`c bYT geIAW Aqy auQy
Aqu`t lMgr vriqAw[ gurU jI ny p`lHy v`l imhr dI ingwh krky ikhw ik qUM qW koeI v`fw
pIr jW v`fw hwkm jwpdw eyN[ gurU jI dw ieh bcn s`cw is`D hoieAw[ p`lHw ies ipMf dw
nMbrdwr bixAw Aqy A`j q`k aus dI AMs iv`coN v`fy-v`fy AhuidAW qy ibrwzmwn hn[
ies ipMf iv`c bwbw p`lHw jI dI Xwd iv`c hr swl 15-16 P`gx ƒ bhuq BwrI joV
mylw lgdw hY[ies piv`qr AsQwn qy lokIN dUr dUr qo bwbw p`lHw jI dI Xwd iv`c bxy
gurduAwry iv`c nqmsqk hox leI AwauNdy hn[

***

gurduAwrw cohlw swihb
(izlHw qrn qwrn)

qrn qwrn qoN iProjpur ƒ jwidAW hoieAW rsqy iv`c ipMf srhwlI AwauNdw hY ijs
ƒ ‘corW dI srhwlI’ dy nW nwl vI Xwd kIqw jWdw hY[ iesy mwJy dy ipMf ny kOm ƒ bwbw
gurid`q isMG ‘kwmw gwtw mwrU’ vrgw dyS Bgq vI id`qw hY ijs ny dyS dI AwjwdI dI jMg
iv`c Awpxw sB kuJ hI inCwvr kr id`qw sI[syvw dy puMj sMq bwbw syvw isMG jI kwr
syvw vwly vI srhwlI dy hI hn[ Kyf jgq iv`c pRvIn kumwr vrgw AQlIt jo hYmr su`tx
iv`c mShUr iKfwrI irhw hY vI iesy ipMf dI dyx hY[ jy kr hor ip`Cy cly jweIey qW
ieiqhws d`sdw hY ik sRI gurU hrgoibMd swihb ƒ is`K sMgq v`loN Byt kIqy jwx vwly duSwly
ijhVy p`tI dy muglW ny Koh ley sn Aqy do GoVy ‘idlbwZ’ Aqy ‘ZulbwZ’ jo kwbl dy
is`K gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI ƒ Byt krn leI lY ky Aw rhy sn qW lwhOr dy hwkm ny Koh
ley sn[ BweI ib`DI cMd jI ny AwpxI sUJbUJ Aqy dlyrI nwl muglW pwsoN auh duSwly Aqy
GoVy k`F ilAwieAw sI[ ibDI cMd dy nwnky ipMf srhwlI iv`c sn[
srhwlI qoN pUrb v`l pMj ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy ipMf cohlw swihb v`isAw
hoieAw hY ijs dw pihlw nW “BYxI” sI[ipRQI cMd dI gurU Arjn dyv jI nwl eIrKw ny
gurU jI ƒ AMimRqsr C`f ky qrn qwrn Aqy iPr srhwlI jwx leI mzbUr kr id`qw sI
ij`Qy pihlW hI kMnpwty nwQ Aqy jogI Awpxw A`fw jmweI bYTy sn[aunHW ny vI gurU jI dy
auQy Tihrn qy ies fr qoN gurU jI dw ivroD kIqw ik ikDry gurU jI dI lokW dy mn iv`c
SrDw aunHW leI musIbq nw bx jwvy[ieMnHW hlwqW iv`c gurU jI srhwlI qoN ipMf BYxI
pRIvwr smyq cly gey sn[ipMf dy lokW ny gurU jI ƒ jI AwieAW ikhw sI Aqy aunHW pRqI
AwpxI SrDw dw pRgtwvw kIqw sI[ Agly idn jdoN gurU jI auQoN jwx dI iqAwrI kr rhy
sn qW ie`k mweI ijs dw nW “su`Ko” sI, ny inmrqw nwl bynqI kIqI sI ik auh A`j dw
idn Tihr jwx Aqy aus dw Bojn svIkwr krn[ aus dI SrDw ‘qy ipAwr vyK ky gurU jI
r`uk gey sn Aqy aus mweI ny gurU jI A`gy cUrI jo ik iGau nwl BrpUr sI, pyS kIqI
sI[ iGau nwl gVu`c cUrI ƒ vyK ky gurU jI ny suBwvk hI kih id`qw sI ik mweI qUM qW ieh
swfy vwsqy cohlw iqAwr kr ilAweI eyN[ audoN qoN hIy ies ngr dw nW “cohlw swihb” pY
igAw[
dirAw ibAws dy kMFy vsdy ipMf “bUh” dy rMGV jo zrwiem pySw sn lokW dw mwl
fMgr corI kr ky lY jWdy sn Aqy keI vyrW auh ipMf BYxI q`k vI mwr kr jWdy sn ijs
qoN lokIN bhuq hI du`KI sn[gurU jI ny vwk kIqw:- “ bUh pey KUh qy cohlw gurU kw
Ehlw[jo cVHI Awvy,so l`QI jwvy[” gurU jI dI ies ikRpw nwl ies ipMf dy lokW ƒ ienHW
lutyirAW qoN rwhq imlI[ ies ipMf iv`c gurU jI lg pg do swl pMj mhIny rih ky vwps
qrn qwrn Aw gey sn[ ieMnHIN idnI plyg dI ibmwrI SurU ho geI sI ijs dw zor ies
ielwky iv`c vI kwPI sI[lokW ny gurU jI pws bynqI kIqI sI ijs dy au~qr iv`c aunHW ny
lokW ƒ d`isAw ik cohly qoN QoVHI dUr d`Kx v`l ie`k cub`cw hY ijs dy jl nwl ieSnwn
krn qy ies rog qoN inzwq iml jwvygI[ gurU jI dy BYxI ipMf iv`c rihx leI ausy

nMbrdwrnI mweI ny Awpxw iek koTw gurU jI ƒ id`qw hoieAw sI ijs iv`c bwl gurUu hr
goibMd jI Aqy mwqw gMgw jI Tihry sn[ aus koTVI ny hux iek gurduAwry dw rUp lY ilAw
hY ijs ƒ “gurU kw koTw” ikhw jWdw hY[
ies gurduAwry dy nW qy Akbr bwdSwh Aqy jhWgIr dy smyN zmIn dy mwlIey ƒ
zgIr dy qOr qy lw id`qw igAw sI pr Swh zhwn dy smyN qoN muhMmd Swh rMgIly dy smyN q`k
ieh zwgIr bMd rhI sI jo ip`CoN iPr sMn 1750-51 iv`c is`K imslW dy smyN bhwl kr
id`qI geI sI[A`j k`lH ies QW qy ie`k AwlISwn gurduAwrw sSoiBq hY jo is`K ieiqhws
dIAW purwxIAW XwdW Awpxy nwl leI mwJy dI DrqI qy Awpxy inSwn swihb JUulw irhw
hY[

***

A`T gurU swihbwn dI crn Cuh pRwpq DrqI
^fUr swihb (izlHw qrn qwrn)

“ijQY jwie bhY myrw siqgur so Qwnu suhwvw rwm rwjy”
qrn qwrn qoN 20 iklo mItr dI dUurI qy ie`k ksbw ijs dw nW “KfUr KihirAW dw”
krky mShUr sI A`j “KfUr swihb” dy nW nwl jwixAw jWdw hY[ieh suBwgI DrqI ijs
ƒ A`T gurU swihbwn dI crn Cuh pRwpq hY AMimRqsr qoN 40 ik: mI:, jMifAwlw gurU qoN 22
ik:mI:, reIAw qoN 22 ik:mI: Aqy goieMdvwl ijhVw dirAw ibAws dy kMFy qy hY 9 iklo
mItr dUr hY[ies ngr dw izkr sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI iv`c vI AwauNdw hY Aqy ies dw
vrnx BweI gurdws jI ny vI kIqw hY:“Pyir vswieAw PyruAwix siqgiur KfUru](rwmklI dI vwr)
pMnw 967
“idqw Coif krqwrpur bYiT KfUry joiq jgweI]
(BweI gurdws jI)
ies ngr dw vwqwvrx mu`F qoN hI bVw hI rmxIk Aqy SwqI BrpUr sI[ sRI gurU
nwnk dyv jI AwpxIAW audwsIAW (Drm pRcwr dOirAW) smyN ies ngr iv`c pMj vwr
ibrwjy hn[sMn 1517 iv`c sRI gurU AMgd dyv jI dI aumr jdoN 13 swl dI hI sI Aqy auh
Ajy BweI lihxw jI dy rUp iv`c hI sn qW auh Awpxy ipMf m`qy dI srW izlHw iProjpur qoN
eyQy AwpxI mUMh bolI BUAw ‘bIbI BrweI’ kol Awpxy ipqw bwbw PyrU m`l jI ƒ bIbI BrweI
dy ipqw cODrI qKqU m`l jI dI kYd iv`coN Cufwaux leI Awey sn[ieh ie`k sMjog hI sI ik
sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI vI ie`Qy Awey hoey sn[ siqsMg iv`c aunHW dw myl gurU nwnk dyv jI
nwl hoieAw sI Aqy auh BweI lihxw jI qoN gurU AMgd dyv jI dI pdvI pweI[ gurU AMgd
dyv jI gurg`dI qy bYTx auprMq ie`QoN dy hI ho ky rih gey sn Aqy lgpg 13 swl ie`Qy hI
rih ky gurU nwnk imSn dw pRcwr krdy rhy[ ie`Qy hI gurU jI ny gurmuKI il`pI dw pswr
kIqw sI Aqy sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dI jIvnI BweI pYVw moKw qoN ilKvweI sI[ies qrHW
ieh ngr “KfUr KihirAw dw” qoN KfUr swihb bx igAw sI[
qIsrI pwqSwhI gurU Amr dws jI ny jdoN Ajy gurU pdvI pRwpq nhI sI kIqI qW auh
gurU AMgd dyv jI dI pu`qrI bIbI Amro nwl, ijhVI Amr dws jI dy BqIjy BweI jsU jI
nwl ivAwhI hoeI sI,gurU drSnw leI KfUr swihb Awey sn[gurU drSn kr ky Awp ie`Qy
hI itk gey Aqy gurU AMgd dyv jI dI inSkwm Aqy AxQ`k syvw sdkw gurqw pdvI pweI
sI[
cOQI pwqSwhI gurU rwm dws jI jdoN Ajy BweI jyTw jI qoN gurU rwmdws jI nhIN sn
bxy Aksr goieMdvwl jWdy hoey ie`Qy Tihr ky jwieAw krdy sn[ShIdW dy srqwj gurU
Arjn dyv jI jdoN gurU Amrdws jI dI bwxI dIAW poQIAW aunHW dy spu`qr bwbw mohn jI
koloN lYx leI goieMdvwl Awey sn qW AMimRqsr ƒ vwps jWdy hoey eyQy rwq gujwr ky gey
sn[
mIrI pIrI dy mwlk gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI AwpxI pu`qrI bIbI vIro dw ivAwh krky
jdoN Awpxy pRIvwr Aqy isMGW smyq qrn qwrn rwhIN goieMdvwl swihb Awey sn qW

dupihr dw smW KfUr swihb hI gujwirAw sI[sqvyN pwqSwh sRI gurU hir rwie swihb jI
Awpxy nwl 2200 svwrW smyq goieMdvwl swihb gey sn qW iesy rwh jWdy hoey AwpxI
crn Cuh ies DrqI ƒ dy ky gey sn[ATvIN pwqSwhI sRI gurU hir ikRSn swihb jI audoN
Ajy bwl AvsQw iv`c sn Aqy gurU pdvI nhIN sI imlI jdoN auh Awpxy pRIvwr nwl ie`Qy
Awey sn[
nOvIN pwqSwhI sRI gurU qyZ bhwdr swihb jI ny pihlIvwr Awpxy ipqw sRI gurU hir
goibMd swihb jI nwl ies DrqI qy crn pwey sn jdoN gurU hir goibMd swihb jI AwpxI
puqrI vIro dw ivAwh krn auprMq KfUr swihb Awey sn[gurg`dI pRwpq krn auprMq
Awp Aksr gurDwmW dI dyK-ryK leI goieMdvwl, qrn qwrn Aqy KfUr swihb AwieAw
krdy sn[
ienHW A`TW gurU swihbwn qoN ielwvw mhwn hsqIAW bRhm igAwnI bwbw bu`Fw jI, BweI
gurdws jI Aqy mhwn jrnYl BweI ibDI cMd jI vI KfUr swihb Awey sn[ gurU nwnk dyv
jI dw Bgq BweI joD isMG vI iesy ipMf dw rihx vwlw sI[ dsm pwqSwh gurU goibMd
isMG jI dy smyN cmkOr swihb dI jMg iv`c ShId hox vwly isMGW iv`c iqMn isMG BweI
pMjwb isMG, BweI dmodr isMG Aqy BweI Bgvwn isMG jI vI iesy ngr dy v`sx vwly sn[
mukqsr dy cwlI mukiqAW iv`coN do isMG vI iesy ngr dy sn[ ie`Qy hI b`s nhI dsvyN
pwqSwh jI ny ijhVy pMj ipAwry d`Kx qoN pMjwb v`l bwbw bMdw isMG bhwdr nwl Byjy sn
aunHW iv`c bwbw joD isMG Aqy bwbw kwhn isMG vI ie`QoN dy vsnIk sn[
ngr KfUr swihb iv`c dUsry vyKxXog AsQwn:1. gurduAwrw sRI qipAwxw swihb
2. Xwdgwr BweI bwlw jI
3. gurduAwrw qp AsQwn gurU AMgd dyv jI
4. gurduAwrw mweI BrweI
5. gurduAwrw m`lH AKwVw swihb
6. gurduAwrw sRI drbwr swihb (AMgITw swihb)
7. gurduAwrw QVHw swihb
8. KUh bIbI Amro jI
9. is`K Ajwieb Gr[
ngr iv`c Awaux vwlIAW sVkW qy pMj gurUAW dI Xwd iv`c drSnI drvwzy bxwey
jw rhy hn[ies qoN ielwvw ividAw dy imAwr ƒ au~cw cu`kx leI kwr syvw kmytI v`K -v`K
ielwikAW qoN ielwvw KfUr swihb iv`c ie`k ifgrI kwlj clw rhI hY ijs iv`c 2500 dy
krIb ividAwrQIAW ƒ ADuink shUlqW nwl Aqy nvIAW qknIkW vwlI ividAw pRdwn ho
rhI hY[
ie`Qy bI.AYf kwlj, lVikAW Aqy lVkIAW dy sInIAr sYkMfrI skUlW qoN ielwvw
gBrUAW ƒ hwkI Aqy hor KyfW dI isKlweI dyx leI AkYfmI sPlqw pUrvk c`l rhI
hY[kYnyfw vwsI fw: rGbIr isMG jI ‘bYNs’ dy XqnW sdkw “inSwny ^wlsw” dI A`T mMjlI
iemwrq dw ivl`Kx kwrj, is`K ieiqhws Aqy gurbwxI qy ADwirq Aiq ADuink robot
vwlw Ajwieb Gr ^fUr swihb iv`c bxn nwl ieh ngr dunIAW dy nkSy qy Aw igAw hY[
Ajoky mnu`K dw mu`K mslw hY pRdUSx ijs dI nivrqI leI bwbw syvw isMG jI dy
au~dm nwl KfUr swihb v`l Awaux vwlIAW sVkW qy KfUr swihb dy cwr cuPyry krIb 100
iklo mItr dy rkby iv`c ru`K lw ky pRdUSx dy bcwE dw pRbMD qW kIqw hI igAw hY ies
nwl ielwky dI suh`px iv`c vI vwDw hoieAw hY[d`isAw igAw hY ik 500 eykV iv`c
Pldwr ru`K lwaux dw vI ivcwr hY[bwbw syvw isMG jI dw vwqwvrx ƒ swP r`Kx Aqy
pRdUSx rihq krn dw ieh auprwlw Swied dunIAW iv`c AwpxI iksm dw ivl`Kx
auprwlw hY[loV hY Aijhy auprwilAW ƒ Apnwaux dI Aqy ies iv`c Xogdwn pwaux dI[

***

is`KI dw Durw
goieMdvwl swihb (izlHw qrn qwrn)

ijs QW qy A`j k`lH goieMdvwl ngr v`isAw hoieAw hY ie`Qy pihlW jMgl huMdw sI[
dirAw ibAws dy pwrly iknwry sulqwnpur loDI dy nyVy ‘qlvMfI cODrIAW’ ie`k ngr hY[
ie`QoN dy ie`k vsnIk ‘goieMdw mrvwhw’ dI idlI KwihS sI ik auh Awpxw ie`k v`Krw ipMf
vswvy[aus ny dirAw ibAws dy dUsry kMFy au~cI QW qy ngr vswaux dw auprwlw vI kIqw
sI pr kwmXwb nhI sI hoieAw[lok ivSvwS Anuswr auh jdoN ngr dI auswrI ArMBdw
sI qW ie`Qy ijMnW Aqy BUqW-pRyqW dw vwsw hox krky ngr v`sdw nhI sI[ auh idn vyly
ijhVI auswrI krdy sn auh rwq vyly BUq-pRyq Fwh jWdy sn[auh gurU AMgd jI dI Srn
AwieAw sI Aqy AwpxI ngr vswaux dI ie`Cw d`sidAW hoieAW aus ny BUqW dy vrqwry dw
vI izkr kIqw sI[
gurU AMgd dyv jI ny gurU Amrdws jI ƒ ie`k sotI dy hukm kIqw sI ik auh
goieMdy nwl jwx Aqy ngr auswrI iv`c aus dI mdd krn[auh ijDr-ijDr ieh sotI
GuMmw ky lMGxgy swry ijMn BUq dOV jwxgy[ij`Qy quhwfy crn pYxgy auh QW SuB ho jwvygI[qusI
vI AwpxI irhwieS leI au~Qy mkwn bxwvo, quhwƒ vyK ky hor lok vI au~Qy Aw
v`sxgy[goieMdw DnwF hY auh ies kMm iv`c quhwfI mdd krygw[nvyN v`sy ngr dw nW
‘goieMdy’ dy nW qy hI r`Kxw[ies qrHW 1546 eI:iv`c sRI gurU Amrdws jI ny gurU AMgd jI
dy hukm nwl ieh ngr ‘goieMdvwl swihb’ sMmq1603 iv`c vswieAw sI[
qrn qwrn dI ngrI ijs ƒ sRI gurUu Arjn dyv jI ny sMn 1590 iv`c vswieAw
sI , qoN ‘goieMdvwl swihb’ ijs ƒ is`KI dw Durw ikhw jWdw hY Aqy ij`QoN ‘sMgq Aqy
pMgq’ dI pRQw SurU hoeI sI, kpUrQly ƒ jwx vwlI sVk qy qrn qwrn qoN 22 iklo mItr
dI dUrI q v`isAw hY[ gurU AMgd dyv jI dy joqI-joq smwaux auprMq gurU Amrdws jI gur
g`dI qy ibrwzmwn sn jdoN 17 meI, 1565 ƒ mugl bwdSwh Akbr goieMdvwl swihb
AwieAw[ auh ie`Qy lMgr dI pRQw vyK ky Aqy ieh jwx ky ik hr Drm dy lok ibnW iksy
Byd-Bwv dy lMgr iv`c pMgq lw ky iek`Ty pRSwdw Ck rhy sn[Aijhw imlvrqx Aqy Byd Bwv rihq vrqwrw vyK ky bwdSwh bhuq pRsMn hoieAw sI[ goieMdvwl swihb qoN hI is`K
Drm iv`c “sMgq Aqy pMgq” dI pRQw SurU hoeI hY[ ies DrqI ƒ gurU Amrdws jI qoN lY
ky gurU Arjn dyv jI q`k swry gurUAW dI crn Coh pRwpq hY[
ies QW qy ie`k purwqn KUh “bwaulI swihb” vI hY ijs dIAW 84 pOVIAW
hn[ies bwry ikhw jWdw hY ik ijhVw pRwxI SrDw nwl hr ie`k pOVI qy bYT ky ie`k jpujI
swihb dw pwT qy ie`k ieSnwn kridAW hoieAW crwsI vwr Aijhw krdw hY aus dI
curwsI k`tI jWdI hYy[Aijhw krdy hoey lok Aksr vyKy gey hn jo curwsI dy gyV iv`coN
inklx leI Aijhw auprwlw krdy hn[
smyN smyN hr ie`k gurU ny ie`QoN Drm pRcwr kridAW hoieAW is`KI isDwqW ƒ
pRcwirAw sI[iesy krky goieMdvwl ƒ “is`KI dw Durw” AwiKAw jWdw hY[ies ieiqhwsk
ngr dw izkr B`tW dy sveIey iv`c vI imldw hY:-

goieMdvwlu goibMdpurI sm jlHn qIir ibnws bnwXEu]
gXEu duKu dUir brpn ko so gurU muKu dyiK gurU suKu pwXEu]
(Awid gRMQ pMnw-1400)

***

bIbI rjnI

(vwsI p`tI, izlHw qrn qwrn)

mwJy dw izlHw AMimRqsr ijs dIAW qihsIlW qrn qwrn, p`tI Aqy Ajnwlw sn
ijs dI dubwrw h`dbMdI hox krky imqI 16, jUn 2006 ƒ sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI dy 400
swlw ShIdI idvs vwly idn qrn qwrn ƒ pUury izlHy dw drzw dy id`qw igAw hY[hux p`tI
izlHw qrn qwrn dI qihsIl hY[ieh kwPI v`fw ksbw hY jo ryl rwhIN vI AMimRqsr nwl
juiVAw hoieAw hY[sVk rwhIN qrn qwrn qoN ies dw Pwslw 25 iklo mItr dw hY[p`tI
hYbq pur jo kdI muglW dI nO-l`KI p`tI dy nW nwl jwxI jWdI sI Aqy ijs dw mwmlw nO
l`K hox krky ies ƒ nNO-l`KI p`tI ikhw jWdw sI, iesy mwJy dI sr zmIn qy hY [
bIbI rjnI gurU Gr ƒ mMnx vwlI p`tI dy ie`k DnwF dunI cMd dI sB qoN CotI bytI
sI[aus ny Awpxy ipqw dy ies hMkwr ƒ pRvwn nhIN sI kIqw ik aus ƒ irzk aus dw
ipqw idMdw hY[aus dw vwihgurU qy Afol ivSvwS sI qy ieh Dwrnw p`kI sI ik ijs pRBU ny
ienswn ƒ pYdw kIqw hY auh hI aus dw pwlxhwr hY[ auh ies g`l ƒ mMndI sI:so krqw icMqw kry ijin aupwieAw jgu]( pMnw 467)
AwpxI DI dy ies au~qr qoN v`t Kw ky rjnI dy bwp ny aus ƒ ie`k ipMgly nwl
ivAwh id`qw sI qy ies g`l dw imhxw mwirAw sI ik vyKWgw ik qyrw pRBU ik`QoN qYƒ irzk
idMdw hY[pqI-vrqw Drm dw pwlx kridAW hoieAW ie`k ipMgly ƒ Awpxw pqI mMinAW sI
aus Drm dI p`kI AOrq ny[iesy bIbI rjnI dI khwxI hirmMdr swihb dI d`uK -BMjxI
byrI nwl juVdI hY ijQoN aus dw ipMglw pqI rwjI hoieAw sI[
ieh auh du`K-BMjnI byrI hY ij`Qy pihlI pwqSwhI SRI gurU nwnk dyv jI sMn 1501
iv`c sulqwnpur loDI qoN goieMdvwl, PiqAwbwd rwhIN huMdy hoey AMimRqsr phuMcy sn qy iesy
byrI hyTW bYT ky BweI mrdwny nwl Akwl purK dI isPq slwh iv`c Sbd kIrqn
kridAW ikhw sI-- “bol BweI bwilAw siq krqwr qy CyV BweI mrdwinAw rbwb dyy
qwr, r`bI bwxI AweI Aw[” ies QW qy bhuq swry AMbW Aqy byrIAW dy ru`KW dw JuMf sI[
ieh bhuq hI mnmohk AsQwn sI[
ieh auh hI byrI hY ijs hyTW bYT ky gurU nwnk dyv jI ny bwlk bUVy (bwbw bu`Fw
jI) ƒ jo k`QU nMgl dy nyVy ipMf rmdws dw rihx vwlw sI,Akwl purK dw igAwn idRV
krvwieAw sI[sMn 1537 iv`c gurU BweI lihxw jI ny ies QW qy hI kwm- ArQ Aqy
Drm-moK dw pRvwh clwieAw sI Aqy bcn kIqw sI ik ies QW qy ie`k v`fw ngr v`sygw
jo jgq pRis`D hovygw[iesy QW qy hI A`gy c`l ky gurU rwmdws jI ny hirmMdr swihb dI
auswrI krvweI sIy Aqy gurU Arjn dyv jI ny srovr bxw ky ies QW ƒ is`KW dw ‘m`kw’
bxw id`qw sI[ ieh AsQwn ‘AMimRqsr isPqI dw Gr’ AKvwauNdw hY[ienHW GtnwvW dI
Xwd Awpxy iv`c smoeI ieh byrI A`j vI mwJy dI DrqI qy gOrv nwl isr auTweI KVI hY[

***

AcwrIAw bwbw sRI cMd jI Aqy
audwsIn sMpRdwie

bwbw inrml isMG jI syvwdwr
audwsIn m`q dw AwrMB bwbw sRI cMd jI spu`qr sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI qo hoieAw
mMinAw jWdw hY[Awp dw jnm sMmq 1551 BwdroN suDI Suklw p`K ipMf qlvMfI (ijs dw
pihlw nW rwey Boey dI qlvMfI sI Aqy jo bwAd iv`c nnkwxw swihb dy nW nwl jwixAw
jwx l`gw sI) iv`c mwqw sul`KxI jI dI ku`KoN hoieAw[
jdo bwbw sRI cMd jI dI aumr 11 swl dI hoeI qW Awp dy dwdw kilAwx rwie jI
ny Awp ƒ pMifq hridAwl jI kol sMsikRq Aqy Dwrimk is`iKAw dI pVHweI krn leI
ByijAw[qIKx bu`DI hox kwrn Awp ny ieh swrw igAwn bhuq jldI pRwpq kr ilAw [
hor ividAw pRwpqI leI mwqw ipqw dI AwigAw lY ky Awp kSmIr iv`c pMifq pRSoqm dws
jI kol cly gey sn ij`Qy Awp ny sMsikRq dw fUMGw AiDAYn kIqw [sMswirk ividAw
auprMq Awp AiDAwqimk soJI leI gurU dI Bwl iv`c inkl pey Aqy Awp ny AivnwSI
munI jI ƒ Awpxw gurU Dwr ky bRhm igAwn pRwpq kIqw[hwV dI puMinAW vwly idn Awp
Awpxy gurU koloN audwsIn m`q dI is`iKAw lY ky mirAwdw Anuswr srIr qy Bsm, kmr qy
jMjIr Aqy lMgotI pihn ie`k h`Q iv`c krmMfl qy dUsry h`Q icmtw lY ky Bwrq Brmx Aqy
Drm pRcwr leI inkl qury sn[
jg qwrdy hoey Aqy “Al`K purS ismro” dw igAwn idMdy hoey Awp ‘cMby’ (ihmwcl
pRdys) dy ielwky iv`c phuMc gey,ij`Qy Awp ny AwKrI aupdyS “bwbw kMblIAw” jI ƒ dy ky
ikhw, “auh sMgqW dI syvw krn, nwm jpx pRBU iv`c ivSvwS r`Kx[ies qoN A`gy dw sPr
mYN iek`lw hI krWgw[” ies qrHw igAwn prkwS vMfdy hoey bwbw jI bRhmlIn ho gey sn[
audwsI m`q dw AwSrm drbwr bwbw crn Swh bhwdrpur huiSAwr pur iv`c ies
m`q dw pRcwr kr irhw hY jdoN ik Aijhw hI ie`k AsQwn mwJy dy ipMf “srwey qlvMfI”
jo ik ^lcIAW KfUr swihb sVk qy hY jo Ajy auswrI ADIn hY[ies dI syvw dw kwrz
ies vyly fyry dy mu`K syvwdwr bwbw inrml isMG jI inBw rhy hn[ies fyry q`k phuMcx qy
jwxkwrI lYx iv`c sul`Kx isMG ‘idaul’ ny myrw mwrg drSn kIqw hY[bwbw inrml isMG
jI koloN imlI jwxkwrI Anuswr ies m`q dI g`dI qy smyN smyN rhy mhW- purKW dw vyrvw
hyT Anuswr hY:1. d`sx Anuswr bwbw sRI cMd jI dy bRhmlIn hox auprMq ies ƒ bwbw gurid`qw jI
(spu`qr sRI gurU hr goibMd swihb jI) ny lMmy smyN q`k jwrI r`iKAw[aunHW dy cwr cyly bwlU
hsn,PUly Swh, goieMdw Aqy Alsmq sn[ bwbw gurid`qw jI ny pRcwr leI cwr DUeyN
audwsIAW dy Qwpy[DUAW ( DUxIAW,audwsI g`dI dw sQwn)[ cwr DUAW nwl Cy (6) b^iSSW
imlw ky ds nwmI audwsI AwKy jWdy hn[ Cy b^iSSW ies pRkwr hn:1. suQry Swh= bKiSS gurU hir rwie swihb jI [
2. sMgq swihbIey swihb=bKiSS gurU hir rwie swihb jI Aqy gurU goibMd isMG jI[
3. jIq m`lIey=bKiSS gurU goibMd isMG swihb jI [
4. b^q m`lIey=bKiSS sRI gurU goibMd isMG swihb jI[

5. Bgq BgvwnIeyy=bKiSS sRI gurU hir rwie swihb jI[
6. mIhW SwhIey=bKiSS sRI gurU qyZ bhwdr swihb jI[
ies ipMf vwlI g`dI dw vyrvw hyT Anuswr hY:1. bwbw gurid`qw jI dy cyly = bwbw PUl hsn jI[
2. bwbw PUl hsn jI dy cyly = bwbw gulwb dws jI[
3. bwbw gulwb dws jI dy cyly = bwbw ieMdr dws jI[
4. bwbw ieMdr dws jI dy cyly = bwbw pUrn dws jI ( bMfwly vwly)
5. bwbw pUrn dws jI dy cyly = bwbw mohn dws jI [
6. bwbw mohn dws jI dy clwxw kr jwx auprMq aunHW dy v`fy Brw gurw dws jI ies kwrz
ƒ sMBwldy rhy [
7. ies smyN bwbw inrml isMG jI ies gurUduAwry/fyry dI syvw sMBwl dw kMm kr rhy hn[
mOky qy vyiKAw ik kwr syvw iv`c sMgqW nyVy nyVy dy ipMfW qoN AwpxIAW trwlIAW jW
dUsry vwhnW rWhI Aw ky bVI hI SrDw nwl syvw kr rhIAW sn[ ijs hwl iv`c sRI gurU
gRMQ swihb jI dw pRkwS kIqw hoieAw hY aus dI ie`k dIvwr qy bwbw mohn dws jI dy
jIvn sbMDI kuJ q`Q ies qrHW AMikq sn:“bwbw mohn jI dw jnm srmu`K isMG jI dy Gr bIbI rwj kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf GsIt
purw iv`c hoieAw[Awp bwbw sRI cMd jI dy audwsIn m`q ƒ mMnx vwly sn[ies m`q dw
pRcwr krdy hoey Awp ies ipMf “srwey qlvMfI” Awey ij`Qy Awp ie`k ip`pl dy ru`K hyTW
DUxW lw ky 8 idn bYTy rhy [ielwky dy SrDwlU lokW ny pRBU Bgq jwx ky ipMf iv`c QW id`qI
ij`Qy pMj swl q`k Awp ny DUxW lw ky qp`isAw kIqI[ AcMBy dI g`l hY ik Awp ny swrw
smW pRSwdy qoN sMqoK hI r`iKAw[ pRBU dy hukm nwl 9 m`Gr idn bu`Dvwr 1977eI: ƒ ieh
pMj BUiqk srIr iqAwg gey [Awp dw AMiqm sskwr bwbw drSn isMG jI Gƒpur
vwilAw ny Aw ky iesy qpo-AsQwn qy kIqw sI[”
bwbw inrml isMG jI dy d`sx Anuswr 24 nvMbr, 2008 (11 m`Gr) ƒ nwnk
SwhI kYlMfr Anuswr eyQy joqI joq idhwVw mnwieAw jwvygw[iesy idn sRI gurU qyZ bhwdr
swihb jI dw vI ShIdI purb hY[

***

fyrw bwbw jYml isMG jI ibAws Aqy
rwDw suAwmI sMpRdwie

bwbw guirMdr isMG jI

AMimRqsr qoN jlMDr jWidAW hoieAw 40 iklo mItr dI dUrI qy rylvy stySn Aqy
b`s stwp AwauNdw hY ijs dw nW hY A`fw ibAws[rylvy stySn ibAws qoN cVHdI bwhI cwrpMj ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy vwikAw hY ieh “fyrw rwDw suAwmI”[ ieh ibAws dirAw dy
kMFy qy bixAw hoieAw hY[fyry jwx vwsqy fyry v`loN b`sW dI suivDw hY[
rwDw suAwmI m`q dIAW jVHW au~qr pRdyS dy Sihr Awgrw iv`c hn ij`Qy ies m`q
dw ArMB hoieAw [ies Sihr dy v`sx vwly syT iSv idAwl isMG jI dw jnm 25 Agsq,
1818 eI: ƒ syT idlvwlI isMG jI dy Gr mwqw mhW mwieAw dI ku`KoN hoieAw [Awp dI
pqnI dw nwm nrwiexI dyvI sI pr pRclq nW rwDw sI[Awp Awpxy Gr iv`c gurU gRMQ
swihb jI dw pRkwS krdy sn Aqy gurduAwry jw ky kQw vI kirAw krdy sn[sMgq iv`coN
kuJ lokW ny ies g`l dw ieqrwj kIqw sI ik iSv idAwl isMG qMmwkU dw syvn krdw hY,
ies leI ies ƒ gurduAwry iv`c kQw nw krn id`qI jwvy[iSv idAwl isMG jI ny Awpxy
Gr ijhVw ik pMnI glI Awgrw iv`c sI, kQw krnI SurU kr id`qI sI[
syT iSv idAwl jI dy do cyly sn,rwie swihb swilg rwm Aqy bwbw jYml isMG
jI[iSv idAwl dI mOq auprMq Awgry vwlIg`dI qy swilg rwm bYT igAw sI qy aus ny
suAwmI jI jIaUdy jIA ies m`q ƒ “ rwDw suAwmI” dw nW dy id`qw sI[iSv idAwl jI
Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c hI ikhw krdy sn,“myrw m`q siqnwm AOr AnwmI kw Qw AOr rwDw
suAwmI m`q swilg rwm kw clwieAw hUAw hY, ies ko BI clny dynw[”(DrqI au~qy svrg
iv`coN pMnw 490) bwbw jYml isMG jI vwps Awpxy ipMf Gumwx (izlHw gurdwspur) Aw gey
sn[
bwbw jYml isMG jI dw jnm julweI, 1839 eI: iv`c sR: joD isMG jI dy Gr mwqw
dieAw kOr dI ku`KoN izlw gurdwspur dy ipMf Gumwx iv`c hoieAw [Awp dIAW do BYxW bIbI
qwbo Aqy bIbI rwjo Aqy do Brw BweI dwn isMG Aqy BweI jIvn isMG sn[ieh auhI ipMf
hY ij`Qy bwbw nwmdyv jI ny AwpxI aumr dy AwKrI swl guzwry sn[aunHW dI Xwd iv`c ies
ipMf iv`c ie`k ‘dyhurw’ Bwv mMdr vI hY[CotI aumr iv`c hI bwbw jYml isMG jI dI rucI
nwmbwxI v`l l`gI rihMdI sI Aqy Awp GMitAW b`DI ies dyhury iv`c jw ky ies dy pujwrI
bwbw Kym dws koloN gurbwxI suxdy rihMdy sn[ Awp ƒ aus ny CotI aumr iv`c hI sRI gurU
gRMQ swihb dw Su`D Aqy srl qrIky nwl pwT krnw isKw id`qw sI[
A`T swl dI aumr iv`c aus ny Awp ƒ “sohM siqnwm” dy jwp dI ivDI vI isKw
id`qI sI pr Awp dI ie`Cw qW sI aus nwm ƒ pwaux dI ijs dI mihmw gurU gRMQ swihb
iv`c ies qrHW kIqI hY:-nwmY hI qy sBu ikCu hoAw](pMnw 753),
nwm ky Dwry KMf bRihmMf]nwm ky Dwry Awgws pwqwl] nwm Dwry purIAw sB Bvn]

( pMnw 284)[ GridAW ny ies froN ik ieh ie`Qy swDUAW sMqW nwl hI bYTw rihMdw hY
ikDry swD hI nw ho jwvy Awp ƒ Awp dI BYx qwbo kol ipMf siTAwly(ieh ipMf bwbw
bkwlw dy nyVy hI hY) Byj id`qw sI pr ie`Qy vI Awp dI ibrqI Aqy sMgq swDUAWmhwqmwvW nwl vyK ky qwbo BYx ny ipqw ƒ bulw ky Awp ƒ ipqw nwl vwps Gumwx Byj
id`qw sI[
pMj Sbd dI Koj Aqy ies dI pRwpqI leI Awp QW QW Btky[ Awp AMimRqsr,
lwhOr, nnkwxw swihb, eymnwbwd qy hor AnykW QwvW qy ies Amol vsqU ‘pMj Sbd’ dw
Byd pwaux leI gey pr Byd ikDroN nw imilAw jo gurU dI pihcwx dI ksv`tI qy pUrw
au~qrdw :Gr mih Gru dyKwie dyie so siqguru purKu sujwxu]
pMc sbd Duinkwr Duin qih bwjY sbdu nIswxu]
(pMnw 1290)
iesy Bwl iv`c hoqI mrdwn nyVy ipMf ‘coN huMdy hoey Awp swDUAW dI ie`k tolI nwl
irSI kyS v`l c`l pey, ij`QoN Awp pYdl hI Awgry v`l c`ly gey sn ikauNik ies tolI ‘coN
iksy ny Awp ƒ d`isAw sI ik Awgry iv`c ie`k sMq hY hY jo pMj Sbd dw Byd jwxdw hY[
ieh sux ky Awp ieMny KuS hoey sn ik aus sMq dw nW pqw vI pu`Cxw Bu`l gey sn qy Awgry
v`l c`l pey sn[ kyvl Awgrw hI cyqy rih igAw sI[ glIAW, bzwrW dukwnW qy lokW koloN
bOirAW vWg aus sMq dw pqw pu`Cdy iPr rhy sn Awp Awgry iv`c[ Awi^r ie`k idn
Awgry dI ‘pMnI glI’ iv`c AwpxI mMijl qy phuMc hI gey sn ij`Qy iSv idAwl isMG jI
kQw kr rhy sn[ keI idn q`k Awp nym nwl siqsMg suxdy rhy[ Awi^r ie`k idn Awp
qy bKiSS ho geI qy ijs vsq dI Koj sI aus dI pRwpqI ho geI[
Awp dI ie`Cw sI ik Awp hmySW Awpxy gurU kol rihx pr iSv idAwl jI ny ieh
smJw ky ik AiBAwsI ƒ Awpxy jIvn inrbwh leI koeI nw koeI kMm zrUr krnw cwhIdw
hY qy ikrq krky hI Kwxw cwhIdw hY[suAwmI jI dy hukm nwl Awp imltrI dI pltn
nM:24 iv`c BrqI ho gey sn[kuJ smW imltrI dI nOkrI kr Awp 1887eI: iv`c pYnSn
lY ky muV Awgry Aw gey sn pr suAwmI iSv idAwl isMG jI dI mOq ip`CoN vwps Awpxy
ipMf Gumwx Aw gey[
sMn 1891 iv`c Awp ny dirAw ibAws dy kMFy ij`Qy jMgl-bIAwbwn sI jw fyry lwey
Aqy ie`k kwinAW dI JONpVI pw ky rihx l`g pey sn[cwry pwsy aujwV hI aujwV sI, ie`QoN
q`k ik pIx leI pwxI vI nyVly ipMf vVwiec jW b`l srwey qoN ilAwauNxw pYNdw sI[hOolI
hOlI jMgl iv`c mMgl l`gdw igAw Aqy A`j vwlw fyrw rwDw suAwmI hoNd iv`c Aw
igAw[ij`Qy A`j swrIAW shUlqW auplbD hn Aqy ibmwrW dy ielwj vwsqy “bwbw crn
isMG cYrItybl” hspqwl vI c`l irhw hY[ies fyry dI g`dI qy smyN smyN bYTx vwilAW dw
vyrvw hyT Anuswr hY:1. bwbw jYml isMG jI (1839-29 dsMbr, 1903)
2. hjUr mhwrwj bwbw swvx isMG jI (20 julweI 1858-2 AprYl, 1948)
3. mhwrwj srdwr bhwdr jgq isMG jI (27 julweI, 1884-23 AkqUbr, 1951)
4. mhwrwj crn isMG jI (12 dsMbr, 1916 - 1 jUn, 1990)
5. bwbw guirMdr isMG jI[ ieh bwbw crn isMG jI dy BxyvyN hn[ ies smyN ies g`dI qy
ibrwjmwn hn ijnHW dy h`Q swry kwrzW dI vwg for hY[
ies fyry dI brWc qrn qwrn Sihr iv`c vI hY[fyrw ibAws Aqy ies fyry dy
iKAwlI Prk kwrn ieh fyry v`KrI v`KrI hoNd r`K rhy hn[ieh fyrw 27 PrvrI, 1900
iv`c bwbw b`gw isMG jI ny bxvwieAw sI[ ies dI g`dI nSInI hyT Anuswr hY:1. bwbw b`gw isMG jI
2. bwbw dyvw isMG jI[
3. bwbw pRqwp isMG jI [
4. bwbw kyhr isMG jI[
fyrw Awgrw dIAW vI keI brWcW bx geIAW hn ijnHW dw vyrvw hyT Anuswr hY:-

fyrw iSv idAwl jI pMnI glI Awgrw
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

bwbw grIb dws jI [
bIbI syvw dwsI jI [
ie`k s`jx au~qr pRdys dy sn ijnHW dw nwm drj nhIN hY[
rwie bhwdr syT sudrSn isMG jI swihb[
bIbI ruko[
bIbI rlI[

suAwmI bwZ qy hor g`dIAW
1. rwie swihb swilg rwm ip`pl mMfI Awgrw[
2. lwlw AXu`iDAw pRSwid pRym invws ip`pl mMfI Awgrw[
3. pMifq bRhm SMkr[
4. bwbU mwDo pRSwid jI suAwmI bwZ Awgrw[
5. bwbU kwmqW pRSwid[
6. sr AwnMd srUp swihb jI jdoN g`dI qy bYTy qW idAwl bwZ dI nINh r`KI[
(ieh swry vyrvy pusqk DrqI au~qy svrg iv`coN DMnvwd sihq ley gey hn)[

***

gurU bwbw hMdwl jI nirMjnI m`q sMpRdwie
(jMifAwlw gurU, AMimRqsr)

AMimRqsr qoN jlMDr jwx vwly kOmI mwrg qy 17 iklo mItr dI dUrI qy vwikAw hY
ie`k ngr ‘jMifAwlw gurU’[
bwbw hMdwl jI dw jnm sMmq 1630 iv`c gwzI dy gRih ivKy mweI su`KI dy grB qoN
hoieAw[Awp dI SwdI hmyz cwhl dI pu`qrI auqmI nwl hoeI [Awp dy Gr ie`k pu`qr
ibDI cMd (ieh ibDI cMd gurU hr goibMd swihb jI dy zmwny vwlw nhI ) ny jnm
ilAw[ikauNik bwbw hMdwl jI j`t Kwndwn nwl sbMDq sn ies leI dUsry muMifAW vWg
m`JW cwirAw krdy sn[Awp gurU Amr dws jI dy AinMn Bgq sn Aqy gurU dy lMgr dI
syvw bhuq hI SrDw Bwvnw nwl kirAw krdy sn[ guris`KI dw pRcwr qyz krn leI gurU
Amrdws jI ny bweI (22) guris`KW ƒ 22 mMjIAW (snmwn) dy ky Drm pRcwr leI ByijAw
sI Aqy bIbIAW ƒ (72) bh`qr pIVHy dy ky pRcwr leI ByijAw sI[bweI mMjIAW ijnHW dw
vyrvw hyT Anuswr hY, aunHW ‘coN ie`k mMjI bwbw hMdwl jI ƒ vI sONpI geI sI ijs krky
aunHW ƒ gurU bwbw hMdwl jI ikhw jwx l`gw sI[
1.
4.
7.
10.
13.
16.
19.
22.

bweI mMjIAW dy nwm

A`lwXwr
2. s`cn s`c
3. swDwrx
swvx m`l
5. su`Kx
6. hMdwl
kydwrI
8. Kyfw
9. gMgU Swh
drbwrI
11. pwro
12 Pyrw
bUAw
14. bYxI
15. mhySw
mweI dws
17. mwxk cMd
18. rwjwrwm
murwrI (m`qo-murwrI) 20. rMg Swh
21 rMg dws
lwlo
ies ngr dw nW pihlW ‘jMifAwlw’ hI sI pr gurU bwbw hMdwl jI dy nW nwl
‘gurU’ Sbd juV jwx krky ieh ngr “jMifAwlw gurU” AKvwaux l`gw[Awp hr vyly
qurdy-iPrdy Aqy kMmkwr krdy hoey ‘inrMjn inrMjn’ Sbd dw jwp kirAw krdy sn[
iesy kwrn ies sMpRdwie dw nW ‘inrMjnI m`q’ pY igAw[bwbw hMdwl jI dw dyhWq 1705
iv`c hoieAw[Awp dw pu`qr ibDI cMd kukrmI inkilAw sI Aqy ausny gurU nwnk dyv jI
dIAW swKIAW iv`c AwpxIAW mnmwnIAW drj krky ies ƒ ASu`D kr id`qw sI[auh gurU
Gr dw ivroD vI krn l`g ipAw sI[keI hMdwlI mhMqW ny qW mugl kwl vyly is`KW ivru`D
lwhOr drbwr dy hwkmW dI mdd vI kIqI sI[ies ngr iv`c n`QoAwxy drvwzy bwbw hMdwl
jI dw gurduAwrw vI hY, ij`Qy SrDwlU m`Qw tykx AwauNdy hn[

***

dmdmI tkswl
(mihqw cONk, izlHw AMimRqsr)

gurduAwrw gurdrSn pRkwS mihqw
tkswl dy A`KrI ArQ hn “kwr^wnw”[ij`Qy iksy cIz dI GwVq huMdI hY auh
tkswl AKvwauNdI hY[tkswl dI bxI hoeI vsq Kot rihq,srv-pRmwixq Aqy pRvwn
krn Xog huMdI hY[rupey dI GwVq tkswl ‘coN bx ky bwhr AwauNdI hY aus dy Kry hox qy
koeI SMkw nhIN huMdI[ies q`Q dI puStI gurbwxI vI krdI hY:GVIAY sbdu scI tkswl]
is`tw ieh inkldw hY ik vsq jo Kot rihq hovy tkswlI AKvwauNdI hY[ieh
tkswlW/sMpRdwvW hI A`gy c`l ky s`c dw p`Q drSn krvwauNdIAW hn[
“ ‘sMpRdwie’ Sbd ivAwkrx Anuswr cwr A`KrW dy joV qoN bixAw
hY[sM+pR+dw+X ies dw ArQ BlI BWq ivSyS inXm Anuswr jo dyeIdw {pRdwn krdw}
AwieAw hovy[rh`svwdIAW dy isDWq iv`c pRMprw qoN AwieAw hoieAw gur aupdyS, ijs dw
aucwrx qoN lY ky ArQ q`k ijauNN dw iqauN AiBAws kIqw jwvy, auh sMpRdwie hY[ies qrHW
DuroN (Bwv gurU gRMQ swihb jI) qoN cldI AweI pRMprw dy ADwr qy hox krky sRI gurU gRMQ
swihb jI dI tkswlI ivAwiKAw sMpRdweI hY Aqy ieh ivAwiKAw pRxwlI ‘sMpRdweI
pRnwlI’ hY[
( fw: rqn isMG )
gurmiq iv`c tkswl dw ipCokV gurU goibMd isMG jI dy smyN qoN mMinAw jWdw hY jdoN
aunHW v`loN is`KW ƒ Su`D, ArQ sihq gurbwxI pVHn Aqy ivcwr qy jor id`qw igAw sI[aunHW
dy kQn Anuswr ASu`D pVHI geI bwxI dy Bwv ArQ hI bdl jWdy hn[aunHW ny audwhrx dy
ky smJwieAw krqy kI imiq krqw jwxY “kY” jwxY gur sUrw
(AMg 930)
jy kr “kY” ƒ “ky” piVHAw jwvy qW ies dy ArQ bdl jWdy hn[ kY dw ArQ hY “vI”
jdoN ik “ky” dy ArQ hn kI jwxdy hn? Bwv mn iv`c ikMqU Aqy SMkw dy ArQ bx jWdy
hn[iesy AwSy dI pUrqI Aqy isMGW dI mMg ƒ pUirAW krn leI gurU jI jdoN i^drwxy dI
Fwb (tu`tI gMFI mukqsr) dy Xu`D qo ivhly ho ky swbHo kI qlvMfI ibrwj rhy sn qW aunHW ny
BweI mnI isMG jI pwsoN gurU gRMQ swihb dI bIV dI rcnw krvweI sI, ijs iv`c gurU qyZ
bhwdr swihb jI dI bwxI dy nwl nwl “rihrws swihb” jI dy ds Sbd vI drj
krvwey sn (gurU Arjn dyv jI dI ricq bIV iv`c rihrws swihb dy pMj Sbd drj
sn)[Swied ieh koeI kOqk sI ik krqwr pur dy ‘DIr m`lIAW’ ny gurU Arjn dyv jI
vwlI bIV dyx qoN ienkwr krn dy nwl ieh imhxw vI mwr id`qw sI, “jy auh gurU s`cw hY
qW auho ijhI bIV Awp ikauN nhI rc lYNdw[”
ieh ie`k kwrn bixAw sI ijs qy gurU jI ny mnI isMG pwsoN 9 mhIny 9 idn iv`c
ieh bIV sMpUrn kIqI sI[gurU jI roj dI roz ijMnI bwxI ilKvwauNdy sn Swm vyly aus ƒ
dIvwn iv`c Sbd ArQW smyq hwjr 48 isMGW Aqy sMgq ƒ srvx krvwieAw krdy

sn[bwbw dIp isMG jI vI ienHW isMGW iv`c Swml sn[ikauN ju ieh bIV swbHo kI qlvMfI
ivKy rcI geI sI ies leI gurU jI ny ies ngr ƒ “q^q sRI dmdmw swihb, gurU kI
kwsI dw vr id`qw sI Aqy ieh bIV “dmdmI bIV” dy nwm nwl pRis`D hoeI hY[
s`c KMf sRI hjUr swihb jdoN gurU jI ny sRI gurU gRMQ swihb jI ƒ gurqw g`dI sONp
id`qI sI qW BweI mnI isMG jI ƒ hukm kIqw sI ik auh AMimRqsr jw ky gurbwxI ArQW
dI “tkswl” clwaux[ bwbw dIp isMG jI ny vI hukm mMn ky dmdmw swihb Aw ky
“tkswl” clweI sI[ ieh dovyN tkswlW A`j q`k ArQW smyq Su`D gurbwxI pVHwaux dw
kwrj kr rhIAW hn[BweI mnI isMG jI vwlI “AMimRqsrI tkswl” Aqy bwbw dIp isMG
jI vwlI “dmdmI tkswl” AKvwauNdI hY[ienHW dovW tkswlw dw pihlw mu`KI gurU goibMd
isMG jI ƒ mMn ky A`goN sMpRdwie cldI hY[bwbw dIp isMG jI vwlI tkswl dy mu`KIAW dw
vyrvw hyT Anuswr hY:1. sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI
2. bwbw dIp isMG jI ShId
3. bwbw gurbKS isMG jI ShId
4. BweI sUrq isMG jI
5. BweI gurdws isMG jI
6. igAwnI BweI sMq isMG jI
7. sMq dieAw isMG jI
8. sMq Bgvwn isMG jI
9. sMq hrnwm isMG jI bydI
10. sMq ibSn isMG jI murwly vwly
11. sMq suMdr isMG jI iBMfrW vwly
12. sMq igAwnI gurbcn isMG jI ^wlsw iBMfrW vwly
13. sMq igAwnI krqwr isMG jI ^wlsw iBMfrW vwly (mihqw)
14. sMq jrnYl isMG jI iBMfrW vwly (mihqw)
15. BweI bwbw Twkur isMG jI
16. igAwnI hrnwm isMG jI ^wlsw (tkswl dy ies smyN mu`KI hn)
tkswl dy ienHW mu`KIAW ny Awpxy Awpxy smyN iv`c ies sMpRdwie dy kwrjW ƒ pUrn
kIqw hY[ bySk smyN dy c`krW ny ies tkswl ƒ gurU Gr dy ivroDIAW nwl t`kr lYx leI
vI mjbUr kIqw,ijnHW iv`c inrMkwrI m`q dy mu`KI bwbw gurbcn isMG dw koJw pRc wr Aqy
aus dw gurU bx pwlkI iv`c AwpxI pqnI nwl bYT ky 13 AprYl, 1978 eI: ƒ Sihr
AMimRqsr iv`c jlUs k`Fxw is`K jgq qy is`Dw vwr sI[is`K Drm dyhDwrI gurU dy ivru`D hY
ijs leI ies idn mMjI swihb qoN isMGW dw ie`k jQw ijs iv`c AKMf kIrqnIey jQy dy
is`K vI Swml sn ies Gtnw ƒ SWqmeI FMg nwl rokx gey sn pr aunHW v`loN golI clw
dyx nwl 13 isMG ShId ho gey sn[k`KW hyTW Du`KdI hoeI A`g BWbV bx m`cI sI ijs dI
lpyt iv`c swrw pMjwb hI Aw igAw sI Aqy ies dw AMq l`KW nOjuAwnW dI mOq Aqy swkw
nIlw qwrw ho in`biVAw sI[
dmdmI tkswl dy 12vyN mu`KI sMq igAwnI gurbcn isMG jI ^wlsw iBMfrW vwilAW
dw s`cKMf gmn 28 jUn, 1969 ƒ hoieAw sI[ Awp dI Xwd iv`c sMq igAwnI krqwr
isMG jI ^wlsw iBMfrW vwilAw ny mihqy ivKy ij`Qy AMqm sskwr kIqw sI aus AsQwn qy
“gurduAwrw gurdrSn pRkwS” dI sQwpnw kIqI, ijs iv`c ie`k bhuq v`fw “kIrqn
ividAwlw vI kwiem kIqw[ ies ividAwly iv`c ividAwrQIAW ƒ kIrqn isKwaux leI
bhuq hI sUJvwn, qzrbykwr, rwg ividAw dy mwhr Aqy guxvwn ipMRsIpl inXukq kIqy
jWdy hn[ividAwrQIAW dyy lMgr,k`pVy,swj Aqy irhwieS qy hox vwlw ^rcw tkswl
krdI hY[kIrqn ividAw dy nwl nwl Dwrimk ividAw vI id`qI jWdI hY[ jQy iv`c Swml
hox vwly hr ie`k ividAwrQI ƒ AMimRq Ckw ky pMj bwxIAW dy in`qnym dI sMiQAw id`qI
jWdI hY[ies qoN ielwvw pMj gRMQI,bweI vwrW BweI gurdws jI,Bgq bwxI dy nwl nwl

vYdWq dIAW pusqkW ijvyN swrkuqwvlI,Bwvr swimRq,ivcwr mwlw, AiDAwqm pRkwS,ivcwr
swgr Awid gRMQW dw vI AiDAYn krvwieAw jWdw hY[
sMq igAwnI krqwr isMG jI ^wlsw ny ie`k bhuq v`fw lMgr hwl bxwieAw hY ijs
iv`c ie`ko vyly do-FweI hjwr dI sMgq bYT ky pRSwdw Ck skdI hY[jmIn iv`c lMgr vwsqy
kxk Aqy sbzIAW bIjIAW jWdIAW hn Aqy kxk BMfwr krn leI bhuq v`fw gudwm vI
bxwieAw hoieAw hY[100-150 dy krIb m`JW/gwvW vI r`KIAW hoeIAW hn[ is`KI pRcwr
vwsqy jQy bwhr Byjy jWdy hn[hr AYqvwr, m`isAw Aqy sMgrWd vwly idn ie`Qy AMimRqsMcwr huMdw hY[ smu`cy qOr qy jy kih ilAw jwvy ik mihqw ivKy ieh “dmdmI tkswl”
ie`k pUrn Dwrimk sMsQw hY jo lokW ƒ gurU dy lV lw rhI hY, qW koeI AiqkQnI nhI
hovygI[
(DMnvwd sihq ieh vyrvy “ieiqhws dmdmI tkswl” pRkwSk dmdmI tkswl j`Qw
iBMfrW (mihqw) AMimRqsr ‘coN ley gey hn)

***

bwvw lwl jI (g`dI iDAwn pur)
(ipMf iDAwn pur,izlHw gurdwspur)

bwvw lwl jI dw jnm sMmq 1412 (1355 eI:) iv`c sRI Bolw rwm jI dy Gr mwqw
ikRSnw dyvI jI dI ku`KoN ksUr(hux pwiksqwn) iv`c hoieAw[jdoN Awp dI AwXU A`T swl dI
hoeI qW Awp dy ipqw ny Awp ƒ gwvW cwrn vwsqy Byj id`qw[ hr vyly Awp dw iDAwn
eISvr dI BgqI iv`c juiVAw rihMdw sI[ gwvW dUr nyVy crdIAW rihMdIAW Aqy Awp ie`k
ru`K hyTW ijhVw ik nyVy vgx vwlI ndI dy kMFy sI, aus hyTW bYT pwxI dIAW lihrW v`l
vyKdy rihMdy sn[iesy msqI iv`c msq ie`k idn Awp Awp ru`K hyTW bYTy sn ik swDUAW
dw ie`k tolw ieDr Aw inkilAw[auh swDU Awp v`l hI Aw rhy sn[ nyVy phuMc ky swDUAW
dy gurU ny vyiKAw ik sB ru`KW dy pRCwvyN qW bdl gey sn pr ijs ru`K hyTW Awp bYTy sn
aus ru`K dw pRCwvW ie`k QW qy siQ`r sI[ieh vyK ky aus ny AnuBv kr ilAw sI ik ieh
bwlk koeI mhwn Awqmw hY[
swDUAW dI tolI dw gurU hor koeI nhI sI ieh qW “cYqnX suAwmI” jI
sn[suAwmI jI ny Awpxy cyilAW ƒ d`isAw ik pMjwb dy ksUr ielwky iv`c swfw ie`k iSS
pYdw hoieAw hY jo A`gy c`l ky pRmhMs XogI rwj AKvweygw[ mW-bwp dI AwigAw lY ky
bwvw jI ny cYqnX suAwmI jI ƒ Awpxw gurU Dwrn kr ilAw[gurU dy d`sy hoey igAwn nwl
Awp dy mn iv`c jn-kilAwx dI Bwvnw pYdw ho geI sI[ dyS dy v`K v`K BwgW iv`c
ivcrdy hoey Awp lok kilAwx,pRym, hmdrdI Aqy BweIcwry dw sMdyS idMdy hoey Awp sMmq
1451 iv`c hirduAwr qy iPr shwrnpur jw itky sn[aunHIN idnIN ies ngr iv`c izAwdw
AwbwdI muslmwnW dI sI[
bwvw jI ny Sihr qoN bwhrvwr hI ie`k mIl dI dUrI qy jMgl iv`c Awsx lw ley
sn[holI hOlI sB DrmW dy lok aunHW dy drSnw leI Awaux l`g pey sn[ roz dy nym nwl
Awp svyr vyly gMgw ieSnwn leI hirduAwr jwieAw krdy sn jo shwrnpur qoN 25 koh
dI duUrI qy sI Aqy iPr Awpxy AsQwn qy Aw jwieAw krdy sn[ijhVy lokW ny Awp ƒ
gMgw qy ieSnwn krdy vyiKAw sI qy iPr vwps Awpxy AsQwn qy bwvw jI dy phuMcx qoN
pihlW bYTy vyiKAw sI auh hYrwn rih gey ik ieh iks qrHW ho skdw hY koeI ieMnI jldI
ie`Qy phuMc jwvy[ies kOqk dw crcw swry pwsy hox l`g ipAw ik bwvw jI phuMcy hoey
mhwqmw hn[aus vyly dy pRis`D muslmwn PkIr hwzI Swh bwvw jI dy drSnw vwsqy Awey
sn qy iPr sdw leI Awp pws hI itk gey sn[nvwb i^zr KW ny Awp v`loN clwey jwx
vwly lMgr dI shwieqw vjoN bwvw jI dy nwm ie`k sO ivGw jmIn lw ky SwhI kwgz ilKvw
id`qw sI[
shwrnpur ivcridAW hoieAw ie`k idn bwvw jI ny Awpxy mu`K cyly ƒ ikhw ik hux
aunHW dw ie`Qy rihx dw smW pUrw ho igAw hY[ ieh QW hux qusIN sMBwlo pr ie`k g`l Xwd
r`Kxw ik Bu`l ky vI iksy gRihsQI ƒ ie`s g`dI dw vwrs nw Qwpxw[ ies ip`CoN Awp
shwrnpur qoN pMjwb Aw gey Aqy ikrx ndI dy kMFy (A`j k`lH ies QW dw nW klwnOr

hY,ijhVw izlHw gurdwspur iv`c hY) Aw fyry lwey[ ies QW qy hI iDAwn dws jI bwvw jI dy
drSnw leI Awey sn[
bwvw lwl jI ny iDAwn dws dI mnSw Anuswr sMmq 1552 mhInw P`gx iv`c ie`k
it`ly qy jw fyrw lwaux leI ikhw sI, ij`Qy Aw ky bwvw jI ny Gwh-PUs dI kutIAw pw leI
ijs dw nW Awpxy Bgq iDAwn dws dy nW qy “iDAwn pur” r`K id`qw[ies qrHW ies QW
qy g`dI iDAwn pur dw AwrMB hoieAw[ies QW qy hI Awp dy cwr cyly:1. sRI dwdo jI 2. sRI syvwdws jI 3. sRI kWSI rwm jI 4. Aqy sRI gurmu`K lwl jI bxy[
bwvw lwl jI dIAW isiKAwvW:1. jykr qusIN Awpxw isr au~cw r`Kxw cwhuMdy ho qW AwpxIAW A`KW nIvIAW r`Ko[
2. niSAW iv`coN auh nSw cMgw hY jo msqI qW ilAwvy pr au~qr jwx qy mn iv`c bycYnI
pYdw nw kry[
3. Bly lokW nwl nw lVnw-JgVnw bhuq cMgw kMm hY[
4. srIr sMswr hY Aqy qMdrusqI dOlq[
5. jykr koeI jigAwsU nw hovy Aqy bykwr g`lW kry qW aus nwloN cu`p rihxw cMgw hY[
6. ijs ny Awpxy mn iv`coN ^whSW ƒ jlw ilAw,eISvr nwl ipAwr kIqw auh hI shI
ArQW iv`c mnu`K hY[
7. sMswr dI sMpqI imRg iqRSnW vWg hY[
8. ijMnW myrw igAwn hY mYN kih skdw hW ik ieh swrI pRmwqmw dI lIlw hY[ieh isRStI
pRBU ny ies qrHW dI bxweI hY ik sBnW iv`c haUmw Br id`qw hY[swirAW ƒ hMkwr dy
smuMdr iv`c su`t id`qw hY[mYN qW ieh jwxdw hW ik pSU-pMCI Awid dI bu`DI mnu`K dI
bu`DI nwloN cMgI hY[auh AMfy jW b`cy idMdy hn[jdoN auh p`k jWdy hn jW smr`Q ho jWdy
hn qW aunHW ƒ C`f idMdy hn[ mnu`K dI kmzorI bwry kI khW[auh Coty ƒ v`fw krdw hY,
iPr vI AwpxI inrblqw-mmqw nhIN C`fdw[AwpxIAW nsW- nwVIAW iv`c icMqw Br
lYNdw hY[ mYƒ smJ nhIN AwauNdI ieh sB kI kr irhw hY ?
ies qrHW dIAW isiKAwvW dw igAwn-pRkwS vMfdy hoey bRhmlIn ho gey sn[ies
g`dI iDAwnpur qy Awp auprMq bYTx vwly mhMqW dw vyrvw hyT drz hY[ ieh smW aunHW dw
g`dI qy rihx
dw smW hY:- 2. sRI mhMq gurmu`K lwl jI (1655-1685), 3. sRI mhMq dXw rwm jI
(1685-1719) 4. sRI mhMq gurjn dws jI (1719-1737) 5. sRI mhMq rwm shwie jI
(1737-1753) 6. sRI mhMq lwl dws jI (1753-1786) 7. sRI mhMq SIql dws jI
(1786-1805) 8. sRI mhMq hirBjn dws jI (1805-1835) 9. sRI mhMq blrwm dws jI
(1835-1847) 10. sRI mhMq rwGv dws jI (1847-1875) 11. sRI mhMq hrInwm dws jI
(1875-1935) 12. sRI 108 sRI mhMq sudrSn dws jI (1935-1948) 13. sRI 108 sRI mhMq
duAwrkw dws jI (1948-1978) 14. sRI mhMq nrwiex dws jI (1978-2001) 15. sRI
mhMq rwm suMdr dws jI (2001- A`j q`k)
mOky qy ies g`dI AsQwn qy jw ky vyiKAw ik swrIAW rhu-rIqW ihMdU m`q Anuswr
kIqIAW jw rhIAW sn[mMdr iv`c hux dy mhMq jI g`dI qy bYTdy hn Aqy SrDwlU aunHW dy
drSn kr nqmsqk ho SrDw Anuswr Bytw pyS krdy hn[ mMdr iv`c Awm mMdrW vWg
lok GiVAwl vjwauNdy hn[mMdr dy brWfy iv`c bwvw lwl jI dIAW qsvIrW qoN ibnW dUsry
dyvI dyviqAW dIAW qsvIrW/mUrqIAW vI hn ijnHW dI SrDw Anuswr pUjw kIqI jWdI
hY[ielwky iv`c ies g`dI dI bhuq mwnqw hY[

***

AihmdIAw m`q
(kwdIAW,izlHw gurdwspur)

imrzw gulwm Aihmd

mwJy dy au~qr-pUrb iv`c dirAw ibAws dy s`jy bMny kwdIAW Sihr 1530 eI: iv`c
v`isAw sI[ aus ieslwimk dOr iv`c ies ielwky dy pihly kwzI ‘imrzw hwdI byZ’
sn[ienHW dy Kwndwn dw ipCokV mugl pRIvwr nwl jw juVdw hY[hzrq muhMmd swihb
siqkwrXog muglIAw Kwndwn nwl sbMDq hox krky pRIvwr dy jIAW dy nwvW nwl aupnwm
vjoN ‘imrzw’ lwieAw jwx l`gw[imrzw hwdI byZ swihb ies Kwndwn dy v`fy-vfyry sn,
ijhVy 1530 eI: iv`c Awpxy vqn smrkMd qoN Awpxy 200 hor swQIAW smyq ihjrq kr
ky pihly mugl bwdswh jhIr-au-dIn bwbr dy smyN ie`Qy ibAws dy kMFy pMjwb iv`c Aw v`sy
sn[imrzw hwdI byZ swihb ƒ ies ielwky dy Awly-duAwly dy s`qr qoN v`D ipMfW dw kwzI
inXukq kIqw igAw sI[kwzI swihb Dwrimk ivcwrW dy muslmwn sn ies leI aunHW dy nW
qy pihlW-pihlW ies nvyN vswey gey ipMf dw nW ‘ieslwmpur’ pY igAw[ bwAd iv`c ies
dw nW “ieslwmpur kwzI mwzI” vjoN jwixAw jwx lgw[mwzI dy SbdI ArQ bOld jW
bld hn[ ies ielwky iv`c bYlW dI bhuqwq hox krky, ijhVy ik hux vI hn, ies ƒ
“kwzI mwzI” ikhw jwx l`gw ijhVw ‘kwzI mwzI’ qoN vtdw hoieAw “kwdIAW” bx
igAw[ kwdIAW izlHw gurdwspur dw ksbw hY ij`Qy imaUNspl kmytI vI hY Aqy btwlw qoN
pUrb dI bwhI 22 iklo mItr dI dUrI qy vwikAw hY[
ies Sihr iv`c hI AihmdIAw m`q dw ArMB hoieAw ijs dy bwnI hjrq imrzw
gulwm Aihmd jI sn[hjrq imrzw gulwm Aihmd jI dw jnm kwdIAW iv`c 13 PrvrI,
1835 eI: ƒ svyr vyly imrzw gulwm murqzw Aihmd jI dy Gr mwqw icrwZ bIbI dI ku`KoN
hoieAw[ Awp dy dwdw jI imrzw A`qw muhMmd (imRqU 1814 eI:) Aqy pVdwdw imrzw Zul
muhMmd jI sn ijnHw dw idhWq 1800 eI: iv`c hoieAw[ Awp dw jnm Awp dIAW juVvw
BYxW qoN ip`CoN hoieAw sI, ijnHW coN ‘j`nq’ dI kuJ idnW auprMq hI mOq ho geI sI[
s`q swl dI aumr (1842 eI:) iv`c imrzw jI dI mu`FlI ividAw vwsqy ausqwd
r`iKAw igAw ijs koloN Awp ny piv`qr kurwn Aqy hor &wrsI dIAW ikqwbW dw AiDAYn
kIqw [ies ip`CoN Awp dI qwlIm vwsqy do hor AiDAwpk r`Ky gey sn ijnHW pwsoN Awp ny
aurdU, ArbI, &wrsI, &lsPw Aqy qrk Swsqr dw igAwn hwsl kIqw[ jdoN imrzw jI
17 swl dy hoey qW aunHW ny Awpxy ipqw koloN dysI jVHIAW bUtIAW dI ihkmq is`KI ijs dy
aus dy ipqw jI mwhr sn[ies igAwn dI pRwpqI leI Awp ƒ ArbI Aqy PwrsI jbwn
dIAW pusqkW dw AiDAYn krn dw vwDU mOkw imilAw[ BwvyN dunIAwvI igAwn qW ienHW
ausqwdW koloN pRwpq ho igAw pr rUuhwnIAq dw igAwn Awp ƒ Dwrimk pusqkW pVH ky

pRwpq hoieAw[ bcpn qoNN hI pwk kurwn dw iDAwn pUrivk AiDAYn Aqy ies qy gUVH
ivcwr krnw hI imrzw jI dI Awdq sI[
mu`F qoN hI Awp byiPkr qbIAq dy mwlk sn[ ies dy bwvjUd ik Awp dw jnm
ie`k r`jy-pu`jy Grwxy iv`c hoieAw, imrzw swihb &jUl iksm dIAW KyfW iv`c smW brbwd
nhIN sn krdy[ ies iv`c S`k nhI ik Awp ny pihlI aumr iv`c hI qYrwkI Aqy GoV
AsvwrI krnI is`K leI sI[ imrzw swihb dIAW swP-suQrIAW Aqy idl ƒ luBwaux
vwlIAW AwdqW vyK kyy hI mOlvI gulwm rsUl jI ny imrzw swihb dI qwrI& iv`c ikhw sI,
“jy kr koeI ies aumr iv`c pYgMbr bxn dw h`k rKdw hY qW bySk ieh hI ie`k
lVkw hY[”
(hXwq-ey-qwiebw, pMnw 14)
1852 iv`c imrzw swihb dI SwdI hurmq bIbI nwl hoeI[ ieh aunHW dI pihlI
SwdI sI, ijs ‘coN do lVky pYdw hoey sn[irzw jI dw pihlw lVkw hzrq imrzw sulqwn
Aihmd (1853eI:- 1931eI:) ie`k au~cy ruqby qy irhw sI jdoN ik dUusrw pu`qr imrzw
&zl Aihmd 1904eI: iv`c 49 swl dI aumr Bog ky Alwh ƒ ipAwrw ho igAw sI[bySk
imrzw swihb SwdISudw sn pr aunHW dw izAwdw smW iek`l iv`c bYT ky smwDI AvsQw
iv`c Alwh dy iDAwn iv`c hI bIqdw sI[ Awm duinAwvI ipqwvW vWg aunHW dy ipqw jI vI
cwhuMdy sn ik imrzw swihb vI koeI kwrobwr krn pr ieh aunHW ƒ cMgw nhIN sI lgdw
Aqy ivhly smyN imrzw jI msIq iv`c jw bYTdy sn ijs krky aunHW ƒ “msIqU” ikhw jwx
l`gw sI[
ipqw dy swaU pu`qr vWg Awp ny aunHW dI ie`Cw pUrqI leI pRIvwrk jwiedwd dy
kort kysW ƒ vyKxw SurU kr id`qw [sMn 1864 eI: iv`c auh isAwl kot cly gey ij`Qy aunHW
nyy kcihrI iv`c bqOr rIfr nOkrI krnI SurU kr id`qI, ijhVI cwr swl dy smyN q`k hI
c`lI[ ikaNuik nOkrI krnw aunHW dy suBwA dy ault sI, ies leI auh ies smyN vI Awpxw
smW pwk kurwn vwcx jW dUsrIAW Dwrimk ikqwbW pVHn iv`c hI gujwrdy sn[AMq imrzw
jI ny 1868eI: iv`c ies nOkrI qoN iqAwg p`qr dy id`qw Aqy vwps kwdIAW Aw gey
[ieh vI aunHW dI bdiksmqI hI sI ik aunHW dI mwqw jI aunHW dy kwdIAW phuMcx qoN
pihlW hI surgvws ho gey sn[
AihmdIAw m`q kI hY ?
AihmdIAw musilm BweIcwrw ie`k Dwrimk sMgTn hY ijhVw ik kOmWqrI p`Dr qy
193 mulkW ^ws krky APrIkw, auqrI AmrIkw, d`KxI AmrIkw, eySIAw, AwstrylIAw
Aqy XUrp iv`c PYilAw hoieAw hY[ Ajoky smyN dy ieiqhws iv`c ieslwm dI ies Sw^ dI
mYNbriSp l`KW nhIN kroVW iv`c hY[ ieh m`q 1889 eI: iv`c kwdIAW ivKy hoNd iv`c
AwieAw[ ies m`q ny ieslwm dw Asl pYgwm-Amn, AwlmI BweIcwrw Aqy ^udw dI rzw
iv`c rihx dw bw^UbI id`qw hY[ hjrq Aihmd swihb ny ies m`q ƒ “^udw dy shI rwh
qy c`lx vwilAW dw mzHb” ikhw hY[
ies m`q ny isrP iek sdI dy smyN AMdr hI AnykW ividAk sMsQwvW KolH
ky,ishq shUlqW dy ky, ieslwm sbMDI ikqwbW dI CpweI krky,msIqW dw inrmwx krky
Aqy smwijk kwrj krky ies ƒ hrmn ipAwrw mjHb bxw id`qw hY[ AihmdIAw m`q dy
DwrnI ijs mulk iv`c vI gey hn,aunHW ny kƒn dI h`d iv`c rih ky hI kMm kIqw hY[aunHW
ny ieslwm Aqy rUhwnIAq dIAW kdrW kImqW dw p`lw kdI nhIN C`ifAw[ ieh m`q dUsry
DrmW pRqI ipAwr, sihxSIlqw,SWqI Aqy ie`k dUsry ƒ smJx iv`c ivSvwS r`Kdw
hY[ieh p`ky qOr qy piv`qr kurwn SrIP ƒ mMndy hn Aqy ies dIAW isiKAwvW iv`c XkIn
r`Kdy hn[ienHW dw inscw hY ik
“mjHb iv`c koeI iDMgozorI nhI”
AihmdIAw m`q dy bwnI dI mOq ip`CoN ies sMsQw dy mu`KI dI inXukqI cuxy gey
vwrs KlIPw vjoN huMdI hY[ A`j k`lH ies m`q dy rihbr hzrq imrzw msrUr Aihmd hn
ijhVy ik 2003 eI:iv`c cuxy gey sn[aunHW dw dPqrI ruqbw ^lI&w msIhw pMjvW (V) hY[
AihmdIAwBweIcwry dy ivSvwS

1. ieh BweIcwrw ies g`l iv`c ivSvwS r`Kdw hY ik Alwh dI hoNd ie`k At`l scweI
hY[
2. ^udw ie`k hY Aqy aus vrgw hor koeI nhIN[
3. pRmwqmw piv`qr hY Aqy aus iv`c koeI nuks nhIN[auh pUurI qrHW pUrn hY[
4. &irSqy aus dI auqpqI dw ih`sw hn Aqy auh piv`qr kurwn iv`c drswey kwƒn dI
pwlxw krdy, Aqy aus (^udw) v`loN lgweIAW izmyvwrIAW vI inBwauNdy hn[
5. ^udw Awpxy coxvyN ^widmW (syvkW) nwl g`l-bwq vI krdw hY Aqy aunHW ƒ Awpxy
mksd qoN jwxU vI krvwauNdw hY[
6. jdoN jgq iv`c AMDyr Cw jWdw hY,mnu`Kqw pwp Aqy gunwh dI fUMGI dldl iv`c grk
hox lgdI hY, aus dI mdd qoN ibnW auBrnw AsMBv ho jWdw hY Aqy SYqwn dI pkV qoN
Awzwd hoxw muSkl ho jWdw hY qW auh Awpxy coxvyN Aqy iemwndwr syvkW(^widmW)
rwhIN dunIAW ƒ rwh idKwauNdw hY[
7. dYvI (ielwhI) dUq (kwsd) AwauNdy hn ijhVy mnu`Kqw ƒ ipAwr krdy hn Aqy aunHW ƒ
AMDkwr ‘coN inklx dw sunyhw idMdy hn[
8. Alwh (eISvr) Ardws(duAw) suxdw hY Aqy muSklW iv`coN AkIdqmMdW ƒ Cutkwrw
idvwauNdw hY[
9. smyN smyN ^udw GtnwvW ƒ Awpxy qrIky nwl pYdw krdw Aqy Fwldw hY[
10.
mOq mnu`KI jIvn dw AMq nhIN hY[
11. eISvr nwsiqkW Aqy pwpIAW ƒ vI ibnW Byd-Bwv dy rwh idKwauNdw hY[
12. ijhVy ienswn ^udw, pYgMbrW, PirSiqAW, aus dIAW Dwrimk pusqkW iv`c ivSvwS
rKdy, aus dI rzw iv`c rihMdy, grIb AmIr dy Prk ibnW mnu`KW nwl ipAwr krdy
hoey AwpxI rUuh qoN ^udw dw iDAwn krdy hn auh svrg iv`c jWdy hn[(ieh vyrvy
pusqk dwvq-aul-AmIr ricq hzrq imrzwaul bSIraudIn mihmUd Aihmd iv`coN
hn[ (pMnw 4-10)
AihmdIAw m`q dy mksd Aqy mMqv
AihmdIAw m`q koeI nvW Drm nhIN hY[imrzw gulwm Aihmd
ny ies Drm bwry Awpxy AwSy dw izkr kridAW hoieAW d`isAw hY ik auh ^udw dw s`cw
muzwihd hY[ ies qoN A`gy c`l ky aunHW ny ies g`l dw ijkr kIqw ik auh ^udw dw ByijAw
hoieAw msIhw hY[ iPr aunHW ny Awpxy Awp ƒ ‘pYgMbr’ hox dw AYlwn kr id`qw[ieh
Drm hyT ilKIAW g`lW dw DwrnI hY[
ies Drm ƒ mMnx vwly iqMn g`lW iv`c ivSvwS r`Kdy hn:1.^udw
2. Drm 3. mnu`Kqw. ienHW iqMnHW AwiSAW bwry imrzw gulwm Aihmd swihb
dI AwpxI ric`q ikqwb “SwqI dw sunyhw” iv`c drj hY[ ieslwm dI rUp ryKw dw izkr
kridAW hoieAW mIAW AYm Awbws ilKdy hn:“ieh (AihmdIAw ieslwm dIAW) mu`K is`iKAwvW Kudw,mnu`KI BweIcwrw Aqy swry hI
dYvI Drm ‘coN aupjy DrmW qy itkIAW hoeIAW hn[swry hI pYgMbrW Aqy v`fy -v`fy
DrmW dy bwnIAW dy drswey rwhW dw muj`smW hI ieslwm dw AMdrUnI s`c hY[ie`k
dUsry nwl juVnw hI ieslwm dw mu`K mksd hY[srv SkqImwn ^udw hY swry DrmW dw
sroq hY[”
ijvyN pwk kurwn iv`c drz hY ies m`q dw AkIdw hY ik:- “ieslwm dw mu`K AwSw
hY AwpsI vYr-ivroD Aqy ivqkrw mn iv`coN imtw ky BrwqrI Bwv ƒ Apnwauxw[” swrI
dunIAW iv`c ieh m`q ies g`l dw JMfw-brdwr bx ky ies sMdyS ƒ dunIAW dy koxy-koxy
iv`c swrIAW kOmW iv`c ies dw pRcwr kr irhw hY[ieh Drm, piv`qr kurwn Aqy hzrq
muhMmd swihb dw puUrw pUrw siqkwr krdw hY[ieh Drm d`sdw hY ik piv`qr kurwn iv`c
drz hY :- “pwk kurwn iv`c ieh drj hY ik Aihmd, AihmdIAw muslmwn BweIcwry dw
bwnI hY[”

AihmdIAw m`q dI ‘zhwd’ bwry rwey
ies m`q ƒ mMnx vwilAW dw ivSvwS hY ik ‘zhwd’ dy mwAny iksy ƒ qlvwr dy
zor nwl ij`qxw nhIN sgoN muslmwn dw ‘zhwd’ Awpxy AMdr dIAW burweIAW Aqy AMdr dy
SYqwn ivru`D lVnw Aqy mnu`Kqw leI ipAwr dw sMdyS dyxw hY[ies Drm dy bwnI imrzw
gulwm Aihmd swihb ny ie`k sO swl pihlW zhwd dI qSrIh kridAW ikhw hY:“piv`qr kurwn srI& Aqy hjrq muhMmd swihb jI ny d`isAw hY ik Drm dy mwmly
iv`c zor iblkul vrijq hY[” ies m`q dw ivSvwS hY ik ieh pihlW hI iliKAw
hoieAw sI ik ie`k pYgMbr Awvygw jo jhwd dI ieh pRIBwSw ik qlvwr dy zor qy Drm dw
pswr huMdw hY,ies dw AMq kr dyvygw[ aus dw hiQAwr hovygw aus dw idRV ierwdw Aqy
mnu`Kqw leI pRym sMdyS[ auh AwpsI ipAwr dI nINh r`Kygw, ij`Qy ie`k Gwt qy b`krI Aqy
Syr pwxI pIxgy[ies qrHW ‘zhwd’qlvwr dw zor nhIN ipAwr Aqy SwqI dw sMdyS hovygw[
“ sB nwl ipAwr nPrq iksy nwl vI nhIN”
imrzw gulwm Aihmd swihb jI dI mOq ho jwx auprMq 1914eI: iv`c ies m`q
iv`c ivcwrW dy mqByd ho jwx kwrn ies dIAw do SwKwvW ho geIAW hn[ieh dovyN SwKwvW
hI imrzw Zulwm Aihmd swihb ƒ ies Drm dw bwnI Aqy mOlwxw hkIm nUr -au-dIn jI
ƒ pihlw ^lI&w pRvwn krdIAW hn[kwdIAW iv`c rihx vwlI AihmdI jmwq Awpxy Awp
ƒ “jmwq-ey-AihmdIAw” AKvwauNdI hY jdoN ik lwhOr (pwiksqwn) iv`c v`sx vwly
AihmdI m`q dy DwrnI “AihmdI AMzUmn-ieSwq-ey-ieslwm” dy nW nwl jwxy jWdy
hn[ienHW dohW dy ^lI&y (bMswvlI) ies pRkwr hn:jmwq-ey-AihmdIAw kwdIAW
1. imrzw gulwm Aihmd bwnI AihmdIAw m`q (1835-1908 eI:)[
2. hzrq mOlvI nUrauldIn (1841-1914 eI:) ienHW dI mOq ip`CoN ieh jmwq do DiVAW
iv`c vMfI geI sI[
3. hzrq imrzw bSIraudIn muhMmd Aihmd(1889-1965 eI:)
4. hzrq imrzw nsIr Aihmd (1909-1982 eI:)
5. hzrq imrzw qwihr Aihmd (1928-2003 eI:)
6. imrzw mnsUr Aihmd (1950 eI:-A`j dy ^lI&w swihb hn)
AihmdIAw AMjUmn-ieSwq-ey-ieslwm lwhOr(pwiksqwn)
1. mOlwxw hkIm nUr-au-dIn (1841-1914 eI:) ^lI&w swihb[
2. mOlwxw muhMmd AlI (1874-1951 eI:) ^lI&w swihb[
3. mOlwxw sdr-au-dIn (1951-1981 eI:) ^lI&w swihb[
4. seIAd Aihmd Kwn (1900 -1996 eI:) ^lI&w swihb[
5. mOlwxw Asgr Aihmd (1919-2002 eI:) ^lI&w swihb[
6. mOlwxw Abdul krIm seIAd (1945 eI:- A`j dy ^lI&w swihb hn) (ieh swrw
^ulwsw DMnvwd sihq AihmdIAw m`q dIAw ikqwbW AhmdIAq dw sMdyS,swfI
is`iKAw Aqy dUsry Cpyy ikqwbicAW (Jihad= The True Islamic Concept)Tiryaqul-Qulabm Ruhani Khaza’in qy ADwirq hY Aqy aunHW coN ilAw igAw hY[ ies
sihXog leI mYN znwb qwieb Aihmd ^widm kwdIAW dw irxI hW)

***

sMpRdwie bwbw ib`DI cMd jI
(sur isMG, izlHw qrn qwrn)

bwbw dXw isMG jI(sur isMG vwly)
bwbw ibDI cMd jI pMjvyN pwqSwh sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI Aqy CyvyN pwqSwh sRI gurU
hrgoibMd swihb jI dy smyN gurU Gr dI qno mno syvw kr ky gurU Gr qoN AnykW vr pRw pq
kIqy sn[ AwpxI qIKx bu`DI Aqy hNOsly sdkw Aijhy kMmW ƒ bwbw ibDI cMd jI ny nypry
cwiVHAw sI ijnHW ƒ nypry cwiVHAw jwxw muSikl hI nhIN sgoN AsMBv vI sI[ mugl kwl dy
smyN p`tI vrgy Sihr ij`Qy muglW dI mrjI qoN ibnW pirMdw vI pr nhIN sI mwr skdw,
Awp ny suMdr duSwly ilAw ky ijhVy aunHW ny gurU jI dy SrDwlUAW qoN Kohy sn AwpxI dlyrI
Aqy hONsly dw pRmwx id`qw sI[ Awp ny gurU swihb dI syvw Aqy hukmW dI pwlxw krky gurU
Gr qoN j`s K`itAw sI[is`K sMgq qoN Kohy hoey GoVy idlbwZ Aqy ZulbwZ lwhOr dy iklyH
iv`coN GwhIAw Aqy njUmIN bx gurU crnW iv`c ilAw pyS kIqy sn[ Awp ny cwr v`fIAW
jMgW iv`c bhwdrI nwl lV ky AwpxI bhwdrI dw lohw mMnvwieAw sI[Awp dI syvw qoN
KuS ho ky gurU jI ny Awp jIƒ
“ibDI cMd CInw, gurU kw sInw”,
“qor mor mYN Byd nw koeI, guris`K nwm rih Ab doeI”
“sdw sWJ qyrI puSqYnI]invhY gur Gr sMig suKYnI]
Awid Anyk vrW nwl invwijAw sI[ jdoN sRI gurU hrgoiMbd swihb jI kIrqpur swihb sn
qW aunHW ny gurU gRMQ swihb (h`Q ilKq bwbw ibDI cMd jI), mhwn Ssqr Aqy Poto Awp jI
dy spu`qr bwbw lwl cMd jI ƒ sONp ky hukm kIqw sI ik auh sur isMG ivKy invws krn
Aqy AwpxI sMpRdwie (dl) ƒ clwaux, is`KI dw pRcwr krn, gurU AsQwnW dI syvw sMBwl
krn, gurU lMgr dw j`g lwaux Awid Drm dy kMm krn[ies sMpRdwie dI puSq-dr-puSq
g`dI nSInIN dw vyrvw hyT Anuswr hY:bMswvlI bwbw ibDI cMd jI
sur isMG vwly
1. bwbw ibDI cMd jI
2. bwbw lwl cMd jI
3. bwbw guidAwl cMd jI
4. bwbw hukm cMd jI
5. bwbw jIaUx isMG jI
6. bwbw jspq isMG jI
7. bwbw Bg isMG jI
8. bwbw lwB isMG jI
9. bwbw n`Qw isMG jI
10.jQydwr bwbw sohx isMG jI
11.jQydwr bwbw dXw isMG jI
ies sMpRdwie dy kwrjW ƒ ies smyN bRhm igAwnI bwbw dXw isMG jI clw rhy
hn[ is`K jgq dy Bly ihq bwbw jI dyS bdyS gur is`KI dw pRcwr krky AMimRqDwrI hox,
niSAW dw iqAwg krn vrgy kwrj kr rhy hn[ gurU AsQwnW qy srovr, lMgr dIAW
iemwrqW bxwauxw,skUl Aqy kwlj bxwauxy, gurU AsQwnW qy sony dy kls cVHwaux vrgy

mhwn kwrj kr rhy hn[ gur-mirXwdw Anuswr gurbwxI aucwrn dI loV qy vI bwbw dXw
isMG jI zor dy rhy hn[

***

Bgq jlHx dws jI
(ipMf nuSihrw Fwlw, izlHw AMimRqsr)

bwbw jlHx jI dw jnm mwJy dy ipMf ‘GxIey ky’ izlHw lwhOr (hux pwiksqwn) iv`c
1586 eI: iv`c hoieAw[jlHx jI dy ipqw ikrswn sn[ bwbw jI dy s`q Brw sn pr
suBwA dy p`KoN jlHx jI sBnw ‘coN bVy hI Swq ic`q Aqy pRBU BgqI iv`c lIn rihx vwly
audwsI iksm dy ivAkqI sn[GroN audws ho ky bwbw jI ipMf nuiShrw Fwlw jo ik aus smyN
bVw iekWq Aqy pRBU BgqI leI SWq vwqwvrx vwlw ielwkw sI, Aw v`sy sn[ieh ipMf
Jbwl-AtwrI sVk qy siQ`q hY Aqy ipMf rwjw qwl qoN cwr ku ik: mI: dI dUrI qy izlHw
qrn qwrn iv`c hY[ bwbw jlHx jI sRI gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI Aqy bwdSwh Swhjhwn dy
smkwlI sn[duinAwvI kMmW qoN mn aucwt vyK ky Awp dy mwipAW ny Awp dI SwdI CotI
aumr iv`c hI hzrw ipMf dy ie`k j`t pRIvwr dI lVkI bIbI rwmkI nwl kr id`qI [bwbw
jI dy bwry ivdvwn mYkwl& ilKdw hY:“jlHx Aqy aus dI iesqrI gurU hrgoibMd dy crnIN l`gy Aqy mwr&q dw zwm (AMimRq
pwn kIqw) pIqw[”
gurU jI ie`QoN lMGdy hoey ipMf BVwxy iv`c crn pwey sn[ Swied audoN hIy bwbw jI dw imlwp
gurU jI nwl hoieAw hovy[
bwbw jI dI pRis`DI aunHW dy ^ulwsy suBwA krky vI sI ikauNik auh s`c kihx qoN
nhIN sn iJjkdy[ aunHW dy jIvn nwl keI GtnwvW juVIAW hoeIAW hn, ijnHW ‘coN ieh
vrnxXog hY:iksy ny mulqwn jw ky bwdSwh kol Skwieq kIqI ik ie`k j`t pIr nuiShry Fwly
rihMdw hY ijs ny Awpxy kol bwdSwh dI qsvIr r`KI hoeI hYy ijs qy auh hr roz svyry
iC`qr mwrn auprMq rotI KWdw hY[ bwdSwh v`loN bwbw jI Aqy aunHW dI pqnI ƒ igRPqwr
krky drbwr iv`c pyS krn dw hukm hoieAw[ lokW dy kihx Anuswr jdoN bwbw jI qy aunHW
dI pqnI rwmkI ƒ ispwhI mulqwn lY ky jw rhy sn qW rsqy iv`c bwbw jI ny Kyq iv` coN
Gwh Koq ky pMf bxw Awpxy isr qy r`K leI Aqy kuJ l`kVW iek`TIAW kr ky aus dI pMf
bMnH rwmkI dy isr qy auh lkVW r`K id`qIAW[ auh drbwr iv`c hwzr hox leI ispwhIAW
nwl qur pey[ mugl ispwhI ieh sB vyK ky bhuq hYrwn hoey jdoN aunHW vyiKAw ik dohW ny
jo pMfW isrW qy r`KIAW hoeIAW sn auh aunHW dy isrW qoN au~cIAW hvw iv`c sn[ mulqwn
phuMcx qy Gwh qW SwhI Asqbl iv`c GoiVAW ƒ pwaux leI su`t id`qw igAw Aqy l`kVW
lMgr iv`c bwlx leI sutvw id`qIAW geIAW[ Gwh dI pMf iv`coN ijMnW Gwh k`iFAw jWdw
sI aunW hI Gwh aus iv`c hor Aw pYNdw sI[ ievyN hI l`kVW dI g`T iv`coN ijMnIAW l`kVW
kFdy sn auqnIAW hI hor lkVW aus g`T iv`c Aw rldIAW sn[jdoN bwdSwh ƒ ies
kOqk bwry d`isAw igAw qW auh hYrwn ho igAw Aqy bwbw jI dy pyYrIN Fih ipAw[ bwdSwh

ny KuS ho ky mulqwn iv`c bwbw jI ƒ do hjwr ivGw jmIn jgIr vjoN id`qI Aqy AwpxI
Bu`l bKSweI[
bwwbw jI dI AiDAwqimk soc gurbwxI dy isDWqW nwl pUrI qrHW myl KWdI hY[ auh
ies sMswr ƒ nwSvwn mMndy hn[ auh ies g`l qoN vI pUrI qrHW sucyq hn ik ieh jg
c`lxhwr hY[ ie`Qy hr id`sx vwlI vsqU sdw nhIMN rihx vwlI[ ies dw ie`k idn AMq ho
jwvygw[ auh ilKdy hn:“j`lHxw sB jg c`lxw, qUM idl sweIN bMnH[
iqq vyly kuJ nw suJI, jd kwl pkVsI kMn[”
auh hor kihMdy hn ik kI rwjw kI rwxw sB ny kwl dI burkI bxnw hY:“ kwjI dy Gr iptxw, bRwhmx dy Gr rMf[
c`l j`lHx Gr Awpxy, swhw dyh insMg[”
hor
“ j`lHxw iek idn hY mr mukxw,mq mn mYN kr APsos[
ipCly gey bhuVy nhINyy hm ikAw kryN rwm sy ros[
mnu`K dy pRIvwrk jIvn dI g`l kridAW bwbw j`lHx jI mnu`K mwqr ƒ smJauNdy
hn ik dinAwvI irSqy-nwqy sB JUTy hn[ iksy ƒ koeI pqw nhIN ik kdoN aus ƒ kwl dI
Awvwz pY jwxI hY[ pu`qr-DIAW nwl peIAW hoeIAW ipAwr dIAW qMdW aus ƒ aus m`KI
vWg jkVI r`KdIAW hn ijhVI Sihd dw suAwd lYNdI lYNdI aus iv`c hI Ps ky rih jWdI
hY Aqy pqw hI audoN l`gdw hY jdoN AMq smW Aw jWdw hY[ auh Awpxy Awp ƒ bybs mihsUs
krdw hY[aus dI dSw aus ienswn vrgI huMdI hY ijs dy Gr ƒ cor sMnH lw ky lu`t lY gey
huMdy hn[ bwbw jI ilKdy hn:“pu`qW ƒ lY geIAW ƒhW, DIAW ƒ lY gey hor[
bu`Fw bu`FI ieauN bYTy, ijauN sMnH lw gey cor[”
ikMnI srlqw Aqy swdgI nwl jIvn iv`cly vwprn vwly s`c dI soJI krvweI hY[ srIr dy
pMj q`qW AkwS, hvw, pwxI, AgnI Aqy ipRQvI dw iviKAwn krdy hoey bwbw j`lHx jI
d`sdy hn ik ienHW pMj q`qW dy sMjog qoN hI srIr dI au~qpqI hoeI hY[ ieh srIr Dur qoN
hI rwm dy hukm nwl bixAw hY Aqy ausy dy hukm nwl tu`t ky q`qW iv`c smw jwxw hY[ jIv
Awqmw aus dy hukm nwl hI ies im`tI dy puqly iv`c pRvyS krdI hY[ ieh srIr pUrn
bRihmMf dw Cotw rUp hY[ ies AwSy bwry gurbwxI iv`c vI drj hY:- “jo ipMfy so bRihmMfy[
ies dI puStI krdy hoey bwbw jlHx jI ilKdy hn:- “sMjog ivjogu Durhu hI hUAw]
pMcDwqukr puqlw kIAw] swhY ky PurmwieAVY jI, dyih ivic jIau Awie pwieAw]
bwbw jI dIAW rcnwvW dI ibMbwvlI Aqy srlqw dw ie`k nmUnw pyS hY:-“in`ikAW huMidAW
F`gy cwry, v`fy hoey hl vwihAw[
bu`Fy hoey mwlw PyrI, r`b dw aulwhmw lwihAw[
v`fw ik`kr v`F ky jp-mwl bxwieAw[
au~cy it`by bih ky Twh-Twh vjwieAw[
lokW dIAW jp-mwlIAW, j`lHx dw jpmwl,
swrI aumr jpyidAW ie`k nw Ku`Qw vwl[”
ikMnW is`Dw ivAMg hY PokI qy by-mqlbI pUjw qy ijs iv`c SrDw dw rs nhIN hY,
sgoN pdwrQvwdI soc hY[ ipClI aumry jdoN Awp byby rwmkI nwl hirduAwr qoN vwps
Awpxy ipMf Aw rhy sn qW ipMf PiqAwbwd (nyVy goieMdvwl swihb) byby rwmkI jI pRwx
iqAwg gey[ ies qoN QoVyH hI smyN ip`CoN Bgq jI vI 1664 eI: iv`c nuiShry Fwly ipMf iv`c
pRlok isDwr gey[ ies ipMf iv`c ij`Qy bwbw jI qp`isAw kirAw krdy sn aus QW qy
pihlW ie`k smwDI bxI hoeI sI ijs qy hux gurduAwrw swihb dI iemwrq bx geI hY ijs
dw nINh p`Qr imqI 14-05-1999 ƒ r`iKAw igAw sI[
(DMnvwdI hW sR: hrdyv isMG jI gWDI pRDwn SRomxI AkwlI dl (SihrI) qrn qwrn dw
ijnHW dI mdd sdkw ies drbwr dy drSn kr ky vyrvy pRwpq kr sikAw hW)[
***

Bgq sYx jI
(ipMf sohl T`TI, izlHw qrn qwrn)

mwJy dI DrqI ijs ƒ gurUAW, pIrW, &kIrW Aqy v`fy-v`fy XoiDAW dI crn Coh
pRwpq hY ausy DrqI qy ie`k Aijhw Bgq vI hoieAw hY ijs dI BgqI Aqy pRBU iv`c SrDw
ny ies DrqI ƒ BwgW vwlI bxw id`qw hY[
qrn qwrn qoN AtwrI v`l jWdI sVk qy 17 iklo mItr dI dUrI qy ksbw Jbwl hY
ij`QoN dI mweI Bwgo,sR: krm isMG jI ihstorIAn Aqy SromxI AkwlI dl dy sB qoN pihly
pRDwn s:srmu`K isMG jI lMgwh ^wndwn iv`coN hoey hn[ies ksby qoN 6 iklo mItr dI dUurI
qy lihMdI bwhI ie`k ipMf hY ijs dw nwm hY ‘sohl’[
bRhm igAwnI Bgq gurIAw jI dy vr nwl ies ipMf iv`c sMmq 1400 ibkRmI ƒ
pUrnmwSI vwly idn Bgq sYx jI dw jnm mwqw jIvxI dI ku`KoN, mukMd jI dy gRih ivKy
hoieAw jo nweI brwdrI nwl sbMDq sn[ies ipMf dw pihlw nW BgqU purw sI jo bwAd
iv`c sohl T`TI dy nW nwl jwixAw jwx l`gw[ Bgq jI ƒ 12 swl dI aumr iv`c hI BUAw
soBI nwl lwhOr Byj id`qw igAw sI ij`Qy aunHW ƒ zrwhI dw kMm is`Kx leI ausqwd AwzIm
dI SigrdI iv`c pwieAw igAw[ mrHm p`tI krn dy kMm iv`c inpuMnqw Awp ny CyqI hI pw
leI[ Bgq sYn jI dI SwdI Swhdry dy jlUKyVw dI pu`qrI bIbI swihb dyvI nwl hox
auprMq Awp Awpxy ipMf sohl Aw gey[
Bgq jI Awpxy mwqw ipqw nwl swDW sMqW dI syvw krn iv`c ru`Jy rihMdy sn[swDW
sMqW dy imlwp ny Bgq jI dw mn pRBU BgqI v`l moV id`qw sI ijs krky auh Awpxw
izAwdw smW pRBU iv`c hI lIn rih ky hI guzwrn l`g pey sn[aunHW dI ie`Cw sI ik p`qI
j`tW iv`c ie`k srovr bxwieAw jwvy[ ies kMm leI aunHW ny khI Aqy tokrI lY ky iek`ly
hI zmIn KodxI AwrMB id`qI Aqy Awi^r ie`k qlwb ƒ sr AMzwm id`qw[ ies kMm ƒ
kridAW hoieAW auh pRBU ismrn vI nwl nwl jwrI r`Kdy [ies qlwb dy pUrb v`ly pwsy
qlwb dy kMFy ie`k byrI hY ijs hyTW bYT ky Bgq jI ismrn Aqy rYx-subweI kIrqn vI
kirAw krdy sn[ieh byrI A`j vI qlwb dy kMFy qy mOjUd hY[
ie`k vyrW ies ielwky iv`c iBAwnk kwl (sokw) pYx krky KUhW dw pwxI vI su`k
igAw sI Aqy lok ies ipMf iv`coN ihjrq (plwien) kr ky dUsirAW ielwikAW iv`c cly
gey sn[ Bgq jI vI Awpxy pRIvwr smyq id`lI cly gey sn ij`Qy dIvwn sohx lwl kol
aunHW ny cwr Awny ngd Aqy iqMn syr Awty qy idhwVI kr leI[ ies kmweI iv`coN auh
A`DI kmweI Awpxy pRIvwr dy gujwry leI r`K A`DI kmweI sMqW swDUAW dI syvw qy ^rc
kr idAw krdy sn[
dIvwn jI Bgq jI dI ies SrDw Aqy syvw Bwvnw qoN AiqAMq pRsMn sn[ ieh
lgn vyK ky dIvwn jI ny aunHW ƒ Awpxy im`qr, jYpur dy rwjy suKdyv kol G`l id`qw jo rogI
hox dy nwl nwl aus dy srIr qy j^m vI sn, ijnHW dI mrHm p`tI kr dw kMm vI Bgq
sYx jI dy hI ijMmyN sI[Bgq jI idn rwq rwjy dI sWB sMBwl dy nwl nwl aus dI mrhm

p`tI vI krdy Aqy ayus dI mu`TI cwpI vI krdy[ies kMm dw ruJyvW hox dy bwvjUd vI auh
kdI vI pRBU ismrn qoN bymu`K nhI sn huMdy[
d`sx Anuswr ie`k idn AjIb kOqk vwpr igAw[ Swied ieh Bgq jI dw
iemiqhwn hI hovy[ swDUAW dI ie`k mMflI Bgq jI dy Gr Aw geI ijhVI do idn Aqy do
rwqW lgwqwr Bgq jI dy Gr TihrI[ kIrqn dw pRvwh idn rwq cldw irhw[ Bgq jI
ies iv`c ieMny mgn ho gey ik auh rwjy dI tihl syvw leI aus dy kol vI nw jw
sky[qIsry idn jdoN rwjy ny Bgq sYn jI ƒ bulwvw ByijAw qW Bgq jI ƒ AwpxI glqI
dw Aihsws hoieAw[ auh idloN frdy frdy rwjy kol gey qW rwjy ny A`goN pRsMn ic`q Bgq
jI ƒ ikhw ik ipCly idnIN aunHW ny ijhVI syvw kIqI hY aus dy Pl srUp auh rwjI ho gey
hn Aqy aunHW dy jKm vI rwjI ho gey hn[ies Gtnw dw Bgq jI dy mn qy bhuq hI fUMGw
Asr hoieAw[ aunHW ƒ AnuBv ho igAw sI ik ieh qW pRBU Awp Aw ky aunHW dI QW qy
rwjy dI syvw krdw irhw hY[Bgq jI ny rwjy dI nOkrI C`f id`qI Aqy bnwrs (kWSI) jw ky
Bgq qrlocn jI, Bgq rivdws jI Aqy Bgq DMnw jI smyq 407 swDUAW siq sMgIAW
nwl swry qIrQ AsQwnw dI Xwqrw leI inkl qury[ vwpsI qy Bgq jI ny p`ky qOr qy hI
kWSI iv`c fyry lw id`qy [AMq smW nyVy AwieAw vyK Bgq sYn jI ny Awpxy pu`qr ‘neI’ ƒ
Awpxy kol bulw ky ikhw ik hux aunHW dw ies lok qoN jwx dw smW Aw igAw hY[ ies leI
auh pRvwr smyq ipMf sohl clw jwvy Aqy lok syvw kry[Bgq jI dI ausqq iv`c BweI
gurdws jI dI 10vIN vwr dI 16vIN pOVI iv`c ies qrHW vrnx hY:“sux pRqwpu kbIr dw dUjw is`Ku hoAw sYx nweI[
pRym Bgiq rwqI krYy BlkY rwj duAwrYy jweI[
Awey sMq prwhuxy kIrqnu hoAw rYx sbweI[
Cif nw skYy sMq jn rwj duAwir nw syv kmweI[
sYx rUp hir jwie kYy AwieAw rwxYy no rIJweI[
swD jnw no ivdw kir rwj dAwir gieAw srmweI[
rwxY dUurhuM sid kY glhuM kvwie Koil pYnHweI[
vis kIqw hauN quDu Aju bolY rwjw suxY lukweI[
prgtu krY Bgiq vifAweI[[16[[
(BweI gurdws jI)

***

bwbw lMgwh jI (Jbwl)

“p`tI AMdr cODrI iF`loN lwl lMgwh suhMdw”
Jbwl dy ielwky iv`c aus smyN cODrI Abaul ^Yr nW dw ie`k cODrI v`sdw sI jo
sKI srvr m`q ƒ mMnx vwlw sI [aus smyN p`tI ijs ƒ “nO-l`KI” p`tI ikhw jWdw hY, dy
ielwky ‘coN nO l`K mwmlw Awaux krky ies dw ieh nW ipAw, ijs dy iqMn h`kdwr sn:sMDU, ig`l Aqy iF`loN[lMgwh dy v`fy-vfyry iF`loN goq dy sn ies krky ies nO l`K dy mwmly
dy qIsry ih`sy dy BweIvwl sn[cODrI Abaul ^Yr dy pMj pu`qr sn:- juqrIAw, ibMnw,
suMdr, pyro Swh Aqy bwbw lMgwh[ A`goN pyroSwh dy do pu`qr sn-- mwlo Aqy hrU[mweI Bwgo
mwloSwh dI ie`klOqI pu`qrI sI, ijs ny is`K ieiqhws iv`c ies Kwndwn dw nW rOSn
kIqw[
bwbw lMgwh vI s^I srvr m`q ƒ mMnx vwlw sI[ielwky iv`c idn-b-idn s^I
srvr m`q PYldw jw irhw sI Aqy is`K-Drm ƒ Fwh lw irhw sI[ ie`k pwsy Jbwl dy
ielwky dy v`fy-v`fy cODrI ies Drm dy JMfw brdwr sn jdoN ik dUsry pwsy Sy^ P`qy dy
pIr^wny qoN ies m`q dw pRcwr jorW SorW nwl ho irhw sI[gurU Arjn dyv jI ny ies dy
pRBwv ƒ rokx leI kyNdrI Sihr qrn qwrn vsw ky pihly gurUAW Aqy is`K Drm dy
AsUlW dw pRcwr ArMiBAw qW jo ies m`q dy hVH ƒ T`lH pweI jw sky[gurU jI dw ieh
auprwlw ivArQ nhIN sI igAw[ lok muV is`K Drm nwl juVn l`gy pey sn[ bwbw lMgwh
ny jdoN gurU Gr dw pRcwr suixAw Aqy ivcwirAw qW auh gurU Arjn dyv jI dy lV Aw
l`gw sI[
bwbw lMgwh dI vyKo-vyKI aus dy Brw pyroSwh Aqy mwloSwh vI gurU Gr dy SrDwlU
bx gey sn[bwbw lMgwh qW gurU jI iv`c ieqnI SrDw r`Kx l`g ipAw sI ik rozwnw svyry
sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI dy ieSnwn vwsqy dhIN dw gVvw lY ky qrn qwrn jwieAw krdw
sI[ ie`k idn Swied aus dI SrDw dI prK dw vylw Aw igAw l`gdw sI[ jdoN bwbw
lMgwh qrn qwrn pu`jw qW aus ƒ d`isAw igAw ik gurU jI AMimRqsr cly gey hn[auh
AMimRqsr v`l qur igAw, pr gurU jI aus ƒ auQy vI nw imly[ ieh kih ky ik gurU jI
qrn qwrn cly gey hn aus ƒ moV id`qw igAw sI[ auh qrn qwrn muV AwieAw [ ij`Qy
gurU jI ny lMgwh ƒ CwqI nwl lw ky ikhw, “lMgwh qyrI qp`isAw pUurI ho geI hY[ hux qUM
bySk kdI kdI imlx Aw jwieAw kr[”
j`t dw Aqy zmIn dw irSqw ieMj hY ijvyN srIr Aqy ruUh dw[khwvq hY “ j`t
pYlI dI v`t qoN hI lV mrdy hn pr QW nhIN C`fdy[” id`lI dy kuJ ivaupwrI kwbl kMDwr
qoN GoVy KrId ky id`lI iv`c vycx leI ilAwieAw krdy sn[ AtwrI dy rsqy Aw ky ieDr
Jbwl nyVy ieh ivaupwrI pVwA kirAw krdy sn qW jo sPr dw QkyvW lwihAw jw
sky[ies dw ie`k ieh vI kwrn sI ik ies ielwky iv`c swrI zmIn ivhlI peI sI Aqy
GoiVAW dy crn leI vDIAw Gwh vI auplbD sI[aunHW ivaupwrIAW ny gurU jI ƒ bynqI
kIqI ik auh bwbw lMgwh ƒ kih ky kuJ zmIn aunHW ƒ idvw dyx qW jo auh Awpxy p`ky
pVwA leI kuJ koTy pw skx[ gurU jI ny aunHW ƒ ies dw XkIn vI dvwieAw sI pr jdoN
gurU jI ny zmIn ivaupwrIAW ƒ dyx leI lMgwh ƒ ikhw sI qW auhny gurU jI ƒ nWh kr
id`qI [aus ny qW ie`QoN q`k swP swP kih id`qw sI ik auh AwpxI zmIn ‘coN sUeI dy n`ky

ijMnIN vI zmIn nhI dyvygw[ lMgwh gurU jI nwl iesy g`loN nrwz ho ky ibAws dirAw qoN
pwr ipMf iFlvW izlHw kpUrQlw (ikauNik bwbw lMgwh goq dw iF`loN sI iesy krky ies
ngr dw nW iF`lvW pY igAw sI) clw igAw sI[ieh At`l scweI hY ik j`t koloN aus dI
jwn mMg lvo auh dy dyvygw pr zmIn nhIN dyvygw[j`t dw zmIn nwl ikMnW ipAwr hY ies
swKI qoN pqw c`ldw hY[
ie`Qy Aw ky kuJ icr ip`CoN bwbw lMgwh bImwr pY igAw[ aus dw AMq smW nyVy Aw
igAw lgdw sI[aus smyN dI rIq muqwbk lMgwh dy mrn auprMq ieh ipMf aus dy vwrsW
dw ho jwxw sI[ ies leI au~QoN dy lokW ny lMgwh dy mrn auprMq aus dI lwS ƒ dirAw
ibAws dy kMFy iljw ky aus dw AMqm sskwr kr id`qw sI[A`j k`lH ies QW qy bwbw lMgwh
dI Xwd iv`c ie`k gruduAwrw suSoiBq hY jdoN ik aus dy j`dI ipMf Jbwl iv`c ij`Qy aus dI
irhwieSgwh sI aus dw Gr KMfr bixAw ipAw hY[ aus KMfr ƒ vyK ky ieMj l`gdw hY
ijvyN ieh kih irhw hovy :-

“ aufIkdw ipAw hW mYN, A`j q`k bwby lMgwh ƒ,
Aw vyK bwbw qyrw ‘rYx bsyrw’ KMfr bx igAw[”

***

-qIr-

bwbw Sy^ P`qw jI
(nyVy jMifAwlw gurU)

qrn qwrn qoN jMifAwlw gurU ƒ jWidAW 9 ik: mI: dI dUrI qy ipMf bMfwlw hY ij`QoN
2 ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy ipMf p`Koky nwl vgdI nihr dy kMFy ie`k pIr^wnw hY [ies ƒ
&`qy dw pIr^wnw ikhw jWdw hY[bwbw Sy^ &`qw jI dy pIr^wny bwry jwnx leI swƒ ies dy
ipCokV iv`c jwxw pvygw[
sXd Aihmd dw ipqw bgdwd dw rihx vwlw sI, ij`QoN auh 1230 eI: iv`c au~T
ky isAwlkot Aw v`isAw sI[sulqwn sXd Aihmd jo s^I srvr m`q dw bwnI bixAw
dw jnm 1253 eI:ƒ isAwlokt iv`c hoieAw[ sulqwn sXd Aihmd ƒ hor vI keI nwvW
nwl jwixAW jWdw h ijvyN sKI srvr, l`Kdwqw, lwlW vwlw, DOklIAw Awid[
sulqwn dy AsQwnW ƒ pIr^wny ikhw jWdw hY[ies m`q ƒ mMnx vwly s^I srvrIey
AKvwauNdy hn[srvrIey mulqwnI hr vIrvwr vwly idn pIr^wny ie`kTy huMdy hn Aqy ie`k
v`fw rot(rotI) jo mx svw mx dy vzn q`k dI huMdI hY,zmIn ƒ grm krky pkwauNdy hn
ijs iv`coN sulqwn dw pujwrI ijs ƒ ‘iBrweI’ kihMdy hn, dwaUd(muslmwnW dI ie`k
Dwrimk ikqwb) pVH ky aus rot iv`coN kuJ Bwg Awp r`K lYNdw hY qy bwkI bicAw rot
SrDwlUAW iv`c vMf idMdw hY[sulqwn sXd Aihmd dI mOq sMn 1291eI: iv`c ho geI [
aus dI Aqy aus dI pqnI ‘bIbI bweI’ dI kbr fyrw ZwzI ^W qoN 22 mIl lihMdy v`l
‘ngwhy’ ipMf iv`c bxI hoeI hY[ngwhy qoN dUsry AsQwn qy vzIrwbwd dy kol ‘DOkl’ ipMf
iv`c bxI hoeI mIzwr hY ijs ƒ vI pIr^wnw ikhw jWdw hY[
ie`k pIr^wnw mwJy dI DrqI qy vI hY[ieh auhI pIrKwnw hY jo bwbw SyK &`qy dw
pIr^wnw AKvwauNdw hY[ies ƒ P`qy dw pIrKwnw AQvw g`dI ikhw jWdw hY[ihMdUAW dI
ingwh iv`c SyK P`qw ie`k mhwn S^sIAq sI[
***

mweI Bwgo jI
(ipMf Jbwl, izlHw qrn qwrn)

mwJy dI DrqI dw ipMf Jbwl qrn qwrn qoN 15 ku iklo mItr dI iv`Q qy AMimRqsr
qoN Kymkrn jwx vwlI sVk qy siQq hY[cODrI Abaul KYr ipMf Jbwl dy ielwky dw aus
smyN dw mMinAW pRmMinAW sKI srvr Drm ƒ mMnx vwlw sKI srvreIAw sI[ aus dy pMj
pu`qr:- jusqrIAw,ibMnw, suMdr, pyroSwh Aqy bwbw lMgwh sn[ A`goN pyro Swh dy do pu`qr
sn:-mwlo Aqy hrU sn[mwlo Swh dy Gr bIbI Bwgo dw jnm hoieAw [ ie`ko ie`k DI hox
krky lwf nwl ies lVkI dw nW Bwg BrI ArQwq BwgW vwlI r`iKAw igAw [bwbw lMgwh
sKI srvr m`q iqAwg ky gurU Arjn dyv jI dy lV l`g igAw sI, ijs dI vyKo -vyKI pyro
Swh Aqy mwlo Swh vI gurU Gr nwl juV gey sn[ieh CyvyN pwqSwh gurU hrgoibMd jI dy
drbwr dI syvw kirAw krdy sn[bIbI Bwgo bcpn qoN hI in`fr, ihMmq vwlI Aqy mrdW
vrgy suBwA dI sI[mweI Bwgo Awpxy ipqw nwl AnMdpur swihb sRI gurU qyg bhwdr
swihb jI dy drSnW ƒ vI geI sI Aqy jdoN gurU goibMd isMG jI dw iqlk krky gur g`dI
id`qI geI sI qW aus smyN vI auh pRvwr nwl AnMdpur swihb geI sI[ auh gurU jI dw
Awqimk qyz vyK ky bhuq pRBwivq hoeI sI[
aus smyN jdoN mwJy dy kuJ is`K gurU goibMd isMG jI ƒ ‘bydwvw’ dy Awey sn qW ies
bhwdr Aqy dlyr isMGxIN ƒ cMgw nhI sI l`gw[aus ny id`l C`f cu`ky isMGW ƒ vMgwr ky
dubwrw jMg iv`c jUJx leI auqSwihq kIqw sI Aqy gurU goibMd isMG qy mugl POj ivckwr
mukqsr dI lVweI iv`c cwlI mukiqAW smyq jMg lV ky mwJy dy m`Qy qy l`gx vwly dwZ ƒ
Doqw sI[ bhwdr bIbI mweI Bwgo dw nW ieiqhws iv`c hmySW Amr rhygw[ies qy swrI
kOm ƒ Zrv hY[

***

BweI su`Kw isMG jI Aqy
BweI mihqwb isMG jI

BweI suKw isMG jI dw jnm ipMf mwVI kMbokI, ijlHw qrn qwrn iv`c hoieAw [auh
rwmgVHIAw brwdrI nwl sbMDq sn Aqy aunHW dy v`fy qrKwxw kMm krdy sn[CotI aumr
iv`c hI su`Kw isMG ny AMimRq pwn kr ilAw sI[ ieh auh smW sI jdoN iksy isMG nwl
myl-jol r`Kxw Awpxy Awp ƒ musIbq dy mUMh pwaux vwlI g`l sI[ BweI su`Kw isMG ipMf
iv`c Awey isMGW dI tihl syvw kirAw krdw sI[ieh g`l aunHW dy ipqw ƒ cMgI nhIN sI
lgdI ijs krky Gr iv`c ies g`l qy Awm krky klyS rihMdw sI[ie`k vyrW su`Kw isMG ny
iesy g`loN v`t Kw ky KUh iv`c Cwl mwr id`qI sI pr aus ƒ bcw ilAw igAw sI[BweI
swihb dw is`K Drm leI Aijhw ipAwr vyK ky ie`k is`K ny aus ƒ ikhw sI ik “jy kr
qUM mrnw eI ey qW ShIdI pw[ ivArQ jwn ikauN gvwauNdw eyN[”
“mrnw hY mr qurkn isr cr[
AOr mOq kXoN mro vXrQ kr[”
ieh g`l aus dy idl ƒ tuMb geI sI Aqy auh ipMf dy pYNc qoN GoVI lY ky jQydwr Swm isMG
dy jQy iv`c jw rilAw sI[suKw isMG inSwncI kmwl dw sI Aqy Ssrq iv`idAw iv`c vI
inpuMn sI[GoVI qy cVHy-cVHyH hI qIr jW bMdUk nwl vwr krnw aus dy K`by h`Q dw kMm
sI[GoVI dw mu`l pYNc ƒ qwrn vwsqy aus ny lwhOr dy zOhrI bzwr iv`coN ie`k qurk koloN
muhrW dI QYlI Koh ky GoVI duVw leI sI[GoVI dI kImq pYNc kol G`l ky bwkI dI rkm
aus lMgr iv`c pw id`qI[aus ny muglW dy twkry iv`c iek`ly hI mugl jrnYl ijs nsMjoAW
pw ky Awpxy Awp ƒ F`ikAw hoieAw sI qy AYsw vwr kIqw sI ik auh QW hI mwirAw igAw
sI[aus vyly hirmMdr swihb jw ky ieSnwn krnw mOq ƒ s`dw dyxw sI pr isMG sUrmy ny
Aijhw kr ivKwieAw sI Aqy jWdI vwr llkwirAw,
“rwq nHwauN qb cor[nHwvogy mYN idn ibKY[ sRI siqgur ky zor[
dsMbr, 1751 iv`c Aihmd Swh AbdwlI ny qIsrw h`lw kIqw[ie`k idn BweI su`Kw isMG
jI Awpxy swQIAW nwl rwvI pwr kr gey Aqy AbdwlI dy POjIAW qy tu`t pey sn[ mn
iv`c sI ik jy kr Aihmd Swh t`kry qW aus nwl do doo h`Q kIqy jwx[ su`Kw isMG
‘Aihmd Swh’ ‘Aihmd Swh’ pukwrdw hoieAw A`gy vD irhw sI Aqy keIAW ƒ AwpxI
ikrpwn Byt kridAW Awi^r auh vI ShIdI dw zwm pI igAw[

BweI mihqwb isMG jI

BweI mihqwb isMG dw jnm izlHw AMimRqsr dy ipMf Coty mIrW kot ijhVw
AMimRqsr qoN pMj ku ik:mI: dI iv`Q qy vwikAw hY, iv`c hoieAw[ auh bhuq hI hTIly Aqy
p`ky ierwdy dw mwlk sI[m`sy rMGV dy kwqlW ƒ pyS krn leI jdoN hwkmW v`loN zor
pwieAw igAw qW CIny dw krmw, qlvMfI dw rwmw rMDwvw, nOiShry Fwly dw swihb rwey
Aqy jMifAwly dw hir Bgq nrMjxIey cODrIAW ny kwql pkVwaux dw pRx kIqw sI[nUrdIn
dy POjdwr ny mIrW kot ƒ Gyrw pw ilAw pr aus smyN mihqwb isMG ipMf nhI sI[ ies
leI nUrdIn ny aus dy pu`qr rwey isMG ƒ PVHnw cwihAw ijs ƒ mihqwb isMG ipMfoN jwx qoN
pihlW n`QU Kihry kol C`f igAw sI[n`QU mihqwb isMG dy pu`qr ƒ Awpxy moiFAW qy cu`k ky

Gr dy ipCvwiVEN inkl igAw pr kuJ dUrI qy hI auh GyirAw igAw sI[n`QU ispwhIAW
nwl lVdw hoieAw mwirAw igAw sI Aqy b`cy ƒ mirAw smJ ky ispwhI C`f gey sn
ijhVw ip`CoN ie`k AOrq dI nzr pY igAw Aqy aus ny b`cy ƒ Gr ilAw tihl syvw kr b`cy
ƒ bcw ilAw sI[ bwAd iv`c ies bwlk rwey isMG dy Gr ie`k b`cy ny jnm ilAw sI
ijs dw nwm rqn isMG r`iKAw igAw sI[ v`fw ho ky auh rqn isMG (BMgU) dy nwm nwl
pRis`D hoieAw Aqy aus ny ieiqhws dI pRis`D pusqk “sRI gurU pMQ pRkwS” (pRwcIn pMQ
pRkwS) ilKI [
sMn 1745 iv`c BweI qwrU isMG jI ƒ igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw sI[ mihqwb isMG
dw BweI qwrU isMG nwl bhuq ipAwr sI Aqy auh vI aunHW nwl hI ShId hoxw cwhuMdw sI[
jdoN mihqwb isMG bIkwnyr qoN pRIvwr ƒ imlx AwieAw hoieAw sI qW Bgq nrMjxIey ny
mu^brI kr ky aus ƒ vI igRPqwr krvw id`qw sI[mihqwb isMG ƒ ieslwm kbUl krn
leI ikhw igAw pr auh qW AwieAw hI ShId hox leI sI[aus ny mOq kbUl kIqI pr
Drm nhI sI C`ifAw[ AwKr aus ƒ ShId kr id`qw igAw[
BweI mnI isMG jI dI Shwdq qoN ip`CoN is`KW qy AiqAwcwr hor vI v`D gey[ is`K
Awpxw Gr-bwr C`f ky jMglW v`l jW rwjpuqwny v`l inkl gey sn[ 1739 eI: iv`c
APgwn bwdSwh nwdrSwh ijs dw AslI nwm qhmwsp kulI KW sI ny Bwrq qy hmlw
kIqw[mugl hkUmq kmzor pY cu`kI sI,ies leI nwdr Swh kqlo-gwrd krdw hoieAw
id`lI q`k phuMc igAw[aus ny id`lI ƒ r`j ky l`uitAw[id`lI dw swrw ^jwnw, qKqy qwaUs qy
kohy nUr hIrw vI aus ny lu`t ilAw[auh lu`tmwr krky Aqy AOrqW ƒ kYdI bxw jdoN vwps
prq irhw sI qW A^nUr dy AsQwn qy isMGW dy ie`k v`fy dl ny aus dI POj qy hmlw kr
APgwnW koloN lu`t dy mwl iv`coN v`fw ihsw Koh ilAw Aqy kYd kIqIAW hoeIAW AOrqW ƒ vI
Awzwd krvw auhnW dy vwrsW dy hvwly kIqw [
nwdr Swh hYrwn sI ik Awi^r ieh kOx lok hn jo myry lu`ty hoey mwl qy hI h`Q
swP kr gey hn ? ieh qW corW ƒ mor pYx vwlI g`l bx geI sI[aus ƒ d`isAw igAw
ik ieh is`K kOm hY jo AMimRqsr dy srovr iv`c ieSnwn krky AijhI SkqI pRwpq kr
lYNdI hY ijs nwl ies dy mn iv`coN mOq dw ^OP dUr ho jWdw hY Aqy ieh mOq ƒ mKOlW krdI
hY[ieh gurIlw lVweI dw FMg Apxw ky duSmx qy hmlw krdy hn[lwhOr phuMc ky nwdr
Swh ny zkrIAw KW nwl ies dw crcw kIqw Aqy Awpxy ies fr dw ^dSw zwihr kIqw
ik jy kr is`KW ƒ smyN isr n`Q nw pweI geI qW auh idn dUr nhI jdoN ieh swry pMjwb qy
kbzw kr lYxgy[zkrIAw KW pihlW hI is`KW dw bIj nwS krn dI Awpxy mn iv`c TwxI
bYTw sI[is`KW dI AMimRqsr iv`c Awmd bMd krn leI aus ny eyQy ie`k pulIs cOkI ibTw
id`qI ijs dw koqvwl aus ny m`sy rMgVH (AslI nwm smlwaul-dIn sI) ƒ inXukq kr
id`qw sI[
m`sw rMgVH bVw hI zwlm iksm dw koqvwl sI[aus ny drbwr swihb dy Ahwqy
iv`c GoiVAW dw Asqbl bxvw id`qw Aqy Awp hirmMdr swihb iv`c g`dI lw ky bYTx l`g
ipAw sI, ij`Qy auh hu`kw Aqy Srwb pINdw Aqy vySvwvW dw muzrw vyKdw[hirmMdr swihb
dI ies qrHW huMdI byhurmqI isMGW qoN brdwSq nhIN sI ho rhI[auhnW dw ^Un aubwly Kw
irhw sI[
s: mihqwb isMG jI jo ipMf mIrW kot ijlHw AMimRqsr dy vwsI sn Aqy s: suKw
isMG jI ipMf mwVI kMbo ky ijlHw qrn qwrn dy rihx vwly gurU dy is`K sn ienHINN idnI
rwjpUqwny dy ielwky v`l ivcr rhy sn [ieh auh smW sI jdoN is`KW qy zulm dI hnyrI
Ju`lI hoeI sI[gurU dy iehnW isMGW ƒ BweI blwkw isMG jo ik ipMf ‘kMg’( nyVy qrn qwrn)
dw rihx vwlw sI rwhIN ies g`l dw pqw l`gw ik m`sw rMgVH drbwr swihb dI byhurmqI
kr irhw hY[ienHW dohW sUrimAW ny ies byhurmqI dw bdlw lYx dI Twx leI[
ienHW dovW suUrimAW ny Awpxw qurkW vrgw Bys bxw ilAw Aqy GoiVAW qy Asvwr
ho AMimRqsr v`l vhIrW G`q id`qIAW[auh hr nwky qy iesy g`l dw hokw idMdy ik auh
koqvwl swihb ƒ mwmly dI rkm dyx jw rhy hn[ies leI aunHW ƒ iksy nw roikAw Aqy
auh Awpxy inSwny v`l vDdy gey[ies qrkIb nwl auh aus QW q`k phuMc gey ij`Qy m`sw

rMgVH Srwb dy nSy iv`c Du`q ipAw ibnW iksy fr-fu`kr qoN kMjrIAW dw muzrw vyK irhw
sI[auh ienHW dI Acwnk Awmd qy kuJ nrwz qW hoieAw pr jdoN aus ny ieMnHW ny l`kW nwl
bMnHIAW hoeIAW QYlIAW vyKIAW qW auh smJ igAw ik ieh mwmlw dyx leI Awey hn[ m`sy
dw gu`sw jWdw irhw[mihqwb isMG ny jdoN QYlIAW KolHIAW qW m`sw J`uk ky vyKx hI l`gw sI
ik BweI su`Kw isMG dI qlvwr ny ie`ko hI vwr nwl aus dw isr DV nwlo N v`K kr
id`qw[BweI mihqwb isMG ny ibjlI dI PurqI nwl k`ty hoey isr ƒ Awpxy nyjy iv`c pro
ilAw[ieh sB kuJ ieMnI jldI vwpr igAw sI ik swry hYrwn hI rih gey ik ieh kI ho
igAw hY?nwcIAW dubk ky ie`k pwsy ht geIAW [ ieh kwrw kr ky dovyN isMG bwhr Aw
gey[ auhnW dy k`piVAW qy vI ^Un dy iC`ty pey hoey sn ijs ƒ vyK ky bwhr pihry qy KVy
ispwhI smJ gey ik AMdr koeI Bwxw vrq igAw hY[ auhnW nwl do h`Q krky auhnW ƒ vI
zhnm pucw ky ieh isMG Awpxy dovyNGoiVAW qy Asvwr ho ijDroN Awey sn auDrhI hvw ho
gey[ ieMJ ieh mJYl inDVk joDy Awpxw nW is`K ieiqhws iv`c sunihrI A`KrW iv`c
ilKvw gey[

***

ShId bwbw jIvn isMG jI
(BweI jYqw jI)

mugl kwl dw dmn c`kr pUry zorW qy sI[ AOrMgzyb dw rwj sI Aqy auh dUsry
DrmW dy lokW dw zbrI Drm pRIvriqq kr ky aunHW ƒ muslmwn bxw irhw sI[ iesy julm
dy sqwey hoey kSmIrI pMifqW ny sMn 1675 iv`c AnMdpur ivKy nOvyN pwqSwh gurU qyZ
bhwdr swihb jI dw AWx dr KVkwieAw sI Aqy bynqI kIqI sI ik auh ies zulm dI
hnyrI ƒ T`lH pwaux leI koeI auprwlw krn gurU qyZ bhwdr jI ies julm dI B`TI iv` c
AwpxI AhUqI dyx leI pMj is`KW ƒ nwl lY id`lI jw ShId hoey sn[ ienHW pMj is`KW iv`c
BweI gurid`qw jI vI sn ijnHW ‘coN BweI mqI dws, BweI idAWlw jI Aqy BweI sqI dws
jI ƒ AOrMgzyb v`loN kql krvw id`qw igAw sI[
BweI jYqw jI dw jnm 30 nvMbr, 1649 eI: ƒ BweI sdw nMd dy Gr mwqw kMno dy
Gr hoieAw[ bcpn iv`c jYqw jI dw nW ‘jgcMd’ r`iKAw igAw[ Coty nW vjoN jYqw jI ƒ
‘j`gU’ Aqy iPr ‘joqw’ bulwieAw jwx l`gw[ jYqw jI dw ie`k Cotw Brw Bwg cMd vI sI[
ieh swrw pRIvwr hI gurU hr rwie jI dw Ann Bgq sI[ jdoN gurU jI kIrqpur swihb
invws kr rhy sn qW ieh pRIvwr vI au~Qy rihMdw irhw pr ip`CoN ieh au~QoN au~T ky ipMf
“JMfy rmdws” izlHw AMimRqsr Aw v`sy sn, ij`Qy bwbw gurid`qw jI rihMdy sn[
mhW koS BweI kwhn isMG jI nwBw Anuswr rMGV kOm dw ipCokV jwnx qy pqw
l`gdw hY ik ies kOm dy v`fy-vfyry ihMdU-muslmwn dI rlvIN sMqwn hY, ijnHW ƒ ihMdUAW ny
Awpxy Drm Aqy jwq brwdrI ‘coN Cyk id`qw sI[rMGVW dy byty ‘rMGryty’ AKvwauNdy sn[
bwbw gurid`qw jI ijhVy gurU qyZ bhwdr jI nwl id`lI gey sn, dw pqw lYx leI bwbw jI
dy pRIvwr v`loN BweI jYqw jI ƒ id`lI ByijAw igAw[ id`lI iv`c gurU qyZ bhwdr jI ƒ
cWdnIN cOk iv`c AOrMgzyb dy hukm nwl kql kr id`qw igAw sI[ gurU jI dw isr DV qoN
v`K ho jwx ip`C lokW iv`c hPVw-dPVI m`c geI ijs dw lwB lY BweI jYqw jI gurU swihb
dw k`itAw hoieAw sIs lY ky AnMdpur swihb gurU goibMd isMG jI pws phuMcy sn[mugl
rwj dI n`k hyToN ieh kwrnwmw kr dyxw iksy mwVy idl vwly dw kMm nhI sI ho skdw[jdoN
auh AnMdpur swihb pu`jy qW gurU goibMd isMG jI ny aunHW ƒ sIny nwl lw ky vr id`qw sI:“rMGryty gurU ky byty”
Bwv rMGryty (rMGV dw pu`qr) ijnHW ƒ ihMdU kOm ny durkwr id`qw sI gurU jI ny
Awpxy pu`qr bxw ilAw sI[ 1699 eI: iv`c ivswKI vwly idn jdoN gurU goibMd isMG jI ny
‘Kwlsw pMQ’ dI swjnw kIqI sI qW BweI jYqw jI ny pRIvwr smyq AMimRq pwn kIqw Aqy
auh BweI jYqw qoN BweI jIvn isMG bx igAw sI[ BweI jIvn isMG dI SwdI 1691 eI:
iv`c bIbI rwj kOr pu`qrI BweI sujwn isMG nwl hoeI ijs ‘coN cwr pu`qrW ny jnm ilAw[
jIvn isMG inSwnybwzI iv`c bhuq prp`k sI ijs krky gurU goibMd isMG jI ny
Awpxy v`fy swihbjwidAW AjIq isMG Aqy jUJwr isMG ƒ jMg klw dI tRyinMg ies koloN
dvweI sI[ Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c BweI jIvn isMG ny gurU goibMd isMG jI dIAW muglW
Aqy ihMdU phwVI rwijAW nwl hoeIAW lVweIAW iv`c vD cVH ky ih`sw ilAw[ 7 dsMbr,
1705 eI: ƒ cmkOr dI jMg iv`c lVidAW hoieAW BweI jIvn isMG jI ShId ho gey
sn[ aunHW dI Xwd iv`c ie`k burj ijs ƒ “gurduAwrw ShIdI burj” bwbw jIvn isMG
ikhw jWdw hY bxwieAw igAw hY[

***

BweI bGyl isMG jI
(ipMf Bu`sy, izlHw qrn qwrn)

is`K ieiqhws iv`c isMGW dI bhwdrI dy kwrnwmy ie`k dUjy qoN v`D qoN v`D hn[is`K
kOm jy kr iksy nwl vDIkI nhI krdI qW Awpxy qy iksy ƒ vDIkI krn vI nhIN
idMdI[ieh kOm ies g`l dI DwrnI hY[
BweI bGyl isMG dw jnm izlHw AMimRqsr (izlHw qrn qwrn) dy ipMf Bu`sy (ieh
ipMf bIV bwbw bu`Fw swihb Aqy ipMf FMf ksyl nyVy Jbwl kol hY) iv`c 1730 eI: ƒ
hoieAw[ iesy hI ipMf dy BweI Amr isMG jI vI bGyl isMG dy swQI sn[ BweI bGyl isMG
dw ipCokV kroVw isMGIAw imsl nwl juVdw hY[ ies imsl dy srdwr kroVw isMG dI mOq
ip`CoN 1765 eI: iv`c s: bGyl isMG ny ies imsl dI vwg for sMBwlI[ ie`k muslmwn
ieiqhwskwr seIAd muhMmd lqIP Anuswr jdoN bGyl isMG ny vwgfor sMBwlI sI qW aus
smyN kroVw isMG imsl dI POj iv`c 12,000 isrl`Q jvwn sn[ BweI bGyl isMG ij`Qy
qlvwr dw ie`k cMgy DnI sI au~Qy rwjnIqI dw jwxkwr Aqy smyN Anuswr muSikl dw h`l
k`Fx dI vI Xogqw r`Kdw sI[
mugl, ruhyly Aqy mrwTy bGyl isMG dI im`qrqw dy sdw cwhvwn rhy[ 18vIN sdI dy
ipCly A`D iv`c Aihmd Swh durwnI (ijs ƒ Aihmd Swh AbdwlI vI kihMdy hn) dy
hmilAW kwrn mugl rwj ƒ Korw l`g cu`kw sI ijs kr ky is`KW ny Awpxw rsUK Aqy
ielwkw vDwauxw ArMB id`qw sI[ kroVw isMGIAw imsl dy srdwr bGyl isMG ny dUsrIAW
imslW nwl rl ky Aihmd Swh AbdwlI dw twkrw ‘ku`pklW’ (nyVy mlyrkotlw, izlHw
sMgruUr) dy AsQwn qy kIqw, ijs iv`c 30,000 qoN 40,000 hzwr dy krIb is`K mrd,
AOrqW Aqy b`cy ShId ho gey sn[ is`K ieiqhws iv`c ies ƒ ‘v`fw G`lUGwrw’ dy nW nwl
Xwd kIqw jWdw hY[
AbdwlI dy hmly ip`CoN is`KW ny jmnw Aqy isMD dy ivckwrly ielwky iv`c Awpxw
dbdbw kwiem kr ky ielwkw vDwauxw SurU kr id`qw sI[ SUkr c`kIAw imsl (mhwrwjw
rxjIq isMG dI imsl) ny gujrWvwlw Aqy rwvI cnwb dy ielwky, rwmgVHIAw imsl ny
AMimRqsr, gurdwspur, lwhOr-ksUr dy Awly duAwly dy ielwky, kroVw isMGIAw imsl ny
AMbwlw, krnwl, ihswr, Aqy rohqk dy ielwikAW qy Awpxw AiDkwr jmw ilAw sI[ hux
bGYl isMG ny Awpxw ru^ id`lI ielwky v`l kr ky myrT Aqy AvD dy nvwbW koloN nzrwnW
lYxw SurU kr id`qw sI[
PrvrI, 1764 eI: iv`c 40,000 isMGW ny bGyl isMG dI kmwn hyTW shwrnpur ƒ
Gyr ilAw sI Aqy aunHW ny ruhylw m`uKI nzIb-aul-dwaulw dy ielwky ƒ lqwVidAW hoieAw
aus koloN igAwrW l`K nzrwny vjoN rkm vsUl kIqI[ AprYl,1775 eI: iv`c bGyl isMG ny
do is`K srdwrW rwey isMG Aqy qwrq isMG ƒ nwl lY ky jmnw pwr zwbqw KW (nzIb-auldwaulw dw pu`qr) dy ielwky qy Dwvw bol id`qw[ zwbqw KW ny frdy mwry bGyl isMG ƒ v`fI
rkm dy ky bwdSwhI ielwky iv`c lu`t mwr krn dw iekrwr kr ilAw sI[

mwrc 1776 eI:iv`c s:bGyl isMG dIAW POjW ny muglW dI SwhI POj ƒ mujPrWbwd
dy nyVy BWj id`qI[ hux jmnw-gMg duAwb dw ielwkw bGyl isMG dy rihm qy sI[ 11
mwrc, 1883 eI: BweI bGyl isMG ny id`lI dy lwl iklHy qy hmlw kr dIvwn-ey-Awm qy
kbjw kr ilAw Aqy iklHy qy KwlsweI JMfw lihrw id`qw sI[ aus smyN dy mugl bwdSwh
Swh Awlm-II ny bGyl isMG nwl sMDI kr ky is`KW ƒ ieiqhwsk QwvW qy gurduAwry bxwaux
dI AwigAw dyx dy nwl nwl cuMgIAW qoN hox vwlI Awmdn iv`coN 37.5% (ie`k rupey ‘coN 6
Awny) dyxw mMn ilAw sI[ bGyl isMG Awpxy 4000 sYnkW nwl sbjI mMfI iv`c Tihr ky
cWdnI cOk dy puils qwny qy vI kbzw r`iKAw[ 1802 eI: ƒ s: bGyl isMG dw ksbw
‘hirAwxw’ izlHw huiSAwrpur iv`c dyhWq ho igAw[ bGyl isMG dI Xwd iv`c au~Qy
gurduAwrw sSoiBq hY[

***

ShId BweI qwrw isMG jI
(ipMf vW qwrw isMG izlHw qrn qwrn)
BweI qwrw isMG dw jnm 1702 eI: dy krIb BweI gurdws isMG dy Gr ipMf vW,
izlHw qrn qwrn iv`c hoieAw[ BweI qwrw isMG jI bcpn qoN grIb-gurby dI mdd krn
Aqy loVvMdW dy kMm Awaux vwlI ibrqI dw mwlk sI[ mugl rwj smyN jdoN is`K luk iCp
ky idn k`t rhy sn qW BweI qwrw isMG jI Aijhy isMGW ƒ Awsrw dyx Aqy aunHW dI hr
XQwXog mdd kirAw krdw sI[ auh ibnW iksy fr dy Awpxy ipMf iv`c hI rih ky ieh
syvw kr irhw sI[
ipMf nOiShrw Fwlw dw cODrI mugl hkUmq dw ^ws AwdmI sI[ auh grIb
ikrswnW qy zulm krdw Aqy aunHW dy KyqW iv`c AwpxIAW GoVIAW K`ulHIAW C`f idMdw[aunHW
dI Psl aujwV idMdw[ grIb ikrswnw ny keI vyrW jw ky aus kol bynqI kIqI ik auh
AwpxIAW GoVIAW ƒ r`sy pw ky, bMnH ky r`iKAw kry qW jo aunHW dI Psl dw aujwVw nw
hovy[hMkwr iv`c msq cODrI aunHW dI koeI dwd-PirAwd nw suxdw sgoN aultw ikhw krdw
sI ik aus kol GoVIAW bMnx leI r`sy nhIN hn ijnHW nwl auh AwpxIAW GoVIAW bMnHy[
grIb ikrswnW ny aus ƒ Awpxy koloN r`sy dyx dw suJwE vI id`qw sI pr BuUqirAw
hoieAw cODrI iksy vI g`l qy nhIN sI AwauNdw[ ie`k idn qW A`q hI ho geI jdoN ausny
ie`QoN q`k kih id`qw ik auh aunHW dIAW dwhVIAW muMn ky aus dy r`sy bxwvygw Aqy iPr
AwpxIAW GoVIAW aunHW nwl bMnHygw[ d`uKI hoey ikrswn cu`p krky Awpxy GrW ƒ prq Awey
pr cODrI dw zulm sgoN hor v`Ddw igAw[bGyl isMG Aqy Amr isMG jI ny slwh kr ky
cODrI dIAW GoVIAW corI kr leIAW Aqy ipMf GirAwly lY gey, ijQoN ieh GoVIAW aunHW
ny mhwrwjw Awlw isMG jI pitAwly vwilAw ƒ vyc id`qIAW[GoVIAW vycx qoN pRwpq hoeI
rkm aunHw ny ipMf vW dy lMgr iv`c dy id`qI[
GoVIAW corI krky lY jwx sbMDI jdoN cODrI ƒ pqw l`gw qW auh A`g-bbUlw ho
igAw[auh pu`C-pVqwl krdw hoieAw jdoN bwbw qwrw isMG vW vwilAW dy fyry phuMicAw qW
eyQy aus dw isMGW nwl bolblwrw ho igAw[gu`sy dw BirAw-pIqw auh p`tI Qwxy phuMc igAw
ij`QoN Agly idn svyry hI auh ispwhI lY AwieAw[p`tI dy &Ojdwr ny 25 GoV Asvwr Aqy
80 pYdl ispwhI qwrw isMG qy aus dy
swQIAW ƒ PVHn vwsqy Byj id`qy [aus smyN qwrw isMG kol Tihry isMGW ny aunHW ƒ mwr
BjwieAw[ ies lVweI iv`c zPrbyg dw BqIjw mwirAw igAw[ zPrbyg ny AwpxI ies
byie`zqI dw bdlw lYx leI sUbw lwhOr zkrIAw KW ƒ POj Byjx leI bynqI kIqI ijs qy
zkrIAw KW ny 2000 GoV Asvwr, 40 jMbUrky, pMj hwQI Aqy cwr rihkly momn KW dI
kmwn hyTW BweI qwrw isMG Aqy aus dy swQIAW ƒ PVHn leI Byj id`qy [BweI qwrw isMG ƒ
ies g`l dw pqw pihlw hI l`g igAw sI pr auh Gr C`f ky nhIN igAw sgoN ies musIbq
dw twkrw krn leI ipMf iv`c hI irhw[24 dsMbr, 1732 eI: ƒ lVidAW hoieAw qwrw
isMG vW Aqy aus dy hor keI swQI isMG ShId ho gey[ ijs QW qy BweI qwrw isMG jI Aqy
aunHW dy swQI ShId hoey sn aus QW qy A`j k`lH gurduAwrw sQwipq kr id`qw igAw hY[

***

ShId BweI qwrU isMG jI
(ipMf pUhlw, izlHw qrn qwrn)

Ardws iv`c is`KI ƒ kysW suAwsW nwl inBwaux dw jdoN izkr AwauNdw hY qW BweI
qwrU isMG jI dI qsvIr A`KW swhmxy Aw jWdI hY[gur is`KI dI rihq mirAwdw Anuswr
AMimRq pwn krvwaux smyN hr is`K ƒ pMj kkwrW dw DwrnI hox dw pRx ilAw jWdw hY[ieh
pMj kkwr hn:- kMGw, kVw, kys, kiChrw Aqy ikrpwn[
Aijhw hI ie`k is`K ies mwJy dI DrqI ipMf pUhlw iv`c pYdw hoieAw ijs dw nW
BweI qwrU isMG sI[ ipMf pUuhlw ijhVw ik iB`KIivMf dy nyVy hY pihlW AMimRqsr izlHy iv`c
pYNdw sI pr hux qrn qwrn nvW izlHw bx jwx kwrn izlHw qrn qwrn iv`c AwauNdw
hY[BweI qwrU isMG bhuq hI Dwrimk ivcwrW vwlw guris`K sI[ BweI qwrU isMG ikrswn
pRIvwr iv`coN sI Aqy KyqIbwVI kridAW jo Anwj pYdw huMdw aus iv`coN auh is`KW dI tihl
syvw krdw Aqy aunHW ƒ Awpxy kol Srn vI idMdw[mugl srkwr dI nzr iv`c Aijhw
AwdmIN srkwr dw duSmn Aqy bwgI mMinAw jWdw sI[aus smyN is`K ƒ Srn dyx dI
mnwhI sI[
zulm dI hnyrI pUry zorW ‘qy sI[ ieh sMn 1745 eI: dw auh smW sI jdoN isMGW dy
isrW dy mu`l pYNdy sn[is`K dw isr v`F ky ilAwauNx vwly ƒ ds rupey,PVH ky ilAwaux vwly
ƒ pMjwh rupey Aqy is`K dI sUh dyx vwly ƒ vI ds rupey ienwm id`qw jWdw sI[Bgq
nrMjxIeyN dI mu^brI qy BweI qwrU isMG jI ƒ PVH ky lwhOr iljwieAw igAw ij`Qy aunHW ƒ
bhuq qsIhy id`qy gey Aqy ies g`l qy zor id`qw igAw sI ik auh ieslwm Drm kbUl kr
lvy[ jy kr auh ieslwm kbUl kr lvygw qW aus ƒ jgIrW dy nwl nwl ijMdgI dw mjw
lYx leI hUrW vI aus nwl qor id`qIAW jwxgIAW[ BweI qwrU isMG AwpxI rihq Aqy
inscy dw p`kw sI ies leI auh ienHW lwlcW iv`c kdoN Psx vwlw sI[aus ny mOq kbUl
kr leI pr Awpxw Drm nhIN sI C`ifAw[
aus dI Awpxy Drm iv`c pRp`kqw Aqy ij`d A`gy jdoN kwjIAW dw koeI zor nw
c`ilAw qW aunHW ny aus ivru`D srkwr dw bwgI hox dw &qvw dy ky aus dy kys jo ik ie`k
is`K ƒ bhuq hI ipAwry huMdy hn, kql ( k`t ) kr dyx dw hukm suxw id`qw[ qwrU isMG ny
Awpxy kys nw ktvwaux leI kih ky ieh g`l pRvwn kr leI ik aus dI KoprI smyq hI
kys auqwr id`qy jwx pr kys nw k`ty jwx[ SwhI hukm Anuswr jlwd ny 8 AkqUbr,
1745 eI: ƒ kysW smyq hI aus dI KoprI rMbI nwl lwh id`qI[ ies kwry ip`CoN duSt
zkrIAw Kwn dw pySwb bMd ho igAw qW BweI qwrU isMG dI ju`qI aus dy isr iv`c mwrI
geI ijs nwl aus ƒ pySwb qW AwieAw pr auh ies mwr dI pIV nw shwrdw hoieAw mr
igAw[ ies qrHW ie`k idRVH ierwdy vwly gur is`K mJYl ƒ ShId kr id`qw igAw sI[
Aijhy isrVI Aqy p`ky ierwidAW vwly ienswnW vwsqy hI Swied kvI ‘kuMdn’ ny iliKAw
hY:“fulHy jW KUn ShIdW dw , qkdIr bdldI kOmW dI[
rMbIAW nwl Kopr lih jWdy, qsvIr bdldI kOmW dI[
dygW iv`c jW aubly koeI, SWqI dy cSmyN vg pYNdy[
ausry jW kMD msUmW dI, FlHI hoeI kONm Klo jWdI[”
(kuMdn kvI )

ShId BweI mhW isMG jI
(ipMf rtOl,izlHw qrn qwrn)

rtOl ipMf AMimRqsr- qrn qwrn sVk qy qrn qwrn v`l AwauNidAW hoieAW A`fw
dburjI qoN cVHdy v`l iqMn ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy v`isAw hoieAw hY[ShId BweI mhW
isMG jI ijs ny mukqsr dI jMg iv`c dsvIN pwqSwhI pwsoN bdwvw pVvwieAw sI dy
ipCokV iv`c jwx qy pqw l`gdw hY ik jdoN sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI qrn qwrn ngrI
vswauNx leI ies dy nwl lgdy ipMfW iv`coN 100 ivGy jmIn dI loV ƒ mu`K r`K ky ipMfW dw
Brmx kr rhy sn qW auh sB qoN pihlW kotlI ipMf iv`c gey sn pr aus ipMf vwilAW ny
zmIn dyx qoN ienkwr kr id`qw sI Aqy auh gurU jI dy srwp dy BwgI bxy sn[eysy krky
kotlI bwry mShUr hY:kotlI du`KW dI potlI
ies qoN Aglw nwl l`gdw ipMf rtOl sI, ij`QoN dy lokW ny iKVy m`Qy gurU jI dI syvw
kIqI Aqy auhnW dI loV Anuswr zmIn dyx dI pySkS vI kIqI sI[gurU jI dy mn iv`c
pqw nhIN kI AwieAw hovygw, ieh qW auh hI jwnx, auhnW ny ie`QoN jmIn nhIN sI
leI[ipMf vwilAW ny gurU jI Aqy aunHW nwl AweI sMgq ƒ lMgr pwxI Ckw ky bhuq syvw
kIqI sI[syvw krn vwilAW iv`c moFI vjoN BweI pRymW vI sI ijs qy ^uS ho ky gurU jI ny
bcn kIqw sI ik qyry vMS iv`c ie`k blI Aqy XoDw pYdw hovygw jo qyrw Aqy ies ipMf dw
nW cmkwvygw[ aus dy Gr ie`k bwlk pYdw hoieAw sI ijs dw nW aus ny n`Qw r`iKAw[
kwl c`kr cldw irhw[pRymW r`b ƒ ipAwrw ho igAw[ hux Gr iv`c n`Qw qy aus dI mW hI
rih gey sn[mW ny bVy cwvW nwl n`Qy dw ivAwh kIqw pr CyqI hI auh vI c`l v`sI[
n`Qw Aqy aus dI pqnI Drm kwrzW iv`c ih`sw lYNdy rhy[ aunHW dy mn iv`c pu`qr
pRwpqI dI lwlsw idn-b-idn pRbl huMdIy geI[dovyN jIA Awey swDU sMqW dI tihl syvw
krdy[ aunHW dy mn iv`c ieh p`kw inscw sI ik gurU Arjn dyv jI dy bcn At`l hn
Aqy aunHW dy Gr pu`qr jrUr hovygw[buFwpw roz dI roz v`Ddw jw irhw sI[kwilAW qoN b`g y
hoxy SurU ho gey sn[Swied ieh aunHW dy in`scy dw iemiqhwn hI hovy[pr aunHW ny Aws dw
p`lw nw C`ifAw[Ai^r sbr ƒ Pl l`gw qy aunHW dy Gr ie`k pu`qr ny jnm ilAw ijs dw
nW aunHW ny ‘mwhIAw’ r`iKAw[jdoN mwhIAw jvwn hoieAw qW swrw pRIvwr gurU goibMd isMG
jI dy drSnw leI AnMdpur phuMc igAw[
kuJ smW AnMdpur rihx ip`CoN mwhIey dy mwpy qW vwps ipMf prq Awey sn pr
mwhIAw gurU jI dI syvw iv`c irhw ij`Qy aus ny gurU syvw dy nwl nwl Ssqr ividAw Aqy
GoV AsvwrI vI is`KI[ auh qlvwr dw DnI bx igAw[ mwhIAw kdy kdy ipMf vI gyVw
mwr jwieAw krdw sI pr izAwdw smW auh gurU jI nwl hI rihMdw sI[ smW Awaux qy
aus ny gurU jI koloN AMimRq pwn kr ilAw Aqy mwhIey qoN hux auh ‘mhW isMG’ bx igAw
sI[
sMn 1701 dw swl gurU jI vwsqy Xu`DW dw swl sI[BMgwxI Aqy ndOx dy Xu`DW iv`c
phwVI rwijAW dI hwr hoeI Aqy rwjy nhIN sn cwhuMdy ik gurU jI aunHW ivru`D SkqISwlI
POj KVI kr lYx jo A`gy c`l ky aunHW leI ^qrw bxyy[ gurU jI kol qn^whdwr POjI nhI

sn sgoN isrl`Q,mOq ƒ mKOlW krn vwly,juSIly Aqy inDVk sUrmyN sn ijnHW ny Awpw vI
gurU crnW iv`c Arpn kIqw hoieAw sI[phwVI rwjy iek`Ty ho ky vI gurU jI dw mukwblw
krn dI ihMmq nhIN sn krdy, ies leI aunHW ny AOrMgzyb qoN AwigAw lY ky do jrnYlW
‘pYNdy ^W’ Aqy ‘dInw byZ’ qoN ds hzwr POj dI mdd mMgI[ies lVweI iv`c srhMd dy
nzwm ƒ vI AwpxI POj Byjx leI ikhw igAw[ hux qIh hzwr POj dI kmwn pNYdy ^W dy
h`Q sI jdoN ik gurU jI pws kyvl s`q-A`T hzwr hI isMG sn[ies Gmswx dI lVweI
iv`c sihbzwdw AjIq isMG pihlI vwr mYdwny-jMg iv`c au~qirAw sI ijs dI aumr aus
vyly kyvl 14 swl dI sI[ies lVweI iv`c pYNdy ^W mwirAw igAw Aqy dInw byZ z^mI ho
ky mYdwnoN B`j inkilAw sI[
AnMdpur dI dUsrI lVweI pihlI qoN vI iBAwnk ho in`bVI[ gurU jI ny sur`iKAw
leI AMndgVH, kysgVH, lohgVH, holgVH Aqy Pqih gVH dy iklHy iqAwr krvw ley sn[
Gmswx dw Xu`D hoieAw Aqy dohW pwisAW qoN lwSW qy lwSW if`gIAW sn[iklHy dw drvwzw
qoVn leI phwVI rwijAW ny ie`k hwQI ƒ Srwb ipAw ky iklHy dy drvwzy v`l ByijAw, ijs
dw mukwblw krn leI BweI mnI isMG jI ShId (ijnHW dy bMd bMd k`ty gey sn) dw
sUurbIr spu`qr sR: bic`qr isMG GoVy qy Asvwr ho ky h`Q iv`c nwgxI (ieh nwgxI rUup I
brCw mwJy dy sR: j`sw isMG jI ‘rwmgVHIAw’ dy dwdw sR: hrdws isMG jI ny bxwieAw sI)
lY ky in`qirAw[ bic`qr isMG ny nwgxI hwQI dy m`Qy iv`c eynIN jor dI mwrI sI ik hwQI
dy m`Qy qy b`Jy hoey lohy dy moty moty qvy pwV ky brCy ny hwQI dw m`Qw ivMnH id`qw[ phwVI rwjy
jwnI Aqy mwlI nukswn krvw ky ip`Cy ht gey sn[ies ip`CoN CotIAW motIAW lVweIAW
huMdIAW hI rihMdIAW sn ijnHW iv`c ‘inrmoh’, ‘bswlI’ Aqy ‘kmlyt’ dIAW lVweIAw
vrnxXog hn[ienHW swrIAW lVweIAW iv`c BweI mhW isMG ny gurU jI nwl vD cVH ky
ih`sw ilAw[
in`q dIAW lVweIAW qoN swry hI qMg Aw cu`ky sn[ koeI nqIjw nw inkldw vyK ky
phwVI rwijAW ny ie`k Awty dI gW bxweI Aqy ic`TI ilKI ijs iv`c gaU Aqy kurwn dIAW
ksmW KwDIAW geIAW sn ik jy kr gurU jI AnMdpur C`f jwx qW aunHW ƒ sur`i^Aq inkl
jwx id`qw jwvygw[ieh ic`TI lY ky pMmW pMifq Aqy ie`k sXd, gurU jI kol gey[ izAwdw
isMG vI cwhuMdy sn ik sulHwnwmw ho jwvy pr gurU jI jwxdy sn ik ieh swrIAW KwDIAW
jwx vwlIAW ksmW JUTIAW hn[isMGW dI bhu igxqI ny gurU jI ƒ AnMdpur C`f dyx dw
hukm id`qw, ijs A`gy gurU jI ny isr Jukw ky “Awpy gur cylw” dy isDWq ƒ s`c kr
ivKwieAw sI[AnMdpur qoN inklx leI Xojnw Anuswr Coty swihbzwdy Aqy mwqw jI nwl
gMgU rsoeIAw sI[ gurU ky mihl BweI mnI isMG qy aunHW dy swQIAW sI spu`rdgI iv`c sn
jdoN ik v`fy swihbzwdy gurU jI nwl sn[srdI dI ru`q, hnyrI rwq Aqy srsw ndI iv`c
hVH AwieAw hox krky ndI dw vhwau bhuq qyz sI[GoV Asvwr Aqy pYdl sB srsw ndI
iv`c iT`lH pey[ koeI iksy iknwry jw l`gw koeI iks pwsy vih igAw iksy ƒ kuJ vI pqw
nhI sI[BweI mhW isMG jI vI pYdl iT`lHx vwilAW iv`c sn[iknwry phuMc ky aunH W ny
swQIAW dI Bwl kIqI pr sB ivArQ sI[Awi^r mhw isMG inrwS ic`q Awpxy Gr phuMc
igAw[
kuJ idnW bwAd imlIAW ^brW qoN pqw l`gw ik gurU jI nwl shI slwmq inklx
vwly isMGW iv`coN v`fy swihbzwdy cmkOr dI gVHI iv`c vYrIAW nwl jUJdy hoey ShId ho gey
hn,Coty swihbzwdy srhMd iv`c ShId kr id`qy gey hn,mwqw jI vI Akwl clwxw kr gey
hn Aqy gurU jI iqMn isMGW nwl au~c dw pIr bx mwlvy v`l inkl gey hn[ A`j k`lH auh
mwlvy dI DrqI qy ivcr rhy hn[ BweI mhW isG ƒ mihsUs ho irhw sI ik auh gurU qoN
bymu`K hoieAw hY[AOKI GVI iv`c auh gurU jI nwl ikauN nw irhw jW lVdw hoieAw ShId
ikauN nw ho igAw ? aus dI jwcy gurU qoN ‘bymu`K’ hoxw ie`k qrHW nwl ‘bydwvw’ hI sI[pqw
nhI bydwvw ilKx vwilAW (jy kr bydwvw iliKAw igAw sI qW[ keI swihqkwrW dw
ivcwr hY ik koeI bydwvw iliKAw hI nhI sI igAw sgoN gurU qoN bymu`K ho ky GrIN Aw jwxw
‘bydwvw’ mMinAw jWdw hY) iv`coN iks iks ielwky dy isMG sn[BweI mhW isMG ƒ qW mJYlW
dy m`Qy qy l`gw ieh klMk jwpdw sI jo ik isrP ^Un nwl hI Doqw jw skdw sI[ies Bu`l

dw pscwqwp kyvl kurbwnI dy ky hI kIqw jw skdw sI[BweI mhW isMG ny ies kwrj leI
jQydwrI sMBwlI Aqy lokW ƒ iek`iTAW krnw SurU kIqw, ijs iv`c mwJy dy ipMf Jbwl dI
‘mweI Bwgo’ (jo ik BweI lMgwh dy Brw BweI pyro Swh dI pu`qrI sI) vI mrdwnw k`pVy
pihn ky lVn-mrn leI ienHW dy jQy nwl Swml ho geI[
ies jQy ny BweI mhW isMG jI dI kmwn hyTW mwlvy v`l kUc kIqw[aus smyN gurU
jI ‘iKdrwxy dI Fwb’ qy sn[ BweI mhW isMG dw jQw iKdrwxy dI Fwb nyVy phuMicAw hI
sI ik ieMnHW ny SwhI POojW AwauNdIAW vyKIAW[BweI mhW isMG Xu`D cwlW iv`c inpuMn sI[
aus ny ieh sB kuJ gurU jI dI sMgq iv`c rih ky lVIAW lVweIAW iv`c is`iKAw sI[ienHW
POjIAW ƒ pwxI dI Fwb qoN ip`Cy hI rokxw zruUrI sI[gurU jI aus smyN ie`k auu~cI it`bI qy
KVy vyK rhy sn[A`gy vD rhy POjIAW qy ienHW ny golIAW dw mINh vrsw id`qw Aqy aunHW qy
SyrW vWg tu`t ky pY gey sn[gurU jI ny ieMnHW dI mdd leI kuJ isMG vI Byjy sn qW jo auh
ieh smJ jwx ik aunHW dI Awmd dw gurU jI ƒ pqw l`g igAw hY[
Acwnk hoey hmly kwrn srhMd dw nvwb vzIr ^W Gbrw igAw[ nyVy-qyVy pwxI
nw hox krky aus dy AwdmI grmI Aqy qRyh nwl ivAwkul ho rhy sn[ nvwb ipCWh v`l
B`j inkilAw Aqy Awpxy ip`Cy mry, zKmI Aqy sihkdy POjI vI C`f igAw[ mYdwn KwlI
vyK ky gurU jI it`bI qoN hyTW Awey Aqy Awpxy ShId hoey isMGW dy isrW ƒ AwpxI godI iv`c
r`K v`fy v`fy ruqibAW nwl invwzx l`gy-“ieh myrw ds hzwrI hY, ieh myrw vIh hzwrI
hY[” ies qrHW b^iSSW krdy krdy jdoN auh mhW isMG kol pu`jy qW vyiKAw ik mhW isMG
j^mIN hoieAw Ajy sihk irhw sI[aus dy mUMh iv`c pwxI pw ky Aqy rumwl nwl aus dw
ichrw swP krky gurU jI ny pu`iCAw, “BweI mhW isMG!mYN qyrI kurbwnI qoN bhuq KuS hW, jo
cwhuMdw ey mMg lY[”
BweI mhW isMG ny h`Q joV ky ikhw, “AMq smyN Awp dy drSn ho gey hn, ies qoN
v`D kI ho skdw hY jo mMgW[jy kr imhr hI krnI hY qW auh ‘bydwvw’ hI pwV idE jo mwJy
dy k`uJ Bu`ly hoey vIr ilK ky dy gey sn[ Awpxy nwloN ieh tu`tI hoeI gNMF lvo[” gurU jI ny
sB ƒ muAwP kridAW hoieAw ikhw, “mYN ieh sWB ky r`iKAw sI Aqy mYƒ pqw sI ik koeI
sUrbIr XoDw ies ƒ pVvwaux leI zrUr Awvygw[ies QW qy myry ShId hoey cwlI isMG
cwlI mukqy AKvwauxgy[” gurU jI koloN bydwvw pVvwaux auprMq BweI mhW isMG Akwl
purK dy crnW iv`c phuMc igAw sI[DMn sI ieh sUrbIr XoDw mhW isMG ijs ny mJYlW dy
m`Qy qy l`gw dwZ AwpxI kurbwnI nwl DoA ky mwJy dI Swn vDweI sI[A`j ies AsQwn ƒ
mukiqAw dw AsQwn Bwv ‘mukqsr’ dy nwm nwl jwixAw jWdw hY Aqy ies QW qy “ tu`tI
gMFI” gurduAwrw bixAw hoieAw hY[

***

bwbw ibDI cMd jI ‘CInw’
(ipMf CInw, izlHw qrn qwrn)

ibDI cMd CInw gurU kw sInw
BweI ibDI cMd jI dw jnm 13 vYswK 1636 ibkrmI ƒ bwbw dyvw jI dy gRih ivKy
mwqw sMBlI dI ku`KoN, ipMf CInw izlHw AMimRqsr (hux izlHw qrn qwrn) iv`c hoieAw [ibDI
cMd jI dy ipMf srhwlI ivKy nwnky sn[ aunHW dI bcpn Awpxy nwnky Gr hI bIiqAw ij`Qy
aunHW dI sMgq Aijhy lokW nwl ho geI sI jo mwl-fMgr dI corI krn dw kMm krdy
sn[corI krnw hOlI hOlI aunHW dI Awdq hI bx geI [bySk ibDI cMd dw idmwg qyz qrwr, srIr Ku`lHI fIl-fOl vwlw sI, ies dy nwl nwl auh qkVy ijgry dy mwlk vI sn[
bySk ies kMm iv`c jwn jwx dw fr vI bixAw rihMdw hY, jdoN vwhrW mgr l`g q`urdIAW
hn Aqy keI vyrW mwrU vI is`D ho jWdIAW hn iPr vI smwj iv`c ieh kMm ie`zq vwlw
nhIN smiJAw jWdw[
Aijhw ie`k vwr ibDI cMd nwl vwpirAw vI sI jdoN auh iksy ipMf qoN m`JW corI
k`F ky lY AwieAw sI Aqy vwhr aus dy mgr l`g qurI sI[auh ny BYxI ipMf (hux cohlw
swihb) lwgy ru`KW dI ie`k JMgI ivcly C`pV iv`c m`JW ƒ vwV Awp ipMf dy bwhr d`Kx
vwly pwsy hl vwh rhy ie`k ikrswn pws jw bynqI kIqI sI ik aus mgr vwhr l`gI ijs
qoN auh aus ƒ bcw lvy[ieh ikrswn gurU dw ipAwrw BweI AdlI sI[ aus ny vwhr dy
pu`jx qy aunHW ƒ AwpxIAW m`JW C`pV iv`coN pihcwnx leI ikhw[ ieMj kihMdy hn ik m`JW
dy rMg bdl gey sn Aqy auh mwlkW dI pihcwx iv`c nhIN sn Aw rhIAW[ BweI AdlI
jI ny aunHW ƒ d`isAw ik ieh aunHW dIAW hI m`JW hn, auh lY jwx[ vwhr dy vwps jwx
ip`CoN BweI ibDI cMd ƒ bwbw AdlI ny ies kMm qoN qobw krn Aqy gurU dy lV l`gx dI
nsIAq kIqI[ ieh ibDI cMd jI dI ijMdgI iv`c ie`k moV sI
ijs dy Asr hyTW ib`DI cMd gurU Arjn dyv jI dI Srn iv`c clw igAw sI Aqy
A`gy qoN bury kMmW qoN qobw kr cMgI ijMdgI jIaUx l`gw sI ik Acwnk ie`k Gtnw vwpr
geI[
kwbl qoN Aw rhy ie`k is`K kroVI m`l koloN muglW ny do ierwnI GoVy ‘idlbwZ’
Aqy ‘ZulbwZ’ Koh ky lwhOr dy nvwb ƒ pyS kr id`qy sn ijhVy auh gurU drbwr iv`c Bytw
krn leI lY ky Aw irhw sI[ieh D`kw sI jo ib`DI cMd vrgy sUrbIr leI vMgwr bx igAw
sI[sRI gurU hrgoibMd jI koloN AwigAw lY ky ibDI cMd ny AwpxI jugq Aqy dlyrI nwl ieh
dovyN GoVy lwhOr dy iklHy ‘coN vwrI vwrI k`F ilAWdy sn Aqy gurU jI ƒ Aw pyS kIqy
sn[gurU jI dy pMj mu`K jQydwrW iv`coN ibDI cMd ie`k sI[
p`tI Sihr iv`c ‘B`Tw swihb’ gruduAwrw A`j vI ibDI cMd dI dlyrI Aqy bhwdrI
Bry kwrnwimAW dI Xwd idvwauNdw hY[ ieh auh smW sI jdoN aus ny muglW dI p`tI ,p`tI
hYbq pur ijs ƒ nON l`KI p`tI vI ikhw jWdw hY, iv`coN duSwly k`F ky lY AWdy sn jo guris`KW
koloN p`tI ‘coN lMGidAW ie`QoN dy mugl hwkmW dy bMidAW ny Koh ley sn[ ieh duSwly auh
gurU hrgoibMd jI dy drbwr iv`c Byt krn leI lY ky Aw rhy sn[ibDI cMd dI qIKx bu`DI
Aqy dlyrI hI ies zo^m Bry kMm ƒ sr-AMzwm dy skI sI[aus ny muglW dy GroN duSwly qW
k`F ley sn pr s^q pihrw hox krky Sihr qoN bwhr inklxw aus leI AOKw ho igAw

sI[ koeI hor cwrw nw vyK auh duSwilAW smyq ie`k BiTAwry dy B`T iv`c gurU dw Awsrw
lY ky vV igAw sI[ d`sdy hn ik aus smyN B`T grm sI[ gurU dw Awsrw lY auh AwpxI
jwn qy Kyf igAw sI[ ijs ƒ r`b r`Ky aus ƒ kOx mwry[auh shI slwmq rwq dy hnyry iv`c
bc inkl ky duSwilAW smyq gurU crnW iv`c phuMc igAw sI[
d`isAw jWdw hY ik suMdr Swh ibDI cMd dw ijgrI im`qr sI ijs nwl aus ny
vwAdw kIqw sI ik auh dovyN ie`ko smyN pRwx iqAwgxgyy[ ieh s`c hoieAw sI Aqy BwdoN
sudI 3 sMmq 1695 (14 Agsq, sMn 1640) ƒ bwbw ibDI cMd jdoN dyv ngr iv`c Awpxy
dosq suMdr dws dI irhwieSgwh qy aus kol Tihry hoieAw sI,qW aus ny Aqy aus dy dosq
ny ie`ko smyN ies PwnI zhwn ƒ Alivdw kih ieh colw iqAwg id`qw sI[

***

ShId
bwbw boqw isMG Aqy
bwbw grzw isMG jI

kihMdy ny ik golI dw inSwn imt jWdw hY pr bolI dw nhIN[ mugl rwj dI hnyrI
zorW ‘qy sI Aqy ienswP dw sUrj ikDry vI nzr nhIN sI AwauNdw[ies kwly smyN hI do
sUrmyN isMG BweI boqw isMG Aqy aus dw dosq BweI grjw isMG jo ik mwJy dy ipMf BVwxw dy
rihx vwly sn,pUrn isdkvwn Aqy gur is`K sn[ auh Aksr hI ie`k dUusry dy sMprk
iv`c rihMdy[auh rwqW ƒ luk-lukw ky AMimRqsr AwauNdy Aqy hirmMdr swihb Aw srovr
iv`c ieSnwn kr jWdy[ zkrIAw KW dy zulmW qoN bcx leI boqw isMG ny Awpxw ipMf C`f
jMglW iv`c pnwh lY leI sI[ auh kdIN kdweIN hI in`q vrqoN dIAW cIjW LYx leI vsoN
vwly ielwky v`l AwieAw krdw sI[
ie`k idn ie`k ijmINdwrW ny aus ƒ vyK ky aus qy is`K hox dw S`k pRgt kIqw[
auQy Kloqy dUsry lokW ny ikhw ik ieh koeI bihrUpIAw hoxw eyy[ jy kr ieh is`K huMdw qW
ies qrHW luk-iC`p ky nw AwauNdw[ is`K qW jwn qlI qy r`K ky AwauNdy hn[zkrIAw KW ny
swry pwsy ies g`l dw pRRcwr kIqw hoieAw sI ik swry is`K ^qm ho gey hn[ iesy krky
aunHW lokW ny S`k kIqw sI ik ieh is`K nhIN ho skdw[ieh g`l boqw isMG ny vI sux leI
sI Aqy aus ƒ ieh v`F ky Kw geI sI[ aus ny Ku`lHw SryAwm ivcrn dw mn bxw ilAw
sI[
nUrdIn dI srW ijhVI iksy nUrdIn nW dy muslmwn ny bxvweI sI, qrn qwrn qoN
Jbwl v`l jWidAw pMj ku iklo mItr dy Pwsly qy hY[ aus smyN ies srW dI hwlq kuJ
^sqw ho cu`kI sI[ bwbw boqw isMG ny aus qy kbzw kr, aus dI murMmq krvw ky Awpxy
dosq grjw isMG ƒ auQy s`d ilAw Aqy auh dovyN aus srW iv`c rihx l`g pey sn[smyN dI
srkwr dy brwbr AwpxI srkwr KVI kr dyxw ie`k qrHW nwl hkUmq ƒ Ku`lHw cYilMj
sI[aus rwh qoN lMGx vwilAW g`ifAW, KoiqAW Aqy rwhgIrW qoN rwhdwrI (tYks) ienHW
dovW ny vsUlxI SurU kr id`qI sI[ienHW ny ie`k rwhgIr rwhIN ie`k ic`TI zkrIAw Kwn ƒ
ilK ByjI ijs dw mjbUn ies qrHW sI:“ ic`TI sun ho Kwƒ koqw[ Awnw g`fw pYsw Koqw[
ieh jghwq lyq hY boqw[ h`Q mih rwKq motw sotw[
qyrw Awkbq kry hY Kotw[ myrw khI sunyhw jwie[
BwbI Kwno ƒ smJwie[
qyrw swr isMG jo lyqw[ qYƒ irhw aufIk Kloqw[
Awie srwie nUrdIn dI pws[ qUM zor lgw lY ^ws[
aunHW dohW ny mjlUmW dy mwl-Dn dI hukmrwnW qoN ihPwzq krnI SurU kr
id`qI[auhnW ny mzlUmW dy b`cy DwVvIAW qoN Koh ky vwps mwipAW ƒ moVny AwrMB id`qy[jdoN
ieh ic`TI lwhOr dy gvrnr zkrIAw KW kol pu`jI qW auh lohw lwKw ho igAw[ aus ny

ienHW dohW ƒ PVHn vwsqy POj dw ie`k dsqw ByijAw[ nUrdI ipMf (ijs dw Ajokw nW iklw
BweI sMqoK isMG hY[ ies AsQwn dw nW mhwn kvI BweI sMqoK isMG jI rcwieqw gRMQ
‘sUrj pRkwS’ dy nW qy r`iKAw igAw hY ) qoN qrn qwrn vwly pwsy bwhr vwr ienHW
sUrbIrW dw twkrw mugl ispwhIAW nwl ho igAw[ienHW ny mugl POjIAW ƒ ikhw ik auh
iek`ly nwl iek`lw iBVn[ies qrHW ienHW ny auhnW dy pMj-Cy ispwhI mwr id`qy[ iPr do-do
ie`k ie`k nwl lVn l`gy qW vI ienHW ny aunHW dy BwA dI bxw id`qI[ jdoN bwkI swry
ispwhI iek`Ty ienHW qy tu`t pey qW ienHW dovW bhwdrW ny Awps iv`c ip`TW joV leIAW Aqy
eyQy jMm ky lVweI hoeI[ ies lVweI iv`c ienHW ny muglW dy bhuq swry ispwhIAW ƒ pwr
bulw id`qw Aqy Awi^r ieh dovyN mJYl joDy lVdy hoey ShIdI dw zwm pI gey[

***

bwbw bIr isMG jI
(ipMf g`go bUhw, izlHw qrn qwrn)

AMimRqsr qoN Kymkrn ƒ jwx vwlI sVk qy ksbw Jbwl AwauNdw hY ijs qoN 7 ku
ik: mI: dI dUrI qy ipMf g`go bUhw hY ijhVw izlHw qrn qwrn iv`c pYNdw hY[ies vwrqw dw
nwiek bwbw bIr isMG jI sR: syvw isMG jI dy gRih ivKy swvn sudI 3, sMmq 1825 ƒ mwqw
Drm kOr dI ku`KoN pYdw hoey[ srIrk qOr qy auh bVy inroey sn ies leI cVHdI jvwnI
iv`c kuJ smyN leI mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dI POj iv`c BrqI vI rhy pr aUny vwly bwbw
swihb isMG jI dI sMgq iv`c Aw jwx kwrn bIr isMG ny POj dI nOkrI C`f id`qI
kihMdy hn ik sMgq dI rMgq” zrUr huMdI hY[ bwbw swihb isMG jI dI sMgq iv`c rih ky
bIr isMG jI Awqimk rMg iv`c rMgy rihx l`g pey[ hr smyN pRBU ismrn krnw aunHW dw
mu`K audyS bx igAw sI[ aunHW dI AiDAwqimk ibrqI vyK ky bwbw dsONDw isMG jI
nOrMgwbwd vwilAW ny bwbw bIr isMG jI ƒ Awpxy kol ipMf nOrMgwbwd lY AWdw ij`Qy aunHW ny
bIr isMG jI ƒ rUhwnI pRvcnW Aqy aupdySW rwhIN sPl jIvn jIaUx dI rwh ivKweI[
jykr ieh kih ilAw jwvy qW koeI AiqkQnI nhIN hovygI ik bwbw bIr isMG ny
Awpxw jIvn ie`k sMq-ispwhI bx ky jIivAw[ aunHW dw AwdrS BrpUr jIvn vyK ky aunHW
nwl is`K jgq idn-b-idn juVn l`g ipAw sI[ aunHW dy SrDwlU vI aunHW vWg hI sMq sn
Aqy ispwhI vI jo zulm ivru`D jUJx Aqy mr imtx leI hmySW iqAwr-br-iqAwr rihMdy
sn[
sMmq 1901 iv`c jdoN bwbw bIr isMG jI Awpxy Cy hzwr syvkW nwl hrIky p`qx dy
nyVy ipMf ‘Bau vwl’ ivKy ruky hoey sn qW sR: Aqr isMG ‘sMDwvwlIAw’ lwhOr drbwr dy
iksy JgVy iv`coN n`s ky bwbw jI dI Srn iv`c eyQy Aw igAw sI[ rwjw hrI isMG fogrw ny
POj Byj ky bwbw jI ƒ AwK ByijAw sI ik auh sMDwvwlIAw ƒ aus dy hvwly kr dyx[ ies
dy jvwb iv`c bwbw jI ny au~qr ByijAw sI ik Aqr isMG swfI Srn iv`c AwieAw hY Aqy
ijhVw swfI Srn iv`c Aw jWdw hY aus dI r`iKAw krnw swfw pRm-Drm bx jWdw hY[
ies leI Aijhw nhIN ho skdw[ kroD iv`c Aw ky hIrw isMG fogry ny AwpxI POj dy
POjdwr ƒ hukm id`qw sI ik auh Aqr isMG Aqy bwbw jI dohW ƒ igRPqwr krky lY Awvy[
POj ny bwbw jI dy ies kYNp qy qopW nwl golwbwrI krnI SurU kr id`qI ijs dy
PlsrUp qop dw ie`k golw bwbw bIr isMG jI dy s`jy gofy qy Aw v`jw ijs nwl bwbw jI dw
gofw cknw cUr ho igAw sI[ies JVp iv`c hzwrW isMG ShId ho gey sn Aqy bwbw jI dw
srIr vI golIAW nwl CnxI ho igAw sI[bwbw bIr isMG jI 27 vYswK, sMmq 1901 ƒ
ShIdI pRwpq kr gey sn[ bwbw bIr isMG jI dI Xwd iv`c aunHW dw gurduAwrw jnm
AsQwn g`gobUhw iv`c bixAw hoieAw hY[ ies qoN ielwvw ipMf r`qo ky ( nyVy Kymkrn ),
nOrMgwbwd (nyVy qrn qwrn) iv`c vI aunHW dI Xwd iv`c gurduAwry bxy hoey hn[d`isAw
jWdw hY ik aunHW dy kul 360 gurduAwry hn[

***

mwqw sul`KxI
( ipMf c`bw, izlHw AMimRqsr )

AMimRqsr - qrn qwrn mu`K sVk qy koeI 16 ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy ipMf c`bw
hY[ies ipMf dI rihx vwlI ie`k mweI sul`KxI sI ijs dI aumr vfyrI huMdI jw rhI sI
pr aus dy Gr koeI sMqwn nhIN sI hoeI[ gurUu hrgoibMd swihb jI Awpxy is`KW nwl nyVy dy
ipMf sMgrwxw swihb ij`Dr izAwdw krky jMgl sI iSkwr Kyfx AwieAw krdy sn[ies
mweI ny suixAw hoieAw sI ik sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dI CyvIN joq gurU hrgoibMd swihb jI
hr qrHW smr`Q hn Aqy aus dI pu`qr pRwpqI dI Aws aus dr qoN pUurI ho skdI hY[gurU jI
dy drSnw ƒ jwx vwlIAW sMgqW nwl auh vI sMgrwxw swihb phuMc geI Aqy gl iv`c
p`lw pw ky aus ny Arz kIqI ik mhwrwj myry koeI sMqwn nhI[ mYN swry mVHI mswx, pIr
PkIr iDAw bYTI hW pr pu`qr dI dwq dw ^Yr ikDroN nhI ipAw[
gurU jI ny aus mweI dI bynqI sux ky ikhw ik mwqw jI qyry krmW iv`c qW sMqwn
dI lkIr hI nhI ilKI[ ieh sux ky ivcwrI sul`KxI audws ho ipMf v`l muVI jw rhI sI
ik rsqy iv`c BweI gurdws jI iml pey, ijnHW ny aus qoN audwsI dw kwrn pu`iCAw[ mwqw
sul`KxI ny au~qr id`qw ik auh qW bVI hI Aws lY ky gurU jI koloN pu`qr dI dwq dw vr lYx
geI sI pr au~QoN vI KYr nhI ipAw[ BweI gurdws jI ny aus ƒ ie`k jugq smJw ky k`lH
Awaux leI kih ipMf qor id`qw [Agly idn iPr mwqw sul`KxI gurU jI dy drSnw ƒ AweI
sI Aqy gurU jI dy GoVy dI vwg PVH ky Klo geI Aqy yvYrwgmeI sur iv`c gurU jI dI ausqq
iv`c ieh boilAw:“s`cIey dwVHIey! ic`tIey p`gy!
Arz kryNdI AW, gurU hir goibMd A`gy[
nwm hY sul`KxI, qy v`sdI hW c`by ,
AP`l jWdI vyl ƒ, koeI Pl l`gy[”
ieh sux ky gurU jI ny aus ƒ ikhw, “ mwqw qYƒ k`lH vI ikhw sI ik qyry krmw
iv`c sMqwn nhI ilKI[ qUM A`j Pyr Aw geI eyN[” sul`KxI ƒ ijs qrHW BweI gurdws jI ny
smJwieAw hoieAw sI auh bolI, “ s`cy pwqSwh! jy myry krmW iv`c pihlW sMqwn nhI
ilKI qW hux ilK idE[au~Qy vI qusW ilKxw sI Aqy ie`Qy vI qusW hI ilKxw hY[ hux ilK
idE[” ieh kih ky mwqw sul`KxI ny kwZz qy klm dvwq gurU jI A`gy kr id`qI ijhVI
auh pihlW hI Awpxy nwl lY ky AweI sI[
gurU jI aus dI SrDw qy ipAwr vyK ky qu`T pey sn[ gurU jI ny klm nwl kwZz
qy ilKx leI jdoN klm kwZz qy r`KI qW aus smyN gurU jI GoVy qy Asvwr sn[ auh klm
nwl eykw (1) ilKx hI l`gy sn ik GoVy ny Aglw suMm (^ur) cu`k ilAw, ijs nwl gurU jI
dw h`Q ih`l igAw[ ie`k dI QW qy s`q (7) dw A`Kr kwgz qy vih igAw[ ijs mweI dy
koeI sMqwn nhIN sI aus dy Gr gurU jI dI ikrpw nwl s`q pu`qr jnmy[ ies qrHW mwJy dw
ieh Cotw ijhw ipMf ieiqhws dy pMinAW iv`c Amr ho igAw[

***

AiDAwie dUsrw

rwjnIqI
Aqy
mJYl

mhwrwjw j`sw isMG jI rwmgVHIAw
(ipMf sur isG, izlHw qrn qwrn)

igAwnI Bgvwn isMG jI dy ipqw BweI hrdws isMG jI (ienHW dI hI bxweI hoeI
nwgxI, BweI mnI isMG jI dy spu`qr s: bic`qr isMG jI ny phwVI rwijAW dy Byjy hoey
msq hwQI dy m`Qy iv`c AnMd pur swihb mwrI sI ) sn[ auhnW ny sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI
pwsoN AMimRq CikAw sI Aqy gurU jI nwl keI lVweIAW iv`c Swml hoo ky bVI sUrbIrqw
nwl lVy sn[j`sw isMG dy v`fy-vfyirAw dw ipClw ipMf sur isMG hY[BweI hrdws isMG
jI bwbw bMdw isMG bhwdr dI POj iv`c BrqI ho gey sn Aqy bjvwVy dI lVweI iv`c bVI
bIrqw nwl lVdy hoey ShId ho gey sn[ies qoN ip`CoN BweI Bgvwn isMG jI sur isG qoN
auT ky ‘eIcoigl’ iv`c jw v`sy sn[iehnW dy pMj pu`qr: j`sw isMG, jY isMG, ^uShwl isMG,
mwlI isMG Aqy qwrw isMG hoey hn[ieh ^wndwn rwmgVHIAw brwdrI nwl sbMDq hY[ sR:
j`sw isMG jI Awpxy BrwvW iv`coN sB qoN v`fy sn jo A`gy c`l ky rwmgVHIAw imsl dy moFI
hoey hn[ies p`K qoN vI ipMf sur isMG mwJy dy isrmOr ipMfW iv`c Awpxw AsQwn r`Kdw
hY[
s: j`sw isMG jI dw jnm 1723 eI: ƒ s: Bgvwn isMG jI dy Gr hoieAw[ aunHW
dy ipqw jI bhuq hI Dwrimk ivcwrDwrw dy ivAkqI sn[ BweI Bgvwn isMG dI ie`Cw sI
ik aus dI sMqwn vI au~cy Aqy su`cy cirqr vwlI bxy[ iesy AwSy nwl auh j`sw isMG ƒ
is`K ieiqhws dw igAwn krvwieAw krdy sn, ijs dw Asr j`sw isMG dy mn qy bhuq
fUMGw hoieAw[gurmuKI qoN ielwvw j`sw isMG ƒ gurbwxI vI kMT krvweI geI Aqy inqnym dy
DwrnI vI bxwieAw igAw[ j`sw isMG ƒ AMimRq pwn vI kIqw[
pMjwb qy nwdr Swh dy h`ly dy fr qoN lwhOr dy sUbydwr zkrIAw ^wn jo ik mno qW
swP nhIN sI iPr vI aus ny is`KW nwl im`qrqw gMF leI sI ijs dy PlsrUp ie`k l`K
rupeIAw Aqy nzrwny s: Subyg isMG h`QIN Byjy sn jo Kwlsw pMQ ny nvwb kpUr isMG jI ƒ
AMimRqsr jw ky aunHW dy hvwly kr id`qy Aqy zkrIAw Kwn dI mdd krn dw iekrwr
kIqw[ s: j`sw isMG Aqy j`sw isMG dy ipqw s: Bgvwn isMG jI vI ies dl iv`c Swml
sn[
sMn 1738 iv`c nwdr Swh Aqy zkrIAW Kwn dIAW POjW dI t`kr vzIrwbwd nyVy
hoeI[ ies lVweI iv`c s: Bgvwn isMG jI ShId ho gey[ aunHW dI bhwdrI bdly zkrIAw
Kwn v`loN pMj ipMf zgIr dy qOr qy Byt kIqy gey ijs iv`coN ipMf ‘v`lw’ s: j`sw isMG ƒ
jgIr vjoN imilAw[ iesy QW qy hI jlMDr dy POjdwr AwdInw byg nwl s: j`sw isMG dI
lVweI vI hoeI sI ijs iv`c s: j`sw isMG dI ij`q hoeI sI[ieh lVweI ‘v`ly dI lVweI’
krky vI jwxI jWdI hY[
1745 eI: iv`c zkrIAw ^wn dI mOq ip`CoN aus dy pu`qrW iv`c ^wnw-jMgI iCV
peI[ ies mOky dw Pwiedw is`KW ny munwisb smW jwx ky auTwieAw Aqy AwpxI qwkq

vDweI[ is`KW ny jQy bxw ky QW-QW Cwpy mwrny SurU kr id`qy sn[ s: j`sw isMG vI s: nMd
isMG sMGwrwxIey dy jQy iv`c Swml ho igAw, ijs iv`c aus ƒ bhwdrI dy jOhr ivKwaux dy
keI mOky imly[
mwVI kMboky dy s: su`Kw isMG dI rwey qy AMimRqsr iv`c gurU rwm dws jI dy nW qy
ie`k iklHw auswirAw igAw ijs dw nW ‘rwm rOxI’ r`iKAw igAw[ sMn 1748 iv`c Aihmd
Swh AbdwlI ny pMjwb qy pihlw hmlw kIqw ijs iv`c mueIn-aul-mlk (mIr mƒ) ny aus
ƒ mƒpur dy AsQwn qy hwr id`qI[ bwdSwh ny mIr mƒ ƒ pMjwb dw gvrnr Qwp id`qw
sI, ijs ny A`gy c`l ky is`KW qy Asih Aqy Akih zulm Fwhy sn[ ienHW julmW dw twkrw
is`KW ny vI isdk nwl kIqw[ aus dy zulmW ƒ vyK aus smyN ieh AKwx mShUr ho igAw
sI:“mƒ swfI dwqrI, AsIN mƒ dy soey[
ijauN ijauN mƒ v`Fdw AsIN dUx svwey hoey[”
jlMDr dy POjdwr AdInw byZ ƒ vI mugl hwkmW dw hukm hoieAw sI ik auh vI
is`KW qy zulm kry pr auh bVw clwk sI[auh jwxdw sI ik ies dw is`Dw lwB qW lwhOr
srkwr ƒ hovygw ijs nwl aus dI qwkq vDygI Aqy aus dI AwzwdI Gt jwvygI[ies g`l
ƒ ivcwr ky aus ny j`sw isMG nwl smJOqw kr ilAw sI[dovyN hI Awpo Awpxy dwA qy sn[
ies smJOqy qihq s: j`sw isMG ƒ AdInw byZ dI POj iv`c ie`k jrnYl vjoN inXukq kr
ilAw igAw sI[j`sw isMG ny Awpxw rsU^ vrq ky jlMDr iv`c keI is`KW ƒ Qwxydwr
inXukq krvw ilAw[ ies dw ie`k is`Dw lwB aus ny rwm rOxI dw Gyrw auTvwaux dy rUp
iv`c ilAw sI[
kuJ smyN leI qW AdInw byZ dI ieh dUhrI cwl kwmXwb rhI pr A^Ir mIr mƒ
dy dbw kwrn is`KW qy zulm krn leI aus ƒ vI mjbUr hoxw ipAw[ies s^qI dy dOr
iv`c is`KW ƒ Gr bwr C`f ky jMglW Aqy phwVW v`l jw ky vkq k`txw ipAw[ is`KW qy
s^qI dw sB qoN pihlw inSwnW iklHw rwmgVH hI bixAw[ aus smyN iklHy AMdr s: j`sw
isMG dI kmwn hyTW 900 is`K sn jo bhwdrI nwl lVdy hoey iklHy iv`coN inklx jwx iv`c
kwmXwb ho gey sn[ iklHy qy kbzw kr ky srkwrI POj ny ieh iklHw Fih-FyrI kr id`qw
sI[
mIr mƒ dI mOq ip`CoN s: j`sw isMG ny AwpxI qwkq iPr vDwauxI SurU kr id`qI
Aqy iklHw rwm gVH dI dubwrw auswrI SurU kr id`qI[ aus ny Awpxy Awly duAwly dy ielwky
vI sr krny SurU Ukr id`qy sn[1758eI: iv`c AdInw byZ mr igAw Aqy Aihmd Swh
AbdwlI ny 1759eI: qoN 1767eI: q`k pMjwb qy cwr hmly kIqy[ 1762 eI: iv`c aus v`loN
Acwnk hmlw kIqw igAw ijs iv`c mlyr kotly nyVy ‘kup klW’ ipMf dy QW qy bVI hI
iBAwnk lVweI hoeI[ ies lVweI iv`c ie`ko idn qIh hjwr is`K ShId ho gey sn[ is`K
ieiqhws iv`c ieh Gtnw ‘v`fw GlUGwrw’ dy nW nwl jwxI jWdI hY[ is`KW dI qwkq qy
ieh bhuq v`fI s`t sI pr qlvwrW dI CW hyTW plx vwlI is`K kONm ny sB v`fy ijgry nwl
sih ilAw sI[
hux is`KW ny AwpxI lVweI dw FMg bdl ky ‘gurIlw’ FMg Apxw ilAw sI[auh
rwq ƒ hmlw krdy Aqy lu`t mwr kr ky duSmx dy sMBlx qoN pihlW hI iq`qr ho jWdy
sn[AbdwlI ivr`uD CyVI hoeI ies jMg iv`c j`sw isMG AwhlUvwlIAw Aqy s: j`sw isMG
rwmgVHIAw moFI sn[kwzI nUr muhMmd, jo 1764 eI: ƒ Aihmd Swh AbdwlI dy nwl
pMjwb AwieAw sI, s: j`sw isMG dI dlyrI dw vrnx ies qrHW krdw hY---- “aus (j`sw
isMG AwhlUvwlIey) dy nwl ie`k hor j`sw isMG Tokw (qr^wx) sI, jo aunHW ku`iqAW
(is`KW) dy ivckwr ie`k ib`&ry hoey Syr vWg jwpdw sI[”
j`sw isMG byh`d hONsly dw mwlk sI jo iek`lw hI Aihmd Swh AbdwlI ivru`D
lVweI lVdw irhw[aus dI bhwdrI, dlyrI Aqy idRVqw sdkw hI Aihmd Swh AbdwlI dy
is`KW ƒ mlIAw myt krn dy ierwdy isry nhI sn cVH sky[ie`k ivswKI dy mOky qy jdoN is`K
AMimRqsr iek`Ty hoey sn qW aunHW ny Awpxy bwhU- bl nwl lwhOr qy kbzw kr ilAw

sI[ies smyN hI ^wlseI is`kw vI jwrI kIqw igAw sI[hux is`KW dw rwj Atk qoN lY ky
sqluj q`k PYl igAw sI[
sMn 1767 iv`c AbdwlI ny AwpxI iksmq ie`k vyrW iPr Ajmwaux leI Aw^rI
h`lw kIqw pr aus dIAW POjW ƒ ip`Cy D`kx iv`c is`K kwmXwb rhyy sn[ jdoN aus dIAW
POjW dirAw ibAws pwr kr rhIAW sn qW s: j`sw isMG rwmgVHIey Aqy s: j`sw isMG
AwhlUvwlIey dIAW POjW ny h`lw bol ky aus ƒ BwjVW pw id`qIAW sn[ies roz -roz dI
lVweI qoN qMg Aw ky aus ny is`KW nwl SwqI sMDI krn dw pRsqwv isMGW A`gy r`iKAw pr
isMGW ny ies ƒ ieh juAwb dy ky Tukrw id`qw:“koaU iksI kauu rwj n dY hYN[
jo lY hYN inj bl sy lY hYN[”
Aihmd Swh AbdwlI jwx igAw sI ik ies jUJwrU kOm nwl lohw lYxw aus dy v`s dw rog
nhIN[ ies leI auh Awpxy vqn vwps prq igAw sI[
ies ip`CoN rwmgVHIey srdwr ny btwlw, dInw ngr, sRI hrgoibMdpur, Swhpur kMfI,
kwdIAW, Gumwx qy kbzw kr ilAw[ ies qoN CyqI hI ip`CoN mnI vwl, auV muV tWfw,
srINh, mMgovwl, imAwxI, dIpwlpur, roihl Aqy SrIP pur dy ielwky vI aus AwpxI
srdwrI hyTW lY ley sn[phwVI rwijAW ny vI rwmgVHIey srdwr dI srdwrI A`gy gofy tyk
id`qy sn[ irAwsq cMbw dy nw- bwlZ rwjkumwr rwjw rwj isMG qoN ielwvw irAwsq
nUrpur dy ipRQvI isMG ny vI ibnW lVweI kIqy s: j`sw isMG dI eIn mMn leI sI[ ie`Qy
hI b`s nhIN dUsrIAW CotIAW CotIAW irAwsqW jsvW,Anwrpur, hrI pur, dwqwr pur,
jyTyvwl Awid vI j`sw isMG rwmgVHIey dI Srn iv`c Aw geIAW sn[ sMn 1796 iv`c Swh
zmwn lwhOr q`k Aw pu`jw sI qy aus ny AMimRqsr qy hmly dI vI mn iv`c Dwr leI sI pr
AMimRqsr dI rwKI leI s: j`sw isMG vI AwpxIAW POjW nwl Aw fitAw sI Aqy bcwE
kwrjW iv`c vD cVH ky ih`sw ilAw sI[
s: j`sw isMG rwmgVHIey dy smu`cy jIvn qy Jwq mwirAW swhmxy AwauNdw hY ik auh
ie`k swaU mnu`K sI Aqy Awpxy ivroDIAW dw vI siqkwr krdw sI[rwjnIqk sUJ bUJ aus
ƒ Awpxy jIvn dy qjrby iv`coN pRwpq hoeI sI[auh ie`k Adu`qI jrnYl,pRbMDk Aqy bhuq hI
cqur nIqIvwn sI[auh ie`k sDwrn ikrqI Grwxy iv`coN auu~T ky ie`k imsl dw srdwr
bixAw[j`sw isMG dw Awcrx bydwZ, bylwZ Aqy slwhuxXog hY[Awpxy smyN dy kIqy
Dwrimk kMmW iv`c sMn 1823 iv`c qrn qwrn dy qlwb dIAW do bwhIAW ƒ p`kw krvwaux
dw kMm ^ws qOr qy vrnxXog hY[
80 swl dI AwXU Bog ky ieh sUrbIr XoDw 1803 eI: ƒ ies sMswr qoN kUc kr
igAw[ mhwrwjw j`sw isMG dI mOq ip`CoN aus dw pu`qr s: joD isMG g`dI nSIn bixAw ijs
dI im`qrqw mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG nwl vI rhI sI[ mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG nyy Awpxy rwj
kwl dOrwn kdy vI rwmgVHIAw imsl dy i^lwP lVn dw soicAw vI nhIN sI[ s: j`sw
isMG mwJy dI Awn Aqy Swn sI jo is`K jgq iv`c ie`k rOSn mnwry dI qrHW A`j vI cmk
irhw hY[ieho ijhy kOmI pRvwinAw ƒ mYN nqmsqk huMdw hW[

***

is`K jrnYl

sR: Swm isMG AtwrI

sR: Swm isMG dy v`fy-vfyry jYslmyr (rwjsQwn) dy rihx vwly sn[sMn 1735 iv`c
auh rwjsQwn qoN plwien krky mwlvy iv`c jgrwauN nyVy ipMf ‘kwauNky’ iv`c Aw v`sy
sn[is`K imslW dy smyN ies pRvwr dy do srdwr gOhr isMG Aqy hyr isMG Awpxy dUsry
swQIAW nwl mwJy iv`c Aw gey sn Aqy ie`Qy vI aunHW nyy ‘kwauNky’ nW dw ie`k ipMf vsw
ilAw sI[dsdy hn ik bYrwgI swDUAW dy kihx qy s: gOhr isMG ny ie`k purwxy Qyh qy jw
fyry lwey sn Aqy auQy au`cI AtwrI (mkwn)pw leI sI[aucy aucy AtwrIAW vrgy mkwnW dy
nW qy hI ies ipMf dw nwm ‘AtwrI’ mShUr ho igAw sI[ ies ipMf iv`c rihx vwly
srdwr ‘AtwrI vwly srdwr’ AKvwaux l`gy[Swm isMG dy bzurg mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG
dI POj iv`c BrqI ho ky cMigAW ruqibAW qy phuMc gey sn[Swm isMG dw ipqw s: inhwl
isMG, BMgI imsl dy srdwr swihb isMG kol nOkr sI[
sMn 1795 qoN 1798 dy smyN AMdr APgwnw ny swihb isMG qoN gujrwq dw ielwkw
KwlI krvwaux leI swihb isMG nwl keI lVweIAW lVIAW[ ieMnHW lVweIAW iv`c
A&gwn bhuq hI bhwdrI nwl lVy pr aunHW ƒ hr vwr hwr dw mUMh vyKxw ipAw sI[ AMq
Aihmd Swh ƒ isMGW ny mwr mukwieAw sI[ ienHW lVweIAW iv`c s: inhwl isMG bhuq hI
bhwdrI nwl liVAw Aqy AwpxI bhwdrI dy zOhr ivKwey sn[ ies ip`CoN inhwl isMG,
swihb isMG dI nOkrI C`f ky mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dI POj iv`c kmWfr vjoN BrqI ho
igAw sI[aus ny hr v`fI lVweI iv`c ih`sw ilAw sI ^ws krky ksUr dI ij`q smyN Aqy
mulqwn ‘qy cVHweI smyN aus ny ivSyS krky bhwdrI dy zOhr ivKwey[
sR: inhwl isMG dy mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG kol nOkrI iv`c huMidAw hI s: Swm isMG
AtwrI vI mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG kol nOkrI iv`c Aw cu`kw sI [bhwdr ipqw dy hoxhwr
spUq ƒ ipqw ny GoV-AsvwrI, qlvwr bwjI,qIr AMdwzI Aqy lVweI dy krqvW bwry jwxU
hI nhI sI krvwieAw sgoN ies iv`c inpuMn vI kr id`qw sI[mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dI
POj iv`c huMidAW hoieAW mhwrwjw dI pwr^U A`K ny BWp ilAw sI ik ieh inDVk XoDw
is`K rwj dI mjbUqI leI Awpxy ipqw vWg hI ie`k hIrw swbq hovygw[ipqw dy huMidAw hI
Swm isMG ƒ ienwm vjoN ie`k hIirAW dI jVHI hoeI klgI mhwrwjy v`loN imlI sI[ipqw dI
mOq ip`CoN suKo ielwky dI 50,000 rupey slwnw dI zwgIr dw vwirs Swm isMG bx igAw
sI[
sMn 1818 iv`c Swm isMG dy ipqw dw idhWq ho igAw[ pihlI lVweI iv`c Swm
isMG ny AwpxI bhwdrI dy zOhr idKwey sn [mulqwn dI lVweI smyN mhwrwjw rxjIq
isMG v`loN ‘BMgIAW dI qop’ lVweI iv`c ByjI geI sI ijs iv`c ie`k mx dw golw pYNdw
sI[dohW pwisAW qoN Gmswx dw Xu`D hoieAw[isMGW ny Sihr qy qW kbzw kr ilAw sI pr
iklHw sr nhIN sI ho sikAw, ijs iv`c 20,000 hjwr ZwjI nvwb muzPr Kwn dI kmwn
hyTW lV rhy sn[ies lVweI dw hwl muxSI gulwm zIlwnI ny ‘jMg nwmw mulqwn’ iv`c
ies qrHW iliKAw hY:-

“mYN is`KW vwlw Bys bxw ky kYNp iv`c muz`Pr ^Wn dy sUhIey vjoN iPr qur irhw sI[ 2 jUn,
1818 eI: ƒ jdoN mYN roz dI qrHW AwpxI fIaUtI qy inkilAw qW Acwnk ie`k pwisEN mYƒ
kuJ Sor-Srwbw suxweI id`qw[mYN jdoN rOly vwlI QW qy pu`jw qW kI vyKdw hW ik 12-13 isMG
Awps iv`c JgV rhy sn qy kih rhy sn ik mYN pihlW, mYN pihlW[ A`gy ho ky vyiKAw qW
mYN if`Tw ik ‘BMgIAW vwlI qop’ dw ie`k phIAw tu`t cu`kw sI[iklHy dI dIvwr qoVn dI
smr`Qw kyvl iesy hI qop iv`c sI[ qopcI dI qjvIz Anuswr, vwrI vwrI phIey dI QW qy
Awpxy moFy fwhuxy pRvwn kr ley qy ie`k dUjy qoN A`gy ho moFy fwh ShIdIAW pwaux l`gy[
isMGW dI ies lwswnI krubwnI sdkw qop goly dwZdI rhI qy iklHy dI dIvwr ƒ Fwaux iv`c
s&l ho geI[ dIvwr Fihx dI dyr sI ik AkwlI PUlw isMG dI ‘AkwlI POj’ tu`tI QW qoN
t`p ky AMdr jw vVI Aqy duSmx nwl h`Qo h`QI lVweI iv`c jUJ ky Pqih pRwpq kIqI[”
ies lVweI iv`c nvwb Awpxy do pu`qrW smyq mwirAw igAw[ s: Swm isMG AtwrI ies
lVweI iv`c bhuq hI bhwdrI nwl liVAw[ aus dy moFy qy ikrpwn dw P`t lgw pr auh
iPr vI lVdw irhw sI[ ies GtnW dw pqw jdoN mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG ƒ l`gw qW auh
g`d-g`d ho a~uTy sn[ mhwrwjy dy mn iv`c s: Swm isMG leI hor vI ie`zq v`D geI sI[
s: hrI isMG jI nlUey qy Swm isMG dI sWJI sUJ-bUJ Aqy bhwdrI sdkw isMGW ny
‘SpeIAw’ dy mYdwn iv`c APgwnW ivru`D ij`q pRwpq kIqI, ijs nwl swrw kSmIr is`K
rwj iv`c Swml ho igAw sI[ies ij`q dI ^uSI iv`c iqMn idn AMimRqsr iv`c dIpmwlw
kIqI geI sI Aqy s: Swm isMG AtwrI ƒ ie`k sMudr Aqy kImqI puSwk mhwrwjw ny
ienwm vjoN Byt kIqI sI[
s: Swm isMG ny mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy poqry Aqy ^Vk isMG dy spu`qr kMvr
nOinhwl isMG nwl AwpxI lVkI ‘nwnkI’ dI 1835 eI:iv`c mMgxI kIqI Aqy 1837 eI:
iv`c SwdI kr id`qI sI[ieh SwdI bhuq hI TwT-bwT nwl kIqI geI sI Aqy id`l KolH ky
dwn-puMn vI kIqw igAw sI[ mhwrwjw nwl kuVmwcwrI ho jwx krky Swm isMG dw SwhI
drbwr iv`c hor vI siqkwr v`D igAw sI[
mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy Akwl clwxw kr jwx ip`CoN mhwrwjw Syr isMG ny sMn
1841 iv`c Swh Sujwh dy pRvwr Aqy kYptn zwrj bRwfPu`t ƒ pMjwb iv`coN lMGw ky
A&gwnsqwn q`k shI slwmq phuMcwaux dI ijmyvwrI s: Swm isMG ƒ sONpI sI[ies
kwi&ly iv`c Swh Sujwh dy pRvwr dIAW 600 AOrqW, kuJ nOkr Aqy kImqI swjo -smwn sI
ijs dI rwKI leI AMgryzW v`loN bRwfPu`t ƒ inXukq kIqw igAw sI[ieh kwi&lw AMgryzW
dy ielwky luiDAwxw qoN c`l ky kwbul pu`jw [rsqy iv`c bRwfPu`t ny keI qrHW nwl s: Swm
isMG ƒ aukswh ky iKJ dvwaux dI koiSS kIqI sI pr Swm isMGny SWq ic`q rih ky bVI
hI isAwxp Aqy kuSlqw nwl ies kwrj ƒ nypry cwiVHAw sI[
mhwrwjw Syr isMG dy drbwr iv`c aus dy mu`K mMqrI iDAwn isMG fogrw, lihxw
isMG Aqy AjIq isMG sMDwvwlIAw dIAW kUt cwlW ny imqI 15-09-1843 ƒ mhwrwjw Syr
isMG ƒ kql krvw id`qw sI qy ies ip`CoN nwbwlg dlIp isMG ƒ q^q qy ibTw id`qw ijs
dw mu`K mMqrI iDAwn isMG fogry dw pu`qr hIrw isMG fogrw bx igAw sI[ auh ies Ahudy
leI lMmy smyN qoN qrlo m`CI ho irhw sI[hux qW hwl ieh sI ik ieh drbwr kqlo gwrd
dw AKwVw bx igAw sI[sucyq isMG ƒ vI POjIAW h`QoN kql krvw id`qw igAw Aqy is`K
POjIAW koloN sMq bwbw bIr isMG jI nOrMgwbwd vwilAW ƒ qop dy goly nwl aufvw id`qw
igAw Aqy hor in`jI ivroDIAW ƒ vI kql krvw id`qw igAw sI[ies iGnwauxy kMm leI
lokW ny mhwrwjy ƒ lwhnqW pweIAW pr hIrw isMG ienHW POjIAW ƒ ienwm dy ky Awpxy nwl
r`Kx iv`c sPl irhw[ ies Gtnw qoN pihlW s: Swm isMG Awpxy lVky dy Akwl clwxy qy
AtwrI igAw hoieAw sI[
SwhI drbwr iv`c pwto-DwV dw mhOl vyK ky s: Swm isMG Awpxy Awp ƒ drbwr
dy rwjsI mwmilAW qoN hux dUr hI r`Kx l`g ipAw sI[s: Swm isMG AtwrI qW is`K rwj
ƒ pRPulq huMdw vyKxw cwhuMdw sI pr drbwr iv`c fogirAW dI BYVI nIAq Aqy pMjwb iv`c
fogrw rwj sQwipq krn dIAW cwlW qoN auh du`KI sI[kyvl fogry hI nhIN AMgryz vI
pMjwb ƒ Awpxy ADIn krn leI XqnSIl sn[

fogirAW dIAw cwlW is`K rwj ƒ idn-b-idn ^oKlw krI jw rhIAW sn[s: Swm
isMG vI hIrw isMG dy ies nIc kwry qoN du`KI sI[ 12dsMbr, 1844eI: dw idn hIrw isMG
leI mnhUs is`D hoieAw jdoN mhwrwxI ijMdw nw-bwlg dlIp isMG ƒ nwl lY ky POjW iv`c
Aw phuMcI qy ikhw,
“^wlsw jI! jy kr pMjwb dw bwdSwh dlIp isMG hY qW auh myrI,myry Brw Aqy dUsry
is`K srdwrW dI slwh nwl rwj krygw[jy kr Asl bwdSwh auh nhI qW myrw b`cw
A`j hI AijhI bwdSwhq ƒ Tokr mwrdw hY[”
is`K POjIAW ny jYkwirAW dI gUMj iv`c dlIp isMG dy h`k iv`c AwpxI pRvwngI dI
muhr lw id`qI[jdoN hIrw isMG ƒ ies dI ^br l`gI qW aus ny Awpxy injI slwhkwr
‘pMifq jlHy nwl slwh mSvrw krky jMmU v`l B`j inkilAw Aqy jWdw hoieAw Awpxy nwl
lwhOr dw ^jwnw vI lY igAw sI[ies qrHW auh fogry POjIAW iv`c jw rilAw sI[jdoN s:
Swm isMG AtwrI ƒ ieh sB pqw l`gw qW aus ny is`K POjIAW nwl aus dw ip`Cw
kIqw[hIrw isMG ilAWdw hoieAw Dn fogrw POjIAW iv`c su`t AwpxI jwn bcwky B`j
inkilAw sI pr Swm isMG dI kmwn hyTW lV rhy is`K bhwdr POjIAW dI mwr ‘coN dovyN
hI nw bc sky Aqy sdw dI nINd suAw id`qy gey[
s: Swm isMG jI AtwrI rwjsI mwmilAW iv`c Awm krky koeI rucI nhI sI
r`Kdw[ auh ienHW JmyilAW qoN dUr hI rihMdw sI[ fogirAW ivru`D qlvwr aunHW ny ies
krky cu`kI sI ik auh is`K rwj ƒ hV`pxw cwhuMdy sn[kyvl fogry hI nhI AMgryzW dI A`K
vI pMjwb ƒ Awpxy ADIn krn qy itkI hoeI sI[AMgryz fogirAW ƒ Awpxw h`Q Tokw bxw
ky ieh kwrj is`D krnw cwhuMdy sn[gulwb isMG, qyjw isMG Aqy lwl isMG nmk hrwmI
fogirAW ny is`K POj dy Byd AMgryzW ƒ id`qy sn[AMgryzW ny sqluj dI sMDI qoV ky isMGW
dy ielwky iv`c Awx pYr DirAw sI[isMGW dIAW AMgryzW nwl hyT ilKIAW lVweIAW
hoeIAW sn[
(a)
mudkI dI lVweI
18 Aqy 19 dsMbr, 1845eI:
(A) PyrU Swh dI lVweI
21 Aqy 22 dsMbr, 1845eI:
(e)
b`dovwl dI lVweI
6 jnvrI, 1846eI:
(s)
AwlIvwl dI lVweI 28 jnvrI, 1846eI:
(h)
sBrwvW dI lVweI
10 PrvrI, 1846 eI:
ieh lVweIAW dy SurU hox qoN pihlW hI s: Swm isMG jI Awpxy pu`qr kwhn isMG
dI SwdI dy sbMD iv`c luiDAwxy ijlHy dy ipMf ‘kkrwly’ gey hoey sn[lwhOr qoN nOkrI C`f ky
auh vwps AtwrI Aw gey sn[lwhOr iv`c mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dI mOq ip`CoN hoeIAW
GtnwvW qoN Awp dw ihrdw bhuq du`KI sI[Awp-hudry POjIAW dIAW mn mwnIAW Aqy mn
mrjIAW krn kr ky Swm isMG ny nOkrI C`f id`qI sI[jdoN Swm isMG ƒ AMgryzW dy hmly
dw pqw l`gw qW auh ipMf ‘kkrwly qoN AtwrI vwps Aw gey sn[
PyrU Swh dI hoeI hwr ip`CoN rwxI ijMdW ny s: Swm isMG ƒ ies qrHW dw sunyhw
ByijAw, “srdwr jI! hux qusIN hI is`K rwj dy bcwE leI kuJ kr skdy ho [ AwE
Aqy is`K POj dI kmwn sMBwlo[” ieh ru`kw pVH ky srdwr dw ^Un KOl au~iTAw[auh morcy
qy phuMc gey Aqy sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dI hjUrI iv`c Ardwsw krky POj dy swhmxy pRx
ilAw ik jy kr is`K POj hwrI qW Swm isMG AtwrI jIaUNdw vwps Gr nhI Awvygw[ 10
PrvrI 1846 eI: ƒ AMgryzW qy isMGW iv`c Gmswx dw jMg hoieAw[ies jMg dw nzwrw
Swh muhMmd ny AwpxI ikrq ‘jMg isMGW qy &rMgIAW’ iv`c ies qrHW drj kIqw hY:“AweIAw pltxW bIV ky qop^wny,
A`goN isMGW ny pwsVy moV id`qy[
syvw isMG qy mwKy ^W hoey is`Dy,
h`ly iqMn &rMgI dy qoV id`qy[
Swm isMG srdwr AtwrI vwly,
bMnH SSqrIN joV ivCoV id`qy[
Swh muhMmdw isMGW ny goirAW dy,

vWg inMbUAW lhU incoV id`qy[”
AMgryzW dy Acwnk boly hoey h`ly Aqy gdwr fogry qyjw isMG dy kIqy Droh nwl is`K
POjW dy pYr ayuKV gey[qyjw isMG ny dirAw sqluj qy bxy hoey byVIAW dw pul ƒ vI quVvw
id`qw qW ju Awpxy ipAwry pMjwb leI lVdy hoey isMG POjI dirAw pwr nw kr
skx[gdwrW dI gdwrI rMg ilAweI[duSmx ny s: Swm isMG AtwrI qy golIAW dw mINh
vrHw id`qw[srdwr CwqI iv`c Cy golIAW Kw ky Awpxy GoVy qoN Fih ipAw Aqy Awpxy ipAwry
pMjwb dI rwKI krdw hoieAw kurbwn ho igAw[
“A`j hovy srkwr qy mu`l pwvy,
ijhVIAW ^wlsy ny qygW mwrIAW ny[
Swh muhMmdw ie`k srkwr bwJoN,
POjW ij`q ky AMq ƒ hwrIAW ny[”

***

(Swh muhMmd)

ShId

sR: drSn isMG jI ‘PyrUmwn’
(ipMf PyrUmwn, izlHw AMimRqsr)

ibrQI kdy n hoveI jn kI Ardws [[
is`K jgq iv`c Ardws dI mhwnqw Ak`Q Aqy Akih hY[Ardws dw AslI Bwv
hI hY mn Aqy ibrqI ƒ iekwgr krky AwpxI Awqmw iv`c lIn ho ky iksy kwrz is`DI
leI Awpxy ieSt iv`c juV ky kwrz dw AwrMB krnw[ies iv`c ivAkqI dw mnobl ieMnW
blvwn ho jWdw hY ik mOq dw fr vI aus ƒ Awpxy p`Q qoN iv`clq nhI kr skdw[aus
leI srIr dI koeI mhqqw nhI rih jWdI[ aus dw inSwnw Arjn dy inSwny vrgw ho
jWdw hY ijs ƒ pMCI dI A`K qoN ibnW hor kuJ id`sdw hI nhIN [
AijhI hI ibrqI dw ie`k mJYl mwJy dI DrqI qy pYdw hoieAw sI ijs ny Ajoky
smwj ƒ d`s id`qw sI ik Ardws koeI lPjW dw qwxw bwxw hI nhI huMdw sgoN smrpx
Aqy smripq hox dw nW ‘Ardws’ hY[ ies joDy dw nW sI sR: drSn isMG jI ‘PyrUmwn’,
jo pihlI Agsq sMn 1886 ƒ sR:cMdw isMG jI dy gRih ivKy mwqw rwj kOr dI ku`KoN, ipMf
PyrUmwn,izlHw AMimRqsr iv`c pYdw hoey sn[jvwnI iv`c ijMnW srIr Ku`lwH-fu`lHw sI auqnIN hI
mn dI soc, isrV, syvw Bwv,vwihgurU qy inscw Aqy kurbwnI krn dI Bwvnw vI aus iv`c
ku`t-ku`t ky BrI hoeI sI[ jIvn iv`c koeI lok BlweI dw kMm kr jwxw hI PyrUmwn swihb
dw jIvn audyS sI[D`ky ivru`D ft jwxw sR:drSn isMG dw pRm-krqv huMdw sI[
ielwky iv`c skUlW kwljw dI A`j ijMnIN bhuqwq aus vyly nhI sI,ies leI PyrUmwn
swihb ny dsvIN jmwq sMn 1911 iv`c duAwbw hweI skUl jlMDr qoN pws kIqI sI[AMgryz
dw rwj sI ijs iv`c BwrqIAW ƒ gulwmI dI ijMdgI jIaUxI pY rhI sI[ AMgryz dy mn
iv`c gulwm lokW leI nPrq dI jvwlw sI ijs dI aupj hI sI jilHAWvwlw bwg dw ^UnIN
swkw jo 13 AprYl, sMn 1919 ƒ ivswKI vwly idn vwpirAw sI[sR: drSn isMG jI Br
jvwnI iv`c sn[aunHW dw KUn grm sI ijs qy ies swky ny bldI qy qyl dw kMm kIqw
[PyrUmwn jI ny jQydwr aUDm isMG ‘nwgoky’ nwl rl ky “gurU qyg bhwdr AkwlI jQw”
bxwieAw [sMn 1921 iv`c l`gy cwbIAW dy morcy iv`c ih`sw lYx krky jQydwr horQ ƒ ie`k
swl leI jyhl Xwqrw vI krnI peI sI[
dyS dy svqMqrqw sMgrwm iv`c ih`sw lYx krky aunHW nyy mulqwn Aqy nwBy dIAW jylHW
iv`c kYd vI k`tI [sMn 1926 iv`c sR: drSn isMG mlwieAw cly gey ij`Qy aunHW ny is`KI
rvwieqW dI r`iKAw leI pihlI vyrW cwr idn dI Bu`K hVqwl r`KI [dyS AzwdI dy hr
kwrj iv`c auhnW ny vD cVH ky Xogdwn pwieAw[ PyrUmwn jI ny AkwlI lihr Aqy kWgrs
pwrtI iv`c rih ky ikrswnW leI byimswl Gwlxw GwlIAW [
AMgryjW dy jUly ‘coN qW AwjwdI iml geI sI pr pMjwb do tukiVAW iv`c cIirAw
igAw sI[AsIN Ajy vI AwpixAW dy gulwm sW[pMjwb qy iPr ie`k vwr isAwsI kYNcI c`l
geI sI ijs ny ies pMjwb dy iqMn tukVy kr id`qy sn[ies pMjwb dy dUsry pMjwbI boldy
ielwky ies iv`c Swml krky “pMjwbI sUbw” qW kI bxwauxw sI sgoN ies iv`coN nvyN sUby

ihmwcl Aqy hirAwxw bx gey ijnHW ƒ pMjwbI boldy ielwky dy ky ies dy h`k qy Cwpw
mwirAw igAw sI[ies D`kySwhI ivru`D AkwlI dl v`loN pMjwbI bolI dy ADwr qy sMGrS
iviFAw igAw ijs iv`c mu`K mMg pMjwb ƒ cMfIgVH Aqy pMjwbI boldy ielwky dyxw sI[sMq
Pqih isMG Aqy sMq cMnx isMG horW ny ie`k isAwsI frwmw ricAw ijs iv`c aunHW ny
AYlwn kIqw sI ik jy kr ieh mMgW nw mMnIAW geIAW qw Akwl q^q dy nwl lgdI ie`k
iemwrq qy bxwey hoey ‘Agn- kuMfW’ iv`c auh ijMdw sV mrngy[aunHW ny Ardws vI kIqI
sI pr mrnw ikhVw sOKw hY[keI qrHW dy bhwny bxw ky Awi^r auh AwpxI Ardws Aqy
vwAdy qoN B`j inkly sn[ ies g`l ny PyrUmwn jI dI Awqmw ƒ vlUMDr ky r`K id`qw
sI[kIqI hoeI Ardws qoN ienHW dovW sMqW ny ip`Cy ht ky Ardws dI mhwnqw ƒ nIvW
ivKwieAw sI Aqy is`K jgq iv`c ies dI mhwnqw ƒ klMkq kIqw sI[mhMq syvw dws
isMG ny vI Aijhw hI frwmw ricAw sI pr k`cw pwr nhI sI l`g sikAw Aqy CyqI hI
^ur igAw sI[ieh PyrUmwn jI ƒ pRvwn nhI sI [bwbw dIp isMG jI vrgy joiDAW dI kIqI
Ardws pRqI duUsrIAW kOmW dy mnW iv`c SMky pYdw kr id`qy sn[ieh Doxw qW isrP
kurbwnI nwl hI Doqw jw skdw sI[cMfIgVH, BwKVw Aqy hirAwxw ivcly pMjwbI boldy
ielwky pMjwb iv`c Swml krn dw mu`dw lY ky Awi^r sR: drSn isMG jI ‘PyrUmwn’ ny
pihlI Agsq 1969 eI: ƒ Awpxy jnm idn vwly idn reIAw mMfI dy ie`k jlsy iv`c
mrn-vrq r`Kx dw Awpxw mn sB nwl sWJw kr id`qw sI[
PyrUmwn jI ƒ igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw sI[imqI 14 Agsq sMn 1969 ƒ aunHW ny
svyry pwT krky Ardwsw soiDAw Aqy Awpxw mrn-vrq ArMB kr idqw [v`K v`K
isAwsI lIfrW v`loN aunHW ƒ ies mrn vrq ƒ iqAwg dyx leI bynqIAW kIqIAW
geIAW sn[ie`QoN q`k ik aus smyN dI pRDwn mMqrI v`loN vI AijhIAW ApIlW kIqIAW
geIAW sn[pr ieh pRvwnw qW Ardws kr ky Awpw vwrn dw mn bxw bYTw sI[85 swl
dI aumr iv`c vI aunHW dw ivSvwS Aqy inscw ieqnw pRp`k sI ik auh nhI foly Aqy
A^Ir 74 idnW dI lMmI Bu`K hVqwl ip`CoN imqI 27 AkqUbr, 1969eI: ƒ ies coly ƒ
iqAwg gey sn Aqy lokW ƒ d`s gey sn ik Ardws kI huMdI hY[ies qrHW ieh isrVI
mJYl kurbwnI dI ie`k Adu`qI imswl kwiem kr igAw sI ijs bwry kvI ‘gurwieAw vI
kihxoN nhI rih sikAw--“sqweI AkqUbr idn duiphr vyly,
‘PyrUmwn’ svrg isDwirAw sI[
kQnI krnI dI rIq kr igAw pUrI,
krjw kOm dw isroN auqwirAw sI[
isdk sbr dI isAwhI iqAwr krky,
kYsw ilK ‘gurwieAw’ ieiqhws id`qw[
rwh d`s ky AglIAW pIVHIAW ƒ,
mOq qWeIN, mJYl llkwirAw sI[”

***

jQydwr aUDm isMG nwgoky
(ipMf nwgoky, izlHw qrn qwrn)

aUDm isMG dw jnm sR:bylw isMG jI dy Gr mwqw Awqo dI ku`KoN ipMf ‘nwgoky’ ijlHw
AMimRqsr (hux ijlHw qrn qwrn) iv`c sMn 1894 ƒ hoieAw[ ieh ipMf ^fUr swihb qoN
iqMn ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy siQq hY[ ies ipMf ny dyS Aqy kOm qoN kurbwn hox vwly
keI mJYl pYdw kIqy hn, ijnHW iv`c jQydwr aUDm isMG jI ngoky, jQydwr mohn isMG jI
nwgoky,igAwnI krqwr isMG jI ijnHW ƒ is`K isAwsq dw idmwg ikhw jWdw hY Aqy sR:
suKijMdr isMG jI swbkw ividAw mMqrI pMjwb Awid[
jQydwr swihb dw swrw jIvn hI sMGrSmeI Aqy lok BlweI dy kwrjW leI
jUJidAW bqIq hoieAw [sMn 1921 iv`c drbwr swihb AMimRqsr dw cwbIAW dw morcw
l`gw qW aus iv`c ih`sw lYx kwrn aunHW ƒ 6 mhIny dI kYd Aqy zurmwnw hoieAw sI[Agly
hI swl sMn 1922 iv`c ‘gurU kw bwZ’ dy morcy iv`c bI.tI. dIAW fWgW KwxIAW peIAW
sn Aqy aus auprMq igRPqwr hox qyy do swl dI jylH Xwqrw vI krnI peI sI[kYd k`tx dy
nwl nwl zurmwnw vI qwrnw ipAw sI[ikauNik aunHW dw mn hr smyN julm ivruD jUJx leI
qqpr rihMdw sI, ies leI jdoN sMn 1929 iv`c ‘jYqoN dw morcw l`gw qW jQydwr horW ny
aus iv`c igRPqwrI dy ky ie`k swl dI kYd k`tI sI[ aUDm isMG dIAW srkwr ivroDI
gqIivDIAW krky auh srkwr leI ie`k ^qrw bxdy jw rhy sn[iesy krky sMn 1935 qoN
1936 q`k ie`k swl vwsqy aunHW ƒ Awpxy hI ipMf nwgoky iv`c njrbMd r`iKAw igAw sI qW
jo auh bwhr jw ky srkwr ivru`D c`l rhy jhwd iv`c ih`sw nw lY skx[
sMn 1938 iv`c ijlHw AMimRqsr dy pRbMDkI FWcy ivclIAW qrutIAW ivru`D kIqI
geI jdo-jihd iv`c jQydwr jI ny Swml ho ky srgrm ih`sw ilAw sI[ aunHW v`loN k`Fy jw
rhyy jlUs qy pulIs v`loN AMimRqsr dy au`cy pul qy lwTIcwrj kIqw igAw sI[ jQydwr aUDm
isMG ƒ aunHW dy dUusry swQIAW nwl igRPqwr krky ie`k swl leI jylH iv`c Byj id`qw igAw
sI[ ie`Qy hIy b`s nhIN aunHW ƒ sMn 1942 iv`c igRPqwr krky lwhOr dy iklHy iv`c r`iKAw
igAw sI ij`Qy aunHW ƒ bhuq qsIhy id`qy gey sn[ iesy swl hI Bwrq C`fo lihr iv`c pOxy
do swl jylH dI hvw KwxI peI sI[
sMn 1947 iv`c Bwrq pwiksqwn dI vMf smyN musilm lIgI PswdW iv`c bcwE leI
AgvweI kridAW keI msUmW dIAW jwnW bcweIAW sn[Bwrq Awzwd qW ho igAw sI[
AMgryz qW bygwny sn, aunHW ivru`D AwjwdI leI sMGrS krnw bxdw sI pr APsos
Awjwd Bwrq iv`c vI pMjwbI lokW ƒ aunHW dw shI AsQwn nhI sI iml irhw ijs krky
‘pMjwbI sUby’ dI mMg a~uTI[ ies dI pRwpqI leI AkwlI pwrtI v`loN morcw lwieAw igAw
sI ijs iv`c jQydwr nwgoky ƒ vI nzrbMd krky Drmswlw jylH iv`c Byj id`qw sI[
is`K kOm leI nwgoky swihb dy zzby Aqy kIqIAW kurbwnIAW ƒ vyK ky sMn 192324 Aqy 1926 eI: iv`c A`T mhIny leI sRI Akwl q^q swihb dw jQydwr QwipAw igAw[
iqMn swl leI jQydwr aUDm isMG jI nwgoky sRI drbwr swihb AMimRqsr dy mYNbr vI rhy[
iesy smyN dOrwn hI ‘gurU kI srW’ bxweI geI sI[SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI vI hoNd
iv`c Aw cu`kI sI[ sMn 1926 qoN sMn 1954 q`k 28 swl SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dy
mYNbr rhy[ sMn 1933qoN lY ky 1936 q`k iqMn swl leI ijlHw pRISd AMimRqsr dy mYNbr Aqy

pRbMDkI kmytI dy pRDwn vI rhy sn[ 1946 qoN 1952 eI: q`k 6 swl leI nwgoky swihb
ivDwn sBw pMjwb dy mYNbr rhy[kOm leI syvw dI ie`k lMmI &irSq hox krky aunHW ƒ 2805-1948 qoN 17-03 1950 Aqy iPr 26-11-1950 qoN 28-06-1952 q`k swFy iqMn swl
leI SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dw pRDwn QwipAw igAw[ jQydwr jI dI pRDwngI smyN
hI ‘gurU nwnk ieMjInIirMg kwlj luiDAwxw dI sQwpnw kIqI geI sI[ jQydwr aUDm isMG
jI nwgoky SromxI AkwlI dl dy cwr swl q`k pRDwn vI rhy[ ies sMsQw dy auh nOvyN
pRDwn sn[ aunHW qoN pihlW ies sMsQw dy pRDwn bwbU lwB isMG jI sn[ nwgoky jI pMjwb
kWgrs kmytI dy do swl leI kwrjkwrI mYNbr vI rhy[ rwj sBw dy mYNbr vjoN vI auh
A`T swl leI ies AsQwn qy suSoiBq rhy[ jQydwr aUDm isMG jI nwgoky “pMjwb
svqMqrqw pwrtI” dy sMn 1960 qoN 11-01-1966 q`k pRDwn Aqy ies dy nwl nwl hI kul
BwrqI svqMqrqw pwrtI dy sMn 1965 qoN 11-01-1966 q`k mIq pRDwn vI rhy sn[
lok syvw ƒ smripq, kOm dw ieh bWkw mJYl-jrnYl Awi^r 72 swl dI AwXU
Bog ky imqI 11-01-1966 ƒ ies &wnI sMswr qoN kUc kr igAw[ aus dI syvw Bwvnw Aqy
kurbwnI dy jjby dI mihk A`j vI lokW dy idlW iv`c mihk rhI hY:“jIA jWdy ny kuJ lok ies qrHW,ik dunIAW Xwd krdI ey[
lutw jWdy ny Gr bwr Apxw,dunIAW dOlq leI mrdI ey”[
***
(DMnvwd swihq sR: PUlw isMG jI bI.fI.pIo.E. (syvw mukq) spu`qr sv:jQydwr sR mohn
isMG jI ‘nwgoky’ pwsoN pRwpq vyrivAW qy ADwirq)

bwbw ^Vk isMG jI
(bIV swihb vwly, izlHw qrn qwrn)

Bwrq dI vMf qoN pihlW dy mwJy dy ipMf ‘brkI’ izlHw lwhOr iv`c bwbw ^Vk isMG
jI dw jnm sR: pwlw isMG jI dy Gr mwqw cMMd kOr dI ku`KoN 2 jyT,mMglvwr,sMn 1895 ƒ
hoieAw[ bcpn iv`c aunHW dw nW bwvw isMG sI pRMqU AMimRq Ckx auprMq aunHW dw nW ^Vk
isMG ho igAw [bwbw jI dy iqMn Brw Aqy do BYxW sn[jdoN bwbw jI dy ipqw sR: pwlw isMG
dy BrwvW dI mOq ho geI qW aunHW dy ipqw jI swry pRIvwr ƒ lY ky Awpxy nwnky ipMf
‘m`KI’, qihsIl p`tI Aw v`sy sn[A`j k`lH m`KI ipMf mrigMdpur dy nwm nwl vI jwixAW
jWdw hY[
ipqw dI mOq ip`CoN Gr-pRIvwr dI ijmyNvwrI KVk isMG dy isr Aw peI ijs ƒ aus
ny bwKUbI inBwieAw [KVk isMG jI dI iemwndwrI Aqy idAwnqdwrI dw crcw swry
ielwky iv`c hox l`g ipAw[ KVk isMG bySk CotI aumr dw sI pr v`fy v`fy bMidAW dy
JgiVAW dy PYsly inAW pUrvk krn leI auh jwixAw jwx l`gw[ ies qrHW auh ie`k sWJy
AwdmIN vjoN mShUr ho igAw[ bwbw jI rwmgVHIAw (qrKwx) pRIvwr nwl sbMDq sn[ auh
POj iv`c bqOr kwrpYNtr BrqI ho gey Aqy BrqI hox auprMq aunHW ƒ bgdwd Byj id`qw
igAw[aunHW dy mn iv`c ies g`l dI vI lwlsw sI ik bgdwd jw ky gurU nwnk dyv jI dy
aus AsQwn dy drSn krn dw suBwg pRwpq ho skygw ijs QW ƒ “dzlw” kihMdy hn[
auh AwpxI iemwndwrI Aqy s`c ƒ s`c kihx dI Awdq krky Awpxy POjI dosqW iv`c
bhuq hI hrmn ipAwry bx gey sn[ aunHW dy dosq aunHW ƒ ipAwr nwl “BwaU” jI kih ky
bulwauNdy sn[ jrmnI nwl smJOqw ho jwx krky pltnW qoVIAW jw rhIAW sn Aqy
POjIAW ƒ vwps vqn Byjxw SurU kr id`qw igAw sI[
bgdwd qoN vwpsI ip`CoNN vqn Aw ky KVk isMG kuJ smW Awswm v`l clw igAw
ij`Qy auh cwh dy krKwinAW iv`c iqMn swl q`k kMm krdw irhw[ie`QoN dw pOx-pwxI rws nw
Awaux krky bwbw jI ibmwr pY gey sn ijs leI vwps Awpxy ipMf Aw gey[ gurU Gr
pRqI mn iv`c SrDw pihlW qoN hI bhuq sI, ies leI bwbw jI gurDwmW dI Xwqrw leI
hzUr swihb, hirduAwr, gurU nwnk ipAwE Awid dy drSn krn inkl geyy[ aunHIN idnI
sMn 1925 iv`c jYqo dw morcw l`g jwx kwrn auh vwps Aw ky ies morcy iv`c igRPqwr ho
jylH cly gey sn[ ieh morcw ^qm ho jwx qy bwbw jI pOxyN do swl szw k`t ky irhw hox
ip`CoN Awpxy ipMf nhI gey sgoN bwbw gurmu`K isMG jI Aqy bwbw swDU isMG jI kwr syvw
vwilAW nwl syvw iv`c ju`t gey[
bwbw KVk isMG jI dy suBwA qy ingwh mwrI jwvy qW ieh g`l swhmxy AwauNdI hY
ik auhnW dy mn iv`c purwqn mhW-purSW pRqI bhuq hI siqkwr Aqy SrDw sI[kMm
kridAW hoieAW auh nwl nwl au~cI Aqy mDur sur iv`c bwxI dw aucwrx vI kirAw krdy
sn[kwr syvw dw kMm Swm ƒ smwpq ho jwx qy sMgq qW Awpxy Awpxy ipMfW ƒ clI jWdI
sI pr bwbw jI fyry iv`c hI rih jwieAw krdy sn[s`cy mn nwl kIqI syvw rMg ilAweI[
KVk isMG jI bwbw gurmu`K isMG jI dy mn ƒ BwA gey sn, ijs krky aunHW ny bwbw jI ƒ
fyrHw swihb gurduAwry dI syvw pUrI hox auprMq bIV swihb (Jbwl) syvw kwrj leI Byj
id`qw sI ij`Qy bwbw jI ny dIvwn hwl dI auswrI dw kMm krvwieAw[ ies dIvwn hwl dw

jo lYNtr ipAw hY aus hyTW koeI QMm jW burjIAW nhINN hn sgoN ieh ibnW iksy shwry dy
kMDW qy hI pwieAw igAw hY [ eySIAw Br iv`c ieh lYNtr AwpxI iksm dw pihlw lYNtr
hY jo klw ikrq dw ie`k nmUnw hY[ies dIvwn hwl dy 65 drvwzy hn[
bwbw KVk isMG jI dy AMdr syvw Bwv, dyS ipAwr, Awqimk ruSnweI qoN ielwvw
Bvn inrmwx klw dy igAwn dw vI AQwh ^jwnw sI[bwbw jI ny Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c
bIV swihb dw dIvwn hwl, gurduAwrw bIV swihb dI iemwrq auswrI, lMgr hwl gurU
rwm dws jI, AMimRqsr dy gu: dy srovr leI hMslI, gurU gRMQ swihb Bvn dI auswrI,gu:
mwqw Bwgo swihb Jbwl dI auswrI,gu: sMnH swihb bwsrky ig`lW dI auswrI,goieMdvwl
swihb ivKy dirAw dw pul, bIV swihb qoN Cyhrtw swihb q`k sVk bxwauxI, bIV swihb
ivKy lVky Aqy lVkIAW dy kwlj dw inrmwx Aqy ^wlsw skUl dw inrmwx krky aunHW ny
AwpxI Bvn inrmwx klw dw ie`k nmUnw pyS kIqw hY[
dyS ipAwr bwry qW ies qp`svI bwby dw kihxw hI kI hY[ sMn 1965 dI pwk-ihMd
jMg smyN auh Agly moricAw qy by^OP jw ky POjI jvwnW leI lMgr, du`D ,PlW dIAW
pytIAW Aqy frweI PrUt phuMcwieAw krdy sn[bwbw jI B`TIAW qy Coly BMunvw ky guV smyq
POjI jvwnW ƒ Byjdy rhy sn[ smu`cy qOr qy mwJy dI ieh bhu-p`KI SKsIAq dw koeI swnI
nhIN jo ie`k bRhm igAwnI huMidAW hoieAW vI inSkwm syvw dy puMj sn Aqy ijnHW ny smucy
smwj leI Awpxw swrw jIvn hI lw id`qw[
AMq 30 meI 1986 dI rwq dy do v`j ky cwr imMt qy bwbw jI jpujI swihb dw pwT
krdy hoey ienHW qukW nwl “ijNMnI nwm iDAwieAw gey muSkq Gwil[ nwnk qy muK aujly
kyqI CutI nwl[” aucwrdy hoey ies &wnI sMswr ƒ Alivdw kih gey[ ies qrHW ie`k syvw
dw puMj, bRhm igAwnI, dyS ipAwr dw muj`smW, Bvn inrmwx dy igAwn dw ^jwnw Aqy
inDVk mJYl sdw leI QW KwlI kr igAw, jo Awpxy guxW krky hmySW Xwd kIqw jWdw
rhygw[

***

Bgq pUrn isMG jI
(bwnI ipMglvwVw AMimRqsr)

syvk ko syvw bn AweI] hukm bUJ prmu pdu pweI]
ie`k pMCI ƒ bs ieMnW ku hI Xwd sI ik aus ny iksy ru`K qy bxy AwlHxy iv`c A`K
KolHI sI pr CyqI hI qUPwnW Aqy smyN dI gridS ny aus qoN auh vI Koh ilAw sI[ ivcwrw
inmwxw bot AwpxI mW nwl aus AwlHxy ƒ sdw leI Alivdw kih v`K-v`K ru`KW dIAW
tihxIAW qy ivcrdw Awi^r ie`k idn Awpxw AwlHxw bxw bYTw sI ijs iv`c aus vrgy
keI byAwsry, byshwrw Aqy smyN dy sqwey hoey ies rYx bsyry iv`c Srn lYx leI Aw gey
sn[
kOx sI ieh Bolw pMCI? ieh koeI hor nhI A`j dy Xu`g dw Bgq pUrn isMG hI qW
sI ijs dw jnm izlHw luiDAwxw dy ipMf rwjyvwl rohxo, qihsIl KMnw iv`c BweI iSbU m`l
SwhUkwr dy Gr mwqw mihqwb kOr dI ku`KoN hoieAw sI[hlwqW dI AijhI hnyrI c`lI sI ik
pUrn isMG ƒ AwpxI pVHweI iv`cy hI C`fxI peI sI qy auh mW pu`qr ieh QW C`f lwhOr cly
gey sn[aus dw jnm AsQwn kyvl aus vwsqy ie`k nW hI bx ky rih igAw sI jdoN ik
aus ny Awpxy bcpn dy idn iksmq dy QpyVy KWidAW hoieAw ie`k QW qoN dUsrI QW qy hI
ibqwey sn[aus dI mW lokW dy BWfy mWj ky gujwrw kirAw krdI sI jdoN ik ieh bwlk
ijs dw bcpn dw nW rwm jI dws sI gurduAwrw fyhrw swihb iv`c ibnW qnKwh qoN syvw
kirAw krdw sI[ rwm jI dws dI syvw Bwvnw Aqy lgn vyK ky gurduAwry dw mhMq
ijhVw nyk idl ienswn sI ies ƒ ipAwr nwl pUrn isMG ‘pRymI’ kih ky bulwieAw krdw
sI[
bySk Bgq jI dw bcpn dw nW rwm jI dws sI pRMqU gurduAwry iv`c aus v`loN kIqI
inSkwm syvw ny aus ƒ rwm jI dws qoN ‘Bgq pUrn isMG’ bxw id`qw sI[ igAwnI
krqwr isMG jI ny aunHW ƒ syvw iv`c qno-mno smrip`q vyK ky ‘Bgq’ kih ky sMboDn krnw
SurU kr id`qw sI[ hux mW dI CW vI aus koloN Ku`s jwx dw smW Aw igAw l`gdw sI[ auh
ibmwr pY geI [ mrdI hoeI mW kol Bgq jI ny pRx kIqw ik auh swrI aumr kuAwrw rih
ky dIn duKIAW, lwcwr Aqy byshwrw lokW dI syvw krygw[ auh grIbW leI jIvygw Aqy
grIbW leI mrygw[
Bgq jI rozwnw pMjwbI, ihMdI Aqy aurdU dIAW A^bwrW Aqy rswly piVHAw krdy
sn[aunHW ny lwhOr ivclI idAwl isMG lwiebRyrI iv`c “XMg ieMfIAn” mYgzIn dw
AiDAn kr ky nOjuAwnW iv`c v`D rhI byruzgwrI dw h`l l`Bx leI Xqn vI kIqw [syvw
dw zjbw qW pihlW hI AMdr TwTW mwrdw sI, ieh audoN hor vI gUVHw ho igAw sI jdoN sMn
1934 iv`c koeI Awpxy cwr ku swl dy ApMg b`cy ƒ gurduAwrw fyhrw swihb lwhOr dy bUhy
qy C`f igAw, ijs ƒ ip`CoN gurduAwry dy gRMQI ny Bgq jI ƒ syvw sMBwl leI sONp id`qw
sI[s`c qW ieh hY ik ieh b`cw Bgq jI leI ipAwr dw somw bx ky AwieAw sI[ Bgq
jI ies b`cy dI syvw sMBwl krdy hoey ies iv`c hI guAwc gey sn[ ipAwr nwl Bgq jI
ny ies dw nWA vI ‘ipAwrw isMG’ hI r`K ilAw sI[

dyS dI vMf ho jwx qy Bgq pUrn isMG aus b`cy ipAwrw isMG smyq 18 Agsq,
1947 ƒ AMimRqsr dy SrnwrQI kYNp iv`c Aw igAw ijhVw ^wlsw kwlj dy Ahwqy iv`c
l`gw sI[ ienHW vWg hor hzwrW SrnwrQI ies kYNp iv`c Srn lY rhy sn[ Bgq jI svyry
hI GrW qoN jw ky rotIAW iek`TIAW kr ilAwieAw krdy sn Aqy Awpxy h`QW nwl ApwhjW
dy mUMh burkIAW pwieAw krdy sn[ Awi^r ieh kYNp vI 31 dsMbr, 1948 q`k c`l ky bMd
ho igAw [ sMn 1948 qoN 1955 q`k dw smW Bgq jI Aqy ipAwrw isMG ny Pu`tpwQW Aqy
ru`KW dI C`q hyTW hI gujwirAw [ kdy Bgq jI rylvy stySn, kdy Kwlsw kwlj dy nyVy Aqy
kdy cIP ^wlsw dIvwn nyVy Ju`gI pw ky smW bqIq kirAw krdy sn[Awi^r sMn 1955
iv`c Bgq jI ny mu`l zmIn KrId ky AMimRqsr Sihr dy qihsIlpurw cONk iv`c
“ipMglvwVy” dI nINh r`K id`qI[
ipMglvwVw bxwauNx leI mu`F-mu`F iv`c qW bhuq muSklW AweIAW pr Bgq jI dy
idRV inscy A`gy ieh sB A`gy gofy tyk geIAW[ ieh ipMglvwVw byshwrw, inAwsirAW,
lUly-lMgiVAW,ApwhzW Aqy bzurgW dw ‘AwSIAwnw’ jW ieMj kih lvo “rYx bsyrw” bx
igAw sI ij`Qy aunHW dI syvw sMBwl huMdI Aqy mUMh iv`c cogw vI pYNdw sI[Bgq pUrn isMG jI
ies dy bwnI vjoN jwxy jwx l`g pey sn[bySk Bwrq iv`c mdr trYsw Aijhy lok BLweI
dy kMmW leI jwxI jWdI hY pr Bgq jI dw ieh auprwlw aus qoN vI do kdm A`gy
hY[pihlW pihl ies ipMglvwVy iv`c bhuq QoVHy mrIz huMdy sn pr A`j k`lH ie`Qy mwnisk
qOr qy ibmwr mrIz Aqy byAwsrw lokW dI igxqI hzwrW iv`c hY[ Bgq jI ƒ mnu`Kqw dI
BlweI leI kIqy inSkwm kwrzW leI sMn 1981 iv`c “pdm sRI” dI aupwDI nwl
snmwinAw igAw sI pr ies AxKI ienswn ny Akwl q^q Aqy hirmMdr swihb qy hoey
srkwrI hmly dy ivroD vjoN auh Avwrf srkwr ƒ vwps kr id`qw sI[
sMn 1990 iv`c Bgq jI ƒ “hwrmnI Avwrf” Aqy sMn 1991 iv`c “lok rqn”
Avwrf pRdwn kIqw igAw sI[mrn auprMq imqI 4 AkqUbr, 1995 ƒ BweI GnHIAw
Avwrf kmytI v`loN Bgq pUrn isMG jI ƒ “ BweI GnHIAw Avwrf” vI id`qw igAw hY[
syvw dw puMj, praupkwrI, inAwsirAW dw Awsrw bxn vwlw, ApwhjW Aqy ApMgW dw
msIhw, AslI ArQW iv`c Bgq, Bgq pUrn isMG 5 Agsq, 1992eI: ƒ 88 swlW dI
sMGrSmeI ijMdgI jIau ky gurU crnW iv`c jw brwijAw[ A`j k`lH ies sMsQw dI dyK Bwl
fwktr ieMdrjIq kOr dI srprsqI hyTW ho rhI hY[

***

jQydwr mohx isMG jI nwgoky
(ipMf nwgoky, izlHw qrn qwrn)

jQydwr mohn isMG jI nwgoky dw jnm imqI 25 dsMbr,1898eI: ƒ ipMf nwgo ky,
izlHw AMimRqsr (hux izlHw qrn qwrn) iv`c sR: tihl isMG jI dy Gr mwqw gMgw jI dI
ku`KoN hoieAw[“nwgoky” aunHW dy nW nwl ipMf dw nW nwgoky hox krky aupnwm vjoN juV igAw
sI[ieh Awm vyKx iv`c AwieAw hY ik mShUr hsqIAW Awpxy jnm AsQwn ƒ jgq
pRis`D kr idMdIAW hn Aqy aunHW dy ipMfW dw nW ie`k aupnwm vWg aunHW dy nW nwl juV
jWdw hY ijvyN pRqwp isMG jI ‘kYroN’, jQydwr mohx isMG jI ‘quV’, jQydwr aUDm isMG jI
‘nwgoky’,sohx isMG jI ‘jlwl ausmW’ Awid[ kyroN, quV, nwgoky, jlwl ausmW mwJy dy ipMf
hn[ievyN hI jQydwr hurW dy nwm nwl ‘nwgoky’ jgq pRis`D ho igAw hY[ sR: mohn isMG jI
ny AwpxI pRwiemrI q`k dI ividAw ^fUr swihb qoN pRwpq kIqI sI ikauNik aus smyN ipMf
iv`c koeI skUl nhIN sI[dsvIN jmwq aunHW ny ^wlsw kwljIeyt skUl AMimRqsr qoN Aqy
AYP.ey dw iemiqhwn ^wlsw kwlj AMimRqsr qoN pws kIqw sI[
AYP.ey dw iemiqhwn pws krn auprMq jQydwr jI ny ifptI kimSnr dy dPqr
dI Adwlq iv`c bqOr rIfr nOkrI kr leI[ipMf dI irhwieS qoN ielwvw ie`k mkwn
jilHAWvwlw bwZ dy nyVy mocIAW vwlw bzwr iv`c vI sI ij`Qy auh irhw krdy sn[ sMn
1919 iv`c jilHAWvwlw bwZ dw ^UnI swkw aunHW ny AwpxI A`KIN vyiKAw sI ikauNik jQydwr
hurIN vI aus jlsy iv`c Swml sn ijs qy jnrl aufvwier ny AMDw-DuMd golIAW
brsvweIAW sn[ Gr iv`c dyS BgqI dIAW g`lW huMdIAW rihMdIAW sn ijs dw Asr
swry pRvwr qy sI[ aunHW dy Coty Brw sR: joigMdr isMG ny 1920 eI: iv`c ‘gurU ky bwZ’ dy
morcy iv`c igRPqwrI id`qI sI[ sMn 1921 iv`c nnkwxy swihb dy swky dw s: mohn isMG jI
dy mn qy fUMGw Asr hoieAw sI ijs krky audoN qoN hI aunHW ny kwlI dsqwr bMnHxIN SurU kr
id`qI sI Aqy AMimRq Ck ky AkwlI bx gey sn[ ies bdly hoey vqIry ƒ vyK ky fI.sI.
dPqr v`loN Awp dI jvwb qlbI vI kIqI geI sI[
AMgryzW ivru`D nPrq qW mn iv`c jilHAWvwlw bwZ dI Gtnw qoN hI pYdw ho geI
sI jo roz dI roz p`kI huMdI jWdI sI[ienHIN idnIN “jYqo dw morcw” l`g igAw[ jQydwr jI
ny srkwrI nOkrI qoN iqAwg p`qr dy id`qw Aqy 13 PrvrI, 1924eI: ƒ ies morcy iv`c
AwpxI igRPqwrI dy id`qI [ies morcy iv`c golI vI c`lI sI ijs nwl auh P`tV ho gey sn
Aqy aunHW ƒ Gr Byj id`qw igAw sI [rwzI ho ky dubwrw jQydwr jI ny Awpxy Awp ƒ
igRPqwrI leI pyS kr id`qw Aqy ie`k swl A`T mhIny dI kYd k`t ky morcy dI smwpqI
auprMq hI irhw ho ky ipMf vwps prqy sn[
AkqUbr 1925 eI: iv`c SromxI kmytI hoNd ‘c AweI sI, ijs iv`c jQdwr hu rW
dy zjby Aqy kurbwnI ƒ iDAwn iv`c r`KidAW hoieAW aunHW ƒ mIq jQydwr Qwp id`qw igAw
sI Aqy ies dy nwl hI SRomxIy kmytI iv`c nOkrI vI dy id`qI geI sI[sMn 1927 iv`c s:
mohn isMG jI ƒ “lokl pRbMDkI kmytI” ^fUr swihb dw pRDwn bxw id`qw igAw Aqy sMn
1930 iv`c aunHW ƒ SRomxI kmytI iv`c suprfYNt dw Ahudw dy id`qw igAw sI[iesy swl nw

imlvrqn lihr iv`c ih`sw lYx kwrn jQydwr jI ƒ igRPqwr krky mulqwn dI jylH iv`c
Byj id`qw igAw ij`QoN 6 mhIny dI kYd k`t ky vwps Awaux qy aunHW ƒ Akwl q^q dw mIq
jQydwr Qwp id`qw igAw[ sMn 1933 iv`c nwgoky jI ƒ mIq jQydwr qoN Akwl q^q dw
jQydwr Qwp id`qw igAw[ nwgoky jI 1933 qoN 1958eI: q`k 25 swl ies pd qy rhy jo ik
bhuq lMmW smW sI[ A`j q`k ieMnyN lMmyN smyN leI koeI vI ies pd qy nhIN irhw qy nw hI
pihloN irhw sI[
AMgryzW dy ivru`D lokW dw joS idn-b-idn vDdw jw irhw sI,ijs dy Asr krky
“Bwrq C`fo” lihr pUry jorW qy sI[ nwgoky dIAW srkwr ivroDI gqI ivDIAW ƒ iDAwn
iv`c r`KidAW hoieAw sMn 1942 iv`c aunHW ƒ kuJ smyN leI aunHW dy ipMf nwgoky iv`c Aqy
kuJ smyN leI AMimRqsr iv`c nzrbMd r`iKAw igAw[ies auprMq jQydwr jI ƒ SRomxI
gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dw pRDwn inXukq kr id`qw igAw[ SRomxI kmytI dI pRDwngI dy
nwl nwl 1948 eI: q`k nwgoky swihb SRomxI AkwlI dl dy pRDwn vI bxy rhy sn[is`K
isAwsq iv`c Awp Aijhy pihly ivAkqI sn jo ienHW do AhuidAW qy ie`ko smyN rhy[
sMn 1947 iv`c Bwrq Awzwd qW ho igAw sI pr pwiksqwn dI vMf kwrn hoey
dMigAW iv`c guMfw Ansr dw twkrw krn leI swQIAW nwl rl ky aunHW ny Xog auprwly
kIqy [ iesy swl hI Awp nnkwxw swihb gey sn qW jo pwiksqwn iv`c rih gey
gurduAwirAW dI sWB sMBwl dy pRbMD kIqy jw skx[ies kwrj pUrqI leI auh do mhIny
au~Qy rhy [iesy swl “muV vsybw borf” Aqy izlHw borf AMimRqsr dy mYNbr vI rhy
sn[1952eI: iv`c nwgoky jI ny Akwl q^q dI jQydwrI qoN AsqIPw dy id`qw Aqy kWgrs
pwrtI iv`c Swml ho gey [kWgrs dI it`kt qy hlkw qrn qwrn qoN ij`q hwsl kr ky
pMjwb ivDwn sBw dy mYNbr bxy [sqMbr 1958eI: qoN sqMbr 1963eI:, pMj swl leI
jQydwr jI subwrfInyt srvisz slYkSn borf dy mYNbr rhy[ies smyN aunHW ny AnykW pyNfU
lVky lVkIAW ƒ nOkrIAW qy lwieAw[ sMn 1967 iv`c hlkw ^fUr swihb qoN dubwrw pMjwb
ivDwn sBw dy mYNbr cuxy gey[
sMn 1968 iv`c sR: lCmx isMG jI ig`l mu`K mMqrI dy Ahudw C`fx vyly nwgoky
swihb ivDwn sBw iv`c mYNbr sn[ kWgrs hweI kmWf ƒ lCmx isMG jI ig`l ny jQydwr
jI ƒ mu`K mMqrI pd dyx leI aunHW dy h`k iv`c smrQn dyx dw XkIn dvwieAw sI pr
ieh g`l isry nhIN sI cVH skI ikauNik jQydwr jI ibmwr pY gey sn[ A`T mhIny ibmwr
rihx ip`CoN ieh mJYl isAwsqdwn joDw ijs ny isAwsq dy ipV iv`c bhuq swrIAW m`lW
mwrIAW sn, mOq qoN hwr igAw Aqy ies PWnI sMswr ƒ Alivdw kih igAw sI[
“dUusirAW leI mr im`txw hI ijMdgI dw nUr hY,
kt jwE, sI nw kro, vqn-pRsqW dw dsqUr hY[”
***
(DMnvwd swihq sR: PUlw isMG jI bI.fI.pIo.E. (syvw mukq) spu`qr sv:jQydwr sR mohn
isMG jI ‘nwgoky’ pwsoN pRwpq vyrivAW qy ADwirq)

***

dyS Bgq

kwmryf sohx isMG jI ‘joS’
(ipMf cyqn purw, izlHw AMimRqsr)

dyS BgqW dI jdoN vI g`l qurdI hY qW kwmryf sohx isMG jI ‘joS’ dw nW pihlI
kqwr dy dyS BgqW Aqy AwzwdI GulwtIAW iv`c AwauNdw hY[aunHW ny Awpxw swrw jIvn hI
jn-kilAwx dI ^wiqr lw id`qw[ sR: sohn isMG jI joS dw jnm mwJy dy ipMf cyqn purw
izlHw AMimRqsr iv`c 12 nvMbr, 1898 eI: ƒ sR:lwl isMG jI dy Gr mwqw idAwl kOr dI
ku`KoN hoieAw[ m`uFlI pVHweI joS jI ny ipMf dy mOlvI koloN hwsl kIqI Aqy dsvIN jmwq
hweI skUl mjITw qoN pws kIqI[ ikauNik joS jI rOSn idmwg ividAwrQI sn ies leI
aunHW ny igAwnI dI pRIiKAw pws krky AYP.ey. q`k dI pVHweI cMgy nMbr lY ky pws kr
leI sI[
aunHIN idnI lwhOr qoN Cpx vwly AkwlIy A^bwr iv`c Aksr hI AwzwdI sMgrwm
sbMDI lyK Aqy kivqwvW CpdIAW rihMdIAW sn[ ienHW joSIlIAW kivqwvW Aqy ly^W ny
sohx isMG dy mn qy bhuq Asr kIqw[ joS jI dy mn iv`c AMgryz srkwr leI n&rq dI
jvwlw BVk au~TI[ iesy Asr hyTW aunHW ny gurduAwrw suDwr lihr Aqy cwbIAW dy morcy
iv`c ih`sw lYxw SurU kr id`qw Aqy ies iv`c ie`k Aihm rol inBwieAw[ sohx isMG ipMf
ipMf jWdw Aqy AMgryzW dI kutl nIqI bwry joSIly BwSx dy ky lokW ƒ jwxU krvwieAw
krdw sI[ joS jI dy joSIly BwSxW ny ienHW ƒ AMgryz srkwr dI nzr iv`c lY AWdw ijs
dy is`ty vjoN aunHW ƒ igRPqwr krn dy hukm jwrI kr id`qy gey[ kwPI smyN q`k sohx isMG
puils dy AiVky nw cVHy pr kuJ smW pw ky auh puils dy AiV`ky cVH hI gey[ joS jI qy
kys c`ilAw ijs iv`c aunHW ƒ ie`k swl dI kYd Aqy 400 rupey zurmwnw kIqw igAw sI[
sohx isMG ny Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c l`g p`g 12 swl jylH iv`c ibqwey[ ienHW ny
kuJ smW SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dy mYNbr vjoN vI ibqwieAw[ mwrc, 1923 eI:
iv`c sohx isMG ƒ SRomxI AkwlI dl dw sk`qr bxw id`qw igAw[ iesy swl hI AMgryz
srkwr v`loN SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI, SRomxI AkwlI dl Aqy AkwlI jiQAW ƒ
srkwr ivroDI AYlwinAW igAw ijs dy qihq AkwlIAW dI PVHo-PVHI SurU ho geI[ joS jI
ƒ vI PVH ilAw igAw Aqy lMmy smyN q`k lwhOr dy iklHy iv`c kYd r`iKAw igAw sI[
joS horW ny mwrksvwdI PlsPly sbMDI swihq dw AiDAYn kIqw ,ijs dy Asr
krky aunHW ny sMn 1926 iv`c AgWh vDU ivcwrW dy pRcwr leI “ikrqI” rswly dI
pRkwSnw SurU kr id`qI Aqy 12 jnvrI, 1927 eI: ƒ ies dI sMpwdkI dw kMm vI sMBwl
ilAw[ lokW iv`c ies PlsPy dw pRcwr krn dw ieh ie`k vDIAw mwiDAm sI ijs rwhIN
joS jI ny svqMqrqw Aqy smwjvwd sbMDI zordwr pRcwr kIqw[ AprYl, 1928 eI: iv`c
jilHAWvwlw bwg iv`c nOjvwnW dI ie`k iek`qrqw bulweI geI, ijs iv`c sR: Bgq isMG
Aqy aus dy swQIAW ny vI ih`sw ilAw[ ies mIitMg dw mu`K AwSw sI ik ies rswly dI
sMcwlxw krn leI nOjvwn sBw dw giTn kIqw jwvy[ 21 dsMbr sMn 1928 ƒ ieh

sQwipq kr id`qI geI sI Aqy izlHw AMimRqsr dI ies sBw dI pRDwngI kwmryf joS jI
ƒ sONpI geI sI[
ieh sBw bx jwx nwl AMgryz srkwr dI nINd hrwm ho geI sI ikauNik nOjvwn
swrw kMm bVI hI lgn Aqy hONsly nwl kr ky lokW iv`c AMgryzW leI nPrq dI jvwlw qy
qyl dw kMm kr rhy sn[is`tw ieh hoieAw ik ies sBw dy kuJ isrk`F AwgUAW ƒ
igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw[ ieh igRPqwrIAW myrT swizS kys qihq hoeIAW sn[ShId
Bgq isMG Aqy kwmryf joS iv`c AwpsI nyVqw sI Aqy auh ie`k dUsry dy ivSvwS pwqr
vI sn[17 dsMbr, sMn 1928 ƒ sWfrs ƒ golI mwrn auprMq Bgq isMG jI kwmryf
joS jI kol hI Aw ky iCpy sn[ sWfrs kWf qoN ip`CoN ies sBw dy kwrkuMnW dIAW
igRPqwrIAW dw islslw SurU ho cu`kw sI[ myrT swizS kys lMmy smyN q`k c`ilAw, ijs iv`c
kwmryf joS jI ƒ vI szw ho geI[ sMn 1934 iv`c kYd ‘coN irhweI auprMq sohx isMG
ikrswnW Aqy mzdUrW ƒ lwmbMd krn iv`c ju`t gey sn[dyS dI AwzwdI q`k joS jI ƒ
keI vyrW jylH Xwqrw vI krnI peI[ kwmryf sohx isMG joS kyvl dyS Bgq qy svqMqrqw
sMgrwmI hI nhIN sI sgoN auh ie`k cMgw p`qrkwr, swihqkwr Aqy kvI vI sI[ aunHW ny
AwpxI ivcwrDwrw nwl lokW iv`c jwigRqI pYdw kIqI[ A^Ir ieh au~c kotI dw ivdvwn
Aqy isAwsqdwn mJYl 29 julweI, sMn 1982 ƒ AwpxI jIvn Xwqrw pUrI kr ies
nwsvwn sMswr ƒ Alivdw kih igAw [
“ mMizl kI qv`ko nhI r`Kqy Xh sr ktwny vwly,
mMizl ^ud cl kr ieMn ky kdmoN myN hoqI hY[”

***

-‘qIr’-

sR: prqwp isMG jI ‘kYroN’
( ipMf kYroN, ijlHw qrn qwrn)

isAwsq dy ipV iv`c sR:prqwp isMG jI ‘kYroN’ dw nwm iksy jwx-pihcwx dw
muhQwz nhIN hY[mwJy dw ieh ipMf ‘kYroN’ pihlW AMimRqsr izlHy iv`c pNYdw sI pr hux qrn
qwrn nvW izlHw bx jwx krky ieh qrn qwrn izlHy dw ih`sw hY[ieh qrn qwrn Aqy
AMimRqsr nwl ryl Aqy sVk rwhIN juiVAw hoieAw hY[qrn qwrn qoN p`tI v`l jWidAW
hoieAW ies dI dUrI vIh ku iklo mItr dI hY[
sR: pRqwp isMG “kYroN” dw jnm 1 AkqUbr, 1901 ƒ ipMf kYroN, izlHw qrn qwrn
iv`c sR: inhwl isMG jI dy Gr hoieAw[ ieh ie`k ikrswn pRvwr sI[pRqwp isMG Awpxy
ipqw dy pMj b`icAW ‘coN ie`k sn[kYroN swihb dy ipqw jI imltrI iv`coN syvw mukq ispwhI
sn, ijhVy isMG sBw dy srgrm vrkr vI sn[AOrq jwq ƒ au~cw cu`kx leI Awp dy
ipqw jI dy mn iv`c ie`k supnw sI ijs ƒ pUrw krn leI aunHW ny ipMf kYroN iv`c lVkIAW
leI is`K skUl bxwieAw[ ies qrHW Awp dy ipqw jI ies kwrj dy bwnI bxy[ AwpxI
mu`FlI ividAw ipMf dy skUl iv`c pRwpq kIqI Aqy iPr AglyrI pVHweI leI auh ^wlsw
kwlj AMimRqsr iv`c dwKl ho gey ij`QoN 1919eI: iv`c aucyrI ividAw leI AmrIkw cly
gey[
dyS ‘coN gey dUusry pRvwsIAW dI qrHW AmrIkw iv`c ividAw pRwpqI dy nwl nwl
kYroN Porf Awto kMpnI iv`c ie`k kwmyN dy qOr qy kMm vI kirAw krdw sI[ auh bwgW iv`coN
sMqry, AMgUr Awid Pl qoVn dw kMm krdy smyN soicAw krdw sI ik swfy dyS dI ikswnI
iv`c suDwrW dI AiqAMq loV hY[ iesy kwrn ikrswnI ƒ nvW rUp dyx dI qWG aus dy mn
iv`c AMgVweIAW lYx l`g peI sI[
pRqwp isMG kYroN pulItIkl swieMs dy ivSy iv`c imSIgn XUnIvristI qoN AYm.ey.
krky 1929 eI: iv`c Awpxy mulk vwps prqy sn[ dyS vwpsI qy Awpxy KyqW iv`c 10-12
GMty s^q imhnq kirAw krdy sn[ AmrIkw iv`c rihMidAW hoieAw aunHW dw myl gdr
pwrtI dy kRWqIkwrIAW nwl vI huMdw rihMdw sI[dyS vwps Aw ky kYroN swihb ny AMimRqsr
qoN ie`k hPqwvwrI prcw “dw inXU eIrw” k`Fxw SurU kIqw sI ijhVw bwAd iv`c aunHW dy
srgrm isAwsq iv`c Swml ho jwx krky bMd krnw ipAw sI[
isAwsq dy pihly pVw iv`c pRqwp isMG kYroN ny Awpxy Awp ƒ AkwlI dl iv`c
Swml kIqw Aqy 1937 eI: iv`c iesy pwrtI dI itkt qy kWgrsI aumIdvwr bwbw gurid`q
isMG jI srhwlI vwilAW ƒ hwr dy ky ivDwn sBw iv`c pRvyS kIqw[ bwAd iv`c ruJwn
kWgrs pwrtI v`l ho jwx krky aus pwrtI iv`c Swml ho gey[ ivDwn sBw dy mYNbr vjoN
aunHW dw jIvn kwl 26 swl dw hY[ sMn 1947-1949 eI: q`k dy smyN auh gopI cMd Bwrgv
dy mMqrI mMfl iv`c mMqrI pd qy rhy jdoN ik 1952-1956eI: dy smyN kYroN swihb BIm sYn
s`cr dI vjwrq iv`c mMqrI pd qy rhy[ mu`K mMqrI pd dI shuM aunHW ny 23 jnvrI, 1956
eI: ƒ cu`kI Aqy CyqI hI ies qoN bwAd 1957 eI: AprYl iv`c ieh pd dubwrw pRwpq kr
ies qy 8 swl q`k suSoiBq rhy[
dyS dI vMf hox qy lihMdy pMjwb qoN au~jV ky Awaux vwly lokW dy muV vsyby dw bhuq
v`fw kMm sI ijs ƒ pRqwp isMG ny pUurI qndyhI Aqy idRV ierwdy nwl kr ky AwpxI Xogqw
dw sbUq id`qw[ aunHW dy mu`K mMqrI rihx smyN ividAw, KyqIbwVI, ishq Aqy hor dUsry
keI KyqrW iv`c pMjwb ny SlwGw Xog qr`kI kIqI[ zmIn dI mur`bybMdI dw kMm krky aunHW

ny ie`k mwhrky dw kMm kIqw sI ijs nwl toitAW iv`c vMfI hoeI ikswnW dI zmIn ie`k QW
ie`k`TI kr id`qI geI[ murgI pwlx dy ik`qy ƒ auSwihq krn dw auprwlw vI aunHW dy
kwrjkwl dOrwn hI hoieAw[ kYroN swihb ny ie`k smyN 18 sqMbr, 1963 eI: ƒ ivDwn sBw
iv`c by-BrosgI dy mqy qy hoeI bihs iv`c bolidAW hoieAw spIkr ƒ sMboDn kridAW
ikhw sI:- “sRImwn spIkr! 1952 eI: iv`c jdoN sMivDwn Anuswr srkwrW ny kMm krnw
ArMiBAw qW dyS dI Awmdn pRqI ivAkqI 256 rupey sI, jdoN ik pMjwb dI Awmdn pRqI
ivAkqI 321 rupey sI[ ies dw mqlb hY ik pMjwb dI Awmdn pRqI ivAkqI 65/- rupey
v`D sI[ hux 1955-56 eI: iv`c pMjwb dI Awmdn pRqI ivAkqI 331 rupey hY jdoN ik dyS
dI Awmdn pRqI ivAkqI 275 rupey sI[ pMjwb dI swl 1961-62 iv`c pRqI ivAkqI
Awmdn 401rupey ho geI hY jdoN ik smu`cy dyS dI Awmdn pRqI ivAkqI 293 rupey
hY[ies qrHW dyS dI Awmdn nwloN pMjwb dI Amdn pRqI ivAkqI pihlW nwloN 108/-rupey
pRqI ivAkqI dw vwDw hoieAw hY jo qr`kI Aqy KuShwlI dw sUck hY[”
s:pRqwp isMG jI kYroN bVy hI im`T-bolVy suBwA dy ienswn sn[ auh XwrW dy Xwr
qbIAq dy sn[ auhnW dI ijMdgI dw hvwlw idMdy hoey imstr ‘hoqw’ ny iliKAw hY, “jdoN
kYroN swihb mu`K mMqrI pMjwb bxy qW auhnW dy bcpn dy ie`k ikswn dosq ny auhnW ƒ mu`K
mMqrI bxn qy ic`TI ilKI, ijs dy au~qr iv`c kYroN swihb ny aus dosq ƒ cMfIgVH lY ky
Awaux leI ie`k JMfI vwlI kwr ByjI sI qy bynqI kIqI sI ik auh aus kol cMfIgVH Aw ky
aus dI pRwhuxwcwrI pRvwn kry[auhnW dw dosq audoN ieh sB vyK ky bu^lw igAw sI jdoN
aus ny sYktrIeyt dI nOvIN mMijl qoN cMfIgVH ƒ vyiKAw sI[aus dy mUhoN Awp muhwr hI
inkl igAw sI, “ikAw nzwrw hY ?” kYroN swihb ny aus ƒ d`isAw sI ik hux quhwƒ
pMjwb iv`c nzwry hI nzwry vyKx ƒ imlxgy”[ies Gtnw qoN kYroN swihb dy imlwpVy suBwA
dI Jlk imldI hY[
Awp ny Awpxy mu`K mMqrI kwl durwn bhuq zmInI suDwr kIqy sn[ ielwky iv`coN
sym dI mwr ƒ dUr krn leI auhnW ny nihr dy nwl nwl itXUbvYl lgvw ky sym dy pwxI
ƒ nihr iv`c pvw, ielwky ƒ sym dI mwr qoN bcwieAw Aqy jmIn vwhI Xog bxweI
sI[kYroN swihb ny luiDAwxw ivKy ‘pMjwb KyqIbwVI XUnIvrstI’ sQwpq kIqI Aqy Awpxy
kwrj kwl dOrwn auhnW ny ‘kurkSyqr ivKy ‘kurkSyqr XUnIvrstI’, cMfIgVH iv`c
pI.jI.AweI. ieMjInirMg kwlj Aqy hom swieMs kwlj vI bxvwey[ ‘pMjwb pbilk skUl
nwBw’,‘sYink skUl’ kpUrQlw Aqy kuMjpurw iv`c KolHxw vI auhnW dw pMjwb ƒ qohPw hI sI
jo A`j q`k kYroN swihb dI id`qI dyx ƒ Xwd krvwauNdw hY[ sMn 1962 dI cIn nwl jMg
smyN sR: pRqwp isMG ny ipMf ipMf, Sihr Sihr jw ky lokW AMdr dyS pRym dw zjbw pYdw kr
aunHW ƒ sonw dwn dyx leI pRyirAw sI[ ieh pMjwb hI sI ijs ny dyS dy Kjwny iv`c sB qoN
v`D sonw dy ky dyS pRym dw sbUq id`qw sI[ kYroN swihb dyS dy pihly Aijhy mu`K mMqrI sn
ijnHW ny AYqvwr dy nwl Cincrvwr dI Cu`tI dI pRQw cwlU kIqI[ ipMfW ƒ SihrW nwl
sVkW rwhIN joVn dw kMm vI iesy mJYl mu`K mMqrI dI dyx hY[ ieh koeI AiqkQnI nhIN
hovygI jykr QoVHy iv`c ikhw jwvy ik Ajokw ‘ADuink pMjwb’ kyYroN swihb dI pMjwb ƒ dyx
hY[bySk auhnW dw jIvn swP suQrw, iemwndwrI vwlw Aqy AgWh vDU ivcwrW vwlw sI
pr APsos kYroN swihb dy vwrsW dy Awp hudrypx ny aunHW dy nW qy kwl^ poc ky ies
AxQ`k, s`cy-su`cy mJYl dw AMq burw bxw ky r`K id`qw sI[ A^Ir sR: prqwp isMG jI kYroN
ƒ aunHW dy kuJ isAwsI ivroDIAW ny 6 AprYl,1965eI: ƒ kql kr id`qw sI, ijs nwl
mwJy dI DrqI ƒ hI nhIN swry pMjwb ƒ nw pUrw hox vwlw Gwtw ipAw hY[aunHW dIAW XwdW
A`j vI pMjwb dy lokW dy idlW iv`c ijMdw hn[kYroN swihb ie`k bhu -p`KI SKsIAq
sI[aunHW dI cuMbkI-sKSIAq sB ƒ Awpxy v`l iK`c lYNdI sI[shI ArQW iv`c kYroN swihb
lokW dy nyqw sn[
“hjwroN brs nrZs ApnI bynUrI py roqI hY,
hoqw hY cmn myN khIN dIdwvr pYdw[”
****

sR. sohx isMG jI ‘jlwl ausmW’
(ipMf jlwl ausmW, izlHw AMimRqsr)

jQydwr sohx isMG jI dw jnm 23 mwrc,1901 ƒ ipMf jlwl ausmW izlHw
AMimRqsr iv`c sR: jvwhr isMG dy Gr hoieAw[ sohx isMG Ajy do ku swl dy hI sI ik
mwqw ipqw dw swieAw aus dy isr qoN au~T igAw[ plyg dI ibmwrI kwrn mW-ipau dovyN
ie`ko hI idn ies jhwn qoN kUc kr gey sn[ m`uFlI pVHweI vjoN pMjwbI BwSw aunHW ny ipMf
dy gurduuAwry iv`c hI is`KI[ Ajy sohx isMG sqwrW swlW dI aumr iv`c hI sI ik sMn
1918 iv`c POj iv`c BrqI ho igAw[ jilHAWvwlw bwZ dw swkw ijhVw 1919 iv`c
vwpirAw sI ny jQydwr jI dy mn qy bhuq s`t mwrI sI, ijs krky auhnW ny POj iv`c
rihMidAW hoieAW swQIAW nwl AMgryz srkwr ivru`D bgwvq krn dI Xojnw bxweI sI
ijhVI kuJ kwrnW krky kwmXwb nhIN sI ho skI[ sohx isMG ƒ kort mwrSl kIqw igAw
sI[ Awi^r auh POj dI nOkrI C`f ky ipMf Aw gey Aqy 1921eI: iv`c AkwlI pwrtI iv`c
srgrm mYNbr dy qOr qy ih`sw lYx l`g pey sn[
sMn 1924 iv`c “jYqo dw morcw” l`gx qy sohx isMG jI ny aus morcy iv`c
igRPqwrI id`qI Aqy fyF swl dI kYd k`tI [sohx isMG jI dI pMQ Aqy AwpxI kONm pRqI
syvw Bwvnw vyK ky aunHW ƒ ielwky dw jQydwr bxw id`qw igAw sI Aqy 1930 eI: iv`c auh
gurdvwrw bwbw bkwlw dI lokl kmytI dy mYNbr vI rhy[ sMn 1937 iv`c lok BlweI ih`q
l`gy ikswn morcy kYd vI k`tI[ Bwrq dy AwzwdI sMgrwm iv`c v`D cVH ky ihsw ilAw Aqy
sMn 1942 iv`c “Bwrq C`fo” AMdoln iv`c do swl dI kYd k`tI[ sMn 1944 iv`c gurduAwrw
kmytI dIAW coxW iv`c gurduAwrw kmytI qrn qwrn dI pRDwngI nwl sohx isMG jI ƒ
invwijAw igAw[ Agly hI swl 1945 eI: iv`c AkwlI jQw izlHw AMimRqsr dy pRDwn
bxw id`qw igAw sI[ jQydwr jI izlHw borf AMimRqsr dy mYNbr vI rhy[hlkw ibAws qoN
1951 eI: iv`c sR: sohx isMG jI SRomxI kmytI dy mYNbr bx ky 1955 q`k ies Ahudy qy
rhy[
jQydwr jI ny AkwlI dl C`f ky kWgrs iv`c jwx dw mn bxw ilAw Aqy kWgrs
dI itkt qy hlkw ibAws qoN pMjwb ivDwn sBw dI sIt ij`qI[ ivDwn sBw dy auh pihlI
vwr mYNbr bxy, 1957 eI: iv`c dUjI vwr, 1965 eI: iv`c qIjI vwr, 1967 eI: iv`c cOQI
vwr Aqy 1972 eI: iv`c pMjvIN vwr hlkw ibAws qoN ivDwn sBw dy mYNbr cuxy gey[ 1969
eI: iv`c sohx isMG jI izlHw kWgrs pwrtI idhwqI dy pRDwn bxwey gey sn[ auh igAwnI
zYl isMG jI mu`K mMqrI dI vjwrq iv`c 5 swl mMqrI vI rhy [Awpxy ies isAwsI jIvn
dOrwn jQydwr jI ny ielwky iv`c keI skUlW, kwljW Aqy sVkW dw inrmwx krvw ky ies
ielwky ƒ ^uShwl bxwaux dw pUrw Xqn kIqw jo lokW ƒ hmySw Xwd rhygw[
sMn 1969 iv`c “pMjwbI sUbw” cMfIgVH Aqy pMjwbI boldy ielwikAW dI pRwpqI leI
sMq Pqih isMG dy lwey hoey morcy sbMDI ShId drSn isMG jI PyrUmwn dI Shwdq qoN ip`CoN
“PyrUmwn trst” kwiem kIqw[ PyrUmwn jI dI Xwd iv`c srkwr qoN 8 eykV rkbw lY ky
skUl Aqy kwlz bxvwieAw[ swl 1970 dy AKIr q`k s: sohx isMG jI ies trst dy
pRDwn rhy[

sR: eISr isMG ‘mJYl’
(ipMf srwey Amwnq KW izlHw qrn qwrwn)

s: eISr isMG mJYl dw jnm jnvrI sMn 1901 iv`c sR: Awsw isMG jI dy Gr
mwqw bsMq kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf srwey Amwnq KW izlHw AMimRqsr iv`c hoieAw[ieh ie`k
ikrswnI pRvwr sI ijs dI AwriQk ijMdgI dI g`fI D`ky lw ky hI c`l rhI sI[grIbI dy
puVHW ‘coN inklx leI mJYl jI dy ipqw s: Awsw isMG iksmq AjmweI leI ieMfonySIAw
cly gey sn[ aus smyN eISr isMG dI aumr FweI ku swl dI sI[ s: Awsw isMG auQy dwl
rotI dI lVweI lVdy hoey hI c`l v`sy sn[ipqw dw swieAw isr qoN au~T jwx krky swry
t`br qy du`KW dy phwV tu`t pey sn[ Gr dw swrw Bwr hux eISr isMG dI mwqw bsMq kOr
dy moiFAW qy Awx ipAw sI[auh gurU Gr ƒ mMnx vwlI, hONsly vwlI Aqy idRV ierwdy
vwlI AOrq sI ijs ny ieh sB kuJ Awpxy qy zr ilAw sI[
qMgIAW-qurSIAW iv`coN gujridAW hoieAw eISr isMG ny dsvI q`k dI pVHweI pUrI
kr leI Aqy iPr grYjUeySn krn leI aus ƒ “mwlvw ^wlsw hweI skUl luiDAwxw”
iv`c dwKlw iml igAw sI, ijs iv`c mwJy Aqy lwhOr dy ielwky ‘coN G`t hI ividAwrQI
pVHweI leI AwauNdy sn[ikauNik eISr isMG mwJy dy ielwky coN igAw sI, ies leI aus dy
sih-pwTI aus ƒ “mJYl” kih ky bulwieAw krdy sn[A`gy c`l ky ieh Sbd aus dy nW
nwl pRCwvyN vWg juV igAw[ eISr isMG ny 1922eI:iv`c grYgUeySn pws kr leI [pVHweI
Kqm hox auprMq mJYl swihb ƒ ipMf ‘kokrI klW’ izlHw iProjpur (hux izlHw mogw) iv`c
AiDAwpk dI nOkrI dI pySkS hoeI sI ijhVI aus ny Tukrw id`qI sI Aqy aus smyN c`l
rhI gurduAwrw suDwr lihr iv`c Swml ho igAw sI[
srIrk bxqr p`KoN eISr isMG iekihry ijhy srIr dw sI pr suhxw sun`Kw ichrw
Aqy iq`Kw n`k aus dy rUp ƒ cwr cMn lwauNdw sI[cVHdI jvwnI iv`c hI mJYl jI ny
AwzwdI sMgrwm Aqy moricAw iv`c ih`sw lYxw SurU kr id`qw sI[ pihlI vwr aus ny 27
sqMbr, 1922eI: ƒ ‘gurU kw bwZ’ dy morcy iv`c ih`sw ilAw ijs iv`c aus ƒ 6 mhIny dI
sKq szw hoeI[ ies qoN auprMq 1923eI: iv`c jYqo dy morcy iv`c ih`sw lYx krky eISr
isMG ƒ igRPqwr kr ky do swl leI jylH Xwqrw qy qor id`qw igAw sI[ bwbw vswKw isMG
jI dI bxweI hoeI “dyS Bgq shwiek kmytI” vwsqy PMf iek`Tw krn leI 1927eI: iv`c
mJYl bwbw jI nwl brmw v`l dOry qy clw igAw sI[ies imSn qoN vwpsI ip`CoN AkqUbr,
1927eI: iv`c SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI v`loN ijhVw “is`K imSnrI kwlj” KoilHAw
igAw sI, aus iv`c do swl dI tRying lYx leI ByijAw igAw pr eISr isMG CyqI hI ieh
tRyinMg iv`cy hI C`f rwjnIqI dI mu`K Dwrw iv`c ku`d ipAw sI[ mJYl jI Awpxw rwjnIqI
dw gurU jQydwr aUDm isMG jI nwgoky ƒ mMndy sn[
sMn 1930 iv`c ikswn lihr iv`c Bwg lYx kwrn aunHW ƒ 6 mhIny dI kYd dI szw
hoeI sI jo bwAd iv`c ie`k swl hor vDw id`qI geI sI ikauNik jylH iv`c aunHW koloN
A^bwr brwmd ho geI sI ijs ƒ jylH dy inXmW dI aulMGxw mMinAW jWdw sI[sMn 1937
iv`c is`K-muslmwn Pswd hox l`g pey sn, ijs dw mu`K kwrn “Jtkw” Aqy “hlwl”

sI[iksy jwnvr ƒ qlvwr dy ie`k hI vwr nwl v`Fxw ijs ƒ is`K zwiej mMndy hn
‘Jtkw’ikhw jWdw hY[ jdoN ik hlwl krnw muslmwnW dw qrIkw hY ijs iv`c auh jwnvr
ƒ hOlI-hOlI k`tdy hn Aqy Awpxy Drm Anuswr jwiej mMndy hn[ Aijhy JgVy roz dI
g`l bx gey sn[ dohW kOmW drimAwn eynW qnwE v`D igAw sI ik is`KW dy ie`k jlUs qy
muslmwnW v`loN Dwvw bol id`qw igAw sI ijs iv`c do is`K P`tV ho gey Aqy muslmwn aunHW
ƒ cu`k ky Awpxy nwl lY gey sn[eISr isMG mJYl Aqy jQydwr mohn isMG nwgoky nMgIAW
qlvwrW lY ky Awpxy swQIAW nwl aunHW qy jw pey sn qy Awpxy P`tV swQIAW ƒ Cufw
ilAwey sn[ sMn 1932 iv`c eIsr isMG ƒ rwvlipMfI qoN igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw ijs
iv`c BwrqI dMfvwlI dI Dwrw 21-bI qihq aus ƒ do swl dI sjw id`qI geI sI[
igRPqwrIAw Aqy szwvW dw islslw jwrI irhw[ sMn 1938 iv`c “is`K nYSnl kwlj” dI
sQwpnw lwhOr iv`c hoeI qW eISr isMG jI mJYl ƒ ies dI pRbMDkI kmytI dw sYktrI
inXukq kIqw igAw[ 1939 eI:iv`c mJYl jI ƒ fIPYNs AwP ieMfIAW rUlz qihq ie`k
swl q`k lwhOr sYNtrl jylH iv`c nzrbMd r`iKAw igAw Aqy auh sYSn Adwlq ‘coN brI
hoey sn[ mJYl jI dIAW is`K jgq leI kIqIAW kurbwnIAw sdkw aunHW ƒ sMn 1940-41
iv`c sRI drbwr swihb AMimRqsr dw pRDwn QwipAw igAw[ sMn 1940-41 iv`c hI aunHW qy
kql dw kys pwieAw igAw ijs qihq 8 mhIny jylH iv`c rihxw ipAw sI qy ip`CoN sYSn
Adwlq ‘coN brI hoey sn[
1939-45eI: q`k hoey ivSv Xu`D iv`c AMgryzW dI mdd krn dy pRsqwv dw eISr
isMG v`loN ivroD kIqw igAw sI jdoN ik ieMfIAn nYSnl kWgrs v`loN clweI muihm
“AMgryzo ihMdusqwn C`fo” iv`c aunHW ny Ku`lH ky ih`sw ilAw sI[iesy krky mJYl jI ƒ
fIPYNs AwP ieMfIAW rUlz qihq bMdI bxw ilAw igAw sI[
PrvrI, sMn 1946 iv`c mJYl jI ƒ pMjwb AsYbMlI dw mYNbr cux ilAw igAw sI
Aqy 1947eI: iv`c Bwrq dy Awzwd hox auprMq kWgrs dy mMqrI mMfl iv`c mMqrI pd dy
ky snmwinAw igAw sI[1952eI: iv`c auh dubwrw kYbint mMqrI bxwey gey sn[hux eISr
isMG mJYl dI aumr 52 swl dI ho geI sI ijs leI aunHW ny srgrm isAwsq qoN Awpxy
Awp ƒ ip`Cy kr ilAw Aqy pitAwly nyVy ipMf “Awsro” AYgrIklcl Pwrm bxw ky au~Qy
jw itky sn[roz-dI-roz ishq ivgVdI jw rhI sI[ Awi^r ieh isrVI isAwsqdwn
eISr isMG mJYl 20 AprYl,sMn 1977 ƒ cMfIgVH ivKy Akwl clwxw kr igAw[

***

igAwnI krqwr isMG jI

igAwnI krqwr isMG jI ijMnHW ƒ is`K jgq iv`c pMQ dw idmwg krky jwixAw
jWdw hY dw jnm 12 dsMbr,1902eI: ƒ rswldwr myzr isMG jI dy Gr mwqw jIvn kOr
dI ku`KoN izlHw lwielpur (hux pwiksqwn) dy c`k nM: 40 iv`c hoieAw [nvIAW nvIAW bwrW
v`sIAW sn ijs krky ijlHw AMimRqsr dy lok ^ws krky ie`DroN au~T ky au~Dr jw v`sy sn[
igAwnI jI dw purwxw ipMf nwgky ijlHw AMimRqsr (hux ijlHw qrn qwrn)sI[ ies qrH W
aunHW dI igxqI mJYlW iv`c huMdI hY [ ihuMdsqwn dI vMf ip`CoN jmIn dI AlwtmYNt izlHw
huiSAwrpur dy auVmuV tWfy Sihr iv`c ho geI ijs krky auh auQy jw v`sy sn[
aus smyN dIAW suDwr lihrW Aqy ZdrI bwibAW qy AMgryz srkwr dy zulmoN-isqm
ny igAwnI jI dy idloN-idmwZ qy fMUGw Asr kIqw,ijs ny aunHW dy mn iv`c AMgryzW leI
bhuq n&rq Br id`qI sI[igAwnI jI ny Awpxw Gr bwr iqAwg id`qw Aqy auh isAwsI
mYdwn iv`c ku`d pey[sB qoN pihlI kwnPrMs aunHW ny ipMf DwrovwlI iv`c kIqI,ijs dI
pRDwngI sR: lCmx isMG jI DwrovwlI ny kIqI sI, ijhVy ip`CoN swkw nnkwxw swihb iv`c
mhMq nrwiex dws dy guMifAW h`QoN ShId kr id`qy gey sn[igAwnI krqwr isMG jI ny gurU
ky bwZ dy morcy iv`c vI vD cVH ky ihsw ilAw[ jYqo dy morcy iv`c vI igAwnI jI ny Cy
mhIinAW dI kYd k`tI sI[igAwnI jI dIAW is`K jgq iv`c gqIivDIAW vyK ky aunHW ƒ
pihlI vwr SromxI AkwlI dl dw jnrl sk`qr inXukq kIqw igAw[ ifzkot hlky qoN
aunHW ƒ SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dw mYNbr cuixAW igAw [igAwnI jI ny AMgryz
pRDwn mMqrI rYmzy mYkfOinl qy kimaUnl Avwrf dw ft ky ivroD kIqw sI[
igAwnI krqwr isMG iv`c iqAwg dI Bwvnw vI kmwl dI sI[ sR: bldyv isMG jI
dy r`iKAw mMqrI bx jwx nwl pMjwb AsYNblI iv`c QW KwlI ho geI sI ijs leI mwstr
qwrw isMG jI svrn isMG dI ip`T qy sn jdoN ik igAwnI jI vI ies sIt leI aumIdvwr
sn[s: jsvMq isMG jI du`gl ny iv`c pY ky ies dw PYslw prcIAW pw ky gurU gRMQ swihb
dI hzUrI iv`c krn dw suJw id`qw [ ^uSiksmqI nwl igAwnI jI dI prcI inkl Awaux
qy igAwnI jI dy gl hwr pw ky aunHW ƒ ies sIt leI pRvwn ilAw igAw sI[ ikAw
kihxw igAwnI krqwr isMG jI dI &rw^- idlI dw [ aunHW ny ieh hwr Awpxy gloN lwh
ky s: svrn isMG jI dy g`l iv`c pw Awpxy Awp ƒ lWBy kr ilAw sI[mwstr qwrw
isMG jI ny Bwvuk ho ky ikhw sI “ieh kurbwnI igAwnI jI qusIN hI kr skdy sI[” aunHW
dy ivSwl ihrdy dI ieh mUMh boldI qsvIr hY[
swrI aumr hI aunHW ny lok syvw kIqI[aunHW ny Awpxw kuJ vI nhIN bxwieAw[Awm
lIfrW vWg aunHW Dn iek`Tw nhIN kIqw[ieQoN q`k ik igAwnI jI ƒ AwpxI cox lVn leI
AwpxI zmIn vI vycxI peI sI[Gr dI hwlq ieqnI pqlI sI ik aunHW dI pqnI hrnwm
kOr ijs dy koeI aulwd nhIN sI, ƒ Awpxy BrwvW kol rihxw pNYdw sI[mwstr qwrw isMG
Awp ƒ AwpxI s`jI bWh ikhw krdy sn[Awp ny Awpxw isAwsI jIvn ie`k sDwrn

vrkr qoN SurU kIqw sI[sMn 1930 iv`c igAwnI jI ny dUsry mu`K lIfrW nwl rl ky nw
imlvrqn dI lihr iv`c ih`sw vI ilAw [
A`j k`lH dy mMqrIAW vWg ijnHW dI sur`iKAw leI AMg r`iKAk aunHW ƒ GyrI r`Kdy
hn, pr igAwnI jI ny kdI vI AwpxI sur`iKAw leI riKAk nhIN sn ley sgoN Awp
pYdl hI lokW iv`c ivcrdy rhy Aqy aunHW dy du`K-drd suxdy rhy[AslI ArQW ivc auh
drvyS isAwsqdwn sI[ aunHW ny bwbw KVk isMG jI koloN isAwsq dy dwA-pyc is`Ky [
pMQ dy inDVk jrnYl Aqy muSklW dy inptwry dI soJI r`Kx vwly isAwsqdwn ies drvyS
mJYl ƒ A`j vI aunHW dIAW nykIAW leI Xwd kIqw jWdw hY[

***

sR: guridAwl isMG jI ‘iF`loN’
(ipMf pMjvV, izlHw qrn qwrn)

mwJy dI DrqI qy jy kr Drm dI ^wiqr mr imtx vwly joDy hoey hn qW rwjnIqk
AkwS iv`c cmkx vwly isqwirAW dI vI koeI kmIN nhI[ ienHW isqwirAW ‘coN ie`k sqwry
dw nW sI sR: guridAwl isMG jI ‘iF`loN’[ aunHW dw jnm 6 Agsq, 1915eI: ƒ sR:
gurid`q isMG jI ‘iF`loN’ dy Gr mwqw pRsMn kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf pMjvV iv`c hoieAw [ieh
ipMf Jbwl qoN d`Kx dI bwhI cwr ku ik: mI; dI dUrI qy hY[iF`loN jI dy ipqw aus smyN
AwnryrI mYijstryt sn[ auh ijs QW qy Adwlq lwieAw krdy sn aus dw nWA “imsl
hwaUs” hY, ij`Qy aunHW dw invws AsQwn vI hY[
iF`loN swihb ny AwpxI mu`FlI iv`idAw ipMf dy pRwiemrI skUl ‘coN pws krky imfl
dw iemiqhwn pRweIvyt pws kIqw Aqy iPr dsvIN jmwq ^wlsw kwlzIeyt skUl AMimRqsr
qoN pws krn auprMq AYP.ey. q`k dI pVHweI ^wlsw kwlz AMimRqsr iv`c kIqI[ AglyrI
au~c iv`idAw leI auh gOrimMt kwlz lwhOr jw dwKl hoey ij`QoN aunHW ny 1935 eI: iv`c
bI.ey. pws kIqI[ pVHweI iv`c kwPI huiSAwr Aqy cyqMn hox krky aunHW ny 1937eI: iv`c
lwA grYzUeySn dI pRIiKAw lwA XUnIvristI lwhOr (dyS dI vMf qoN pihlW) qoN pihly
drjy iv`c pws kIqI[
skUlI pVHweI Kqm kr ky iF`loN AwrmIN kimSn iv`c sIlYkt ho gey sn ij`QoN
imltrI APsr dI tRyinMg lYx leI tRyinMg skUl lwhOr Aqy iPr imltrI AkwfmI
fyhrwdUn iv`c aunHW ƒ Byj id`qw igAw sI[auh ieh tRyinMg ADUrI hI C`f ky Aw vwps Aw
gey sn ikauNik aunHW dw mn qW AwzwdI sMgrwm iv`c ku`dx leI byhbl ho irhw sI[ jdoN
dyS gulwm hovy qW AijhI soc vwlw ivAkqI ijs dy idl iv`c dyS ipAwr dI jvwlw bl
rhI hovy auh ies iv`c ku`dx qoN ikvyN tl skdw hY[
guridAwl isMG iF`loN pMifq jvwhr lwl jI nihrU dy p`ky Bgq sn Aqy aunHW dI
ivcwrDwrw dy murId sn[ pMifq jI qoN ibnW auh mhwqmw gWDI jI Aqy dUsry dyS Bgq
nyqwvW dI sMgq iv`c vI rhy ijhVy dyS BgqI dy zjby nwl lbryz sn[ mu`F mu`F iv`c kuJ
icr leI iF`loN swihb ny fw: sYPUdIn ikclU hyTW vkwlq dw kMm kIqw pr CyqI hI aunHW
ny Awpxy qOr qy v`Kry ho ky vkwlq dw kMm 1937 eI:-1947 eI: q`k kIqw [vkwlq dy
nwl nwl auh AzwdI sMgrwm iv`c vI ih`sw ilAw krdy sn ijs dy PlsrUp dyS dI vMf
qoN pihlW do vwr aunHW ƒ jylH Xwqrw vI krnI peI sI[
isAwsI jIvn iv`c bySk iF`loN jI dw myl imlwp pMjwb dI isAwsq dy mhW
rQIAW sRv sRI fw: gopI cMd Bwrgv, lwlw BIm sYn s`cr, fw: sqpwl Aqy nwgoky gru`p
nwl vI irhw pr aunHW dy idlo-idmwg qy ijhVIAW hsqIAW dw Asr sI, auh sn pRqwp
isMG jI “kYroN” Aqy igAwnI gurmu`K isMG jI ‘muswiPr’[ guridAwl isMG jI Awpxy mu`Fly
isAwsI jIvn iv`c sr CotU rwm jI dy ikrdwr qoN bhuq pRBwivq sn, ijhVy d`by-kucly
lokW dI Awvwz bx ky aunHW leI Awh dw nwhrw mwr rhy sn[ auh ipMfW iv`c v`sdy grIb
ikrswnW dI mMdhwlI Aqy krjy dy boJ Q`ly d`by grIbW dIAW muSiklW qoN ielwvw byrujgwrI

vrgy msilAW ƒ Awpxw kwrj Kyqr bxw ky aunHW leI jUJ rhy sn[sr CotU rwm jI dI
kOmI soc Aqy sdBwvnw vwly vqIry ny iF`loN jI dy mn qy fUMGw Asr kIqw sI[Awp ny vI
aunHW vwlw hI rsqw Apnwaux dw inscw kr ilAw[ iF`loN ny sr CotU rwm jI nwl iml ky
kMm krnw SurU kr id`qw sI ijhVw sr CotU rwm jI dI mOq qoN ip`CoN vI iF`loN jI ny jwrI
r`iKAw[ kWgrs pwrtI iv`c rihMidAW hoieAw vI guridAwl isMG jI ny Awm AwdmI dy
jIvn p`Dr ƒ au~cw cu`kx dw kMm AwKrI dm q`k jwrI r`iKAw[
s`c qW ieh hY ik iF`loN jI ny hyTlI p`Dr (Awpxy pNyfU ^yqr) qoN Awpxw isAwsI
jIvn ArMiBAw[ iF`loN jI ikhw krdy sn, “iksy nyqw dI jVH aus dy lokW iv`c huMdI hY[
jo AwpxI jVH nwloN tu`t jWdy hn auh izAwdw icr ijMdw nhIN rih skdy[” ienHW ny
iesy Dwrnw nwl Awpxw isAwsI sPr ArMiBAw sI Aqy auh kuJ icr leI pMcwieq sMmqI
Aqy izlHw borf dy mYNbr vI rhy[ aunHW dI lok ipRXAqw kwrn hI sMn 1952 iv`c pMjwb
ivDwn sBw dy mYNbr bxn dw lokW v`loN aunHW ƒ mwx bKiSAw igAw sI[sMn 1954 iv`c
auh gRihsq jIvn iv`c pRvyS kr gey Aqy aunHW dI SwdI srdwrnI rwjbIr kOr jI nwl
hoeI[
1952-1954 eI: q`k auh lok lyKw sMMpqI dy cyArmYn rhy[ 1952eI: iv`c
ivDwn sBw dy mYNbr bxn auprMq aunHW ƒ ifptI spIkr bxwieAw igAw [jdoN pYpsU qoV
ky pMjwb iv`c imlw ilAw igAw sI qW dubwrw iF`loN swihb ƒ 1962eI: q`k ies Ahudy qy
kMm krn leI cux ilAw igAw sI[ 1963-64 eI: iv`c “prjw qMqr pwrtI” (ivroDI
kWgrsI) dy lIfr vjoN iF`loN jI ny AwpxI BuUimkw inBweI sI[kuJ smyN leI 1965eI: iv`c
aunHW ƒ pMjwb trWsport,pyNfU ibjlI krx,pwrlImYNtrI mwmly Aqy SihrI hvwbwjI dw
mMqrI vI QwipAw igAw sI[sMn 1967 iv`c auh lok sBw cox ij`q ky BwrqI pwrlImYNt
iv`c cly gey sn, ij`Qy aunHW ƒ lok AdwieAw dI pwrlImwnI kmytI dy cyArmYn vjoN kMm
krn dw mOkw vI imilAw[ 1969eI:iv`c iF`loN swihb ƒ do vwrIAW 1969-71eI: Aqy
1971-75eI: leIy lok sBw dw spIkr cux ilAw igAw[ auh 1975-77eI: q`k Bwrq dy
trWsport Aqy zhwjrwnI mMqrI vI rhy [
‘iFloN’ jI ƒ imly ienHW AhuidAW Aqy siqkwrW qoN ielwvw Bwrq dy numwieMdy vjoN
dyS qoN bwhr keI kwnPrMsW iv`c jwx dw suBwg vI pRwpq hoieAw [aunHW ny bqOr cyArmYn
kul ihMd ivDwn sBwvW dIAW 17 kwnPrMsW iv`c iSrkq kIqI ijnHW ‘coN sq vyrW iF`loN
swihb ny pRDwn vjoN ih`sw ilAw sI[sMn 1973 iv`c aunHW ƒ knyfw ivKy pwrlImYNt dy
Avwrf nwl snmwinAw igAw sI[ieMj hI dunIAW dIAW hor pwrlImYNtW v`loN vI iF`loN
swihb ƒ snmwn imly sn[AMqrrwStrI p`Dr qy snmwnW iv`coN ieh ^ws qOr qy vrnxXog
hn:(1)
1969 eI: iv`c AMqrrwStrI pwrlImYNtrI XUnIAn dy pRDwn rhy[
(2)
1973 eI:iv`c cwr swl leI kwrjkwrI pRDwn vjoN jnyvw iv`c cuxy gey sn Aqy
dubwrw 1974 eI: iv`c 1976eI: q`k leI pRDwn cuxy gey sn[ieh mwx vwlI g`l hY
ik ies sBw dy 1889eI: qoN hoNd iv`c Awaux qoN audoN q`k iksy vI APrIkw-eySIAweI
ivAkqI ƒ ieh mwx pRwpq nhIN sI hoieAw[
(3) kwmnvYlQ pwrlImYNtrI sBw dIAW 1957 eI: iv`c hox vwlIAW kwnPrMsW dy BwrqI
fYlIgytW iv`c iF`loN jI ny mYNbr jW lIfr vjoN keI vyrW ih`sw ilAw[ keI swlW dy ies
Xogdwn sdkw aunHW ƒ 1973eI: iv`c lMfn ivKy eySIAw dI numwieMdgI vjoN mIq pRDwn
bxwieAw igAw sI[
(4) kwmnvYlQ pwrlImYNtrI sBw dy sMn 1974-75eI: vwsqy kulMbo iv`c hox vwly iejlws
leI guridAwl isMG jI ƒ Bwrq v`loN pRDwn QwipAw igAw Aqy 1975 iv`c aunHW ny
ies sBw dI pRDwngI vI kIqI [kuJ smyN leI auh kwrjkwrnI kmytI dy pRDwn vI
rhy[
kwmnvYlQ dy spIkrW dI kwnPrMsW bwry:(a) Bwrq v`loN iF`loN ny moFI vjoN 1969eI: iv`c Etwvw knyfw iv`c hox vwlI pihlI
kwnPrMs iv`c Bwg ilAw [

(A) 1970-71eI: iv`c hox vwlI dUsrI kwnPrMs iv`c aunHW ny kwnPrMs dI pRDwngI
kIqI[
(e) 1971-74eI: q`k kwmnvYlQ dy spIkrW dI kmytI dy auh cyArmYn rhy [
(s) ieh g`l bVy hI mwx nwl kihx vwlI hY ik ie`k BwrqI hox dy nwqy iF`loN swihb
AweI.pI.XU, sI.pI.ey Aqy sI,pI.sI dy iqMn swl q`k pRDwn vI rhy[
isAwsI jIvn dy nwl nwl aunHW iv`c dyS BgqI dy zjby ƒ slwm kridAW hoieAW
Bwrq srkwr v`loN aunHW ƒ “qwmr p`qr” dy ky AwzwdI GulwtIey vjoN snmwinAw igAw
sI[isAwsI pihlU qoN ielwvw jy kr Dwrimk soc dI g`l krIey qW swhmxy AwauNdw hY ik
iF`loN swihb 8 swl q`k SromxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dy mYNbr vI rhy Aqy Bwrq dI
vMf qoN pihlW 1946eI: iv`c auh jylH vI gey [ies smyN aunHW ny is`K isAwsq dy hmwieqI
Aqy ivroDI kWgrsI-AkwlI lIfrW dy isAwsI-Dwrimk vqIry Aqyy cox nIqIAW dw
AiDAYn vI kIqw[ bqOr SromxI kmytI dy.mYNbr iF`loN jI ‘nwgoky’ gru`p dI kOmWqrI soc
kwrn aunHW v`l izAwdw JukwE r`iKAw[sR:guridAwl isMG jI iFloN fw:zwkr hUsYn
ividAk Aqy siBAwcwrk sBw dy pRDwngI pd qy vI brwjy[
iF`loN swihb sRI gurU qyZ bhwdr mYmorIAl trst, BweI vIr isMG mYmorIAl
suswietI, bwbw Sy^ PrId mYmorIAl suswietI dy pRDwn Aqy gurU nwnk PwauNfySn dy
srpRsq huMidAW hoieAW gurU goibMd isMG PwauNfySn dy mYNbr vI rhy[ ie`Qy hI b`s nhIN Awp
“nYSnl rweIPlz AYsosIeySn AwP ieMfIAW Aqy vyt ilPitMg AYsosIeySn dy pRDwn Aqy
kOmI mnorMjn sBw dy mIq pRDwn vI bxy[ ividAk Kyqr iv`c aunHW dI fwFI rucI sI[
aunHw dI ieh idlI ie`Cw sI ik “myry Bwrq dw Aqy ^ws krky myry ielwky pMjwb dw
ividAw p`KoN bhu-p`KI ivkws hovy[” iesy soc sdkw hI auh
1) pMjwb XUnIvristI cMfIgVH isMfIkyt dy 1956-80eI: q`k mYNbr rhy Aqy 1956eI: qoN
AMq q`k sYnytr rhy[
2) 1971-78eI: q`k gurU nwnk dyv XUnIvristI AMimRqsr dy isMfIkyt Aqy sYnytr vjoN
syvw inBweI[
3) pMjwbI XUnIvristI pitAwlw 1968-69eI: iv`c sYnytr rhy[
4) gurU nwnk dyv ieM: kwlj luiDAwxw dy ^jwncI dI syvw inBweI[
5) sYink skUl nwBw dy pRbMDkI borf dy mYNbr rhy[
6) qrn qwrn Sihr dy mwqw gMgw grlz kwlz, sRI gurU Arjn dyv (hux srkwrI)
kwlz Aqy ^wlsw hwier sYkMfrI skUl dy pRDwngI pd qy rhy[
7) bwnI pRDwn vjoN iF`loN swihb 1943-67 eI: q`k kyNdrI mwJw ^wlsw hwier sYkMfrI
skUl bMbeI dI syvw inBweI [
8) bIV bwbw bu`Fw kwlz dI pRbMDkI kmytI dy mYNbr dI ijMmyNvwrI inBweI[
9) ShId drSn isMG PyrUmwn kwlj reIAw dy trstI rhy[
10) jilHAW vwlw bwZ dI pRbMDkI kmytI Aqy trst dI sb kmytI dy 1973-81eI: q`k
cyArmYn rhy[
ijs bUty ny AwpxIAW ieMnIAW lgrW C`fIAW hox aus ƒ Pl ikvyN nw l`gdw [aunHW dI
inSkwm syvw ny rMg qW ilAwauxw hI sI ijs dy PlsrUp aunHW ƒ hyT ilKy snmwnW
nwl invwijAw igAw:1) fI.ilt dI ifgrI nwl pMjwb XUnIvristI cMfIgVH v`loN snmwinAw igAw [
2) fI.ilt dI ifgrI nwl gurU nwnk dyv XUnIvristI AMimRqsr v`loN snmwinAw igAw[
3) hMbol XUnIvristI jrmnI v`loN rwjnIqI ivigAwn dI fI.ilt dI ifgrI pRdwn kIqI
geI [
4) korIAw dI XUunIvristI suMg ikAwn kvwn v`loN pI.AYc.fI dI ifgrI pRdwn kIqI geI
[
guridAwl isMG jI dI p`qrkwrI iv`c vI rucI sI ijs krky auh aunHW bwnIAW
iv`coN ie`k sn ijnHW ny kwrzSIl p`qrkwr sBw dw ArMB AwrMiBAw sI[
(1) auh 1948-52eI: q`k “srkwrI slwhkwr pRYs kmytI” dy mYNbr rhy[

(2) iF`loN swihb pMjwbI dI rozwnw A^bwr “vrqmwn” Aqy aurdU rozwnw “Syr-ey-Bwrq”
dy 1948-52eI: q`k AYfItr vI rhy[
(3) auh pMjwb dI “ pMjwb znrilst AYsosIeySn” dI kwrzkwrnI kmytI dy mYNbr rhy[
(4) aunHW ny “is`K nYSnl p`qrkw” dy mYnyijMg fwierYktr vjoN 1948-52eI: q`k kMm vI
kIqw [
(5) BwrqI pRYs kONsl ƒ mYNbrW dy nWA Byjx vwlI kmytI dy kuJ smyN leI mYNbr vI bxy
rhy sn[
sR: guridAwl isMG jI iF`loN ƒ julweI 1980-82eI: q`k knyfw iv`c hweI
kimSnr vI bxw ky ByijAw igAw sI[
sMn 1946 qoN 1977 q`k dy lMmyN smyN (31 swl) dOrwn aunHW ny ijMnIAW vI coxW
lVIAW, ijhnW iv`c auh hr vwr jyqU rhy Aqy kdy vI hwr dw mUMh nhIN vyiKAw[ iF`loN
swihb dy jIvn iv`c iek bVI hI rOck Gtnw vwprI jdoN aunHW ƒ Drm sMkt dw swhmxw
krnw ipAw sI[ aunHW dy ipqw sR: gurid`q isMG jI ‘iF`loN’ ijhVy AkwlI pwrtI v`loN cox
lV rhy sn dy mukwbly iv`c iF`loN swihb ƒ kWgrs pwrtI v`loN aumIdvwr bxw ky co x
mYdwn iv`c auqwirAw igAw sI[ ipau Aqy pu`qr dI is`DI t`kr ho geI sI[ iF`loN swihb
AwpxI pwrtI dy ieqny vPwdwr sn ik aunHW ny ies cYlMj ƒ kbUl kr ky cox lVI sI
ijs iv`c auh jyqU rhy sn[ieh g`l 1952eI: dI hY[iF`loN swihb ies AkIdy dy DwrnI
sn ik ijs nwl vI quro qno-mno ho ky quro[aunHW dy ies inscy dw ie`k vyr iemiqhwn vI
hoieAw sI jdoN sRImqI ieMdrw gWDI cox hwr gey sn Aqy aunHW dy swQI aunHW ƒ C`fdy jw
rhy sn[kuJ swQIAW v`loN iF`loN swihb ƒ slwh id`qI geI sI ik auh mOky dI nzwkq
smJx Aqy ieMdrw gWDI dw swQ C`f dyx pr aunHW ny ieh kih ky “ieh ienswn ƒ soBdw
nhIN ik auh iksy dw swQ audoN C`f dyvy jdoN aus dw swQI musIbq iv`c hovy[” aunHW dw
suJwau Tukrw id`qw sI Aqy AwpxI pwrtI pRqI vPwdwr rhy sn[
idl iv`c swihqk m`s hox kwrn auh rwjnIqk ruJyivAW
‘coN vkq k`F ky vI swihqk ipVHW iv`c ivcr ilAw krdy sn[jdoN auh nvyN nvyN lok sBw
dy spIkr bxy sn qW ‘ruVkI’ iv`c ie`k muSwierw hoieAw sI[ iF`loN swihb ny aus iv`c
iSrkq kr ky sroiqAw ƒ hYrwn kr id`qw Aqy d`s id`qw sI ik auh vI Awpxy AMdr ie`k
Swier dw idl r`Kdy hn[
lMmyN smyN q`k rwjnIiqk, Dwrimk, ividAk Aqy lok BlweI dy kwrj ^yqrW iv`c
gqISIl rihMidAW hoieAW iF`loN jI ny ie`k idn idl dI drd dw izkr kIqw jo imqI 23
mwrc, 1992 ƒ (77 swl dI AwXU iv`c) “hwrt AtYk” dw rUp Dwr ky ies bhu-p`KI
S^sIAq Aqy rMgIly mJYl ƒ swfy koloN Koh ky lY igAw[ swry Bwrq ƒ ies mJYyl dy jwx
nwl Gwtw qW ipAw hI pr pMjwb qy Kws krky mwJw Awpxy hIry ƒ guAw bYTw hY[ aunHW dI
byvkq mOq kwrn bhuq swry Aijhy kMm ADUry rih gey ijhVy auh Awpxy lokW leI krnw
locdy sn[ aunHW kMmW dI pUrqI krn leI iF`loN swihb dI supqnI srdwrnI rwjbIr kOr
jI v`fy hONsly nwl ju`ty hoey hn[aunHW nwl myrI imqI 19-08-2008 ƒ hoeI mulwkwq smyN
aunHW ny d`isAw sI ik auh ‘iF`loN’ swihb dy ADUry supinAW ƒ pUrw krnw hI Awpxy jIvn
dw mnorQ smJdy hn[mYƒ s`c jwipAw sI “ mrd dI kwmXwbI ip`Cy AOrq dw h`Q huMdw
hY[” srdwrnI iF`loN A`j vI nrooeI Aws Aqy soc nwl “imsl hwaUs” iv`c bYTy lok
syvw iv`c ju`ty hoey hn[

***

(DMnvwd swihq srdwrnI rwjbIr kOr jI ‘iF`loN’ (supqnI sv:sR: guridAwl isMG jI
‘iF`loN’ sWsd Aqy swbkw spIkr lok sBw pwsoN imqI 19-08-2008 ƒ pRwpq vyrivAW
Aqy aunHW nwl hoeI crcw qy ADwirq hY)

jQydwr mohx isMG jI ‘quV’
(ipMf quV, izlHw qrn qwrn)

pMQ v`sy mYN au~jVW, mn cwau Gnyrw[
A`j dy pdwrQvwdI Xu`g iv`c Aijhw kOx hY jo AwpxI brbwdI dI pRvwh kIqy bgYr
dUsirAW leI mr imt jwx dw pRx lYNdw hY[hr ie`k pYsy dI dOV iv`c dUsirAW ƒ ip`Cy
C`f jwx dI hoV iv`c hY[iksy cIz dw bIj nws nhIN huMdw[kudrq Aijhy mnu`KW ƒ vI pYdw
krdI hY jo Awpw vwrn dI ibrqI r`Kdy hn[Aijhw hI ie`k ienswn mwJy dI DrqI qy
pYdw hoieAw ijs ny ieh s`c kr ivKwieAw sI[ aus mJYl dw nW sI sR: mohx isMG jI
‘quV’ [
mohn isMG jI quV dw jnm sMn 1915 iv`c s: jgq isMG jI dy Gr mwqw pwl
kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf quV,qihsIl Aqy izlHw qrn qwrn iv`c hoieAw [aunHW dw pRIvwrk
ipCokV hI kurbwnIAW nwl BirAw ipAw hY[quV jI dy bzurgW ny pMQ Aqy Drm dI Kwiqr
kdy vI ip`T nhI sI ivKweI[ aunHW dy ipqw jQydwr jgq isMG jI quV jYqoN dy morcy iv`c
500 sO isMGW dy pihly jQy dI AgvweI kridAW hoieAW igRPqwr hoey Aqy aunHW ƒ do swl
leI nwBy dI jylH iv`c kYd k`txI peI sI[ ies morcy dOrwn hI srkwr v`loN golI clweI
geI sI Aqy ie`k golI sR: jgq isMG jI ‘quV’ dI l`q iv`c l`gI sI ijs nwl auh sKq
z^mI ho gey sn[
quV ipMf , qihsIl Aqy ijlHw qrn qwrn dw ipMf hY jo qrn qwrn qoN ^fUr
swihb vwlI sVk qy hY[ mohn isMG quV SromxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dy pRDwn vjoN vI
inXukq rhy[ ieh auh smW sI jdoN sR: pRqwp isMG jI kYroN pMjwb dy mu`K mMqrI sn Aqy
auhnW dw pUrw jwho-jlwl sI[
sR: mohn isMG jI quV ny Awpxw rwjnIqk jIvn SRomxI AkwlI dl dy ie`k
ispwhI vjoN SurU kIqw [aunHW ƒ sMn 1945 iv`c srkl srhwlI dw jQydwr QwipAw igAw
[1947eI: iv`c Bwrq dI vMf smyN hoey iPrkU PswdW iv`c quV swihb ny lokW dI sur`iKAw
kwrjW iv`c v`fw Xogdwn pwieAw sI[ sMn 1955 iv`c pMjwbI sUby dI pRwpqI ihq morcy dI
rUp ryKw aunHW v`loN Aijhy suc`jy FMg nwl iqAwr kIqI sI ik srkwr leI icMqw dw ivSw
bx igAw sI[quV swihb ƒ sRI drbwr swihb AMimRqsr dI pRkrmw iv`co igRPqwr kr
ilAw igAw Aqy aunHW qy 52 kys pwey gey sn[aunHW ƒ slwKW ip`Cy r`iKAw igAw sI Aqy
lMmyN smyN q`k ieh kys aunHW ivru`D c`ldy rhy sn[quV swihb dw Gr FuAw id`qw igAw Aqy
mwl fMgr vI inlwm krvw id`qy gey sn[ jylH iv`c rihMidAw hoieAW quV swihb ƒ AnykW
qsIhy Aqy lwlc id`qy gey pr auh isdk qoN nhIN sn foly[
sMn 1962 dIAW Awm coxW iv`c quV swihb jylH iv`c hI sn jdoN SromxI AkwlI
dl v`loN sR: mohn isMG jI ƒ aus smyN dy loh-purS vjoN jwxy jWdy mu`K mMqrI sR: pRqwp
isMG jI kYroN dy mukwbly iv`c hlkw srhwlI qoN KVw kIqw sI[quV swihb dw lokW iv`c
siqkwr Aqy ipAwr rMg ilAwieAw auh 464 votW dy Prk nwl jyqU rhy sn pr smyN dI
hwkm srkwr ny Awpxw srkwrI dbw pw ky ies ij`q ƒ hwr iv`c bdl id`qw sI Aqy

‘kYroN’ jI ƒ jyqU GoiSq kr id`qw igAw sI[jylH ‘coN irhw hox auprMq aunHW ƒ 1955 qoN
1965eI: q`k SRomxI kmytI dw mYNbr inXukq kIqw Aqy iPr 1965eI: iv`c hI sRI Akwl
q^q swihb dw jQydwr Qwp id`qw igAw sI[Akwl q^q dI jQydwrI qoN AsqIPw dy dyx
bwAd quV swihb ƒ SRomxI AkwlI dl dw sInIAr mIq pRDwn Qwp id`qw igAw sI[
sMn 1967dIAw coxW ij`q ky sR: mohn isMG jI ivDwn sBw dy mYNbr bxy sn Aqy
jsits gurnwm isMG dI vzwrq iv`c styt mMqrI sMcweI Aqy Dwrimk msly rhy
sn[1972 eI: iv`c quV swihb dI kIrqI ƒ vyKidAW hoieAW aunHW ƒ pRDwn bxw id`qw
igAw sI[sMn 1973 iv`c ‘krnwl dw SihrI AzwdI morcw quV swihb dI srpRsqI hyTW
lwieAw igAw ijs iv`c aunHW ƒ dUsry Awpxw AMg smJdy sn[
9 julweI, 1975eI: ƒ AYmrjMsI ivru`D morcw vI jQydwr horW dI rihnumweI hyT
hI lwieAw igAw sI[iesy qrHW sMn 1977 iv`c jQydwr horW dI pRDwngI hyTW hI lok sBw
coxW iv`c SRomxIy AkwlI dl Aqy ies dIAW BweIvwl pwrtIAW ƒ pMjwb ‘coN 13 sItW qy
ij`q hwsl hoeI sI[aus smyN dy kWgrs dw QMm smJy jwx vwly lok sBw dy spIkr sR:
guridAwl isMG jI ‘iF`loN’ ƒ vI quV swihb ny ie`k l`K qoN v`D votW dy Prk nwl hwr dy
ky lok sBw leI cuxy gey sn[
28 Agsq,1977eI: ƒ jQydwr horW ny AwpxI mrzI nwl hI pRDwngI pd qoN
AsqIPw dy id`qw sI Aqy Awpxy isAwsI swQI jgdyv isMG jI qlvMfI ƒ pRDwn bxw id`qw
sI[AMq ieh drvyS isAwsqdwn QoVHw ijhw ibmwr rih ky 30 julweI, 1979eI: ƒ gurU
crnw iv`c jw brwijAw sI[mwJy dy ies mhwn spUq ny isAwsq ijs ƒ gMdI Kyf ikhw
jWdw hY, iv`c rih ky vI Awpxy dwmn qy dwZ nhIN sI l`gx id`qw[ies sMq ispwhI ny
lokW vWg Awpxw Gr nhIN BirAw sgoN Awpxw sB kuJ dyS, kONm Aqy Drm leI inSwvr
kr id`qw[

***

( DMnvwd swihq swbkw lok sBw sWsd sR: qrlocn isMG jI ‘quV’ spu`qr sv:sR mohx
isMG jI ‘quV’ pwsoN pRwpq vyrivAW qy ADwirq)

pdm ivBUSn

fw: mnohr isMG jI ‘ig`l’
(ipMf AlwdInpur ijlHw qrn qwrn)

sR: mnohr isMG jI ‘ig`l’ dw jnm imqI 14 jUn, 1936eI: ƒ krnl sR: pRqwp
isMG jI ‘igl’ dy gRih ivKy mwqw nrMjn kOr jI dI ku`KoN, ipMf AlwdIn pur ivKy hoieAw
[ipMf AlwdIpur qihsIl Aqy izlHw qrn qwrn dw ie`k Cotw ijhw ipMf hY[qrn qwrn qo N
hrIky ƒ jWidAw hoieAw Sihr qoN do ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy ieh ipMf sVk qy v`isAw
hoieAw hY ijhVw ig`l pRIvwr krky jgq pRis`D hY[ig`l swihb dy ipqw sR: pRqwp isMG jI
imltrI iv`c krnl pd qoN syvw mukq hoey sn[ Awp dy Coty Brw sR: ihMmq isMG jI vI
POj iv`c rhy Aqy myjr jnrl dy pd qoN syvw mukq hoey, ijnHW dw huxy huxy hI dyhWq ho
igAw hY[
ig`l swihb ny AwpxI mu`FlI pVHweI ipMf dy gurduAwry qoN ArMBI,pMjvIN jmwq q`k
qrn qwrn Sihr dy sRI gurU Arjn dyv skUl iv`c pVH ky auh msUrI dy jgq pRis`D Aqy
au~c drjy dy “syNt jOrz kwlj msUrI” iv`c dwKl ho gey[aunHW ny bI.ey. ‘Awnrz’ iv`c
pws kr AYm.ey.AMgryjI ivSy iv`c pMjwb XUnIvristI qoN pws kIqI[“pMjwb iv`c
sihkwrqw lihr Aqy ies dw ikrswnI leI Xogdwn vrgy Aihm ivSy qy pI.AYc.fI dI
Koj kIqI[kuJ smyN leI ig`l swihb ny luiDAwxw ivKy bqOr pRoPYsr nOkrI vI kIqI[sR:
mnohr isMG jI ig`l ny AweI.sI.AYs dy mukwbly dw iemiqhwn cMgI pujISn iv`c pws
kIqw Aqy ies auprMq AMbwlw iv`c AYs.fI.AYm Aqy iPr jlMDr,AMbwlw Aqy lwhOlspIqI
iv`c ifptI kimSnr vjoN bw^UbI Awpxy Prj inBwey[
pMjwb dI ikrswnI iv`c fUMGIAW jVHW kwrn mu`K qOr qy ig`l swihb dI rucI pyNfU
ivkws,KyqI suDwr,v`DdI hoeI AwbwdI qy kwbU pwaux Aqy is`iKAw shUlqW v`l rhI hY[aunHW
dI AijhI A`gy vD soc Aqy hr ielwky iv`c kIqy kwrjW dI bdOlq AweI. ey.AYs .APsrW
dI numwieMdgI leI aunHW ƒ ie`k swl dI ^ws qOr qy ivkws pRswr pRogrwm leI cuixAw
igAw sI Aqy aucycy qOr qy kueInz kwlj kYNbirz ieMglYf ByijAw igAw sI[jdoN ig`l
swihb pMjwb iv`c rijstrwr sihkwrqw soswietIz vjoN inXukq sn qW ikrswnW ƒ bYkW
rwhIN shwieqw dyx dy kwrz dw mu`F b`iJAw sI ijs nwl ikrswnW dI AwriQk mMdhwlI ƒ
n`Q pwaux dw ie`k sucwrU auprwlw sI jo A`gy c`l ky bhuq hI kwrgwr swbq hoieAw[
smu`cy Bwrq dI kOmI sihkwrI sBw dy AYm.fI. bx jwx qy ig`l swihb ny Bwrq dy
dUsry swry sUibAW iv`c vI ieh lihr PYlw id`qI sI[sR: mnohr isMG jI ig`l dI fUMGI soc
Aqy kwblIAq ƒ BWpidAW hoieAW ivSv bYNk v`loN aunHW ƒ nweyjyrIAw iv`c ie`k bhuq
hI v`fy pRojYkt (smW pMj swl qy lwgq 50 kroV fwlr) dy mu`KI vjoN bulwieAw igAw
sI[pMjwb iv`c ivkws kimSnr vjoN inXukqI smyN ig`l swihb ny ikrswxI, sihkwrqw,
pSU pwlx,m`CI pwlx BUmIN suDwr Aqy smu`cI aunqI vrgy kwrzW ƒ nvIAW idSwvW pRdwn
kIqIAW [pMjwb mMfIkrn borf dy cyArmYn dy Ahudy qy huMidAW hoieAW ig`l jI ny Coty
ikrswnW dy jIvn p`Dr ƒ au~cw cu`kx leI ‘AwpxI mMfI’, ‘ivkws Bvn’, ‘m`CI pwlx,

mDU m`KI pwlx. KMf auqpwdn Aqy d`uD vrgy ik`iqAW ƒ auqSwihq kr ky nvyN Xu`g dw
ArMB kIqw [sR: mnohr isMG jI ig`l ƒ phwVW qy cVHn dI isKlweI dyx vwlI sMsQw dy
pRDwn rihx dw vI mwx hwsl hY[
mwJy dy ie`k Coty ijhy ipMf iv`coN au~T ky 1993eI: iv`c Bwrq dy cox
kimSnr Aqy iPr 1996eI: iv`c mu`K cox kimSnr dy Ahudy qIk pu`jxw aunHW leI hI nhIN
sgoN swry pMjwbIAW leI &Kr dI g`l hY[mu`K cox kimSnr dy kwl dOrwn 1996eI:,
1998eI: Aqy 1999eI: iv`c iqMn vwr lok sBw dIAW coxW ienHW dI dyK ryK hyT hoeIAW[
keI rwjW dIAW ivDwn sBwvW dIAW coxW vI hoeIAW ienHW dy kwrjkwl iv`c hoeIAW[sMn
1997 iv`c dyS dy rwStrpqI Aqy au~p rwStrpqI dI cox vI aunHW dy kwrzkwl vyly
hoeI[ieh swry kwrj ig`l swihb ny bhuq hI kuSlqw nwl inBwey[ibjleI mSInW rwhIN
votW pwaux dw kMm pihlI vwr sR: mnohr isMG jI ig`l dy smyN hI SurU hoieAw[ Bwrq qoN
bwhr keI hor mulkW ijvyN ieMfonySIAW, kMbofIAw, d`KxI APrIkw Awid ƒ coxW sbMDI
sUJ-bUJ Aqy shwieqw Awp v`loN hI pRdwn krvweI geI sI[votrW dw kMipaUtrIkrx Aqy
Poto vwly pCwx p`qr jwrI krn dw kMm vI ig`l swihb horW v`loN hI ArMiBAw igAw sI[
rwj sBw dy mYNbr huMidAW hoieAW ig`l swihb dI muKqwrI/pRbMD hyTW bxy kimSn ny
kOmWqrI p`Dr qy vwh-vwh K`tI sI Aqy mYNbrW ƒ dUsry dySW imswl vjoN ieMfonySIAw,
nweyjyrIAw, kMbofIAw, d`KxI APrIkw Awid v`loN s`dw id`qw igAw ik auh Aw ky aunHW dI
coxW sbMDI mdd krn Aqy nvIAW qknIkW qoN jwxU krvwaux[
pMjwb dI grIb ikrswxI ig`l swihb v`loN drswey rwhW leI aunHW dI irxI hY[
nyk nIAq nwl kIqw hoieAw kMm Aqy iemwndwrI kdy vI inhPl nhIN jWdI[iesy krky
ig`l swihb hmySW ies g`l dy DwrnI rhy hn ik mYN Awpxy lokW dy kMm Aw skW[auh
hmySW ies g`l dw ijkr krdy hn:“mYN lokW dI syvw kr ky aunHW qy koeI Aihswn nhIN kr irhw sgoN ijs im`tI iv`coN mYN
pYdw hoieAw hW aus im`tI dw krz lwhux dI koiSS kr irhw hW[”
ig`l swihb bhuq hI nrm ic`q, idAwlU Aqy nyk ienswn hn[aunHW dy kIqy hoey
kwrzW dy m`dy-nzr aunHW ƒ “pdm ivBUSx” Aqy “dwdw BweI nwro jI” vrgy kOmIN Aqy
kOmWqrI snmwnw nwl snmwinAw igAw hY[^wlsy dy jnm AsQwn AnMdpur swihb ivKy
ie`k ieiqhwsk iek`T iv`c Bwrq dy pRDwn mMqrI dI hwjrI iv`c “inSwn-ey ^wlsw” dw
snmwn dy ky mwJy dy ies mhwn spUq AYM.AYs.ig`l dy kIqy hoey kMmW ƒ slwihAw igAw
hY[A`j k`lH ig`l swihb kyNdr srkwr iv`c bqOr Xuvk BlweI Aqy Kyf mMqrI dyS dy
nOjvwnW dI kOmI p`Dr qy rihbrI kr rhy hn[pMjwb dy ielwky iv`c vI Kws krky b`icAW
iv`c Kyf pRivrqI ƒ auqSwihq krn iv`c auh idn rwq ie`k kr rhy hn[iKfwrIAw dI
shUulq leI KyfW dw smwn, AYstotrP vwly grwaNuf bxvw ky KyfW dy imAwr ƒ au~cw cu`kx
dy auprwilAW iv`c ju`ty hoey hn[vwihgurU kry auh hjwrW swl jIaUx Aqy mwJy dw nW roSn
krdy rihx!

***

nwrI jwqI dw gOrv

kwmryf ivmlw fWg
(Cyhrtw, AMimRqsr)

A`j dy pdwrQvwdI smwj iv`c ienswn svY-kyNdirq Aqy Kudgrz bx ky rih
igAw hY[ auh dUsry dI mVHI qy Awpxw mihl KVw krn qoN vI guryz nhIN krdw[auh dUsry
dy du`K drd Aqy kurlwht nwl Awpxw koeI srokwr nhIN smJdw[nwrI jwqI qW mu`FkudIm qoN hI mrd pRDwn smwj dI mwr sihMdI AweI hY[nwQW Aqy jogIAW dy smyN aus ƒ
‘bwGn’ (biGAwVI) kih ky durkwieAw igAw[
“bwGn qn CIjY, bwGn mn CIjY[ ien bwGn qRYlokI KweI[”
smyN ny krvt bdlI sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI ny ies g`l dw ivroD kridAw hoieAW “so
ikauN mMdw AwKIAY ijq jMmy rwjwn” dw nwhrw lwieAw[pr APsos nwrI A`j vI pihlW
vWg hI julm dI mwr sih rhI hY[bySk swl iv`c ie`k vyr Swqr idmwg lIfr “kOmWqrI
mihlw idvs” dy nW hyTW FkOsly rc ky aus ƒ puckwrn Aqy slwhux dw FONg rcdy rihMdy
hn[s`c qW ieh hY ik swrQk kMm ikDry vI nhIN ho irhw Aqy AOrq A`j vI mrd dy pYr
dI ju`qI hI smJI jWdI hY[
“ieh qW sB ivKwvy nwrI,k`l vI hwrI A`j vI hwrI[”
kihMdy hn iksy cIz dw bIj nws nhIN huMdw[bySk lokW dI bhuqwq Kudgrz Aqy mqlbI ho
geI hY pr Ajy vI kuJ lok BwvyNauh auNglIAW qy hI igxy jwx vwly hn,dUsirAW dw du`K
drd vyK ky Awpxw du`K Bu`l jWdy hn Aqy dUsry dw du`K dUr krn dw hr auprwlw krdy
hn[ AijhI hI ie`k AOrq hY “sRImqI ivmlw fWg” jo nwrI jwqI vwsqy iksy msIhy qoN
G`t nhIN hY[auh nwrI jwqI qy hox vwly AiqAwcwr Aqy julm ivru`D jUJ rhI hY[
ivmlw jI dy mwpy kSmIr qoN plwien kr ky Alwhbwd jw v`sy sn ij`Qy 26
dsMbr, 1926 ƒ ivmlw jI dw ies m`D vrg dy pRIvwr iv`c jnm hoieAw[bcpn qoN hI
ivmlw AgWh vDU qbIAq dI sI ijs krky auh CotI aumr iv`c hI hm-iKAwl swQIAW
nwl pRgqIvwd lihr iv`c Swml ho geI Aqy CyqI hI sovIAq XUnIAn AwgynweIjySn dy
srgrm lokW iv`c jwxI jwx l`g peI sI[audoN qoN hI ivmlw jI juJwrUAW vWg smwj syvw
dy kwrjW iv`c pUrI lgn Aqy qndyhI nwl ih`sw lYx l`g peI sI[auh lokW dI soc dy
nzrIey ƒ bdl ky aunHW dy hwlqW ƒ bdlx leI XqnSIl hY[1940 eI: iv`c ivmlw jdoN
Ajy lwhOr kwlj dI ividAwrQx hI sI qW dyS iv`c pey kwl leI aus ny ictwgWg
(p`CmI bMgwl) jw ky shwieqw rwSI vjoN bhuq swrw Dn iek`Tw krky v`fw Xogdwn
pwieAw sI[
1952 eI: iv`c ivmlw jI dI SwdI pMjwb dy izlHy AMimRqsr dy mMny pRmMny smwj
suDwirk Aqy kimXUinst soc dy DwrnI sqpwl fWg nwl ho geI Aqy auh hux ivmlw fWg
vjoN jwxI l`g peI sI[Cyhrty (AMimRqsr) iv`c rihMidAW hoieAw ivmlw fWg ny
iesqrIAW ƒ iek`qr krky iesqrI lihr dw AwrMB kIqw Aqy Awpxy pqI sqpwl fWg

jI dy sihXog nwl mjdUr XUnIAn dy kwrjW iv`c srgrm ih`sw lYxw SurU kr id`qw sI[
ijhVy lok d`by kucly grIbI dI ijMdgI jIau rhy sn, ieh j`do-jihd aunHW ƒ ie`jq dI
ijMdgI ijaux dw rwh drswaux dw ie`k auprwlw sI[
ivmlw fWg ƒ aunHW dy kIqy hoey smwj suDwr dy kwrjW leI 1991 eI:iv`c Bwrq dy
rwStrpqI jI v`loN “pdm sRI” dw snmwn dy ky snmwinAw igAw[smwj suDwr Aqy lok
BlweI dy kMm kridAW hoieAW ivmlw fWg ƒ keI vyrW jylH Xwqrw vI krnI peI[aunHW ny
AMimRqsr Sihr dy keI pRweIvyt kwljW iv`c bqOr AiDAwpk kMm vI kIqw Aqy kuJ swlW
leI “bilz” Aqy “inXU eyj” rswilAW leI p`qr pRyrk vI rhy[1992 eI: iv`c ibmlw
fWg pMjwb ivDwn sBw leI vI cuxy gey[bySk hux aunHW dI aumr83 swl dI ho geI hY
Aqy suxn dI vI qklIP hY pr iPr vI ies fWg joVy ny Awpxy suDwrvwdI kMmW iv`c KVoq
nhIN Awaux id`qI[ auh dovyN A`j vI “ pMjwb iesqrI sBw rlIP trst” Aqy “
Arunw Awis& AlI trst” rwhIN aunHW pRIvwrW dy mdd kwrjW iv`c ju`ty hoey hn ijhVy
A`qvwd dw iSkwr hoey,ApMg,grIb Aqy hwlqW dy ilqwVy hoey hn[BwrqI nwrI dy ruqby
bwry ivmlw fWg dw kihxw hY :“smwj iv`c ienklwbI pRIvrqn qoN ibnW AOrq dy ruqby iv`c qbdIlI AwauxI
AsMBv hY[ieh qW hI sMBv hY jy kr lgwqwr sMGrS Aqy sWJw Xqn kIqw jwvy[A`j
vI mrd pRDwn smwj hY Aqy AOrqW ƒ AwpxI hoNd drswaux leI A`gy Aw ky AwpxI
Awvwz auTwaux dI loV hY[”
pMjwb iesqrI sBw dI srpRsq vjoN ivmlw fWg ny AOrq qy ho rhy smwijk
AiqAwcwr Aqy zulm dy keI kys Awpxy h`QW iv`c ley Aqy aunHW ƒ bxdw ienswP
dvwaux dy nwl nwl ivDvw iesqrIAW ƒ buFypw pYnSn vI lgvweI[ Kws qOr qy ijhVw
kMm ies sBw ny kIqw auh hY A`qvwd dw iSkwr hoey lokW dI mdd krnw[
Awpxy ivAhuqw jIvn sbMDI ivmlw fWg dI soc Anuswr dUsrIAW Awm SwdIAW
nwloN auh AwpxI SwdI ƒ ht ky mMndI hY[auh dovyN hI jIvn swQI Awpxy Awpxy kwrj
Kyqr iv`c GroN bwhr rih ky vI brwbrqw dI p`Dr qy Awpxy kMm krdy hn[ivmlw jI hux
izAwdw krky GrylU ijMmyvwrI hI sMBwldy hn ijs dw v`fw kwrn v`fI aumr Aqy ishq
hY[Gr bYiTAW vI ivmlw jI dyS ivcly mjdUr msilAW pRqI icMqq rihMdy hn[aunHW ƒ
ies g`l dI icMqw Aqy iglw vI hY ik nOkrI ^yqr iv`c AOrqW Aqy AlVH kuVIAW dI
numwieMdgI G`t hY[auh AwpxIAW A`KW iv`c Drm inrpyK (AsMpRdwiek) smwj dw supnw
smoeI bYTI hY[r`b kry AOrq jwq dI msIhw-kwmryf ivmlw fWg rihMdI dunIAW q`k ijMdw
rhy[ (bVy du`K nwl ilKxw pY irhw hY ik ijs msIhy vwsqy myrI duAw sI ik auh hjwrW
swl jIvy, auh kuJ smW bImwr rih ky A`j imqI 10-05-2009 ƒ svyry 7.30 vjy pwrvqI
hspqwl iv`c swQoN sdw leI iv`CV geI hY)[

***

nwrI jwqI leI mwfl

SRImqI ikrn bydI

(AweI.pI.AYs.)

(AMimRqsr)

nwrI dI qulnw Awm krky ie`k vyl nwl kIqI jWdI hY ijs dw Bwv huMdw hY koml
Aqy kmzor[dUjy ArQW iv`c kihx dI koiSS kIqI jWdI hY ik AOrq kmzor hY Aqy jIvn
iv`c KVy rihx leI aus ƒ mrd dy shwry dI loV hY[ies Dwrnw ƒ vMgwrn leI smyN smyN
mweI Bwgo Aqy rwxI JWsI vrgIAW AOrqW vI smwj swhmxy AweIAW pr auh bhuuq
ijAwdw nhIN sn jo ies purK pRDwn smwj iv`c sdw leI AwpxI Awvwz bulMd kr
skdIAW, ies leI pRnwlw au~Qy dw au~Qy hI irhw[A`j iPr ie`k AijhI hI soc vwlI
AOrq, nwrI smwj dy swhmxy mwfl bx ky AweI hY ijs ny nwrI cyqnw ƒ JMjoV ky r`K
id`qw hY Aqy d`s id`qw hY ik AOrq mrd nwloN iksy vI g`loN G`t nhIN hY[aus ny aus Kyqr
iv`c kMm krky AwpxI DWk jmweI hY jo mrdW dw Kyqr smiJAw jWdw hY, Bwv puils
ivBwg[hr vMgwr ƒ vMgwrn vwlI aus AOrq dw nW hY:- ikrn bydI[
ikrn bydI dw jnm 9 jUn,1949 eI: ƒ pRkwS lwl jI pySwvrIAw dy gRih ivKy
mwqw pRym lqw pySwvrIAw dI ku`KoN hoieAw[mu`FlI skUlI ividAw ikrn ny sykrf hwrt
kwnvYNt skUl, AMimRqsr qoN pRwpq kIqI[ skUl iv`c aus ny nYSnl kYift kwrps
(N.C.C..) ivMg iv`c vI ih`sw ilAw[aus dI tYins Kyfx iv`c vI rucI sI ikauN aus dy
ipqw jI vI Awpxy smyN dy cMgy iKfwrI rih cu`ky sn Aqy auh aunHW qoN vI kwPI auqSwihq
sI[sMn 1964-68 q`k ikrn bydI ny gOrimMt kwlj Pwr ivmn, AMimRqsr qoN AMgryjI
Awnrz iv`c bI.ey. dI ifgrI pRwpq krn auprMq (1968-70) iv`c pMjwbI XUnIvristI
cMfIgVH qoN AYm. ey.pulItIkl swieMs ivSy iv`c kIqI[
ie`k iKfwrI dy rUp iv`c ikrn bydI ny 1966 eI: iv`c jUnIAr nYSnl lwAn
tYins cYNpIAniSp,1972 eI: iv`c eySIAn lwAn tYins cYNpIAniSp, 1976 eI: iv`c
Awl ieMfIAw ieMtr styt ivmn lwAn tYins cYNpIAniSp dy mukwbly ij`qx qoN ielwvw
aus ny 22 swl dI aumr iv`c hI Awl ieMfIAw tYins cYNpIAniSp ij`q ky “eySIAn lyfI
twietl” AwpxI JolI pvw ilAw sI[
ikrn bydI ny 1970-72 iv`c Awpxw jIvn ^wlsw kwlz Pwr ivmn AMimRqsr qoN
bqOr lYkcrwr pulItIkl swieMs SurU kIqw [julweI 1972 iv`c ikrn bydI BwrqI puils
srivs leI cuxI geI[nOkrI dI ruJyivAW BrI ijMdgI dy bwvjUd vI ikrn bydI ny id`lI
XUnIvristI, id`lI qoN 1988 eI: iv`c AYl.AYl. bI. Aqy 1993 eI: iv`c pI.AYc.fI (soSl
swieMs) ieMfIAn ieMstIicaUt AwP tYknwlojI, nvI id`lI qoN kr leI sI, ijs iv`c aus
ny QIsz dw ivSw “niSAW dI lwhnq Aqy GrylU AiqAwcwr” cuixAw sI[
ikrn bydI dI SwdI 1972 eI: iv`c aus dy sihpwTI birj bydI nwl hoeI[ iesy
swl hI auh BwrqI puils srivs leI vI cuxI geI sI[ SwdI qoN iqMn swl auprMq
(1975 eI:) aus dy Gr “synw” nW dI bytI ny jnm ilAw[ aus dIAW iqMn hor pu`qrIAW
vI hn, ijnHW iv`coN “SSI” knyfw iv`c rih rhI hY jdoN ik “rItw” tYins iKfwrn Aqy
ilKwrI Aqy “mƒ” vI tYins iKfwrn hI hY[

nOkrI dOrwn ikrn bydI ny bhuq swry KyqrW iv`c kMm kIqw[auh trYiPk kimSnr
nvI id`lI, imzorm dy KqirAW Bry ielwky iv`c bqOr ifptI ieMspYktr jnrl puils,
lYPtInYNt gvrnr cMfIgVH dI slwhkwr,fwierYktr jnrl nSIly pdwrQ ibaUro,
XUnwietf nySnz dy s`dy qy Amn r`iKAw ivBwg dy isvl puils slwhkwr vjoN fYpUtySn qy
vI geI ijs leI aus ƒ XUnwieitf nySnz v`loN qgmw vI id`qw igAw sI[
ikrn bydI shI ArQW iv`c Awpxy idl iv`c smwj syvw Aqy ies dy suDwr dw
jjbw r`KdI hY[ies pwsy aus dI smwj ƒ bhuq v`fI dyx hY[1987 eI: iv`c “nvjoqI”(
ijs dy ArQ hn nvIN rOSnI) dI sQwpnw kIqI Aqy 1994 iv`c “ieMfIAn vIzn
PWaUuNfySn” nW dI sMsQw dI sQwpnw kIqI[ienHW dovW sMsQwvW dI sQwpnw krn ip`Cy
ikrn bydI dw mu`K audyS niSAW dy AwdI lokW dI hwlq suDwrnw Aqy grIb lokW dw jIvn
p`Dr au~cw cu`kxw hY[aus dI ies ivcwrDwrw ny kOmI Aqy AMqrrwStrI p`Dr qy vI nwmnw
K`itAw hY Aqy ienHW sMsQwvW ƒ niSAW dI lwhnq ivru`D kMm krn leI “Serge
Soitiroof Memorial Award ” vI pRwpq hoieAw hY[
kIqy hoey kMmW leI ikrn bydI ƒ v`K v`K sMsQwvW, srkwrW Aqy AdwirAW v`loN
hyT drswey snmwnW nwl snmwinAw igAw:-1.rwStrpqI bhwdrI purskwr-1977 eIsvI
2.
swl dI AOrq purskwr- 1980 eI:
3.
eySAweI Kyqr dw nSw inSyD Aqy rok purskwr-1991
4.
srkwrI syvw leI mYgwiss purskwr-1994 eI:
5.
mihlw SRomxI purskwr-1995 eI:
6.
Pwdr mYiksmo hIaUmYnItyrIAn purskwr-1995 eI:
7.
swl dw Syr (Lion of the Year)purskwr-1995 eI:
8.
zOsP buAweyz purskwr-1997
9.
Bwrq dI Swn purskwr-1999 eI:
10.
smwijk ienswP vwsqy mdr trYsw mYmorIAl nYSnl purskwr-1999 eI:[
ikrn bydI ny Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c kuJ Aijhy kMm kIqy jo ie`k Xwd bx ky rih gey
hn[ imswl vjoN:1977 eIsvI iv`c ikrn bydI ny AkwlI - inrMkwrI is`KW dy AwpsI JgVy dw AMq
kIqw[
 1979 eI: iv`c jdoN ikrn bydI bqOr aup kimSnr pulIs inXukq sI qW aus ny id`lI
iv`c 200 swlW qoN c`l rhy Srwb dy njwiej DMdy dw AMq kIqw[
 1981 eI: iv`c jdoN auh bqOr aup kimSnr pulIs (tRYiPk) inXukq sI qW swl 1982
iv`c hox vwlIAW eySIAn KyfW leI tRYiPk kMtrol iv`c suDwr kIqw[kƒn dI pwlxw
krvwaux ih`q v`fy v`fy lokW dIAW glq QW qy KVIAW kIqIAW kwrW ƒ rIkvrI vYn nwl
iK`c ky lY jwx iv`c vI iJjk nhIN sI ivKweI, ijs iv`c aus smyN dI pRDwn mMqrI sRImqI
ieMdrw gWDI dI kwr vI sI[
 1985 eI: iv`c jdoN auh bqOr aup kimSnr pulIs (hYfkuAtrz) inXukq sI qW aus
ny 1600 qr`kIAW dy Aijhy kys jo lMmy smyN qoN ltk rhy sn ƒ ie`k idn iv`c hI
inptwieAw sI[ aus ny s^q hdwieqW vI id`qIAW sn ik ijhVw AiDkwrI jW krmcwrI
iqMn idnW iv`c Pwiel dw inptwrw nhIN krygw aus leI auh jvwbdyh hovygw[
 1993 eI: iv`c jdoN ikrn bydI bqOr ieMspYktr jnrl pulIs
(jylHz) inXukq sI qW eySIAw dI sB qoN v`fI iqhwV jylH (ijs iv`c aus smyN 9100 mrd
kYdI Aqy 300 AOrqW kYd hn) dI kwieAW klp krky aus ƒ jylH qoN ie`k ividAwly iv`c
qbdIl kr id`qw sI[ AwpxI inXukqI smyN aus ny vcn id`qw sI ik, “mYN Cy mhIinAW
dy smyN iv`c ies jylH ƒ AwSrm iv`c qbdIl kr dyvWgI[” aus ny ieh kr vI
ivKwieAw sI[ jylH iv`c ividAk klwsW lwauxw,smwDI Aqy Xogw AiBAws
krvwauxw,muSwiery Aqy kvI sMmyln AXoijq krnw,KyfW Aqy frwmy krvwauxy SurU kr id`qy
sn[iqhwV jylH dy suDwrvwdI kMmW leI aus ƒ “rYmn mYgswsy purskwr” dy ky snmwinAw
igAw sI[

27 nvMbr, 2007 ƒ ikrn bydI ny svY-ie`Cw nwl ies ivBwg iv`coN iqAwg p`qr
dy id`qw sI, ikauNik auh jIvn dy dUsry KyqrW iv`clIAW vMgwrW dw swhmxw krn dI
ie`Cuk sI[aus dI ie`Cw qy 25 dsMbr, 2007 ƒ Bwrq srkwr v`loN aus ƒ syvw mukq kr
id`qw igAw sI[ syvw mukqI smyN ikrn bydI fwierYktr jnrl AwP ibaUro AwP puils
rIsrc Aqy fIvYlpmYNt dI ifaUtI inBw rhI sI[syvw mukqI auprMq aus ny ie`k nvIN vYb
swiet cwlU kIqI hY ijs dw mu`K audyS aunHW lokW dI mdd krnw hY ijnHW dIAW SkwieqW
dw inptwrw krn v`l lokl puils iDAwn nhIN dy rhI[A`j k`l ikrn bydI tI.vI. cYnl
stwr pl`s dy SoA “ Awp kI kcihrI ikrn ky swQ” iv`c myzbwn vjoN pyS ho ky GrylU
PYsly krvwaux dI BUimkw inBw rhI hY[r`b kry ieh inDVk, Awpxy ierwdy dI p`kI Aqy
nwrI jwqI dI rwh dsyrw mwfl nwrI hmySW ijMdw rhy[
AwmIn!

***

AiDAwie:-qIsrw

swihq,
sMgIq,
koml klwvW
Aqy
mJYl

mwDo dws - Swh hUsYn

“Swh husYn! Shwdq pweyy auh,jo mry im`qrW dy A`gy[”
BwrqI iK`qy iv`c sUPIvwd dw ieiqhws gOrvmeI qW hY hI pr ijhVw ipAwr Aqy
siqkwr ies ƒ pMjwb dI DrqI qy imilAw hY aus dI qulnw hor ikDry nhIN
imldI[sUPIvwd dIAW jVHW ies DrqI qy fUMGIAW hn[ies dw Asr Awm lokW dy mnW
iv`c A`j q`k vyiKAw jw skdw hY[kyvl muslmwn hI nhIN sgoN is`K Aqy hjwrW dilq
lokW ny vI ies ƒ ipAwirAw Aqy siqkwirAw hY[sUPIvwd dy pRcwrk bwbw Sy^ PrId
Skr gMj,sweIN mIAW mIr, AlI hYdr, bwbw bulHySwh, Swh Anwieq Swh,Swh SrP,
sulqwn bwhU Aqy vjId Awid sUPI PkIrW dIAW rcnwvW Aqy PlsPw bVy hI cwA-mlHwr
nwl piVHAw Aqy suixAw jWdw hY[
bwbw Swh hUsYn vI ausy hI kVI dw ie`k ih`sw hY[Swh hUsYn dw jnm 1539 eI: ƒ
D`Tw rwjpUq kbIly iv`c lwhOr ivKy hoieAw[ies kbIly dy Drm pRIvriqq krky musilm
Drm iv`c jwx nwl “Swh” dw aupnwm juV igAw sI[bcpn qoN hI hUsYn lwl kpVy
pwauxw psMd krdw sI iesy krky aus ƒ lwl hUsYn vI ikhw jwx l`gw sI[hUsYn dy
rhsmeI JukwA dy l`Cx bcpn qoN hI swP l`g pey sn[aus ny Awpxy ausqwd ‘SyK AbU
bkr’ dI ingrwnI hyTW bcpn iv`c hI swrw kurwn SrI& jbwnI Xwd kr ilAw sI[
jdoN hUsYn dI aumr ds swl dI hoeI qW auh aus smyN dy mShUr sUPI PkIr blol
Swh dirAweI, cnot vwilAW dI SigrdI iv`c clw igAw[Agly 26 swl q`k aus ny
Awpxy pIr dI sKq ingrwnI iv`c rih ky purwqn ieslwm dI k`tV SrIAq dw AiDAYn
kIqw Aqy swdw ijMdgI bqIq kIqI[jdoN hUsYn 36 swl Abdu`lw’ koloN kurwn dIAW AwieqW
dy ArQ pVH irhw sI qW kurwn dIAW ienHW sqrW, “ies jgq iv`c ijMdgI, ie`k Kyf qoN
v`D kuJ vI nhIN [” dI ivAwiKAw krn leI hUsYn ny Awpxy ausqwd jI ƒ ikhw sI[SyK
swihb ny ies dy ArQ smJwauNidAW hoieAw aus ƒ d`isAw sI ik ieh dunIAW iqAwg
dyxI cwhIdI hY[Swh hUsYn ƒ ieh g`l hzm nhIN sI hoeI sI hoeI Aqy ausqwd dy d`sy
ArQW ƒ inkwridAW hoieAW aus ny joS nwl ikhw sI ik “ies dy kyvl SbdI ArQ nhIN
lYxy cwhIdy sgoN ies ƒ AwSwvwdI ho ky ivcwrnw cwhIdw hY[auh ies Awieq dy ArQW ƒ
Awpxy AwSy nwl lvygw Aqy bwkI rihMdw jIvn AwnMdmeI FMg nwl jIvygw[”
ieh auh hI smW sI jdoN Swh hUsYn dw myl bRwhmxW dy ie`k lVky ‘mwDo dws’ nwl
hoieAw [ienHW dovW dw ipAwr ies h`d q`k v`D igAw ik ieh do srIr huMidAW hoieAW vI
ie`k jwn sn[ieh aunHW dy ipAwr dI AKIr sI[lokW ny ikAwPy lwauxy SurU kr id`qy ik
aunHW dohW iv`c AwpsI sbMD pqI-pqnI vrgy sn[lokW iv`c ies g`l dw vI crcw sI ik
mwDo dws Aqy hUsYn dI dosqI qoN mwDo dws dy mwpy, lokW dIAW vMn-suvMnIAW Aqy idl ƒ
cIr dyx vwlIAW g`lW sux ky qMg Aw cu`ky sn[Swied iesy kr ky hI mwDo dws dy mwipAW
ny mwDo dws ƒ Awpxy nwl hirduAwr lY jwx dw mn bxw ilAw sI[
hUsYn ƒ ies ivCoVy qoN pYdw hox vwlw Asih kSt jwpdw sI ijs krky aus ny
mwDo dws dy mwipAW ƒ ieh XkIn dy ik auh aus ƒ Awpxy nwl hirduAwr lY Awvygw,
hirduAwr jwx qoN rok ilAw sI[lokW dI dMd-kQw Anuswr mwDo dws dy mwipAW dy jwx
ip`CoN Swh hUsYn ny mwDo ƒ A`KW mItx leI ikhw sI qy nwl hI cyqwvnI vI id`qI sI ik

auh audoN q`k AwpxIAW A`KW nw KolHy jdoN q`k hUsYn aus ƒ nhIN kihMdw[mwDo dws ny auvyN
hI kIqw sI Aqy aus ny A`KW KolHx qoN pihlW AnuBv kIqw sI ik aus dy pYr hvw iv`coN
zmIn qy l`g rhy sn[aus ny jdoN A`KW KolHIAW sn qW Awpxy Awp ƒ hirduAwr dI DrqI
qy pwieAw[ ies kOqk dw Asr mwDo dws dy mn qy vI bhuq hoieAw sI Aqy mwDo dws dy
mwpy vI hYrwn rih gey sn[ies auprMq mwDo dws dy mwipAW ny aunHW dy imlx qy Aw^rI
dm q`k kdI rok nhIN sI lweI[
ieMj jwpdw hY ik Swh hUsYn dy mwDo dws nwl ies myl dw sdkw hI hUsYn dw
suBwA bVw hI imlxswr bx igAw sI Aqy aus dI dUsry DrmW bwry soc vI bVI
sdBwvnw vwlI ho geI sI[auh ihMdU Drm dy iqauhwrW bsMq Aqy holI iv`c vI mwDo dws
vWg hI vD cVH ky ih`sw ilAw krdw sI Aqy auh dovyN ie`k dUsry qy rMg pw ky AwnMd
ilAw krdy sn[PwrsI ilKq ikqwb ‘hsMq-aul-ArIiPn’ Anuswr Swh hUsYn ikhw krdw
sI ik “auh nw muslmwn hY Aqy nw hI kwi&r hY [” aus dI ies sdBwvnw vwlI soc dw
hI Asr sI ik aus dy ihMdU sMq C`jU Bgq Aqy is`KW dy gurU Arjn dyv jI nwl rUhwnIAq
sbMD sn[
mwDodws dy pRym iv`c rMgy hoey Swh hUsYyn ny ijhVIAW kwPIAW dI rcnw kIqI aunHW
ƒ A`j vI pMjwbI swihq dw bhuq hI kImqI srmwieAw mMndy hn Aqy siqkwr nwl pVHdy
vI hn[aus dw ivSvwS sI ik s`cI rUhwnIAq pRwpqI s`cy ipAwr rwhIN hI pRwpq ho skdI
hY[aus ny ies g`l dw crcw vI kIqw ik pRmwqmw qoN ibnW aus dw hor kuJ vI nhIN[ auh
hI aus dw mihrm hY[
“r`bw myry hwl dw mihrm qUM[
AMdir qUM hY bwihr qUM hY, roim roim iv`c qUM[
qUM hY qwxw qUM hY bwxw, sBu ikC myrw qUM[
khYy hUsYn &kIr inmwxw, mYN nwhIN sBu qUM[”
Swh hUsYn qW aus pRmwqmw ƒ purK mMndw hY Aqy Awpxy Awp ƒ ie`k iesqrI mMn
ky Awpw aus dy spurd krdw hY[ ieh hI Dwrnw Aqy soc is`K jgq iv`c gurUAW rwhIN
pRcwrI geI sI ik prmwqmw pUrn purK hY jdoN ik bwkI swry sMswrI jIv aus dIAW
iesqrIAW hn[iesy g`l dI pRoVqw krdw hoieAw Swh hUsYn ilKdw hY:“ sweIN ijnHW dy vl, iqnHW ƒ Zm kYNdw vy lokw[
syeI BlIAw jo r`b vl AweIAW,ijnHW ƒ ieSk crokw vy lokw[
ieSky dI isr ^wrI cweIAw,dr dr dynI Aw hokw vy lokw[
khY hUsYn &kIr sweIN dw,l`Dw hI pRym JroKw, vy lokw[
Swh hUsYn qW ies kdr pRBU iv`c rcimc igAw AnuBv huMdw hY[ aus ƒ pRBU Aqy
Awpy iv`c koeI Prk hI AnuBv nhIN huMdw[ ieh hI kwrn hY ik auh kihMdw hY:“rWJw rWJw mYƒ sB koeI AwKo , hIr nw AwKo koeI[”
Swh hUsYn AwpxI ilKI kwPI ‘Awip ƒ pCwx’ iv`c mnu`K mwqr ƒ nsIhq krdw
hY ik hy! ienswn qUM hMkwr dw iqAwg kr Aqy Awpxw Awp pihcwx[qyrw Awpw ies
kwienwq dw hI AMg hY ijs ƒ pRBU ny swijAw hY[aus nwl iekimk ho qUM ausy dw rUp hY[
auh ilKdw hY:“bMdy Awip ƒ pCwxu[
jy qYN Awpxw Awip pCwqw[
sweIN dw imlx Aswnu[”
ies qrHW ieh sUPI m`q dw pYrokwr Swh hUsYn 1599 eI: ƒ ies jhwn qoN qur
igAw[ aus ƒ lwhOr iv`c rwvI dirAw dy kMFy dPnwieAw igAw[mwDodws, Swh hUsYn dI
mOq qoN ip`CoN 48 swl q`k ijMdw irhw Aqy mrn auprMq aus dw vI Swh hUsYn dI kbr dy
nyVy hI sskwr kIqw igAw [ies qrHW do rUhwnI ipAwr krn vwilAW ƒ mOq qoN bwAd vI
nyVy nyVy hI r`iKAw igAw[ ij`Qy ieh dPnwey gey hn au~Qy bxy mkbry Aqy mMdr qy A`j vI
hjwrw SrDwlU isjdw krn AwauNdy hn[
***

qyrw Swh myrw Swh

bwbw bulHy Swh

bwbw bulHy Swh (1680-1758 eI:) Aqy mIr qkI mIr (1723-1810 eI:) dovyN hI
smkwlI sn[ieh auh smW sI jdoN nw qW koeI CpweI dw pRbMD sI,nw hI irAwsqW dy
hwkmW v`loN mdd imldI sI,nw iv`idAk Adwry Aqy nw hI au~c drjy dIAW ikqwbW hI
au~plbD sn[iPr vI mIr qkI mIr dI kwiv rcnw au~c pwey dI sI ijhVI GrW dI cwr
dIvwrI AMdr bMd ho ky nhIN sI rih geI sgoN ijs ny bolI dIAW swrIAW h`dW bMny t`p ky
lokW dw idl moihAw sI[do sdIAW bIq jwx qy vI A`j q`k skUlW kwljW dy iv`idAwrQI
mIr qkI mIr dI Zzl dI mihk mwx rhy hn[dUsry pwsy bulHy Swh dI kivqw lok Bu`ldy
jw rhy hn[du`K dI g`l hY ik skUlW kwljW dI pVHweI iv`c ies ƒ ijAwdw QW nw imlx
krky pMjwb dy lokW dI rUh iv`coN ieh Alop huMdI jw rhI hY[
bwbw bulHy Swh dw jnm aus smyN hoieAw jdoN pMjwb iv`c sUPIvwd dw rMg kwPI gUVHw
ho cu`kw sI[“sUPI” Sbd ArbI BwSw dw hY ijs dy ArQ hn, sUP( kwlw kpVw) jW
au~n[XUnwnIAW Anuswr sUPI dw ArQ “isAwxw” hY[sUPIvwd ijs dw jnm m`D-pUrb iv`c
ATvIN sdI iv`c hoieAw sI hOlI hOlI pMjwb iv`c pYr pswr irhw sI[kwdrI iPrky dw
pMjwb iv`c Awgmn 1482 eI: iv`c muhMmd gONs dy Awaux nwl hoieAw [A`gy c`l ky mIAW
mIr (1550-1635 eI:) ies iPrky dw mu`K pRcwrk irhw sI ijs dI audwrqw Aqy Drm
inrpyKqw sdkw ,is`K rvwieqW Anuswr sRI hirmMdr swihb dw nINh p`Qr aus qoN
rKvwieAw igAw sI[mIAW mIr dI dUsrI pIVHI iv`c Anwieq Swh ies sUPI iPrky dw
pRcwrk bixAw, ijs koloN bwbw bulHy Swh ny rUhwnI dIiKAw leI[
bwbw bulHy Swh dw jnm 1680 eI: ƒ ie`k Coty ijhy ipMf au~c iglweIAW(bhwvl
pur) iv`c hoieAw[aus dy ipqw dw nW sKI Swh muhMmd drvyS sI Aqy bulHy Swh dw bcpn
dw nW ‘Abdu`lw’ sI[ies dw izkr auh AwpxI ilKq ‘gMFW’iv`c vI krdw hY:“kr ibsimlw KolHIAW mYN gMFW cwlI[
ijs Apxw Awp vM\wieAw so swjn vwlI[
ijs ƒ ieSk hY lwl dw so lwl ho jwvy[
Akl iPkr sB CoV ky Shu nwl suhwvy[
hux ielw illHw AwK ky qum kro duAweI[
pIAw hI sB ho igAw Abdu`lw nwhIN[”
bulHy Swh Ajy Cy ku swl dw hI sI ik aunHW dw pRIvwr ies ipMf iv`coN au~T ky
milkvwl(ielwkw swhIvwl)Aqy QoVHy idnW ip`CoN ie`QoN au~T ipMf ‘pWfoky B`tI’ dI nvIN bxI
msIq iv`c Aw v`sy sn[ie`Qy hI bulHy Swh ny Awpxy ipau koloN ilKxw-pVHnw is`iKAw Aqy
fMgr vI cwry[bulHy Swh dw ipqw Dwrimk Aqy cMgy ivcwrW vwlw ivdvwn sI[bulHy Swh qy
ipqw dI SKsIAq dw pRBwv pYxw lwjmIN sI[bulHy Swh jdoN kuJ vfyrw hoieAw qW aus ny
AglyrI qwlIm ksUr dI mu`K msIq dy iemwm mOlvI Zulwm murqzw koloN pRwpq kIqI[bulHy

Swh ny ie`Qy PwrsI Aqy ArbI dI qwlIm hwsl kIqI[pVHweI pUrI kr lYx bwAd bu`ly
Swh ausy msIq iv`c pVwaux l`g ipAw sI[
ikqwbI pVHweI pUrI ho jwx qy aus dy mn iv`c rUhwnIAq bwry jwnx dI qlb jwg
au~TI, ijs dI pUrqI leI bulHy Swh ieDr-auDr BtikAw pr aus dI murwd pUrI nw
hoeI[ie`k idn iksy ny aus ƒ d`isAw ik pIr Anwieq Swh ies mwrg dw pWDI hY[ sb`b
nwl jdoN bulHy Swh, pIr Anwieq Swh kol igAw qW aus smyN auh gMiFAW dw kx lw irhw
sI[bulHy ny Awaux dw jdoN kwrn d`isAw ik auh r`b ƒ pwaux dw qrIkw jwnx AwieAw hY
qW sih-suBwA hI murSd Anwieq Swh ny bulHy ƒ kih id`qw sI, “builHAw r`b dw kI
pwauxw AYDroN pu`txw EDr lwauxw[” ArQwq dunIAW v`loN idl ƒ aucwt krky vYrwgI
hoxw qy aus Kudw v`l iDAwn ƒ moVnw hI aus ƒ pwaux dw qrIkw hY[ik`fw srl Aqy s`cw
qrIkw sI pRBU pRwpqI dw[ ieh g`l bulHy dy AMdr D`s geI
qy auh Anwieq Swh kwdrI
dw murId bx igAw [
bwbw bulHy Swh dy smyN dw smwj jwqW-pwqW iv`c vMifAw hoieAw smwj sI[ihMd
Uusmwj bRwhmx,^qrI,vYS.SUdr vrxw iv`c vMifAw hoieAw sI jdoN ik muslmwnW iv`c
s`Xd,rMGV,ArWeI Awid jwqW sn[ijvyN ihMdU smwj iv`c SUdrW ƒ nIvIN jwq dw igixAw
jWdw hY Aqy iksy bRwhmx ƒ iksy SUdr dw iSS bxnw pRvwn nhIN kIqw jWdw[Aijhw hox
qy aus ƒ brwdrI iv`coN Cyk id`qw jWdw sI,auvyN hI muslmwnW iv`c jy kr koeI s`Xd iksy
ArweIN dw murId bx jwvy qW muslmwn ies ƒ bhuq mwVw igxdy sn[bulHy Swh Awp qW
jwq p`KoN ‘sXd’ sI pr aus dw murSd Anwieq Swh ‘ArweIN’ jwq dw sI[ bulHy Swh dy
Gr vwilAW, XwrW dosqW Aqy sky sbMDIAW ny ies g`l dw ieqrwz kIqw ik bulHy ny ie`k
ArweIN dw murId bx ky kul dy nW ƒ v`tw lwieAw hY[
“bulHy ƒ smJwvx AweIAW BYxW qy BrjweIAW[
AsIN aulwd nbI dI builHAw qUM ikauN lIkW lweIAW[
mMn lY builHAw swfw kihxw,C`f dy p`lw ArweIAW[”
pr bulHy Swh leI jwq koeI mwAny nhIN sI r`KdI[ bulHw ijs cIj dw ivaupwrI sI, auh
aus ƒ aus dy ies murSd koloN hI iml skdI sI[aus ny lokW dI koeI pRvwh nw kIqI[bulHy
dI soc jwqW, DrmW dy dwiery qoN au~cI au~T cu`kI sI[ auh qW Awpxy murSd dI jwq iv`c
AByd ho igAw sI[Awpxy klwm iv`c bulHw ies g`l ƒ ies qrHW ibAwn krdw hY:“ijhVw swƒ sXd AwKy doj^ imlx sjweIAW[
ijhVw swƒ rweIN AwKy, bihSqI pIGW pweIAW[
jy qUM loVyN bwZ bhwrW qwlb ho jw rweIAW[”
hor
“bulHy Swh dI jwq nw kweI,
mYN Shu Anwieq pwieAw eI[
ie`k nukqw Xwr pVHwieAw eI[”
bulHy Swh ny hux Awpw Awpxy murSd ƒ sONp id`qw sI[ auh hI aus dw sB kuJ sI[
aus dw ivCoVw aus leI mOq sI[bulHy Swh dy ieSk iv`c murSd dw ie`k ivSyS AsQwn
hY[iek kQw Anuswr bulHy Swh dw murSd Anwieq Swh bulHy dI ies g`l qy nrwj ho igAw
sI ik auh SrHw-pRqI ivroDI Bwv r`Kdw v`sdw hY[auh ies g`l dw hokw dyx l`g ipAw sI
ik r`b nw qW qIrQW qy hY Aqy nw hI m`ky iv`c hY[r`b srv ivAwpI hY Aqy r`b dI pRwpqI
kyvl AMdr dI Xwqrw nwl hI sMBv hY[auys ny hokw id`qw sI:“PUk mus`lw BMn ist lotw,
nw PVH qsbI kwsw sotw,
Awlm kYNdw dy dy hokw,
qrk hlwloN Kwh murdwr-ieSk dI nvIEN nvIN bhwr[”

iesy krky bulHy Swh dy murSd Swh Anwieq ny bulHy nwloN Awpxw nwqw qoV ilAw sI
Aqy aus nwl myl-imlwp vI bMd kr id`qw sI[BwvyN ivCoVy dw ieh smW izAwdw lMmw nhIN
sI pr bulHy vwsqy qW ieh bhuq lMmw sI[ivCoVy dI kuTwlI iv`c pY ky bulHw kuMdn ho igAw
sI[ iesy smyN aus ny bhuq qVp,soz Aqy drd BrpUr kwPIAW ilKIAW[ bulHy Swh ny
murSd nwl dubwrw imlwp leI ie`k n`cx vwlI koloN n`cxw isiKAw Aqy jnwnw k`pVy pw
ky nmwz Adw kr rhy Swh Anwieq Swh kwdrI swhmxy n`cxw SurU kr id`qw sI[nmwz
Adw krn auprMq murSd ny Awvwz dy pu`iCAw sI, “Eey qUM bulHw eyN ?” A`goN bulHy Swh ny
J`t ikhw sI, “nhIN jI, mYN Bu`lw hW[” ies qrHW muV bulHw murSd dI Srn iv`c clw
igAw sI[
bulHy Swh ny ij`Qy rUhwnIAq dIAW isKrW CohIAW au~Qy aus ny kivqw dy Kyqr iv`c
bhuuq kuJ iliKAw[aus dIAW rcnwvW iv`c v`K v`K rMg vyKy jw skdy hn[aus dIAW kwiv
rcnwvW dw vyrvw hyT Anuswr hY:(1)
kw&IAW
156
(2)
ATvwrw
1
(3)
bwrwmwh
1
(4)
SIhr&IAW
3
(5)
dohVy
49
(6)
gMFW
40 bMd
gMFW vI ie`k kwiv rUp hI hY jo pihly zmwny iv`c Awm pRclq sI[pihly simAW
iv`c A`j vWg kYlMfr qW nhIN sn huMdy, sgoN ivAwh SwdI dI qwrIK Xwd r`Kx leI gMFW
dw irvwj sI[ijs idn lVky lVkI dI SwdI dw idn im`Q ilAw jWdw sI,do r`sIAW lY ky
r`sIAW qy auqnIAW gMFW mwr leIAw jWdIAw sn ijMnyN idnW bwAd SwdI dw idn inscq
kIqw huMdw sI[lVkI Aqy lVkw roj ie`k ie`k gMF KolHdy jWdy sn Aqy ijs idn AwKrI
gMF rih jWdI sI qW lVky vwly brwq lY kY lVkI vwilAW dy Gr phuMc jWdy sn[AwKrI
gMF aus idn lVkI vwilAW dy Gr KolHI jWdI sI[AsIN A`j vI ies g`l dI vrqoN krdy
hoey AsINy kih idMdy hW “mYN qYƒ Awaux leI ikhVI gMF G`lI sI[” ieh ie`k iksm dw
kYlMfr dw hI rUp sI [
bwbw bulHy Swh dI kwiv rcnw ƒ iqMn BwgW iv`c vMifAw jWdw hY[ienHW ‘coN bwbw
bulHy Swh dIAW kw&IAW ijAwdw mkbUl hoeIAW hn jo A`j q`k lokW dI jubwn qy cVHIAW
hoieAW hn[‘kw&I’ jo ik ie`k kwiv-vMngI hY, ArbI dw Sbd hY ijs dy ArQ hn
‘byinAwz krn vwlw, A`gy c`lx vwlw, igAwnvwn, ijhVw loV pUrI kr skdw hovy[pihly
Bwg iv`c aus dI kivqw Awpxy murSd dy ivCoVy dI hUk, drd Aqy ibRhw BrpUr hY[murSd
dw ivCoVw aus leI sUlW dI syj hY[gurbwxI dw AwSw Aqy bu`lHy Swh dI pRmwqmw sbMDI soc
myl KWdI hY[gurbwxI Anuswr pRBU kx-kx iv`c rimAw hoieAw hY[ iesy qrHW bulHy Swh
sUPI isDWq ‘hmwEsq’, ijs dy ArQ hn ‘pRBU sB kuJ Awp hY’, pRBU zry-zry iv`c hY dw
DwrnI sI[ bulyH Swh boldw hY:“builHAw Shu AsW QUM v`K nhIN, eyQy Shu qoN ibnW k`K nhIN[
ie`k vyKx vwlI A`K nhIN[ qwhIN jwn judweIAw sihMdI ey[
bwbw bulHy Swh dw jIvn &lsPw bVw hI sp`St Aqy is`Dw idl iv`c Ds jwx vwlw
hY[ auh mzhbW dy JmyilAW qoN dUr rih ky pRBU iv`c lIn hY[auh duinAwvI rIqW dw ivroD
krdw hY Aqy spSt krdw hY ik ieh pRBU imlx leI jrUrI nhIN hn sgoN swP nIAq hI
aus ƒ imlx dw rsqw hY[ieh rUhwnIAq dw imnwr, mnu`Kqw ƒ rUh dI SWqI vMfx vwlw,
dUsirAW dw KuSIAW BirAw jIvn vyKx vwlw, “ ie`t KV`ky du`kV v`jy q`qw hovy cu`lHw[
Awx &kIr qy Kw Kw jwvx rwjI hovy bulHw” dI soc r`Kx vwlw sUPI &kIr Awi^r 1758
eI: ƒ ies &wnI jhwn ƒ Alivdw kih igAw[

***

ikswkwr hwSm Swh
(ipMf jgdyv klW, ijlHw AMimRqsr)

ik`sw-kwiv jgq iv`c hwSm Swh dw bhuq hI au~cw AsQwn hY[ ieh lok kvI
mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy smyN hoieAw hY[ hwSm dw jnm 1735eI: ( 1166 ihjrI ) iv`c
jgdyv klW (nyVy rwjwsWsI), ijlHw AMimRqsr iv`c hwzI muhMmd SrI& mhsUm Swh dy Gr
hoieAw[ Awp dy dwdy jI dw nWA hwjI mhsUm Swh sI[ienHW dI jwq kurYSI sI[hwSm
Swh dw j`dI pySw qrKwxw kMm sI[ieh piVHAw-iliKAw Grwxw sI[hwSm ny mu`FlI
iv`idAw Awpxy bwp dI ingrwnI hyTW leI ijs iv`c aus ny ArbI,&wrsI,sMsikRq Aqy
pMjwbI BwSw qoN ielwvw joiqS iv`idAw vI is`KI sI[hwSm bcpn qoN hI P`kr suBwA dw
hox krky &kIrI dw SONkIn sI pr bwAd iv`c hwSm dw JukwA ik`swkwrI v`l ho igAw
sI[
hwSm Ajy 14-15 swlW dw hI sI ik aus dw bwp ibmwr pY igAw qy jwpdw sI
ik aus dw AMq smW nyVy Aw igAw hY[ hwzI swihb dy nOkr ny bynqI kIqI ik hwSm dw
vI kuJ iKAwl krnw cwhIdw hY[ hwSm dw A`bw ibmwrI dI hwlq iv`c mMjy qy lyitAw
hoieAw eIsZbol potlI iv`c pweI cUs irhw sI[aus ny hwSm ƒ Awpxy kol bulwieAw Aqy
auh potlI Awpxy mUMh ‘coN k`F ky hwSm ƒ dy id`qI qy AwiKAw ik auh ies ƒ cUsy[r`b
jwxy aus potlI iv`c kI jwdU sI ik jdoN hwSm ny aus potlI ƒ cUisAw aus dw izhn Ku`lH
igAw Aqy auh iksy dUsry rMg iv`c hI rMigAw igAw [bwp dI mOq ip`CoN jdoN vI auh koeI
ikqwb pVHdw qW bwp dI kbr qy jw ky pVHdw [hwSm ƒ joiqS ividAw dw vI bhuq SONk
sI[ies iv`idAw pRwpqI leI aus ny mIr AmIru`lw swihb btwlvI ƒ Awpxw gurU DwirAw[
hwSm ny Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c 40 vyrW h`j kIqw Aqy iqMn SwdIAW kIqIAW
[ie`k SwdI ipMf rmdws,dUsrI jMifAwlw gurU Aqy qIsrI SwdI ie`k bRwhmxI nwl kIqI jo
hwSm dI surIlI Awvwz qy mr imtI sI[ies SwdI bwry dUsrI khwxI vI d`sdyy hn jo
izAwdw mMnxXog hY:ie`k bRwhmx qIvIN ƒ kohV ho igAw sI ijs krky bRwhmxW ny aus ƒ GroN k`F
id`qw sI[ ie`k idn hwSm auDroN lMG irhw sI ik aus dI ingwh aus lwcwr AOrq qy
peI[ikauNik hwSm ƒ ihkmq vI AwauNdI sI ies ny aus dw ielwj kIqw ijs nwl auh
TIk ho geI [ TIk ho jwx qy bRwhmxW ny aus AOrq ƒ Awpxy nwl lY jwx leI ikhw qW
aus AOrq ny ienkwr kr id`qw sI[ rwjI ho ky auh ieMnIN suMdr,nwzk Aqy husIn inkl
AweI sI ik koeI vI aus qy mr im`tdw[aus AOrq ny hux hwSm nwl SwdI krn dw mn
bxw ilAw sI, ijs ny aus ƒ nvW jIvn id`qw sI[aynHW bRwhmxW dy swhmxy hI aus AOrq
ny hwSm dw lotw cu`k ky aus iv`coN pwxI pI ilAw, ijs dw mqlb sI ik auh hux aus
PkIr dI ho cu`kI hY[bRwhmxW ny mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG pws Skwieq kIqI ijs qy hwSm ƒ
igRPqwr krky jylH iv`c f`k id`qw igAw pr ip`CoN Asl g`l dw pqw l`gx qy aus ƒ irhw
kr id`qw igAw sI[

hwSm dI ik`swkwrI iv`c sUPIAwnw iKAwl swP Jlkdy hn[hwSm ny bwrHW mWh,
SIhrPIAW Aqy hIr dw ik`sw vI iliKAw pr aus ny AwpxI kwiv-klw dy ijhVy zOhr
dohiVAW iv`c ivKwey hn aus nwl aus ny pihly swry kvIAW ƒ ipCwV id`qw sI[ mhwrwjw
rxjIq isMG ie`k idAwlU, swihq-pRymI Aqy kvIAW dI kdr krn vwlw bwdSwh sI Aqy
auh Aksr hwSm dy dohVy Aqy ik`sw s`sI puƒ bVy hI SONk nwl hwSm koloN suixAw krdw
sI[iesy krky hwSm dw SwhI drbwr iv`c bhuq ie`jq Aqy snmwn sI[
d`sdy hn ik ie`k vyrW mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG lwhOr qoN AMimRqsr Awey hoey sn ik
aunHW dI qbIAq Acwnk Krwb ho geI[ ielwky dy keI hkImW vYdW ny ielwj kIqw pr
Awrwm nw AwieAw[ iksy dy kihx qy ik jy kr aunHW ƒ hwSm dy dohVy suxwey jwx qW
Awrwm Aw skdw hY[mhwrwjy ny hwSm ƒ aus dy ipMfoN bulw ByijAw [ hwSm ny s`sI ‘coN
ie`k duhVw suxwieAw:“mjƒ drd dIvwnI lylI, mYN igrd du`KW dw Gyrw qy kYd cuPyrw[
iliKAw lyK ieho kuJ myrw, ieh v`s nhIN myrw Aqy nw qyrw[
FUMfW cwl imln dI koeI, Aqy lwvW zor bQyrw imln auKyrw[
hwSm rwq peI isr mjƒ, pr EVk hog svyrw cwk AMDyrw[”
mhwrwj dI qbIAq kuJ sMBl geI qW aunHw ikhw hwSm, auh ifEF suxw[
mhwrwjy dy kihx qy hwSm ny ieh ibRhoN BrI ifEF suxweI :“kwml SONk mwhI dw mYƒ,ijgr iv`c v`sdw,lUM lUM r`sdw[
rWJx bypRvwhI krdw qy koeI gunWh nw d`sdw,au~T au~T n`sdw[
ijauN ijauN hwl suxwvW rovW, vyK q`qI v`l h`sdw,zrw nw K`sdw[
hwSm kMm nhI hr ks dw,AwSk hox drs dw, ibRhoN rsdw[”
hwSm ƒ nsvwr lYx dI Awdq sI[aus dI Awdq ieMnI vD geI sI ik auh
drbwr iv`c vI nsvwr lY lYNdw sI[ dUsry lokW ƒ ies dI ieh Awdq cMgI nhIN sI
lgdI[aus ƒ ies g`loN rokx leI aunHW ny mhwrwjy ƒ ikhw sI ik auh vI hwSm koloN
nsvwr qy koeI SyAr suxnw cwhuMdy hn[mhwrwjy dy kihx qy hwSm ny ieh SyAr ikhw
sI:“dIpk pRkwS iqmr jYsy auf jwq AOr,
b`dl Pt jwq inrK jYsy jm phwV hY[
jYsy mu`K isMG vyK imrgx ky pRwx jwq,
SqrU isMGwrn ko jYsy qlvwr hY[
rjnI mq mUhV igAwn sUrj so Bwg jwq,
jYsy dIrG cot lwg SOkn kI mwr hY[
jW ky ho sIs pIr hwSm ko kihq mwn,
pwrs ky rUup Xy hmwrI nsvwr hY[”
hwSm dIAW kwiv-ikrqW iv`c‘SIrI &irhwd’, ‘lYlw mjƒ’ Aqy‘sohxI
mhIvwl’pRis`D ik`isAW iv`coN igxy jWdy hn pr “s`sI puƒ” aus dI jgq pRis`D rcnw hY
ijs ny aus ƒ Amr bxw id`qw hY[mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy kihx qy hwSm ny rwjnIqI,
pMj gRMQI, igAwn mwlw Awid pusqkW vI ilKIAW sn[ie`k nmUnw s`sI iv`coN pyS hY:“nwzk pYr mlUk s`sI dy mihMdI nwl iSMgwry[
bwlU ryq qpy iv`c Ql dy, ijauN jON BuMnx BiTAwry[
sUrj B`j viVAw iv`c b`dlI, frdw ilSk nw mwry[
“hwSm” vyK XkIn s`sI dw, isdkoN mUl nw hwry[”
hwSm ny AwpxIAW rcnwvW iv`c QW QW sdwcwrk scweIAW ibAwn kIqIAW hn[
auh ilKdw hY:“Z`ul qy ^wr pdwieS ieksy,ie`k bwZ cmn dy dovyN[
ie`k Sb aumr ZulW dI EVk Aqy ^wr rhy in`q EvyN[
QoVHw rihx kbUl ipAwry,pr qUM ^wr nw hovIN[
hwSm Awx imly gl h`s ky,BwvyN ie`k pl pws KlovyN[”

hwSm dI SYlI sMjm BrpUr Aqy vlvly nwl lbryz sI[auh idRSW, mOikAW Aqy
mnoNBwvW dw ic`qRx krn iv`c AwpxI imswl Awp hI sI[ Fu`kvyN iKAwl Aqy lihr-bihr
aus dy AMdroN ies qrHW Pu`tdI sI ijvyN koeI cSmW Awp muhwrw DrqI dI ih`k ‘coN Pu`tdw
hY[mwrUQl iv`c qVpdI-BtkdI s`sI dw idRS vrnx kwbly gOr hY:“ kuJ if`gdI, kuJ FihMdI, bihMdI qy dm lYNdI[
ijauN kr qot SrwboN Awvy, Pyr auqy v`l vihMdI[
FUMfy ^oj Suqr dw ikq vl,hrigz Bwl nw pYNdI[”
smu`cy qOr qy ikhw jw skdw hY ik ieh mwJy dw mhwn ik`swkwr AwpxI ies klw
dw lohw mnvw ky Aqy Awpxy hunr dy zlvy ibKyrdw hoieAw ies jhwn ƒ sMn 1890 iv`c
Alivdw kih igAw sI[

***

cUVw mxI

mhW kvI BweI sMqoK isMG jI
(ipMf nUrdIn-dI-srW, izlHw qrn qwrn)

qrn qwrn qoN Jbwl ƒ jWidAW hoieAw pMj ku ik: mI: dI dUrI qy nUrdIn dI srW
nwmIN ipMf hY jo iksy nUrdIn nwmIN muslmwn ny vswieAw sI Aqy ie`Qy ie`k srW bxvweI
sI ijs krky hI Swied ies ipMf dw nW nUrdIn dI srW ipAw hovy[[ies ipMf dy nyVy hI
bwbw boqw isMG jI Aqy grzw isMG jI muglW nwl lVdy hoey ShId hoey sn[BweI sMqoK
isMG jI dw jnm iesy ipMf iv`c 7 A`sU,sMmq 1844, idn AYqvwr muqwbk 8 AkqUbr ,
1787 eI: ƒ svyr vyly sR: dyvw isMG jI dy Gr mwqw ‘rzwdI’ dI ku`KoN hoieAw [ienHW dy
dwdw jI dw nwm sR: gulwb isMG jI sI[
BweI swihb dy ipqw sR: dyvw isMG jI Awpxy smyN dy cMgy ivdvwn Aqy ^ojI
sn[Gr iv`c ivdvwnW dw Awauxw-jwxw l`igAw rihMdw sI ies leI aunHW dy ivcwr sux ky
sMqoK isMG jI dy mn qy aunHW dIAW g`lW dw Asr huMdw rihMdw sI[bcpn BweI swihb ny
ipMf iv`c rih ky hI gujwirAw sI,ies leI mu`FlI ividAw vI aunHW ny Awpxy ipqw koloN hI
pRwpq kIqI sI [ sMqoK isMG jI dy ipqw dI ^wihS sI ik pu`qr ƒ au~c ividAw idvweI
jwvy[ ies leI BweI swihb ƒ aus smyN dy cotI dy ivdvwn igAwnI sMq isMG jI pws
ividAw pRwpqI leI ByijAw igAw[ igAwnI sMq isMG jIo mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy
Aihlkwr sn[igAwnI sMq isMG jI dw ruqbw Aqy ijMdgI bVI hI ruJyivAW BrI sI [
aunHW kol ivhl nw huMidAW hoieAW vI aunHW ny sMqoK isMG jI ƒ Awpxw iS`S bxwauNxw pRvwn
kr ilAw sI[ BweI swihb ny aunHW koloN 10 swl q`k ividAw pRwpq kIqI [ienHW ds swlW
iv`c sMqoK isMG jI ny sMsikRq, ihMdI, gurbwxI-gurmiq Aqy kwiv- rcnw dI ividAw nwl
Awpxy mn BMfwry Br ley sn[kwiv-klw dy AOKy-AOKy gRMQW dw AiDAYn kr lYx kwrn
Awp cUVw mxI kvI dy drjy q`k phuMc gey sn[ BweI swihb Awpxy ividAw gurU dw izkr
ies dohry iv`c ies qrHW krdy hn:“ sRI miq ismrq siqgurU, sMq isMG SuB nwm]
ividAw iqn qy mYN pTI, iqn pd kho prnwm]”
jdoN BweI sMqoK isMG jI dI aumr 21 swl dI hoeI qW auh sMn 1809 iv`c kWSI
cly gey ij`Qy pMj swl q`k rhy[ ieh auh smW sI jdoN bRwhmx gYr bRwhmx ƒ sMsikRq nhIN
sn pVHwieAw krdy[pr BweI swihb qW pihlW hI ies ividAw nwl BrpUr sn[auh auQoN
dy pMfqW nwl ivcwr- goStIAW krky Awpxw igAwn koS hor Brnw cwhuMdy sn[pihrwvy
Aqy bol-bwxI qoN pMfqW ny ieh AnuBv kr hI ilAw sI ik ieh vI koeI ivdvwn hY ijs
leI auh Awp nwl cMgw ivvhwr krn lg pey sn[ies qrHW BweI swihb ny kWSI iv`c
rih ky igAwn dy ^yqr iv`c ie`k kdm hor A`gy vDw ilAw sI[
kWSI iv`c smW bqIq kr BweI sMqoK isMG jI “bUVIey” cly gey sn[ ie`Qy aunHW
dw zwq- BweI idAwl isMG ijs dy nW qy “idAwl gVH” ngr vswieAw igAw sI, rwey
isMG dI POj dw jrnYl sI[rwey isMG dI mOq ip`CoN aus dw lVkw sR: Bgvwn isMG irAwsq

dw rwjw bixAw [idAwl isMG dy rsU^ Aqy BweI swihb dI ivdvqw sdkw aunHW ƒ rwj
kvI vjoN inXukq kr ilAw igAw sI[ie`Qy hI BweI swihb ny sMsikRq dy gRMQ “Amr koS”
dw tIkw kIqw [iesy gRMQ dI qrz qy aunHW ny ies dw ibRz BwSw iv`c tIkw kIqw Aqy ies
dw nwm “nwm koS” r`iKAw[nwm koS auprMq BweI sMqoK isMG jI ny gurU nwnk dyv jI dy
jIvn qy ADwirq kwiv-rUp iv`c ie`k gRMQ ricAw ijs dw nW “gurU nwnk pRkwS” r`iKAw
[ieh gRMQ k`qk dI pUnmwSI vwly idn sMn 1823 iv`c sMpUrn hoieAw [
bUVIey rihx auprMq BweI swihb hor keI QwvW qy vI geyy[ kYQl irAwsq dw
pRbMD BweI BgqU dy vMS pws sI ijs iv`coN aus vyly ivdvwn mhwrwjw audY isMG ies rwj
dI vwg for sMBwl irhw sI[ BweI jI is`K kOm dI siqkwrXog hsqI bx cu`ky sn Aqy
ibRz BwSw dy cotI dy ivdvwn vI sn, pr aunHW ny gRMQW dy tIky kwiv-rUp iv`c kIqy nw ik
ibRz BwSw iv`c[ibRj BwSw iv`c aunHW ny vwriqk rcnw hI kIqI[ aunHW dI ieh ivl`Kxqw
sI ik auh vwriqk vI kivqw vWg AlMkwrW nwl iSMgwr ky ilKdy sn[ 1891 ibkRmI dy
SurU iv`c ie`k ivSwl gRMQ “vwlmIk rmwiex” ƒ sMsikRq qoN ibRj BwSw iv`c aunHW v`loN
aulQwieAw igAw [ Awp ilKdy hn:“ dUKn AO BUKn sMBwr n aucwr qrON, ApnI aukiq ibsqir hON[
vwlmIk bdn qy jrn bny hYN brk ibcwir soaU BwKw mYN suDih hON[
krno ASyS pd Awie hY ibSyS ikq, qaU qWko doS gun qhW Anusir hON[
sMsy ko pRSn guxI!Awid kvI hUM pY kro, mrI miq QorI ikmw jwicbo eI kirhON[”(bwl kWf
srg )
ies v`fy gRMQ ƒ s`q kWfW iv`c aulQw ky hr ie`k kWf dy v`Kry v`Kry AiDAwie rcy
hn ijnHW dI ku`l igxqI  hY[kYQl iv`c v`sidAW hoieAw aunHW ny jo qIsrw gRMQ
sMsikRq qoN Anuvwd kIqw auh sI “Awqm purwn”[ ieh gRMQ aupinSdw Aqy vydWq dw mUl
gRMQ mMinAW jWdw hY[
“ pn ibdWq ko gRMQ mhWn[aupinzDn ko jih ibKXwn]
Awqm ko purwn ijs nwm[skl bnwXo so AiBrwm]”
BweI sMqoK isMG jI dI AwKrI rcnw “sUurj pRkwS” hY[ ieh gRMQ vwlmIk
rmwiex qoN dugxw hY[ieh iksy gRMQ dw Anuvwd jW aus dw tIkw nhIN sgoN BweI swihb dI
mOilk rcnw hY jo is`KW kol is`K ieiqhws dw somW hY[kvI ny ies gRMQ iv`c gurU AMgd dyv
jI dy jIvn ibrqWq qoN lY ky sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI dy ip`CoN bwbw bMdw bhwdur q`k dy
hwlwq drj kr ky gRMQ pUrw kIqw hY[ieh auh hI gRMQ hY ijs dI icr kwl qoN kQw swfy
gurduAwirAW iv`c kIqI jw rhI hY[
56 swl ie`k mhIny dI AwXU Bog ky mhW kvI BweI sMqoK isMG jI 6 k`qk,1900
ibkRmI (19 AkqUbr, 1843 eI:) ƒ gur crnW iv`c jw brwjy sn[ ie`k sO cOT (164)
swl dw smW bIq cu`kw hY aunHW ƒ pMj BUiqk srIr iqAwigAW pr auh AwpxIAW ikRqW
rwhIN A`j vI swfy mnW iv`c ijMdw hn[ DMn hY kmweI ies mJYl kvI dI ijs ny Awpxy
igAwn dy sUrj rwhIN is`K jgq ƒ cwnx id`qw hY[

***

sR: idAwl isMG jI mjITIAw
( bwnI itRibXUn A^bwr smUh)
(izlHw AMimRqsr)

srdwr idAwl isMG jI dw jnm sR: lihxw isMG jI jo ik mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG
jI dy nwmvr jrnYlW ‘coN ie`k sn Aqy ijnHW kol slqnq dy Aslw ^wny dw cwrj sI, dy
Gr 1848 eI: iv`c hoieAw [idAwl isMG dy cwcw sR: guzr isMG jI dw ruqbw drbwr
iv`c ie`k rwjInIqk slwhkwr dw sI ijnHW ƒ ie`k vwr mhwrwjy v`loN cuxy hoey 200 ispwhI
dy ky Awpxy s&Ir vjoN iksy rwjnIqk audyS leI ByijAw sI[srdwr idAwl isMG jI dy
ipqw sR:lihxw isMG jI jdoN qIrQ Xwqrw qy gey sn qW ip`CoN SwhI drbwr iv`c aunHW dy
ivroDIAW ny ieh APvwh PYlwA id`qI sI ik auh Awpxy nwl 200 AMg r^Sk Aqy ie`k
kroV qoN v`D dw sonw lY gey hn[s: lihxw isMG jI v`K v`K qIrQ AsQwnW qoN ho ky
Awi^r bnwrs iv`c kWSI ruk gey sn ij`Qy aunHW ny v`fI jwiedwd KrId leI sI[
idAwl isMG ny AwpxI mu`FlI ividAw kirscn imSn skUl AMimRqsr iv`c pRwpq
kIqI,ij`Qy aunHW qoN ibnW cwr hor is`K ividAwrQI pVHdy sn[ ienHW iv`c mhwrwjw rxjIq
isMG dw pu`qr sR: dlIp isMG vI sI[ ienHW swirAW ny iesweI Drm Dwrn kr ilAw
sI[keI lokW dw iKAwl hY ik idAwl isMG ny vI iesweI Drm gRihx krn bwry soicAw
sI pr aus ny Aijhw nhIN sI kIqw[iPr vI idAwl isMG dy zjbwqW Aqy ilKqW iv`coN
iesweI Drm dI soc JlkdI hY[imswl dy qOr qy aunHW dw iliKAw inbMD “^udw muh`bq hY
jW kihr” iv`coN[
jdoN idAwl isMG ny hoS sMBwlI qW aus ny Awpxy v`fy-vfyirAW dIAW zgIrW dw
pRbMD bVI hI Xogqw nwl sMBwilAw Aqy AwpxI hoNd dw pRdrSn kIqw [mjITIAw jI ny
ieMglYNf Aqy XUrp dw dOrw vI kIqw Aqy sMn 1876 iv`c vwps Aw ky ie`k mhwn ausreIey
dy rUp iv`c lokW swhmxy Awey [ aunHW ny kImqI p`QrW Aqy gihixAW dy pwr^U vjoN vI lokW
iv`c DWk jmweI [iksmq ny vI swQ id`qw sI iesy leI mjITIAw srdwr ny KUb pYsw
kmwieAw Aqy Dwrimk lihrW,AwriQk, rwjnIqk, Aqy smwijk kwrjW qy ies ƒ Krc
vI kIqw[
Awpxy jIvn kwl dOrwn idAwl isMG ny ividAk ^yqr iv`c ividAk p`Dr ƒ
au~cw cu`kx leI bhuq v`fw Xogdwn pwieAw[ auh loVvMd ividAwrQIAW ƒ ibnW iksy qrHW
Drm, jwq Aqy rMg rUp dw Byd Bwv r`iKAW, aunHW ƒ vjIPy dy ky aunHW dI mdd kirAw
krdw sI[ srdwr mjITIAw Awpxy smyN dw bhuq v`fw smwj suDwrk vI sI[idAwl isMG
jI dy bwry bI. ky. nihrU ilKdy hn:“pOxI sdI pihlW ienHW ny auho kuJ au~qrI Bwrq leI kIqw jo rwjw rwm mohn rwie
ny bMgwl leI kIqw sI[ieh v`fI bdiksmqI hyY AsIN aunHW dI ividAk dyx bwry
bhuqw kuJ nhIN jwxdy ijhVI ip`CoN BwrqI AwzwdI sMgrwm leI kwrgr hoeI[”
srdwr idAwl isMG ny ienHW suDwrW leI ‘bRhmo smwj’ ƒ AwDwr bxw ky ieh
kwrj AwrMiBAw, ijs iv`c aunHW dw ivSvwS sI Aqy auh Awp ‘bRhmo smwj mMdr klkqw’

dy trstI vI sn[mjITIAw srdwr dI Dwrimk soc qy bweIbl dy AwiSAW dw Asr vI
sI ijs qoN aunHW dIAW ilKqW iv`c nrk, svrg, eISvrqw Aqy bjurgW dw vrnx vyKx
ƒ imldw hY[smu`cy qOr qy idAwl isMG dI soc qy iesweI m`q dw glbw spSt Jlkdw hY[
AwpxI pusqk “pMjwb cIPs 1865” iv`cAYl. AYc, girPn, idAwl isMG bwry
ilKdy hn:“idAwl isMG kol AMgryzI, &wrsI qy ihMdI dI vDIAw jwxkwrI hY[” swied girPn
ArbI BwSw dw izkr krnw Bu`l igAw hovy ikauNik sR: idAwl isMG dUsry Awm aurdU
kvIAW vWg muSwieirAW iv`c kivqw jW ‘klwm’ ikhw krdy sn[ auh AwpxI mwq BwSw
pMjwbI iv`c vI ilK lYNdy sn[
srdwr idAwl isMG ny p`qrkwrI ^yqr iv`c AMgrzI dI A^bwr ‘itRibXUn’ lwhOr
qoN 2 PrvrI sMn 1881 ƒ pihlw prcw jwrI kr ky ies dy bwnI hox dw mwx K`itAw[
aus ny p`qrkwrI dy ^yqr iv`c lwhOr qoN AMgryjI dy A^bwr dI SurUAwq kr ky pMjwb dy
ieiqhws iv`c suinhrI Xu`g dI SurUAwq kIqI[ ieh A^bwr l`g p`g aus smyN hI SurU kIqw
igAw sI jdoN mdrws qoN “ihMdU”, klkqw qoN “AMimRq bwzwr p`qrkw” Aqy pUny qoN
“kysrI” A^bwr Cpxy SurU hoey sn[bySk AwrMB iv`c bhuq muSklW dw swhmxw krnw
ipAw sI pr idAwl isMG dy bMgwlI im`qrW Kws krky suirMdr nwQ bYnr jI ny ies kMm
iv`c aunHW dw bhuq swQ id`qw sI[mjITIAw srdwr dy bRhmo smwjI dosqW ny vI aus leI
ies kMm iv`c bhuq hI SlwGwXog BUuimkw inBweI sI[
bySk idAwl isMG pMjwb XUnIvrstI kwlj dy sYnytr sn pr ies dIAW glqIAW
Aqy qrutIAW ivru`D vI auh ilKx qoN guryz nhI sn krdy[duUsry sYnytrW ny ies qy
ieqrwz vI kIqw sI ik idAwl isMG sYnytr ho ky Aijhy ktwKS ikauN krdy hn ? ies dy
au~qr iv`c idAwl isMG ny AwpxI sYnt mYNbriSp qoN AsqIPw dy id`qw sI pr Awpxy
AsUlW qoN nhI sn iQVky[Asl iv`c ies A^bwr ƒ SurU krn dw mksd hI pMjwb
XUnIvristI dI iv`idAw ƒ bMbeI Aqy klkqw dI qrz qy lwgU krnw sI , jo ik AMgryz
AiDkwrI nhI sn cwhuMdy[ aunHW dI mnSw sI ik lokW ƒ iv`idAw AMgryzI iv`c nw id`qI
jwvy sgoN aunHW dI suUbweI BwSw iv`c hI ividAw id`qI jwvy[
aus smyN pMjwb iv`c Aijhw koeI p`qrkwr nhIN sI jo Aijhw kdm cu`k
skdw[ies leI srdwr idAwl isMG mjITIAw ny suirMdr nwQ bYnrjI jI ƒ bMgwl qoN
Awpxy pRiMtMg pRYs leI bMgwlI lyKk ilAwaux leI ikhw sI[ ies g`l dw dUsrw pihlU
ieh vI sI ik bMgwlI ilKwrI pMjwb dIAW smisAwvW qoN BlIBWq jwxU nw hox krky ies
dw ivSlySn krn iv`c pUry nhIN sn auqrdy[ ies g`l dI pUrqI leI srdwr idAwl
isMG jI Kud Aijhy AwrtIklz iliKAw krdy sn, pr auh Awpxw nwm nhI sn ilKdy[
pMjwb ƒ AYfw v`fw qohPw dy ky Awi^r ieh mJYl srdwr 9 sqMbr, 1898 eI: ƒ ies
jhwn qoN kUc kr igAw[
***

Swh muhMmd
(ipMf vfwlw vIrm, izlHw AMimRqsr)

Swh muhMmd dyS ipAwr vwlw idl r`Kx vwlw kvI hoieAw hY , ijs ny Awpxy smyN
AwpxI pRvIn bu`DI, auqm ^oj Aqy jwxkwrI dy blbUqy qy Awpxy koml zjibAW dw pRgtwvw
AwpxIAW ilKqW iv`c kIqw hY[Swh muhMmd dw jnm ijlHw AMimRqsr dy ipMf vfwlw vIrm
ijhVw AMimRqsr mjITw rof qy siQq hY, sMn 1780 iv`c hoieAw[ hwSm Swh ikswkwr
‘s`sI puMnU’ jgdyE klW vwlw vI kUrYSI jwq dw sI Aqy Swh muhmMd vI jwq dw kUrYSI hI
sI[hwSm Swh ikswkwr ‘s`sI puMnU’ jgdyE klW vwly ny iksw fyEFW iv`c iliKAw jdo ik
Swh muhMmd ny ik`sw s`sI puMnU bYNqW iv`c iliKAw jo ‘bYNq Swh muhMmd’ dy isrlyK hyTW
CipAw[
Swh muhMmd dw ie`k irSqydwr sulqwn mihmUd vwsI ipMf Brovwl, qihsIl qrn
qwrn ( hux izlHw hY ) dw rihx vwlw sI[ auh mhwrwjw Syr isMG dI POj iv`c qopcI sI[
Swh muhMmd dy do byty sn[ ie`k dw nWA muhMmd Aqy dUsry dw nW hwSm sI[ hwSm vI
kvI sI jo Awpxy nW nwl aupnwm vjoN “mu^ils” ilKdw sI[ Swh muhMmd dI ric`q s`sI
puƒ dI ie`k vMngI vyKo:“au~T vyK mweyN myrIey nI, ieh bloc nwhI koeI cor mWeyN[
myry nyhuM dI swr nw jwxIE ny, puƒ bMnH KiVAw nwl zor mWeyN[
vwhd jwn s`sI ieko lu`t ilqI, hor v`sdw Sihr BMbor mWeyN[
Swh muhMmdw peI pukwrnI hW, puƒ bwJ nw Awsrw hor mWeyN[”
Swh muhMmd ny AwpxI ilKq iv`c jIvn dIAW At`l scweIAW dw vI vrnx kIqw
hY[auh ies PwnI zhwn bwry d`sdw hY ik ieh nwSvwn hY[ jo ie`Qy AwieAw hY aus ny ie`k
idn ie`QoN qur jwxw hY[ ieh ie`k musw&r^wnw hY, ij`Qy muswPr rwq guzwr suBw au~T qurdy
hn[ Swh muhMmd dy bYNqW dw nmUnw pyS hY:“ieh jg srwey muswPrW dI, eyQy zor vwly keI Aw gey[
Sdwd nmrUd iPrAOn jYsy, dwAvy bMnH ^udw khw gey[
Akbr Swh jYsy iv`c idlI dy, PyrI vWg vxjwirAW pw gey[
Swh muhMmdw rhygw r`b s`cw, vwjy kUV dy keI vjw gey[”
Swh muhMmd dI kwiv ikrq ‘ihMd pMjwb dw jMg’ ijs ƒ ‘jMgnwmw isMGW qy
PrMgIAW’ dy nwm nwl vI Xwd kIqw jWdw hY, bhuq pRis`D hoeI sI[AwpxI rcnw dw ADwr
aus ny ies ieiqhwsk Gtnw ƒ bxwieAw hY[ies rcnw iv`c aus ny smu`cI pMjwbI kOm dy
drd Aqy du`K dy kIrnyN pw ky AwpxI dyS BgqI Aqy AMgryz dy D`ky dI Awh mwrI hY[s`c
qW ieh hY auh ie`k kOmI kvI sI ijs iv`c iPrkUpuxy dI koeI boA nhIN sI, jo aus dI
ies ilKq qoN swP JlkdI hY:“rwjI bhuq rihMdy muslmwn ihMdU, isr dohW auqy Aw&wq AweI[
‘Swh muhMmdw’ iv`c pMjwb dy jI, kdy nhI sI qIsrI zwq AweI”[

Swh muhMmd ny Awpxy ies jMgnwmy iv`c pwqr ic`qRx bVy hI nwtkI rMg Br ky
kIqw hY[aus ny rwjy, rwxIAW, rwj kumwr jW AihlkwrW dw icqrn byDVk qy inrp`K ho
ky kIqw hY[swrIAW GtnwvW ie`k iPlm dy sInw vWgUM swfIAW A`KW A`goN lMGdIAW mihsUs
huMdIAW hn[jMg dy mYdwn iv`coN hwr ky Awaux qy isMGW ƒ lwhOr vwsIAW dy mUMhoN ies qrHW
imhxw mrvwieAw hY:“Swh muhMmdw kihMdy ny lok isMG jI, qusIN cMgIAW pUrIAW pw Awey[”
Swh muhMmd dI ieh rcnw bIr rs pRDwn hY[aus dy ivAMgW Aqy tokW qoN koeI nhI
bc sikAw[aus ny pMjwbIAW dy hrmn ipAwry CMd ‘bYNq’ iv`c lok bolI dI vrqoN kr ky
AwpxIrcnw dI lokW dy idlW iv`c QW bxw leI hY[aus dI rcnw dy bol lokW dy mUMhW qy
cVH gey hn:“Swm isMG srdwr AtwrI vwly,bMnH SsqrIN joV ivCoV id`qy[
Swh muhMmdw isMGW ny goirAW dy, vWg inMbUAW lhU incoV id`qy[”
“Swh muhMmdw ie`k srkwr bwJoN,POjW ij`q ky AMq ƒ hwrIAW ny[”
Swh muhMmd dI ies rcnw ny ies mJYl kvI dw ruqbw bhuq au~cw kr id`qw hY[ auh sMn
1892 iv`c ies zhwn qoN kUc kr igAw sI[

***

mOlvI gulwm “musq&w”
(ipMf c`k kwzIAW, izlHw gurdwspur)
mOlvI swihb dw jnm 1751 eI: ƒ ipMf c`k kwzIAW izlHw gurdwspur iv`c hoieAw
[ bcpn iv`c hI ipqw dw swieAw isr qoN au~T igAw [ AwriQk hwlwq vI izAwdw cMgy
nw hox krky auh ividAw pRwpqI qoN vI vWJw hI rih igAw sI[ ienHW hwlwqW iv`c hI
musqPw jdoN jvwn hoieAw qW hwlqW dw sqwieAw hoieAw ie`k idn Awqm h`iqAw krn dy
ierwdy nwl ie`k nwly qy jw bYTw[nyiVEN lMG rhy ie`k bjurg ny Aw ky aus ƒ Aijhw krn
qoN vrijAw Aqy jIvn sMgrwm iv`c muSklW dw swhmxw krn dI hdwieq kIqI[ aus
bjurg ny ieh vI ikhw sI ividAw qyry ih`sy nhI AweI,qW kI hoieAw[ ies leI mwXUs
nw ho[qyrI JolI iv`c qW ijMdgI dI Asl ividAw peI hoeI hY[ ienHW g`lw ny molvI gulwm
musqPw AMdr nvIN rUh PUk id`qI sI[
mOlvI jI ny vwps Aw ky ^ud-b-^ud pVHnw SurU kr id`qw sI[kurwn SrI& auh
pihlW hI pVH cu`kw sI, ies leI &wrsI CyqI hI pVHn l`g ipAw[in`q dI imhnq nwl
bolI iv`c rvwngI vI AwauxIN SurU ho geI [hux pUrI qrHW aus dw ruJwn kvISrI v`l ho
igAw sI[ aus ny SIhrPIAW, in`ky in`ky rswly Aqy jMg nwmw Amwm h`k iliKAw [ ienHW
‘coN jMgnwmw CipAw vI sI[ Awm ijMdgI iv`c musqPw bhuq hI nyk idl Aqy dIndwr
ienswn sI[aus dy poqry rMgpur iv`c cMgy kvI hn[ mOlvI gulwm musqPw lgpg 1870
eI: iv`c ies jhwn qoN kUc kr igAw [ vMngI dy qOr qy aus dy jMgnwmw Amwm h`k dw
‘coN nmUnw pyS hY:“ ie`k bu`Fw mrd zeIP, sI sUrq i^zr pCwx[
Awsw nyko kwr auh, swihb ^OP eImwn[
A`gy Sy^ slIm dy, l`gw krn slwm[
hzrq AlI Alhk dw, swrw izkr qmwm[

***

hwSm Swh “mu^ls”
(ipMf vfwlw vIrm, izlHw AMimRqsr)
ieh pMjwb dw mShrU kvI dUsrw hwSm hoieAw hY, jo Awpxy nW nwl ‘muKls’
ilKdw sI Aqy ijs dw ipqw Swh muhMmd pRis`D ikswkwr Aqy rcwieqw “jMg isMGW Aqy
PrMgIAW” sI[ hwSm Swh muKls dw jnm ipMf vIrm vfwlw iv`c 1830 eI: ƒ hoieAw
[aus ny bcpn qoN hI kivqw ilKxI ArMB id`qI sI Aqy Awpxy ipqw vWg aus ny kwPI
nwmnw vI K`itAw sI[kivqw kihx dy nwl nwl muKls ihkmq vI jwxdy sn Aqy dUr
nyiVEN lok dvw dwrU krvwaux leI aus kol AwieAw krdy sn[ muKls dy Sigrd
Abdul krIm ‘swdk’ btwly vwly ny Awpxy ausqwd dw iliKAw hoieAw ik`sw ‘s`sI puƒ’
CpvwieAw sI ijs dI vMngI pyS hY ijs iv`c s`sI Aqy aus dI mW dy suAwl juAwb hn:“ ry r`b dw vwsqw mMn myrw, QlIN jwh nw jwn gvw kuVIey[
mW bwp dy hukm ƒ r`d krnw, iksy mjHb iv`c nhIN rvw kuVIey[
au~cI kUk nw bhuq suxw lokW, r`K AwpxI pRIq Cupw kuVIey[
‘mu^ls’ bxn SRIk qy dyx qwAny,XwrI nwl hoqW dy nw lw kuVIey[”
jvwb s`sI:
“zy zor kryN sgoN Sor pwvyN, iv`c Sihr BMbor nw kdy rihsW[
nhIN A`g judweI dI itkx dyNdI, bwJoN Xwr iks ƒ idl Byd kihsW[
K`tI aumr dI rwq iv`c lY igAw swrI aumr dy du`KVy ikvyN sihsW[
‘muKls’ jw imlsW puƒ Xwr qWeIN, lY ky r`b dw nwm hux kyc vihsW[”
ieh Swier 1895 eIsvI dy nyVy qyVy ies jhwn qoN kUc kr igAw[

***

fwktr crn isMG jI
(AMimRqsr)

swfy smwj iv`c iksy dI pihcwx dw qrIkw hY jW qW auh Awpxy bwp krky
jwixAw jWdw hY jW bwp Awpxy pu`qr dy nyk kMmW krky jwixAw jWdw hY[ g`l kI AsIN
kih idMdy hW ik ieh Plwxy dw pu`qr hY jW ieh Plwxy dw bwp hY[fw: crn isMG jI ies
krky vI jwxy jWdy hn ik auh ‘pdm sRI’Avwrf pRwpq fw:BweI vIr isMG jI dy ipqw sn
Aqy BweI vIr isMG jI ies krky vI jwxy jWdy hn ik auh fw: crn isMG jI dy spu`qr
sn[ieh dovyN ivAkqI AwpxI pihcwx Awp vI hn Aqy ie`k dUsry krky vI jwxy jWdy
hn[
fw: crn isMG jI dw jnm 7 mwrc,1853 eI: ƒ bwbw kwhn isMG jI dy Gr
AMimRqsr ivKy hoieAw[fwktr swihb ny AwXurvYidk Aqy fwktrI dohW dI is`iKAw pRwpq
krky 1872 eI: qoN 1881 eI: q`k srkwrI nOkrI kIqI[fw: swihb dI SwdI 1869 eI:
iv`c igAwnI hjwrw isMG jI dI spu`qrI bIbI au~qm kOr nwl hoeI[ fw: swihb dI sMqwn
iv`c cwr pu`qr BweI vIr isMG jI,BweI jY rwj isMG jI, BweI lKbIr isMG jI Aqy BweI
blbIr isMG jI sn[ies qoN ielwvw do pu`qrIAW bIbI mQrw dyvI Aqy bIbI sMqo vI
sn[sR: crn isMG jI Awpxy smyN dy ibRj BwSw Aqy pMjwbI dy pRis`D kvI, rOick ilKwrI,
aulQwkwr,gurbwxI dy KojI, isMG sBw lihr dy srgrm kwrkuMn, smwj suDwrk Aqy pMQ
drdI sn[aunHW dIAW rcnwvW iv`c ijMdgI dw fUMGw igAwn vyiKAw jw skdw hY[ienHW
ilKqW iv`c Koj dy gMBIr q`q luky hoey hn[
aunHW dI ibRjBwSw dI kivqw dw rMg “At`l pRkwS” Aqy pMjwbI kivqw dw vyg
“PirAwd” Aqy “kysrI crKw” iv`c vyKx ƒ imldw hY[ fwktr swihb dI kivqw dw
ivSw Dwrimk Aqy sdwcwrk pRkwr dw hY[aunHW dy nwvl “jMg mJolI” Aqy “Swm suMdr”
glpkwrI swihq iv`c auh AsQwn r`Kdy hn ijhVw AsQwn AMgryzI swihq iv`c nwvl
“ipligRmz pRwgrYs” ƒ pRwpq hY[kwlI dws dI pRis`D sMsikRq rcnw “SkMuqlw” nwtk dw
fw: swihb ny aulQw pMjwbI iv`c kIqw [aunHW dI rcnw “gVg`j boly” iv`c aunHW ny Kwlsy
dI ivSyS bolI dw vrnx kIqw hY[fwktr jI ny gurU gRMQ swihb iv`c vrqy kwiv-rUpW,
rwgW Aqy SbdW qy Koj vI kIqI[aunHW ny purwqn FwfIAW koloN vwrW dy nmUny iek`Ty krky,
ijnHW dy AwDwr qy gurU gRMQ swihb dIAW kuJ vwrW gwaux dI sUcnw hY, ‘gurmiq sMgIq
inrxX’, ‘bwxI ibaUrw’ Aqy ‘Sbd ibrqI pRkwS’ dIAW rcnwvW klmb`D
kIqIAW[fwktr swihb dIAW rcnwvW dw vyrvw ies pRkwr hY:1. sRI At`l pRkwS (ibRj kwiv sMgRih)
2. mhwrwxI Srwb kOr (kwiv sMgRih) 3. PirXwd (kwiv sMgRih)
4. ie`k tyFI cwl (kwiv sMgRih) 5. holI hY (kwiv sMgRih)
6. nIqI vwrqw (kwiv sMgRih)
7. hIr BweI gurdws (kwiv sMgRih)
8. hUV m`q (kwiv sMgRih) 9. bynqI (kwiv sMgRih) 10. ibnY-p`qr 11. lwtU isMG 12.
Afolk isMG 13. jMg mJolI (nwvl)

14.
16.
17.
19.
21.

Swm suMdr (nwvl) 15. SkuMqlw (nwtk)
sRI gurU gRMQ swihb ibaUrw
Sbd 18. gurmiq sMgIq inrxX
gVg`j boly 20. dsm gurU cir`qR
jY jY rwm sIqw rwm 22. kysrI crKw 23. ibRqI pRkwS[
ADuink pMjwbI swihq iv`c sR: crn isMG jI dw AsQwn moFI ilKwrIAW iv`c
igixAw jWdw hY[ fwktr swihb dI swihq ƒ bhuq v`fI dyx hY[ 11 nvMbr, 1908 eI: ƒ
aunHW dw dyhWq ho igAw [

***

pdm ivBUSn

fwktr BweI vIr isMG jI

mW bolI pMjwbI dw lwflw, s`cw syvk, qnoN mnoN ies ƒ smripq sn, BweI vIr
isMG jI ijnHW qy mwJy ƒ hI nhI sgoN smu`cy swihq jgq ƒ mwx hY[ BweI vIr isMG jI dw
jnm 5 dsMbr,1872 eI: ƒ ktVw grbw isMG AMimRqsr iv`c fw: crn isMG jI dy Gr
hoieAw [aunHW ny AwpxI mu`FlI ividAw ifsitRkt borf qoN pws kIqI,ijs iv`c aunHW ƒ sony
dw qgmw ienwm vjoN imilAw sI[mYtirk dw iemiqhwn BweI swihb ny pMjwb XUnIvristI
qoN pws kIqw [
bySk BweI vIr isMG dI ividAk Xogqw dsvI jmwq q`k hI sI pr iPr vI
swihq ƒ jo dyx aunHW dI hY, aus vjoN aunHW ƒ swihq dy ausrIey vjoN jwixAw jWdw hY[BweI
swihb pMjwbI dy ie`k mhwn kvI Aqy vwriqk ilKwrI sn[aunHW dy smkwlI BweI mohn
isMG jI vYd jo ie`k ilKwrI Aqy Dwrimk ibrqI dy ivAkqI sn, nwl BweI swihb dw
BrwvW vrgw ipAwr sI[BweI vIr isMG jI Aqy BweI mohn isMG jI vYd Awm krky ie`k
dUjy nwl pMQk msilAW qy ivcwr ivtWdrw krdy rihMdy sn[
BweI vIr isMG jI ny smyN dI nwV pihcwx ky ivigAwnk FMg nwl is`KI dI auc
syvw kIqI ijs ƒ is`K kOm hmySw Xwd r`KygI[ sMn 1894 iv`c “ ^wlsw tyRYkt suswietI”
rwhIN aunHW ny gurpurbW qy Awpxy ilKy mjbUn Awm jnqw iv`c vMfxy SurU kIqy[ sMn 1899
iv`c iesy kMm iv`c aunHW ny hor plWG pu`tI Aqy “^wlsw smwcwr” p`qr SurU kIqw Aqy
Awpxw Cwpw^wnw vI lwieAw[fwktr swihb tRYkt Cwp ky muPq lokW iv`c vMifAw krdy
sn[
s`c qW ieh hY ik BweI vIr isMG jI hI swihq dy ausreIey hn[ieh koeI
AiqkQnI nhIN ik ies qoN pihlW ADuink swihq hY hI nhIN sI[BweI swihb v`loN nwvl
‘suMdrI’ ilKx auprMq do hor nwvl ‘ivjY isMG Aqy ‘sqvMq kOr’ ilK ky swihq mihl dI
nINh ArMBI sI[BweI swihb dy Awpxy lPjW iv`c “pMjwbI iv`c swihq hY hI nhIN sI[
swihq ibnW koeI kOm au~cI nhIN au~T skdI[swihq auh hY jo ieiqhws vWg idlcspI lY
ky AsUlW qy AwdrSW ƒ AMikq kry”[
sMn 1901 iv`c ‘cIP ^wlsw dIvwn’ dI sQwpnw Aqy sMn 1902 iv`c ‘^wlsw
kwlj AMimRqsr’ ƒ pMQk pRbMD hyTW ilAaux dw auprwlw vI BweI vIr isMG jI ny hI
kIqw[ie`Qy hI b`s nhIN BweI swihb ny ‘sYNtrl ^wlsw XqIm^wnw AMimRqsr’ dI sQwpnw
vI kIqI[ ieh bVy mwx dI g`l hY ik aunHW ny ‘pMjwb AYNf isMD bYNk’ dy moFI fwierYktr
vjoN syvw inBweIy Aqy ‘is`K AYjUkySn kmytI’ dy isrkrdw AwgU rih ky ividAk kMmW iv`c
Awpxw slwhux Xog Xogdwn pwieAw [sR: vIr isMg jI jnqk jlisAW jlUsW Aqy
smwgmW iv`c ih`sw lYx qoN guryz krdy sn[rwjsI kMmW qoN auh iblkul lWBy rihMdy
sn[ies g`l dI Jlk aunHW dy Awpxy kwiv vyg iv`c ies qrHW nzr AwauNdI hY---

“myrI iCpy rihx dI cwh ik iCp qur jwx dI[
pUrI huMdI nwih, mYN qrly lY irhw[”
( lihrW dy hwr)
BweI vIr isMG jI ny kwiv rUp iv`c hI nhI sgoN vwriqk nwl vI swihq ƒ n`ko
n`k Brn dy auprwly kIqy[ aunHW dIAW kivqw Aqy vwriqk ricq pusqkW hyT Anuswr
hn:1.kivqw:- rwxw sUrq isMG ( 1905 ), lihrW dy hwr ( 1907- 1921 ), mtk hulwry Aqy
ibjlIAW dy hwr (1922-27 ), pRIq vIxw ( 1929 ), kMbdI klweI (1933), myry sWeIAW
jIE (1953)
2.nwvl:-suMdrI, ibjY isMG, sqvMq kOr Aqy bwbw nOD isMG[
3.jIvnIAW:-klgIDr cmqkwr (1925 ) gurU nwnk cmqkwr ( 1928 ) Aqy ASt gurU
cmqkwr[
4.^oj Aqy ivAwiKAw:-sRI gurU gRMQ swihb koS (soD ky sMpwdqkIqw ) Aqy gur pRqwp sUrj
dI poQI dI pMjwbI iv`c ivAwiKAw[
5.sMpwdnw:-purwqn jnm swKI, is`KW dI Bgq mwlw, igAwn rqnqvlI, BweI gurdws
(jIvn ,kivqw Aqy sv`Xy)
6.tRYkt rcnw:-sMn 1893 qoN 1957 q`k Awp ny l`g p`g 200 tRYkt ilK ky lokW iv`c vMfy
sn[
aukq id`qy vyrvy mUMh boldI scweI hY ik BweI swihb ny pMjwbI swihq leI jIA
jwn nwl kMm hI nhIN kIqw sgoN ies dy ^jwny ƒ Brn dw hr auprwlw vI kIqw [aunHW dI
kwiv i&lwsPI iv`c swP Jlkdw hY ik BweI swihb suMdrqw dy dIvwny sn Aqy kudrq iv`c
kwdr dy jlvy vyK ky aunHW dy AMdr dI qVp, drd dy vlvly Aqy iK`c Awp muhwry kivqw
rUp Dwrn kr jWdI sI[A^Ir 14 jUn, sMn 1957 iv`c ie`h mihkW vMfx vwlw swihqkwr
ies nwSvwn dunIAw ƒ Alivdw kih, aus kwdr iv`c hI lIn ho igAw[ BweI vIr isMG
jI ie`k ivAkqI nhIN sn auh AMdoln sn, pUrI lihr sn[ swihqk ipV iv`c auh SRomxI
kvI hox dy nwl nwl vwriqk dy vI prp`k ilKwrI sn[
“ hoSw nwloN msqI cMgI r`KdI sdw itkwxy[”

***

swihq jgq iv`c nvIAW pYVW pwaux vwlw pWDI

bwvw bu`D isMG jI

pMjwbI swihq jgq iv`c swihq ausreIAW vjoN ij`Qy BweI vIr isMG jI Aqy BweI
kwhn isMG nwBw jI vrgy mhwn swihqkwrW dw nW ilAw jWdw hY au~Qy bwvw bu`D isMG jI
vI ausy kqwr iv`c KVy njr AwauNdy hn[pMjwbI swihq ƒ jo nvIAW syDW bwvw jI ny pRdwn
kIqIAW auh kdy vI ivswrIAW nhIN jw skdIAW[ieh auh smW sI jdoN pMjwbI swihq iv`c
pMjwbI bolI Dwrimk vlgxW iv`c iGrI hoeI sI Aqy pMjwbI iv`c ricAw jwx vwlw swihq
Drm sbMDI hI hoNd iv`c Aw irhw sI[ bwvw jI ny ies pRMprw qoN ht ky Kwls swihqk
pusqkW ilKIAW hI nhIN sgoN pRkwiSq vI krvweIAW[
bwvw bu`D isMG jI dw jnm 21 hwV sMmq1935 ibkrmI (3 julweI, sMn 1878) ƒ
bwvw lihxw isMG jI dy gRih ivKy hoieAw[aunHW dy bwby dw nW bwvw mUlw isMG jI sI[ieh
^wndwn is`KW dy qIsry gurU sRI gurU Amrdws jI dy vMs nwl sbMDq hY[ies qrHW bwvw bu`D
isMG jI ies vMs dI cOdvIN AMS sn[bwvw jI dy v`fy-vfyry ‘Bly’ Kwndwn iv`coN sn Aqy
auh goieMdvwl swihb, izlHw AMimRqsr (hux izlHw qrn qwrn) iv`c v`sdy sn[mhwrwjw
rxjIq isMG dy rwj kwl smyN mhwrwjyy v`loN bwvw jI dy puriKAW ƒ izlHw lwhOr iv`c cwr
ipMf jgIr vjoN imlx krky auh lwhOr Aw v`sy sn[bwvw tihl isMG dI Xwdgwr vjoN
Amr is`DU ngr iv`c hux q`k smwD mOjUd hY[Bly pRIvwr dI lokW iv`c bVI mwnqw sI ijs
krky lok aunHW dI is`KI syvkI vjoN pUjw idMdy sn pr A`gy c`l ky bwvw jI dy ipqw lihxw
isMG jI ny pUjw dI kmweI lYxI bMd kr id`qI Aqy AwpxI kmweI qy hI jIvn guzrwn dw
pRx ilAw[ bwvw bu`D isMG jI Awpxy mwipAw dI ieklOqI sMqwn sn[
aus smyN dy irvwj Anuswr mu`FlI ividAw pRwpqI leI bwvw bu`D isMG jI ƒ pVHn
leI ipMf dI msIq iv`c ByijAw igAw sI[ds swl dI aumr q`k bwvw jI ny PwrsI dI
pVHweI ie`Qy kIqI[POorimn ikRscn, lwhOr qoN AYP.ey. pws krn auprMq bwvw jI ny ruVkI
ieMjIinAirMg kwlz ruVkI iv`c dwKlw lY ilAw [ 24 swl dI aumr iv`c ieMfIAn
srivs ieMjInIAirMg dI ifgrI krn auprMq bwvw bu`D isMG jI lwielpur (hux PYslwbwd)
iv`c bqOr sb-fvIjnl ieMjInIAr inXukq ho gey sn[
swihqk m`s qW bwvw jI AMdr mu`F qoN hI sI ijs dI pUrqI leI auh ielwky dy
v`K v`K SihrW iv`c GuMm-iPr ky v`K v`K bolIAW dIAW kivqwvW iek`TIAW krdy rhy[bwvw
jI Swied pihly Aijhy swihqkwr sn ijnHW ƒ mW bolI pMjwbI ƒ Drm dy vlgxW ‘coN
k`Fx dw iPkr sI[bwvw jI ny Awpxy swihqk sPr dw AwrMB 1909 eI: iv`c Awpxw
pihlw nwtk “cMdr hrI” Cpvw ky kIqw[pMjwbI swihq iv`c ieh ilKq Awpxy Awp
iv`c pihlI ivigAwnk ivDI nwl kIqI Alocnwqimk qrz dI ilKq sI[lok-gwQwvW dy
lyKk ijhVy gumnwmIAW dy hnyry iv`c guAwcdy jw rhy sn, bwvw jI ny aunHW dIAW ilKqW ƒ
ie`k mwlw iv`c pRox dw slwhuxXog auprwlw kr ky swihq jgq dy isr ie`k v`fw Aihswn
kIqw hY[

(1) bwvw jI dI pusqk “hMs cog” 1913 eI: iv`c pRkwiSq hoeI sI ijs ƒ pMjwb tYkst
bu`k kmytI v`loN pihly drjy dw ienwm id`qw igAw sI[ies pusqk bwry BweI swihb BweI
kwhn isMG jI nwBw ilKdy hn,
“pMQ rqn bwvw bu`D isMG swihb dI sMkilq kIqI hMs cog pVH ky myrw ic`q AqI
AnMdq hoieAw[EhnW ny AqI au~qm rIqI nwl pMjwbI kwvX sbMDI ^oj kIqI hY Ar
mnohr rcnw iek`qR kr ky pMjwbI dy pRymIAW ƒ lwB phuMcwieAw hY[”
-BweI kwhn isMG jI nwBw“pMjwbI iv`c AwpxI iksm dI ieh pihlI pusqk hY”
-itRibXUn(2) sMn 1915 iv`c bwvw jI dI pusqk “koiel kU” pRkwiSq hoeI[
(3) iesy lVI ƒ A`gy qoridAw hoieAw sMn 1925 iv`c bwvw bu`D isMG jI dI pusqk
“bbIhw bol” CpI sI ijs ƒ pMjwbI XUnIvristI v`loN ienwm imilAw sI[ies pusqk
iv`c bwvw jI ny mugleI kwl dy ik`swkwr dmodr, pIlU Aqy nzwbq ƒ drj kIqw hY jdoN
ik KwlseI smyN dy ik`swkwrW hwSm,kwdrXwr,Swh muhMmd,mIAW AihmdXwr,pIr
b^S,mIAW Alwh b^S ipAwrw,PrId dIn, mIAW hUsYn,mIAW ASr&,mIAW Amwm
b^S,inhwlw kvI, Agrw Aqy sWeI dws vrgy Bu`ly ivsry ilKwrIAW dIAW rcnwvW ƒ
iek`qr krn dw v`fw auprwlw kr ky swihq jgq iv`c slwhuxXog kMm kIqw[ies nwl hI
is`K SRyxI dy kvIAW BweI vIr isMG,l`CI rwm Aqy im`TVy dIAW rcnwvW ƒ vI ies ikqwb
iv`c Xog AsQwn id`qw hY[ienHW swry ilKwrIAW dy bolW ƒ sUJvwn bwvw jI ny “bbIhw
bol” dw nW id`qw hY[
ies sB qoN ielwvw bwvw jI ny smyN smyN hor pusqkW vI pwTkW dI JolI
pweIAW[bwvw bu`D isMG jI ny pMj nwtk muMdrI Cl, nwr nvylI, dwmnI, dlyr kOr Aqy
cMdr hrI ilK ky swihq dw ^jwnw Brn dI koiSS kIqI hY[nwr nvylI nwtk sbMDI sr
joigMdr isMG jI ilKdy hn:“nwrI dI ies sdIvI sm`isAw ƒ Cohx leI bwvw jI vDweI dy pwqr hn[” ies
qoNielwvw bwvw jI dI rucI ieiqhwsk ^oj v`l vI sI[ is`K rwj dy AMqly idnW dI auh Koj
kr rhy sn ik mOq dy zwlm pMijAW ny imqI 16 AkqUbr, 1931 vwly idn aunHW ƒ Awx
dboicAw[ies qrHW pMjwbI Aqy AMgryzI dIAW keI ikqwbW ADUrIAW hI rih geIAW[
bwvw bu`D isMG jI KojI ibrqI dy hox dy nwl nwl kvIAW vwlw koml mn vI r`Kdy
sn[suBwA p`KoN auh bhuq hI imlxswr, im`TbolVy,h`smu`K,KulHy-fu`lHy suBwA dy
mwlk,imhnqI Aqy auqSwhI s`jx sn[auh smyN dI kdr krn vwly hox krky kdy vI smW
ivArQ nhIN sn gvwauNdy[iksy kMm iv`c iF`l-m`T huMdI vyK ky aunHW ƒ gu`sw cVH jWdw sI
pr ieh gu`sw Agly hI pl CUM mMqr ho jWdw sI[aunHW dIAW kivqwvW ‘coN pyS hn kuJ
vMngIAW[
in`q ieh nYx vsINdy id`sx,qy in`q ieh GYl krwvn[
vyKn, koihn, pry ht QIvn, do Boly Kyf iKfwvn[
nw eyh qoV inBwvn jogy, qy nw C`f jI ƒ jwvn[
nYxW rl iml pwey Jmyly, qy PwQy jI khwvn[”

***

s:gurb^S isMG jI pRIqlVI

AjokI pMjwbI vwriqk dy mhwn lyKkW, BweI vIr isMG jI Aqy nwnk isMG dI SRyxI
iv`c sR: gurbKS isMG jI pRIqlVI dw nW vI bVy hI &Kr nwl ilAw jWdw hY ijnHW ny
pMjwbI mW bolI dy ^jwny iv`c Awpxw Aihm Xogdwn pwieAw hY[gurbKS isMG jI ny pMjwbI
g`d swihq dw ie`k nvW Xu`g SurU kIqw[aunHW dI SYlI jwdUmeI sI[pMjwbI dy vwriqk rUp
iv`c pihlW izAwdw Dwrimk swihq hI ricAw jWdw sI pr gurbKS isMG jI ny ienHW
lIhW qoN ht ky vwriqk ƒ Dwrimk vlgxW iv`coN bwhr k`F ivSwlqw Aqy sU^Smqw pRdwn
kIqI[aunHW ny vwriqk dy keI rUpW qy AwpxI klm AzmweI kIqI Aqy nvIAW lIhW
pweIAW[
sR: gurbKS isMG jI dw jnm 20 AprYl,1895 ƒ isAwlkot iv`c sR: pSOrw isMG
jI dy Gr hoieAw[dsvIN jmwq q`k dI ividAw ipMf dy skUl iv`c hI pRwpq krn auprMq
aunHW ny AYP.sI.kwlj lwhOr iv`c dwKlw lY ilAw pr AwriQk Aqy GrylU AOkVW kwrn
kwlj dI pVHweI iv`cy hI C`f tRWsport dy mihkmy iv`c klrk dI nOkrI kr leI[pVHn
dw SONk mn iv`c bhuq hI pRbl hox krky aunHW ny dubwrw sMn 1917 iv`c twms
ieMnjInIAirMg ruVkI iv`c dwKlw lY ky ieMjInIAirMg dI ifgrI kr leI Aqy POj iv`c
BrqI ho gey[POj dI nOkrI vI C`f ky auh A`gy pVHweI krn leI cly gey sn ij`QoN aunHW
ny imcIgn XUnIvristI qoN isvl ieMjInIirMg dI ifgrI pRwpq kIqI[dyS vwpsI qy
gurbKS isMG jI ny rylvy ivBwg iv`c ieMjInIAr dI nOkrI kr leI[sMn 1932 iv`c ieh
nOkrI vI iqAwg id`qI Aqy Aqy AkwlI PUlw isMG jI dy gurduAwry dI jmIn qy nOkrI
krn l`g pey[ies smyN hI Awp ny 1933 eI: iv`c “pRIqlVI” nW dw mYgzIn k`Fxw SurU
kIqw sI[
pRIqlVI jI dy mn iv`c ieh ivcwr hr vyly au~sl v`ty lYNdw rihdw sI ik
swihqkwrW ƒ ie`k QW iek`Ty kr ky koeI ngr vswieAw jwvy ij`Qy auh rl bYTx Aqy
swihqk srgrmIAW ƒ hulwrw iml sky[iesy ie`Cw pUrqI leI aunHW ny izlHw AMimRqsr dy
ipMf lopoky nyVy jmIn KrId ky ie`k ngr vswieAw ijs dw nW “pRIqngr” r`iKAw[sMn
1947 iv`c dyS dI vMf smyN hoey iPrkU PswdW qoN du`KI ho ky auh ‘mrhOlI’ (id`lI) cly gey
sn pr mwhOl Swq ho jwx auprMq auh vwips pRIqngr hI Aw gey sn ij`Qy aunHW ny
AwpxI bwkI ijMdgI dy idn gujwry Aqy swihqk srgrmIAW ƒ jwrI r`iKAw[
pRIqlVI jI ny Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c jdoN auh AmrIkw iv`c pVHweI vwsqy gey
hoey sn swihqk m`s ƒ m`Tw nhIN sI pYx id`qw[AmrIkw iv`c rihMidAW hoieAw hI aunHW ny
‘myrI dwdI jI’ Aqy rwj kumwrI liqkw’ ilK ky Awpxw swihqk sPr SurU kIqw sI[ieh
dovy pusqkW AmrIkw iv`c hI CpIAW sn[pMjwb iv`c Awaux qy aunHW dw swihqk jIvn
1933 eI:iv`c ‘pRIqlVI’ rswlw Cwpxw SurU krn nwl hoieAw sI[gurbKS isMG jI ny
koeI drjn ku khwxI sMgRih vI ilK ky swihq dI JolI pwey ijnHW ‘coN ‘vIxw ivnod’, ‘nwg

pRIq dw jwdU, ‘BwbI mYnw’, ‘AnoKy qy iek`ly, ‘pRIq khwxIAW’, ‘Sbnm’, ‘myrI gulbdn’,
‘ieSk ijnHW dy h`fIN ricAw’ Aqy ‘rMg sihkdw idl’ ^ws vrnxXog hn[
rwj kumwrI liqkw, pRIq mukt,pRIq mxI, pUrb p`Cm Aqy koDry dI rotI gurbKS
isMG ny nwtk Aqy iekWgI vI ilKy[aunHW dI klm inbMD-sMgRih ilKx leI vI c`lI, ijnHW
iv`coN aunHW dy ‘myrIAW ABu`l XwdW’,‘swvI p`DrI ijMdgI’,‘svY pUrnqw dI lgn’,‘prmmnu`K’,suKwvIN su`DrI ijMdgI’,pRsMn lMmI aumr,B`KdI jIvncMigAwVI,nvW iSvwlw,Ku`lHw dr,
swfy vwrs Aqy bMdI CoV gurU nwnk bhuq pRis`D hoey[pRIqlVI jI ny hr pRkwr dy iviSAW
ƒ CoihAw Aqy bw^UbI inBwieAw[aunHW ny AwpxI svY- jIvnI ƒ vI iqMn BwgW iv`c
iliKAw[
gurbKS isMG jI pRIqlVI suDwrvwdI Aqy AwSwvwdI lyKk sn[ aunHW dy mn iv`c
AwdrSvwdI BweIcwry Aqy smwj suDwr dI pRbl ie`Cw sI[ auh Awm AwdmI dI ijMdgI
swvIN p`DrI Aqy KusIAW BrpUr vyKx dy cwhvwn sn[auhnW dI ieh qIbrqw aunHW dIAW
ilKqW ‘coN swP JlkdI hY[aunHW dIAW khwxIAW Aqy nwtkW iv`c ieh isDWq “ ipAwr
kbzw nhIN pihcwx hY” swP auBr ky swhmxy AwauNdw hY[
sR: gurbKS isMG jI pRIqlVI dI SYlI bhuq hI pweydwr Aqy jwdUmeI sI[aunHW
dIAW ilKqW iv`c vlvly dI qIKxqw,SbdW dw qyz vhwau, swP Aqy srl BwSw,Fu`kvyN
AlMkwr vyKx ƒ imldy hn jo pwTk ƒ kIl lYx Aqy pRBwv pwaux dI qwkq r`Kdy
hn[aunHW dy Awpxy SbdW iv`c, “jdoN vI ku`J ilKo ies qrHW ilKo ijvyN qusIN pRym- p`qr
ilK rhy ho[” jy kr QoVHy iv`c ikhw jwvy qW sR: gurbKS isMG pRIqlVI pMjwbI vwriqk dw
pRmu`K vwrqwkwr sI ijs ny swihq jgq ƒ nvIAW syDW id`qIAW hn, ijs leI aunHW ƒ
pMjwbI swihq jgq iv`c Xu`g-isrjk kihxw koeI Aiq-kQnI nhIN hovygI[pMjwbI mW bolI
ƒ ies vwriqk lyKk qoN bhuq AwsW sn pr ieh ilKwrI 20 Agsq,1977 ƒ ies
nwsvwn sMswr qoN kUc kr igAw[

***

glp swihq dw ipqwmw

s:nwnk isMG jI

(AMimRqsr)

nwnk isMG jI dw jnm 4 julweI, 1897 ƒ lwlw moqI lwl jI dy Gr mwqw l`CmIN
dyvI dI ku`KoN ipMf c`k hmId ijlHw jyhlm (hux pwiksqwn) iv`c hoieAw [ bcpn iv`c
aunHW dw nwm hMs rwj sI jo ik bwAd iv`c is`K Drm iv`c pRvyS kr jwx nwl nwnk isMG
ho igAw [mu`FlI ividAw pMjvIN jmwq q`k aunHW ny Awpxy ipMf dy skUl iv`c hI
pRwpq[ies ip`CoN aunHW dw swrw pRIvwr AMimRqsr Aw v`isAw sI[ bdiksmqI nwl nwnk
isMG dy isr qoN bwp dw swieAw CotI aumr iv`c hI au`T igAw sI ijs krky aus ƒ bcpn
qoN hI jIvn sMgrWm iv`c jUJxw ipAw sI[pRIvwrk loVW dI pUrqI leI nwnk isMG ƒ keI
qrHW dy pwpV vylxyN pey sn[
sMn 1924 iv`c nwnk isMG dI SwdI in`qw isMG ^`qrI dI DI rwj kOr nwl hoeI
[byS`k nwnk isMG jI ƒ glp swihq dw ipqwmw ikhw jWdw hY pr ieh vI s`c hY ik auh
pihlW kvI sI Aqy bwAd iv`c hI aus dw ruJwn vwriqk v`l muiVAw sI[sMn 1910 iv`c
nwnk isMG ny SIhrPI hMs rwj il`K ky kwiv jgq iv`c kdm r`iKAw sI[sMn 1915 iv`c
nwnk isMG ny siqgur mihmw ilK ky CpvwieAw, ijhVw A`j q`k l`KW dI igxqI iv`c Cp
ky pwTkW dy h`QW iv`c phuMc cu`kw hY[‘swkw nnkwxw swihb’,‘swkw gurU kw bwZ’Aqy
‘Bwrq r`iKAk dSmyS’ aus dIAW kwiv vMngIAW hn[
13 AprYl, 1919 dI KUnI ivswKI nwnk isMG ny AwpxIAW A`KW nwl vyKI hI nhIN
sI sgoN auh aus iek`T ivc Swml vI sI[QW QW iK`lrIAW hoeIAW lwSW dy FyrW ƒ vyK ky
aus dw kvI ihrdw ro au~iTAw sI, ijs dy Asr hyTW aus ny “KUnI ivswKI” ilK ky
pRkwSq krvweI sI[
glpkwr dy qOr qy nwnk isMG jI ny cwr khwxI sMgRih “ im`Dy hoey Pu`l” “hMJUAW
dy hwr” “s`DrW dy hwr” Aqy “TMFIAW CwvW” ilK ky mW bolI pMjwbI dI JolI pwey
sn[nwnk isMG vwqwvrx dw ic`qrn krn dw ausqwd sI[aus dy pwqr swfy vWg jIaUNdy
jwgdy, du`K-s`uK mihsUs krdy AnuBv jwpdy hn[ auh swfy jIvn dw AMg hI jwpdy hn
ijvyN AsIN Awp hI auh jIvn ijau rhy hoeIey[
nwnk isMG jI ny swihq jgq ƒ iqMn drjn qoN v`D nwvl id`qy ijnHW iv`c
‘piv`qr pwpI’,‘ic`tw lhU’,‘ggn dmwmw bwijE’,‘ie`k imAwn do qlvwrW’,‘nwsUr’,k`tI
pqMg’ Aqy hor AnykW nwvl vrnxXog hn[aunHW dw nwvl piv`qr pwpI qW iPlmwieAw
vI igAw sI[kul imlw ky ikhw jw skdw hY ik nwnk isMG jI ny gurU dI ngrI AMimRqsr
iv`c Awpxw jIvn bqIq kIqw,pRIvwrk Pu`lvwVI ƒ Pu`l l`gy Aqy A^Ir iv`c ieh pMjwbI
glp swihq dw ausreIAw swihq jgq dI syvw krdw hoieAw 22 dsMbr, 1971 eI: ƒ
iesy im`tI iv`c rl igAw sI[

***

hwsrs ijs dy KUn iv`c ricAw sI

cmn lwl jI Sugl
(AMimRqsr)

cmn lwl Sugl dw jnm sMn 1932 iv`c AxvMfy pMjwb dy ipMf TyTr vwlIAW izlHw
isAwlkot (hux pwiksqwn) iv`c hoieAw[dyS dI vMf auprMq auh p`ky qOr qy hI piv`qr
ngrI AMimRqsr iv`c Aw v`isAw ij`Qy aus ny Gr dy inrbwh leI swiekl murMmq dw kMm
ArMiBAw sI[s`c qW ieh hY ik Sugl ƒ Awpxy jIvn iv`c bhuq sMGrS krnw ipAw
sI[kvI mn qW dUsirAW nwloN hor vI koml Aqy sMvydnSIl huMdw hY[ grIbI dy puVW iv`c
ipsidAW aus ny iesy smyN hI bhuq swry gIq ilKy jo bhuq hI pRis`D hoey[ idl AMdr
drd sI pr gIqW iv`c aus ny hwsy dIAW PuhwrW lokW qy ibKyrIAW sn[bVw AOKw huMdw hY
idl iv`c drd lY ky dUsirAW ƒ hswauxw[ies smyN rcy aus dy gIq hI sB qoN mShUr gIq
mMny gey hn[
pMjwbI iPlmW dI ieh KwsIAq hY ik ienHW iv`c hws klwkwrW ƒ ivSyS drjw
hwsl huMdw hY ijhVw lokW dy mn pRcwvy dw swDn bxdw hY[SurU qoN lY ky A`j q`k pMjwbI
iPlmW iv`c hws klwkwr dI BUimkw hmySw hI iK`c dw kyNdr bxI rhI hY[mjƒ,KrYqI
BYNgw,Em pRkwS,gopwl sihgl,vI gopwl,imhr im`ql,jspwl B`tI Awid hws klwkwr jo
pMjwbI iPlmW dI ijMd jwn smJy jWdy hn dI ilst iv`c cmn lwl Sugl dw nW vI ilAw
jWdw hY[Sugl l`cr kwmyfI qoN hmySw kohW dUr rhy[ shI ArQW iv`c Sugl aus S^sIAq
dw nW hY ijs ƒ pMjwb, pMjwbI Aqy pMjwbIAq nwl hI ipAwr irhw[ AMimRqsr Sihr dy
nvW kot AxgOly ijhy muh`ly iv`c rihMidAW hoieAw iPlm jgq dIAW pOVIAW cVH jwxw vI
ie`k ikRSmW hI sI Aqy auh pMjwbI iPlmW dy isKr q`k pu`ijAw[ pMjwbI hws klwkwrW
iv`c ivSyS sQwn r`KidAW hoieAw vI aus ƒ kdy Awpxy swQI klwkwrW nwl eIrKw nhIN
sI hoeI Aqy nw hI kdy aus ny Awpxy AMdr haUmY ƒ isr cu`kx id`qw[
bySk auh AwpxI ijMdgI dy AwKrI 15-16 swl dmy vrgI nwmurwd ibmwrI nwl
jUJdy rhy pr aunHW ny klm Aqy iPlm ƒ kdy qlWjlI nhIN sI id`qI[ilKx iv`c auh bhu
p`KI ienswn sI kdy aus ny khwxI ilKI Aqy kdy gIq[aunHW dy ilKy hoey gIq lok gIqW
vWg pRIvwrW iv`c bYT ky jW ivAwh SwdIAW iv`c vI bVy mwx nwl gwey Aqy suxy jWdy
hn[imswl vjoN:“mweyN myrIey nIN mYƒ bVw cwA, do gu`qW kr myrIAW”
“ kUVI ru`s geI JWjrW vwlI, kYNTy vwlw hauky Brdw”
“ qYƒ byrIAW dy JuMf coN bulwvW, ie`k vwrIN Awjw gorIey”
iPlm jgq iv`c aunHW dIAW kIqIAw iPlmW dI ilst qW bhuq lMmI hY pr kuJ
iPlmW dw vyrvw ies pRkwr hY:- suBwS BwKVI dI inrdyiSq iPlm ‘myly im`qrW dy’ ‘rWJw

ie`k qy hIrW do’, ‘mu`KVw cMn vrgw’ ‘Kyf pRIqW dI’ ‘svw lwK sy eyk lVwaU’ ‘mwqw dw
drbwr’ , ‘hIr rWJw’, ‘sohxI mhIvwl’, ‘SrIkw’ Awid mu`K vrnxXog iPlmW hn[
Sugl jI A^bwrW rswilAW iv`c vI ilKdy rhy[aunHW ny ryfIE, iPlmW ,AKbwrW
Aqy tI vI ƒ AwpxI g`l kihx dw mwiDAm bxwieAw[auh suAwl jvwb Aqy nok Jok
krn iv`c Kws muhwrq r`Kdy sn[hwjr juAwbI iv`c aunHW dw koeI jvwb nhIN sI[aunHW ny
l`g p`g 2000 gIq ilKy ijnHW ƒ v`fy Coty gwiekW qoN ielwvw lqw mMgySkr, muhMmd
rPI,mihMdr kpUr Aqy AwSw Bosly Awid vrgy isny jgq dy pRis`D gwiekW ny vI Awvwz
id`qI[ieh iKAwl kIqw jWdw hY ik hwsrs dIAW aunHW dIAW ie`k drjn pusqkW vI
pRkwiSq hoeIAW hn[s`c qW ieh hY ik Sugl jI ny jo vI iliKAw smwj leI hI
iliKAw[aunHW dIAW ilKqW iv`coN nvIN cyqnw, nvIN idSw Aqy nvIN soc dw Aihsws huMdw
hY[iPlm jgq aunHW dy ies kwrj leI sdw aunHW dw irxI rhygw[ie`k Coty ijhy pRIvwr dw
ipqw ijs dI sMqwn ie`k lVkI Aqy do lVky sn, kdy vI kIqy kMm leI AYvwrfW dI dOV
iv`c nhIN ipAw[iPr vI aunHW ƒ keI AYvwrfW nwl snmwinAw igAw[
cmn lwl Sugl ivAMgkwr sI Aqy auh ieh ivAMg vI hwsy dI cwsxI iv`c lpyt
ky kirAw krdw sI[ hwsrs aus dI
klm iv`coN Awp muhwrw Pu`tdw sI[h`sxw-hswauxw Sugl dy suBwAdw ^wsw sI[ bolbwxI
Aqy Sugl swihb dI cwl Fwl vI hwsrs dy Puhwry C`fdI sI[aunHW ny ivAMgAwqmk qrIky
nwl ilK ky smwj dIAW kurIqIAW qy cot hI nhIN kIqI sgoN smwj dy AlMbrdwrW ƒ sucyq
krn dw vI auprwlw kIqw[cmn lwl Sugl bhuq hI hOsly vwlw ivAkqI sI[ bySk aus
dy sIny iv`c drd sI pr auh ies ƒ hoTW dI muskrwht hyTW d`bw lYNdw sI[ Sugl dw
AwKrI gIq sI:“swg qoVdI mobwiel kol r`KdI
qy Xwr nwl g`lW mwrdI[”
pMjwbI iPlm jgq dy keI isqwry KrYqI BYNgw,vI gopwl, gupwl sihgl,vI
suUrI,vyd gosvwmI,mjƒ Aqy Em pRkwS isny AwkwS qoN tu`t cu`ky sn[ Awi^r cmn lwl
Sugl vI imqI 18-06-2007, Swm 6.33 idn somvwr ƒ lMmI ibmwrI Bog ky 75 swl dI
AwXU iv`c AMimRqsr iv`coN tu`t iehnW sqwirAW iv`c jw rilAw[
mOq ny mwry jvW kYsy kYsy,
zmIN Kw geI AwsmW kYsy kYsy[

***

pMjwbI nwtk Aqy rMgmMc dw ipqwmw

eISvr cMdr jI nMdw

(ipMf gWDI, izlHw gurdwspur)

nwt klw pMjwbI swihq dw AinKVvW AMg hY[ies dw pihlw rUp “rws” hoieAw
krdw sI ijs iv`c rws mMflIAW ipMfW iv`c jw ky lokW dw mn pRcwvw kirAw krdIAW
sn Aqy ieh aunHW dw jIvn inrbwh dw swDn vI huMdw sI[ienHW rwsW rwhIN purwxy Dwrimk
ikisAW ‘coN leIAW khwxIAW hI ienHW dw mu`K AwDwr huMdIAW sn[ audwhrx vjoN ik`sw
puUrn Bgq Aqy rUp bsMq vrgy ivSy hI ienHW dw mu`K ivSw hoieAw krdw sI[
AMgryzW dy Bwrq Awaux nwl swfI sWJ aunHW dy nwtkW/frwimAW nwl
peI[sYkSpIAr ric`q nwtkW ny swfy igAwn ƒ JMjoiVAw Aqy styj qy Kyfy jwx vwly
frwimAW dy iviSAW iv`c qbdIlI AweI[p`CmI siBAqw dw rMg swfy nwtkW qy vI pYx
l`gw[styj qy pwqr auswrI v`l vI iDAwn id`qw jwx l`gw jo drSkW dw mn ij`qx dw mu`K
sroq sI[ies qrHW pMjwbI styjI nwtkW dw mUMh-mMUhWdrw vI in`Kr ky swhmxy Awaux
l`gw[jy kr ieh kih ilAw jwvy ik sRI mqI nOrw ircrfz dI AgvweI hyT Kyfy jwx vwly
AMgryzI nwtk hI ies bdlwv dw sroq sn qW koeI AiqkQnI nhIN[ iesy qoN auqSwihq
ho ie`k mwJy dy pu`qr ijs dw nwm ‘eISvr cMdr nMdw’ sI,ies ^yqr dy pMjwbI nwtk dw
ipqwmw bixAw[aus ny nwtk Aqy rMgmMc ƒ nvIAW idSwvW id`qIAW[
nMdw jI dw jnm 30 sqMbr,1892 eI: ƒ izlHw gurdwspur dy ipMf gWDI iv`c sRI
Bwg m`l jI dy Gr hoieAw[bcpn iv`c hI ipqw dw swieAw isr qoN au~T jwx krky
grIbI dI mwr qW BwvyN sihxI hI peI sI pr nMdw jI ny pVHweI nw C`fI Aqy 1911 eI:
iv`c dsvIN jmwq pws kr,idAwl isMG kwlz lwhOr ivKy dwKlw lY ilAw[ ie`Qy hI nMdw
jI sRI mqI nOrw ircfrz dI AgvweI hyTW Kyfy jwx vwly AMgryzI nwtkW iv`c ih`sw lYx
l`g pey sn[ies qrHW aunHW dy nwtkI jIvn dw AwrMB hoieAw[
ividAwrQI jIvn iv`c nwtkW sbMDI rucI Aqy ies dIAW brIkIAW ƒ jwnx dw
ieh AwZwz sI[mYfm nOrw pMjwbI, ihMdI Aqy AMgryzI nwtkW dy mukwbly krvwieAw krdy
sn, ijs iv`c nMdw jI dw iliKAw Aqy styz krvwieAw ie`k iekWgI “dulhn” vI
KyifAw igAw ijs ny pihlw sQwn pRwpq kIqw sI[ies qrHW nwtk ilKx Aqy iKfwaux dI
klw dy gux hux mYfm nOrw dI AgvweI hyTW pRp`k ho ky nMdw jI iv`c in`Krn l`gy sn[
sMn 1914 iv`c nMdw jI ny nwtk “byby rwm BjnI” iliKAw ijs ny kwlz iv`c
dUsry AsQwn pRwpq kIqw[ nwtk ilKx Aqy iKfvwaux dy nwl nwl nMdw jI ny AwpxI
pVHweI v`l vI pUrw iDAwn id`qw ijs dy PlsrUp 1915 eI: iv`c bI.ey. Aqy 1917 eI:
iv`c AYm.ey.AMgryzI ivSy iv`c pihly drjy iv`c kr leI [AYm.ey. pws krn auprMq
idAwl isMG kwlj lwhOr iv`c hI nMdw jI lYkcrwr l`g gey, ij`QoN 1920 eI: iv`c gOrimMt
kwlj mulqwn Aqy iPr 1923 eI: iv`c gOrimMt kwlj lwhOr iv`c bqOr lYkcrwr nOkrI
krdy rhy[mn iv`c aucyrI ividAw hwsl krn dI lwlsw ny nMdw jI ƒ itkx nw id`qw

[nMdw jI ny AwksPorf XUnIvristI lMdn qoN aucyrI ividAw hwsl kIqI[sMn 1947 iv`c
auh gOrimMt kwlj rohqk qoN syvw mukq ho gey[
nMdw jI pMjwbI swihq dy pihly nwtkkwr sn ijnHW ny styj qy Kyfy jwx vwly
nwtkW dIAW qru`tIAW dUr kr ky aus ƒ p`CmI rMg-FMg Anuswr Fwl ADuink rUp
id`qw[iesy krky aunHW ƒ “nwtk Aqy rMgmMc dw ipqwmw” hox dw mwx hwsl hY[nMdw jI ny
cwr nwtk Aqy igAwrW iekWgI ilK ky mW bolI pMjwbI dw spUq hox dw sbUq id`qw
hY[aunHW dy cwr nwtk suB`drw,SwmU Swh,vr Gr (il`lI dw ivAwh) Aqy soSl srkl hn
jdoN ik nMdw jI dy ilKy iekWgI dulhn,byby rwm BjnI,ieh fUmxy,su`K rwm,byeImwn, cor
kOx, mW dw ifptI, ijMn, monDwrI bwby GsIty dI nwtk mMflI Aqy hyrwPyrI pRmu`K hn[nMdw
jI ny ieh nwtk Aqy iekWgI ilK ky pMjwbI swihq dy ^jwny ƒ BirAw hY[ies qoN ielwvw
nMdw jI ny do nwvl “murwd” Aqy “qyz kOr” vI ilKy[ ieh swrIAW ilKqW smwj dIAW
kurIqIAW v`l auNgl kr suDwr dI g`l krdIAW hn[ nwtk Aqy iekWgIAW ny vI smwijk
burweIAW, jwq-pwq, vihmW BrmW Aqy CUq Cwq vrgy iviSAW ƒ
CUihAw hY[
pMjwbI swihq ƒ nvIAW syDW idMdw hoieAw ^ws kr nwtk Aqy styj ƒ suDwrdw
hoieAw ieh mW bolI dw hIrw 1965 eI: iv`c sYkSpIAr dy kQn Anuswr:“ ieh dunIAW ie`k styj hY ijs qy hr pwqr AwpxI AwpxI BUimkw inBw ky styj
qoN lupq ho jWdw hY[” styj dw ieh rcxhwrw AwpxI BUimkw inBw ky ies &wnI dunIAW
dI styj qoN lupq ho igAw[srIrk qOr qy bySk auh swfy drimAwn nhIN pr pMjwbI
swihq leI kIqy auprwly Aqy id`qIAW syDW sdkw auh hmySW Xwd kIqw jWdw rhygw[

***

lwlw DnI rwm jI ‘cwiqRk’

DnI rwm cwiqRk jI dw nW ADuink kwl dy mu`Fly kvIAW iv`c jwixAw-pihcwixAw
nW hY[DnI rwm jI dw jnm 1876 eI: iv`c ipMf p`sIAW vwlw izlHw isAwl kot (hux
pwiksqwn) iv`c hoieAw [auh Awpxy mwipAW nwl bcpn iv`c hI ipMf lopoky, qihsIl
Ajnwlw, izlHw AMimRqsr iv`c Aw v`sy sn[ies qrHW cwiqRk jI dw swrw jIvn mwJy dI
DrqI qy hI bIiqAw ijs krky aunHW dI rUh iv`c mwJy dI Awbo-hvw qy rihxI-bihxI pUrI
qrHW rc geI sI[
ipMf rihMidAW hoieAW DnI rwm ny gurmu`KI Aqy lMfy BwSw dw igAwn pRwpq kIqw
[iPr au~c ividAw leI auh AMimRqsr Aw gey sn pr AwriQk hwlwq izAwdw cMgy nw
hox kwrn pVHweI dw s&r ivcwly hI C`fxw ipAw [Ajy DnI rwm dI aumr 17 swl dI hI
hoeI sI ik auh BweI vIr isMG jI dy ‘vzIr ihMd pRYs’ iv`c nOkr ho gey sn[ aunHW dI
ilKweI bhuq suMdr sI[ sMn 1926 iv`c DnI rwm jI ny pMjwbI sBw kwiem kIqI Aqy kvI
drbwrW dw islislw ArMB kIqw, ijs ny keI au~Gy kvI pYdw kIqy [
cwiqRk jI dI socxI Aqy ivcwr Dwrimk hox krky sMn 1947 dy iPrkU PswdW iv`c
hoeI lu`t-Ksu`t dw aunHW dy mn qy fUMGw Asr hoieAw [aunHW ny Awpxy kwiv s&r iv`c
pihlW-pihl ‘BrQrI hrI’, ‘nl dmXMqI’ Aqy ‘DrmvIr’ Awid ik`sy ilKy[ BweI vIr
isMG jI dI sMgq rMg ilAweI[ cwiqRk jI ny Awpxw vyg ADuink kivqw v`l moiVAw
sI[bySk aunHW dI kivqw qy aurdU kivqw dw vI pRBwv sI pr aunHW ƒ pMjwbI dy kOmI kvI
vjoN jwixAw jWdw hY[DnI rwm jI dI kivqw iv`c TyT muhwvrydwr lok BwSw imldI
hY[cwiqRk jI ZIq Aqy Zzl dy ausqwd kvI sn[keI QWvW qy aunHW dI romWitk soc dI
vI Jlk vI imldI hY[
‘cMdnvwVI’,‘kysr ikAwrI’,‘nvW zhwn’Aqy ‘sU&I^wnw’ Awp dy pRis`D kwivsMgRih hn[Awp dI SbdwvlI, pkyrwpn Aqy CMd vMngI bVy au~cy pwey dI sI[nmUny vjoN:“swaux mwh JVIAW,grmIN JwV su`tI,
DrqI puMgrI tihkIAW fwlIAW ny[
rwh rok ley C`pVW toiBAW ny,
ndIAW nwilAW jUhW hMgwlIAW ny[
DnI rwm jI dI kivqw dy Cy pRqIinD p`K hn:- pMjwbI jIvn dw pRgtwvw,kudrq
dw vrnx,kOmI Aqy srb-sWJy Bwv,dyS ipAwr, Dwrimk Aqy sdwcwirk is`iKAw[ikhw jw
skdw hY ik aunHW dI kivqw iv`c aunHW ny bhurMgI ivSy Cohy Aqy inBwey hn[cwiqRk jI dI
kivqw ‘rwDw sMdyS’ Aqy ‘bsMq’ ^ws krky vrnx Xog hn[kudrq dy vrnx leI
‘ihmwlw’ Aqy ‘bsMq’,pyNfU jIvn ic`qrx leI ‘myly iv`c j`t’Aqy ‘ivswKI’ kivqwvW
ABu`l kivqwvW hn[cwiqRk jI ilKdy hn:
“ p`k peIAW kxkW, lukwT risAw[

bUr ipAw AMbW ƒ, gulwb h`isAw[
bwZW au~qyy rMg PyirAw bhwr ny[
byrIAw lPweIAW twhxIAW dy Bwr ny[
puMgrIAW vylW,ru`KIN cVHIAW,
Pu`lW hyToN PlW ny pRoeIAW lVIAW[
sWeI dI ingwh j`g qy sv`lI ey,
c`l nIN pRymIey ivswKI c`lIey”[
A^Ir auh soc, auh i^Awl aufwrI Aqy kivqw dI ndI Awpxy swgr iv`c imqI
18 dsMbr, 1958 ƒ jw imlI Aqy kwiv jgq dw ipV KwlI kr geI sI[

***

mOlw b^S jI ‘kuSqw’
(AMimRqsr)

mOlw b^S jI ‘kuSqw’ dw jnm 17 julweI,1876 eI: ƒ mIAW sulqwn b^S B`tI
jI dy Gr AMimRqsr iv`c hoieAw[Gr iv`c grIbI dw Awlm hox krky mu`FlI qwlIm ipMf
dI msIq qy iPr kuJ icr skUl iv`coN lY ky pVHweI C`fxI peI[mmUlI ividAw lY ky auh
lwhOr iv`c ikqwbq (h`Q ilKqW dw kMm krnw) krky Gr dw gujwrw clwaux l`gy[ ies
ip`CoN kuSqw jI AMimRqsr Aw gey ij`Qy aunHW ny A^bwr nvIsI dw kMm ArMiBAw[sMn
1924-25 iv`c mOlw b^S jI ny pMjwbI sBw dy inrmwx dw v`fmu`lw Aqy ieiqhwsk kMm
kIqw[
kwiv klw iv`c mOlw b^S jI ausqwd kvI sn pr ividAw dI Gwt hox krky aunHW
dI kivqw iv`c suBwivkqw qy srodI guxW dI Gwt ^tkdI hY[iehI kwrn hY ik aunHW dI
kivqw iv`c klpnw dw vyg vI njrIN nhIN pYNdw[kuSqw jI dI ric`q ‘hIr kuSqw’ iv`c
auh pwqrW qy BwrI mihsUs huMdy hn[dUsry kvIAW vWg pwqr ƒ auh Awp ibAwn nhIN
krn idMdy sgoN pwqrW rwhIN Awp boldy mihsUs huMdy hn[rcnw iv`c auh ie`k aupdySk bx
AwpxI g`l kihMdy jwpdy hn[aunHW dI aupdySk rucI krky hI hIr A`j k`lH dI pVHI -ilKI
kuVI jwpdI hY,pyNfU hIr nhIN[KyiVAW dy gihxy vyK ky hIr AwpxI mW ƒ kihMdI hY[vMngI
pyS hY:“qYƒ r`b ienswn bxw id`qw,rhIEN isr vloN qUM hYvwn mWeyN[
qyrI Akl au~qy mYƒ qrs Awvy, ipCly smyN dI byjubwn mWeyN[ienWH gihixAW dI nhI
mYƒ ^wihS,sony-cWdI dy jo idKwn mWeyN[
AklmMd nw rIJx ienHW au~qy, byvkUP koeI Brmwn mWeyN[
AYvyN zr qweIN Gus mwr C`fx,jyvr bhuq swrw jo GVwn mWeyN[
kwrobwr iv`c ieho rupey lwvx, nPw pwx qy kMm clwx mWeyN[
ie`k cor ickwr dw KOP r`Kx,dUjw Bwr nw h`k auTwx mWeyN[”
B`T pey sonw ijhVw kMn qoVy,ieh bjurg ArSwd Prmwn mWeyN[
mOlw b^S kuSqw jI bYNqbwjI dy ausqwd sn[kivqw iv`c qol-qukWq dw pUrw pUrw
iKAwl r`Kdy sn[ vwrqk ilKwrI vjoN vI auh inpuMn jwpdy hn[“dIvwin kuSqw” ‘coN pyS
hY ie`k vMngI:“AsW ilAw ipAwr dy nwl bosw,
sjn qyry Aj Bry BMfwr iv`coN[
jwn Pu`l gulwb dw qoV lIqw,
ie`k pRym dy jwn gulzwr iv`coN[”

mOlw b^S kuSqw jI ny pMjwbI swihq dw ^jwnw Brn iv`c koeI ksr nhIN C`fI[
aunHW dIAW mu`K rcnwvW hyT Anuswr hn:1. dIvwin kuSqw
(1903 eI:)
2. hIr kuSqw
(1919 eI:)
3. pMjwb dy hIry
(1932 eI:)
4. pMjwbI SwierW dw qjkrw (1960eI:)
5. rPqy pYkr
6. ikkr isMG pihlvwn
pMjwbI mW bolI dw ieh dulwrw dyS dI vMf auprMq lwhOr jw v`isAw sI ij`Qy auh
19 jUn, 1955eI: ƒ A`lHw ƒ ipAwrw ho igAw[

***

FwfI pMRMprw dw mwx

igAwnI soohx isMG jI “sIql”

sohx isMG sIql dy nW ijkr AwauNidAW hI aus klw dy ipCokV v`l iDAwn
cilAw jWdw hY ijs dI ip`T BUmI rwjsQwn iv`c hY[ies pRMprw dw nW hY “FwfI”
pRMprw[ieh hunr bhuq purwxw hY Swied auqnw hI purwxw ijnIN purwxI mnu`KI siBAqw[jdoN
mnu`K kbIlAW iv`c v`sx l`gw qW Awpo AwpxI mwlkI dw suAwl au~T KVoqw ijs ny
lVweIAW ƒ jnm id`qw[kbIilAW dIAW AwpsI lVweIAW iv`c ijhVw kbIlw hwr jWdw
aus dy gBrU idl Fwh bYTdy[ienHW lVweIAW ny kuJ ƒ Qw jMg-jU bxw id`qw sI jdoN ik
hwry hoey dUsry dy ADIn ho ky v`sx dy AwdI ho gey sn[iPr ieh lVweIAW srdwr
(hukmrwn) kbIlAW iv`c rih geIAW sn[loV peI ies g`l dI ik hwry hoey gBrUAW dy
idl muV ikvyN bnHwey jwx?ikvyN ienHW iv`c ihMmq ƒ muV surjIq kIqw jwvy ? ienHW hwry
hoey srdwrW ƒ “B`t” aunHW dy v`fy-vfyirAW dI bhwdrI dIAW vwrW gw ky nvyN isry qoN
ihMmq Dwrn dI pRyrnw idMdy sn[ieh B`t lok v`K-v`K smyN qy v`K v`K rUpW iv`c swhmxy
Awey[
rwjsQwn iv`c rwjpUq Grwxy auBry qW ienHW B`tW dI kdr vI vDI[hr Grwxy dw
Awpxw v`Krw B`t huMdw sI[ieh B`t Awpxy srdwr (zjmwn) ƒ C`f ky dUsry dy bUhy nhIN
sn jWdy[A`gy c`l ienHW dIAW do SwKwvW ho geIAW[bhuqy B`t Awpxy srdwr dy drbwr
iv`c Klo ky aus dI bhwdrI dy sohly gwauNdy sn[ienHW dw mu`K kMm hI huMdw sI Awpxy
srdwr dI ausqq krnw[kuJ B`tW ny do-do,iqMn-iqMn dIAW jotIAW bxw ky swjW nwl
gwauxw SurU kr id`qw sI[dohW dw ivSw ie`ko hI huMdw sI srdwrW dI ausqq krnI ijnHW
koloN aunHW dI rozI rotI qurdI sI[ies qrHW swzW nwl gwaux vwilAW vwsqy rwjsQwn
iv`c Sbd “GVkw” vriqAw jWdw sI[ GVkw AKvwaux vwly gwiek jdoN pMjwb iv`c Aw
v`sy qW iehI “FwfI” AKvwaux l`gy[
pMjwb iv`c v`sx vwly j`tW dIAW bhuqIAW goqW rwjsQwn(Kws krky jYslmyr)
iv`coN AweIAW hn[ aunHW nwl hI aunHW dy ^wndwnI B`t vI ieDr Aw v`sy sn[rwjpUq,
C`qrI jW j`t aunHW dw bdilAw hoieAw rUp hY[ievyN hI FwfI Sbd vI GVky dw hI
bdilAw hoieAw rUp hY[Prk isrP eynW hY ik aunHW dy swz ‘srMdw’ Aqy ‘mrdMg’ sn
jdoN ik FwfIAW dy swz ausy dw vtvW rUp ‘srMgI’ Aqy F`f bx igAw [ieh lok ieDr
Aw ky ‘FwfI’ AKvwaux l`gy[
Bwrq iv`c ieslwmI rwj ho jwx dw Asr ienHW qy vI ipAw[izAwdw B`t muslmwn
bx gey, ikauNik aunHW dI rozI-rotI dw swDn hukmrwnW dy h`Q sI, ijnHW dI ausqq iv`c
ah aunHW dy drbwrW iv`c vwrW gwauNdy sn[aunHW ‘coN kuJ imrwsI Aqy izAwdw SyK
(iBrweI) AKvwaux l`gy sn pr ik`qw aunHW ny ipqw-purKI hI r`iKAw sI[isMG sBw lihr
qoN pihlW pMjwb iv`c FwfI bhuqy SyK hI huMdy sn[“FwfI” dy SbdI ArQ hn, j`s gwaux
vwlw[iesy qrHW vwr vI kivqw dw ie`k rUp hY, ijs iv`c iksy FMg nwl mu`K-nwiek dw j`s

gwieAw jWdw hY[‘vwr’ dy SbdI ArQ hn “vwrqw” ijs iv`c nwiek dI iksy Kws Gtnw
dw izkr huMdw hY[purwqn simAW iv`c FwfI dw pihlw Prj huMdw sI Awpxy mwlk ƒ KuS
krnw[jy kr Amn SWqI dw smW hovy qW vwrW iv`c iSMgwr rs pRDwn huMdw sI pr jMgW dy
ibrqWqW iv`c bIrrs pRDwn huMdw sI[ienHW dohW rsW dy nwl A`gy c`l ky kruxw rs vI
vriqAw jwx l`gw[
is`K ieiqhws iv`c pMjvIN pwqSwhI gurU Arjn dyv jI q`k qW BgqI mwrg qy hI
jor irhw pr muglW dy qS`dd ny BgqI nwl SkqI mwrg ƒ Dwrn krn dI vI loV
mihsUs kIqI sI ijs dy Pl srUp gurU hrgoibMd jI ny mIrI Aqy pIrI dy icMnH Dwrn krky
zulm nwl t`kr lYx dw Awpxw ierwdw pRgt kIqw sI[ieh BgqI Aqy SkqI dw sumyl
sI[aunHW ny ies g`l dw pRcwr kIqw ik jy kr zulm krnw pwp hY qW zulm sihxw aus qoN
vI v`fw pwp hY[ies AwSy nwl CyvyN pwqSwh ny FwfIAW ƒ is`K styj qy ilAWdw[ipMf sur
isMG dy rihx vwly pRis`D FwfI n`Qw Aqy Abdu`lw ƒ bulw ky aunHW koloN bIr rsI vwrW
suxIAW Aqy is`K jgq iv`c ies rIq ƒ cwlU kIqw sI[ ieh rIq smyN smyN rukdI Aqy
cldI hoeI gurU goibMd isMG dy smyN q`k qW rhI pr Pyr lgpg Alop hI ho geI sI[isMG
sBw lihr qoN ip`CoN hI is`K FwfI bxy jdoN ik ieh hunr pihlW iBrweIAW dy h`Q hI irhw[
sohx isMG ‘sIql’ ƒ ies g`l dw mwx hwsl hY ik aus ny ies mr cu`kI ‘FwfI’
pRQw ƒ muV surjIq krky is`K jgq iv`c nwmnw K`itAw hY[sohx isMG dw jnm
7Agsq,1909 eI: Cincrvwr ƒ sR: KuShwl isMG dy Gr mwqw idAwl kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf
kwdIivMf, qihsIl ksUr izlHw lwhOr (hux pwiksqwn) iv`c hoieAw[ipMf iv`c koeI skUl
nw hox krky sohx isMG ƒ mu`FlI pVHweI leI ipMf dy gurduAwry iv`c hI jwxw ipAw ij`Qy
gurduAwry dy gRMQI swDU hrIdws koloN dUusry sihpwTIAW nwl aus ny gurmuKI pVHnI
is`KI[aus smyN ksUr iv`c hI skUl sI[ ksUr ienHW dy ipMf qoN cwr mIl dUr sI Aqy mwpy
aus ƒ iek`ly Byjx dy h`k iv`c nhIN sn[gRMQI hrIdws vI ie`k idn gurduAwry ‘coN clw
igAw sI ijs krky A`goN pVHweI ƒ bRyk l`g geI sI[
hux auh pMj gRMQI pVH lYNdw sI[Cy swl dI aumr qoN lY ky igAwrW swl dI aumr
q`k sohx isMG ivhlw hI irhw Aqy aus smyN dy pRclq ik`sy kwdrXwr dy pUrn Bgq qoN
ielwvw kwlIdws dw pUrn,rUp bsMq, &zl swh dI sohxI, sdwrwm dI sohxI, hIr vwirs
Swh , hIr Bgvwn isMG Aqy s`sI puMƒ,cMdr bdn,imrzw swihbW, Swh bihrwm Aqy hor
AnykW ik`sy pVHdw irhw sI[krqwr isMG klwsvwlIey dy “isdk ^wlsw qyZ ^wlsw” pVH
ky sIql dy mn qy fUMGw Asr hoieAw[ jnvrI,1923 eI: iv`c lwgly ipMf ‘vrn’ iv`c
pRiemrI skUl Ku`lH igAw ijs iv`c ‘sIql’ cwr jmwqW pVH ky gOrimMt hweI skUl ksUr
iv`c pMjvIN jmwq iv`c dwKl ho igAw[ie`Qy pVHidAW hoieAW sohx isMG ny dUsry swQIAW
nwl iml ky “pMjwbI sBw” bxw leI ijhVI aus dy dsvIN jmwq krn q`k cldI
rhI[bcpn qoN hI sohx isMG ƒ kivqw ilKx dw SONk sI[ hr Cincrvwr Cu`tI hox
auprMq auh gurduAwry iv`c bYT ky AwpxI kwiv sBw kr ilAw krdy sn[
sMn 1929 iv`c sohx isMG ny dsvIN jmwq pihly drjy iv`c rih ky pws kr leI[
ipMf iv`c auh pihlw dsvIN pws bx igAw sI[ies ip`CoN sohx isMG ny 1933 eI: iv`c
pMjwb XUnIvristI lwhOr qoN igAwnI dI pRIiKAw pws kr leI sI[sohx isMG dy mn iv`c
iv`idAw pRwpqI dI bhuq Bu`K sI pr ipqw dI mOq ho jwx krky auh aucyrI iv`idAw keI
kwlj nhIN sI jw sikAw ikauNik Gr dw swrw Bwr hux aus dy moiFAW qy Aw ipAw sI[
sohx isMG Ajy 18 swl dw hI hoieAw sI Aqy ATvIN jmwq iv`c hI pVHdw sI ik
aus dI SwdI sRImqI krqwr kOr nwl ho geI[pVHweI kridAW hI aus dy Gr pihly pu`qr
ny jnm vI lY ilAw sI[bySk sohx isMG CotIAW-motIAW kivqwvW bcpn qoN hI ilKdw sI
pr swihqk Kyqr iv`c aus dw AwZwz “kvI: prcy iv`c ijhVw aus smyN klk`qy qoN Cpdw
sI, iv`c aus dI kivqw Cpx nwl hoieAw[sMn 1932 iv`c aus ny AwpxI pihlI khwxI
“vYrI pu`qr” ilKI ijhVI iksy mwisk p`qr iv`c CpI sI[jnm qoN hI sIql dw suBwA
Awpxy hwxIAW nwloN v`Krw sI[hwxIAW iv`c bYT Kyfx nwloN auh bzurgW dI prHy iv`c bYT
aunHW dIAW g`lW suxn dw SOkIn sI[auh ienHW g`lW ƒ keI keI idn ivcwrdw

rihMdw[sIql hurW dy ipMf ie`k vyrW rws DwrIAW dI mMflI ny rws pweI sI ijs dw
muMifAW dy idlo-idmwg qy eynW Asr hoieAw sI ik auh rwsDwrIAW dy mgr keI ipMfW
q`k rws vyKx jWdy rhy sn[aunHW dy isr qy iesy qrHW dy suAWg krn dw BUq Aijhw
Asvwr hoieAw ik aunHW ny vI rws mMflI bxwaux dw mn bxw ilAw pr sohx isMG ny
ies kMm iv`c aunHW dw swQ dyx qoN ienkwr kr id`qw sI ijs qy ieh soc FwfI jQw
bxwaux v`l qbdIl ho geI sI[
cwr-pMj idn dI B`j n`T ip`CoN sohx isMG qy aus dy swQIAW ny ie`k srMgI Aqy
iqMn F`fW qW KrId ilAWdIAW pr ienHW ƒ vjwaux dI jwc aunHW ƒ nhIN sI[mslw Aw
igAw ik hux isKwvy kOx ? vwirs Swh ny TIk hI ikhw hY,
“ibnW murSdw rwh nw h`Q AwauNdy, du`DW bwJ nw ir`JdI KIr mIAW[”
jy ieh g`l sI qW ieh vI TIk hY ik loV kwF dI mW hY[ienHW dy ipMf iv`c hI jg isMG
rihMdw sI ijhVw cMgw srMgI vwdk sI[ ienHW ny aus dy Gr keI gyVy mwry qy bynqIAW vI
kIqIAW ik auh ienHW ƒ isKw dyvy pr auh twl-mtol hI krdw irhw[mgroN jw ky pqw
l`gw sI ik aus dy mn iv`c mYl sI ik jy kr ieh is`K gey qW myry SrIk jMm pYxgy[s`c
hI hY “ku`qy dw ku`qw vYrI[” ipMf kwdIivMf qoN s`q ku mIl dI iv`Q qy ipMf “lilAwxI”
iv`c ie`k bjurZ iBrweI bwbw crwgdIn sI ijs koloN ienHW ny sur Aqy qwl is`Ky[ sIql
dw swQI gurcrn isMG srMgI vjwaux l`g ipAw sI Aqy dUsry F`fW vjwaux l`g pey
sn[ies qrHW ienHW dw FwfI jQw iqAwr ho igAw sI[
sohx isMG sIql FwfI bxn qoN pihlW AwpxI v`fI BYyx ijhVI ipMf ‘Kwry’
ivAwhI sI dy ipMf jwieAw krdw sI ij`Qy hr swl cyq dy mhIny ‘bwbw bylI rwm’ dI Xwd
iv`c mylw l`gdw huMdw sI[ sIql ƒ myly iv`c FwfIAW dy pRsMg suxn dw SONk sI[sohx isMG
myly ip`CoN ksUr igAw Aqy au~QoN AijhIAW ikqwbW lBdw irhw ijnHW iv`c FwfIAW dy pRsMgW
iv`c vwrW dy nwl nwl lYkcr (ivAwiKAw) vI iliKAw hovy pr audoN q`k Aijhw irvwj
SurU nhIN sI hoieAw[Swied kudrq ny ieh kMm sohx isMG koloN krvwauxw sI jo aus ny
ies iprq ƒ cwlU kIqw sI[FwfIAW dy gwaux vwlIAW AijhIAW “sIql ikrnW” Awid
18 ikqwbW CwpIAW sn[Coty moty myilAW qy ieh jQw vwrW gwauNdw qW irhw pr ieh sB
auh dUsirAW dw iliKAw hI gwauNdy rhy sn ijhVw ik sIql dy mn ƒ cu`Bdw sI[
pihlI vwr sohx isMG sIql dy jQy ny Awpxw iliKAw pRsMg ipMf ‘rqoky’ iv`c
sqweI ivswK ƒ ie`k Dwrimk myly iv`c bwbw bIr isMG nOrMgWbwdIey dI vwr gw ky
ivroDIAW dy mUMh bMd kr id`qy sn[swry pwsy hux sIql sIql hox l`g peI sI[ iPr aus
ny ip`Cy muV ky nhIN sI vyiKAw[sohx isMG sIql ny aus klw ƒ ijhVI l`gp`g m`ukdI hI
jw rhI sI nvIAW syDW dy ky bulMdIAW qy KiVAw[aus ny AnykW ikqwbW ilK ky swihq dw
Kjwnw vI BirAw[ aus dIAW ilKIAW ikqwbW dw vyrvw ies qrHW hY:1.vwrW dw vyrvw:- sohx isMG sIql ny 75 v`fIAW Aqy cwr CotIAW vwrW
ilKIAW[dSmyS Awgmn,ShId gMj isMGxIAW,ShIdI gurU Arjn dyv jI,bMdICoV hir
goibMd jI,swkw srhMd,gurU nwnk dyv,vlI kMDwrI,swkw g`fI pMjw swihb,isMGW ny AbdwlI
qoN F`kW CufweIAW,ipAwry dw ipAwrw,ShIdI gurU qyZ bhwdr jI,bwlw pRIqm-gurU goibMd
isMG jI,ShIdI mhW isMG mukqsr,bMdw isMG dI srihMd au~qy Pqih, jMg sYd Kwn-gurU
goibMd isMG nwl,ShIdI BweI qwrU isMG jI,syT nwhrU m`l,ShIdI Subyg isMG Swhbwz
isMG,ruhyl KMf Xwqrw-gurU nwnk dyv,ShIdI s: hrI isMG nlUAw,ShIdI bwbw dIp
isMG,jMg BMgwxI-gurU goibMd isMG jI,ShIdI bwbw bMdw isMG,vwr bIbI swihb kOr,ShIdI
AkwlI PUlw isMG, jMg cmkOr,jMg mulqwn-muj`Pr Kwn dI mOq, ksUr Pqih-kuqbdIn ƒ
jgIr,cox pMj ipAwry,ShIdI BweI qwrw isMG ‘vW’, jMg hr goibMd purw-CyvyN gurW nwl,f`ly
dw isdk-bMdUk prKxI,m`sy rMGV dI mOq,cODrI n`Qy dI bhwdrI, v`fw GlUGwrw,jMg ipplI
swihb (GlUGwry ip`CoN),ShIdI BweI boqw isMG, Cotw GlUGwrw,ksUr mwr ky pMfqwxI
CufweI,zYn Kwn srihMd dI mOq,Aihmd Swh dw ATvW hmlw,jMg sMgrwxw swihb (pw:
CyvIN),ibDI cMd ny GoVy ilAWdy,ShIdI BweI mnI isMG jI,ShIdI BweI gurbKS isMG
jI,Swh jmwn dw AwKrI hmlw,kSmIr Pqih-is`K rwj iv`c Swml,au~c dw pIr-gurU

goibMd isMG jI,jMg llw byZ (pw: CyvIN),bwbr dI c`kI-gurU nwnk dyv jI,jMg pYNdy Kwn
(pw: CyvIN),jlwlwbwd mwr ky pMfqwxI CufweI,hmzw gOs qy gurU nwnk dyv jI,ndOx Xu`D
(pw: dsvIN),rusqm KW dI AnMdpur ‘qy cVHweI,hUsYnI qy ikrpwl dI mOq,bic`qr isMG dw
hwQI nwl jMg,siqgur nwnk pRgitAw,hrgoibMd isMG pRgty,pRsMg BweI jogw isMG, civMfy
dIAW isMGxIAW dI bhwdrI,ShIdI hkIkq rwey,jMg rwm rauxI-mIr mMƒ nwl,nwdr dw
ihMd qy hmlw,mwqw sul`KxI, s`jx T`g qy gurU nwnk dyv jI,ipMglw qy bIbI rjnI,^fUr dw
qpw-iSv nwQ,bwbw Awdm qy BweI BgqU,AGV isMG h`QoN momn KW dI mOq,s`qw blvMf qy
l`Dw aupkwrI,BweI gurdws dy isdk dI pr^,m`Kx Swh-gurU lwDo ry,ivAwh kMvr nOinhwl
isMG,jMg ihMd qy cIn ieh 75 v`fIAW vwrW hn jdoN ik CotIAW vwrW-hYdrwbwd dI
ij`q,jMg hjro,ShIdI s: kyvl isMG Aqy ShIdI s: aUDm isMG cwr CotIAW vwrW hn[
vwrW qoN ibnW sohx isMG sIql ny ieh nwvl vI swfI JolI pwey hn---mu`l dw
mws,ivjogx,AMnHI suMdrqw,dIvy dI loA,pqvMqy kwql, jMg jW Amn,bdlw,DrqI dy
dyvqy,pRIq ik rUp,DrqI dI bytI,kwly pRCWvyN,pRIq qy pYsw,qUqW vwlw KUh,eIcig`l nihr
q`k, jug bdl igAw,jvwlw muKI,suM\W AwlHxw[ienHW 17 nwvlW qoN ibnW mhwrwxI ijMdW Aqy
mhwrwjw dlIp isMG ieiqhwsk nwvl vI hn[sohx isMG sIql dy nwvlw iv`c,oN hr swl
AYjUkySn minstrI, Bwrq srkwr v`loN krvwey jwx vwly swihq dy mukwbilAW iv`c
sIql jI dI JolI ienHW nwvlw surg svyrw (1961),ihmwlIAW drwKy (1963) Aqy s`By
sWJIvwl sdwien (1965) ƒ ienwm iml cu`ky hn[
Bwrq pwiksqwn dI vMf ip`CoN sohx isMG jI ‘sIql’ kuJ smyN leI qrn qwrn
nyVy ipMf Shwbpur iv`c rih ky ‘jIrw’ izlHw iProjpur ij`Qy aunHW ƒ jmIn Alwt hoeI sI
cly gey sn[auh jIry qoN vI AwpxI jmIn vyc luiDAwxy jw v`sy sn ij`Qy aunHW ny pRYs lw
ky Awpxw kMm ArMiBAw sI[FwfI pRMprw ƒ ijMdw r`Kx vwlw mJYl Awpxy &n dw pRdrSn
krky 23 sqMbr,1998 ƒ ies jhwn ƒ Alivdw kih igAw[

***

mW bolI pMjwbI dw mwx

i&rozdIn “Sr&”
(ipMf qolw nMgl,nyVy rwjwsWsI, izlHw AMimRqsr)

i&rozdIn ‘Sr&’ dw jnm 1894 eI: ƒ ipMf qolw nMgl nyVy rwjwsWsI, izlHw
AMimRqsr iv`c mIAW nIrU KW dy Gr hoieAw[ ividAw p`KoN SrP ipMf dy skUl iv`c do
jmwqW hI pVH sikAw sI pr i^Awl aufwrI bhuq au~cI hox krky cVHdI jvwnI iv`c 15
swl dI aumry hI aus ny SwierI krnIN SurU kr id`qI sI[AwpxI kwiv-klw dy zlvy
ib^yrn leI, hox vwly muSwieirHAW iv`c aus ny ih`sw lYxw AwrMB id`qw sI, ij`QoN ienwm
aus dI JolI pYx l`g pey sn[ gly dw soz Aqy SbdW dI jwdUgrI kwrn Sr& ƒ “pMjwbI
dI bulbul” ikhw jwx l`gw sI[ ies ^yqr iv`c SrP dy ivroDI aus nwl byloVw swVw Aqy
eIrKw krn l`g pey sn pr 1926 eI: iv`c iSmlw ivKy ie`k ieiqhwsk kvI drbwr
iv`c SrP ny Awpxw &n pyS kr ky ivroDIAW ƒ gofy tykx qy mjbUr kr id`qw sI[ ies
qoN ip`CoN aus dy ivroDI aus dw lohw mMnx l`g pey sn[
iProzdIn ny AwpxI kivqw iv`c v`K-v`K iviSAW ƒ inBwieAw hY[ aus ny husn
ieSk dy gIqW dy nwl nwl dyS ipAwr dy gIq vI ilKy[ SrP jdoN iksy gIq iv`c kudrq
rwxI dw vrnx krdw sI qW idRS ic`qrx kmwl dw huMdw sI[ aus ny Dwrimk rMg iv`c
gurU swihbwnW dI mihmW dy gIq vI ilKy [rUpk p`KoN SrP dI kivqw srl, suBwivk Aqy
sroiqAW jW pwTkW dy idlW dIAW gihrweIAW iv`c lih jwx vwlI huMdI sI[jy kr Sr&
rumWs dI g`l krdw irhw hY qW aus dIAW kivqwvW iv`c kRWqIkwrI dI Jlk vI vyKx ƒ
imldI hY[SrP smyN dI cwl dy nwl c`lx vwlw Swier sI [‘AkwlI lihr’ Aqy nw
imvrqn lihr dw Asr vI aus dy mn qy sI ijs dw pRgtwvw aus ny AwpxIAW bIr rsI
kivqwvW iv`c kIqw jo auh styj qy gwieAw krdw sI[
SrP dw kwiv-sMgRih ‘du`KW dy kIrny’ sMn 1924 iv`c AMgryz srkwr ny zbq kr
ilAw sI[iProzdIn ny Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c 30 qoN v`D ikqwbW il`KIAW ijnHW iv`coN kuJ
dy nW vrnxXog hn:- drdW dy kIrny, lwlW dIAW lVIAW, suinhrI klIAW, lwlW dy
hwr, nUrwnI ikrnW, Sr& hulwry, Sr& aufwrI, Sr& inSwnIN, Sr& sunyhy, jogx, SrDw dy
Pu`l Aqy nbIAW dy srdwr[murdw idlW iv`c joS Br dyx leI SrP swihb ny iqMn bIr
rsI vwrW “vwr cWd bIbI”, “vwr durgw vqI” Aqy “vwr rwxI swihb kOr” vI ilKIAW
[SrP swihb ny pMjwbI iPlmW ‘ hIr isAwl’, ‘s`sI puƒ’, ‘cODrI’, ‘inK`tU’, ‘muMdrI’
Aqy ‘ib`lo’ vwsqy gIq vI ilKy [SrP ny AwpxI klm vwriqk vMngI qy iGsw ky kuJ
khwxIAW vI swihq dI JolIy iv`c pweIAW [aunHW dIAW kivqwvW iv`c dyS ipAwr dw zjbw
aunHW dI kivqw ‘kurbwnI’ iv`c vyKxXog hY:dm id`iqAw bwJ nhI dm imldw,ibnW dmW dy Foey nhIN Foey jWdy[
bwJ KuSI dy h`isAw nhI jWdw, roxy ZmW dy bwJ nhI roey jWdy[
drd bwJ nhI sIny iv`c Cyk pYNdy,Cyk bwJ nhI moqI proey jWdy[
Sr& dwZ ZulwmI dy dyS au~qy, kOmI ^Un dy bwJ nhI Doey jWdy[”

SrP mwJy dw Aijhw drdmMd mJYl hY ijs dy sIny iv`c Awpxy pMjwb Aqy
pMjwbIAq leI qVp hY[ auh AwpxI mwq-BwSw pMjwbI ƒ v`Ddw- Pu`ldw vyKxw locdw
hY[auh dUsrIAW BwSwvW dy igAwn qoN vI n`k-mUMh nhI v`tdw pr AwpxI mW bolI pMjwbI ƒ
siqkwrXog QW qy vyKxw aus dI rIJ hY[ SrP jI dIAW mnoBwvnwvW dw vyg aus dI
kivqw “^Yr pMjwbI dI” iv`coN fu`lH-fu`lH pYNdw hY:“mYN pMjwbI pMjwb dy rihx vwlw,mYN pyNfU pr SihrIey rMg dw hW[
smJW &wrsI aurdU vI KUb bolW,QoVHI bhuqI AMgryzI vI AMgdw hW[
bolI AwpxI nwl ipAwr r`KW,ieh g`l AwKxoN kdy nw sMgdw hW[
moqI iksy suhwgx dI n`Q dw mYN,tukVw iksy pMjwbx dI vMg dw hW[
imly mwx pMjwbI ƒ dyS AMdr, AwSk mu`FoN mYN eys aumMg dw hW[
vwirs Swh qy bu`lHy dy rMg AMdr,fob- fob ky ijMdgI rMgdw hW[
rvHW eyQy qy XU. pI ‘c krW g`lW, AYsI Akl ƒ iC`ky qy tMgdw hW[
mYN pMjwbI pMjwb dw SrP syvk, sdw ^Yr pMjwbI dI mMgdw hW[”
Awh! ieh pMjwb dI ^Yr mMgx vwlw, bhu-rMgI soc dw mwlk ‘SrP’ 13 mwrc,
1955 eI: ƒ ies &wnI sMswr ƒ Alivdw kih qur igAw sI Aqy KwlI kr igAw sI XwrW
dIAW mihPlW[

***

bwvw blvMq jI
(ipMf nyStw, izlHw AMimRqsr)

bwvw blvMq jI dw jnm sMn 1915 ƒ Twkur dInw nwQ jI dy Gr ipMf nyStw izlHw
AMimRqsr ivKy hoieAw [muFlI iv`idAw aunHW ny iksy skUl jW kwlj qoN nhI sI pRwpq
kIqI sgoN Gr iv`c hI rih ky ihMdI Aqy aurdU swihq dw AiDAYn kIqw sI[aurdU SwierW
iv`coN ‘iekbwl’ Aqy ‘joS’ dIAW kivqwvW dw bwvw jI qy fUMGw pRBwv sI[
bwvw jI dw ADuink kvIAW iv`c invyklw QW hY[auh AgWh vDU ivcwrDwrw dy
mwlk sn[aunHW ny swihq jgq ƒ 1941 qoN 1972 eI: q`k dy smyN dOrwn pMj kwiv sMgRih
“mhW nwc, Amr gIq,jvwlw mu`KI,bMdrgwh,Aqy sugMD-sumIr id`qy hn [bwvw jI dw
pihlw kwiv sMgRih “mhW nwc” 1941 eI: iv`c pRkwiSq hoieAw sI ijs dw ivSw iqMn
rMgW hY ijhVw AiDAwqmk,ipAwr Aqy mnu`KI kilAwx leI kRWqI v`l ieSwrw krdw
hY[dUsrw kwiv-sMgRih “ Amr gIq” jo 1942 eI: iv`c CipAw aus iv`c vI kvI ipAwr,
AiDAwqmk Aqy smwj suDwrW dI g`l krdw njr AwauNdw hY[
bwvw jI dw qIsrw kwiv sMgRih “jvwlw mu`KI” ijhVw 1947 eI: iv`c CipAw sI,
dUsirAW nwloN kuJ ht ky hY[ies iv`c kvI dI sUJ kuJ vDyry cyqn ho geI jwpdI hY[ies
iv`c aus ny nvyN iviSAW ƒ vI CUihAw hY[cOQw kwiv-sMgRih “ bMdrgwh” 1955 eI:iv`c
pRkwiSq hoieAw sI ijs dy ivSy kyvl mOilk hI nhIN hn sgoN smu`cy kwiv jgq dw gOrv
hn[ies sMigRh dIAW kivqwvW iv`coN ieh kivqwvW:- aUuSw, bMdrgwh, aUTW vwly, sdr
drvwzw, ASok lwT, ie`k husIn kuVI dI mOq slwhuxXog kivqwvW hn[nmUny vjoN aUTW
vwly ‘coN pyS hn kuJ sqrW--“supn suinhrI dyS dy mwlk[Axjwny pRdys dy mwlk[
lMG gey hn cu`p c`upIqy, dyK ky nYx KuSI iv`c sIqy[
kI hoieAw ieh kihr ^udweI ? t`lIAW dI Awvwz nw AweI[
l`KW cwA ipGlw jobn dy, Gol ky supn jvwnI mn dy[
BirAw sI ie`k SOk ipAwlw, lMG igAw pr pIvx vwlw[
tu`t jw hux jIvn dy ipAwly, lMG gey hn auTW vwly[” ( aUTW vwly)
bwvw blvMq jI dy pMjvyN kwiv sMgRih “sugMD sumIr” dIAW kivqwvW ny qW
AiDAwqmk rMg ƒ iblkul hI iqlWjlI dy r`KI hY[ies iv`c kvI p`kw mwrksvwdI
bixAw bYTw hY[kvI ikRq dI aupjwaU- SkqI, mwnv sunyh Aqy At`l ienklwb dy gIq
gwauNdw hoieAw auh ilKdw hY:“jy klw dy rwh dI roSnI bx jwey auh,
myrw mn ikauN TokrW KwieAw kry[”
hor
“mYN pwry dw idl hW, mYN C`lW dw ihrdw[
phwVW dw idl myry nwhry qoN iGrdw[”
bwvw blvMq mwrksvwdI PlsPy nwl ienklwbI g`lW krdw hoieAw Awi^r 1972
eI: iv`c ies jhwn qoN dUr qur igAw sI[

***

BweI swihb

BweI mohn isMG jI vYd (qrn qwrn)

BweI mohn isMG jI vYd dI s^SIAq iksy jwx pihcwx dI muhQwz nhI [auh
Awpxy smyN mwJy dy inDVk lIfr ,ipqw purKI ihkmq dy mwihr, swihqkwr, isAwsqdwn
Aqy pMQk ihqYsI ho gujry hn ijhnW qy mwJy nUM A`j vI mwx hY[
BweI mohn isMG jI dw jnm P`gx sudI 7 sMmq1937 (7 mwrc, sMn 1881 ) ƒ vYd
sR:jYml isMG jI dy Gr qrn qwrn ivKy hoieAw [qrn qwrn Sihr Dwrimk p`KoN vI bhuq
mShUr hY ijs ƒ A`j k`lH pUurn izlHy dw drjw hwsl hY[AMimRqsr qoN hrI ky vwly pwsy
AwauNidAw hoieAw ieh Sihr 25 ik:mI: dI dUrI qy hY[
BweI swihb jI dy v`fy vfyry ihkmq dw kMm krdy sn Aqy mu`F qoN hI ie`QoN dy
vsnIk sn[drbwr swihb qrn qwrn dy syvw kwrj jdoN mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG jI dI
Cqr CwieAw hyTW ho rhy sn qW dUsry pujwrIAW vWg mohn isMG jI dy v`fy-vfyirAW ƒ vI
cVHwvy ‘coN ih`sw lYx leI ikhw igAw sI pr aunHW dy pVdwdw sR: rx isMG jI ny ieh kih
ky ik auh pUjw dw Dn Kwx iv`c ivSvwS nhI r`Kdy, ienkwr kr id`qw sI[vYd jI dy ipqw
sR: jYml isMG jI aus smyN ielwky dy pRis`D vYd sn[ aunHW ƒ ‘vYdrwj’ hox dw mwx vI
hwsl sI[
DIrj,dwn-puMn,gurU Gr nwl pRym Aqy ivSvwS BweI swihb ƒ ivrsy iv`c hI
imilAw sI[BweI mohn isMG jI dI aumr Ajy iqMn swl dI hI sI jdoN aunHW dy mwqw jI
ivCoVw dy gey sn[m`uFlI ividAw leI BweI swihb ƒ aus smyN dy pRis`D ivdvwnW-igAwnI gurmu`K isMG jI, BweI nrwiex isMG jI, igAwnI mMgl isMG jI Aqy BweI jIvn
isMG jI kol ByijAw igAw [ “hoxhwr ibrvwn ky hoq cIkny pwq” dI khwvq Anuswr
qI^x bu`DI Aqy g`l ƒ CyqI smJ lYx dI smr`Qw hox krky BweI mohn isMG jI ny gurbwxIy
dw AiDAYn, gurU gRMQ swihb, hƒmwn nwtk,pMQ pRkwS,gur iblws, dsm gRMQ, ivcwr mwlw
Awid Dwrimk gRMQ ArQW smyq pVH ley sn[jy kr ieh kih ilAw jwvy ik CotI aumr qoN
hI vYd jI ƒ iv`idAw pVHn dw ie`k qrHW nwl jƒn ijhw sI qW AiqkQnI nhIN hovygI[
Ajoky smyN vWg b`icAW ƒ AMgryzI mwiDAm rwhIN iv`idAw dyx dw J`l aus smNy
Swied nhI sI Aqy vYd jI ƒ ies qrHw dw koeI jƒn vI nhI sI ijs krky aunHW ƒ
Aijhy skUlW jW kwljW iv`c ividAw pRwpqI dw smW nhIN sI imilAw[mohn isMG jI dI
aumr Ajy igAwrW swl dI hI hoeI sI ik aunHW ny sBw-suswietIAW iv`c ih`sw lYxw, is`K
Drm bwry ilKxw-bolxw, joV myly krny Aqy dUsry swQIAW ƒ Aijhw krn leI auqSwihq
krnw SurU kr id`qw sI[ies qrHW dy kMmW pRqI vYd jI dy auqSwh ny aunHW dI kwieAw klp
kr id`qI sI[aunHW dw ieh vI suBwg sI ik CotI aumr iv`c hI aunHW ƒ BweI jvwhr isMG,
fwktr jY isMG, BweI id`q isMG jI igAwnI AYfItr ‘^wlsw’ A^bwr, bwbw tihl isMG
vrgy pMQk ihqYSIAW, ivdvwnw Aqy gurbwxI rsIAW dw swQ mwnx dw mOkw iml igAw
sI[

drbwr swihb qrn qwrn iv`c aunHIN idnI fwFw mMdw hwl sI[m`isAw qy drbwr
swihb Awaux vwlIAW DIAW BYxW dI ie`zq mihPUz nhI sI[ idn idhwVy fwky pYNdy
sn[ienHW kurIqIAW ivruD vYd jI ny lYkcr dyxy, A^bwrW iv`c lyK ilKxy, aus smyN dy
hwkmW kol jwxw Aqy pMQk ihqYSIAW dw iDAwn ies g`l v`l dyx leI aunHW ƒ pRyrnw aunHW
dw rozwnw dw kMm sI[ jdoN krm isMG jI ihstorIAn Jbwl vwly ny kwlj dI pVHweI iv`cy
C`f id`qI sI qW aus ny BweI swihb kol hI fyry Aw lwey sn[ihtorIAn dy ^oj kwrjW
iv`c BweI swihb aus dI loV Anuswr ikqwbW Aqy pYsy tky dw pRbMD vI kirAw krdy
sn[BweI mohn isMG jI dy smu`cy ikrdwr bwry sr joigMdr isMG jI ies qrHW ilKdy hn:“BweI mohn isMG jI vYd swdwpn,au~c Xogqw Aqy au~cyy Awcrx dw mj`smW sn[aunHW
ny swrI aumr BweIcwry dI syvw kIqI[myrI aunHW dy pRIvwr nwl bhuq lMmI sWJ hY Aqy
mYN hmySW hI aunHW dy pMQ Aqy du`KI mnu`Kqw pRqI kIqy kMmW ƒ srwihAw hY[”
smu`cy qOr qy BweI mohn isMG jI vYd swihqkwr, smwj suDwrk, grIbW dy msIhw,
pRis`D hkIm Aqy s`cy-su`cy Awcrx dy mwlk sn[ Awpxy jIvn kwl dOrwn vYd jI ny
Dwrimk kurIqIAW leI hmySW Awvwj bulMd kIqI Aqy ienHW kwrjW dI pUrqI leI keI
vyrW aunHW ƒ jylH Xwqrw vI krnI peI [Awi^r vYd jI 3 AkqUbr,1936 eI: idn
Cincrvwr idn dy pOxy iqMn vjy ies sMswr qoN aufwrI mwr gey[

***

fwktr rqn isMG jI hoimaUpYQ
qrn qwrn

ies g`l dI Dwrnw bwry koeI dUjI rwie nhIN ik pRmwqmw qoN ip`CoN dUsry AsQwn qy
fwktr ƒ hI mMinAw jWdw hY[du`KI jnqw dI syvw krnw, bylwZ Aqy bydwZ ho ky, ibnW
iksy lwlc dy syvw krnI hI fwktr dw pRm-Drm huMdw hY[Aijhy hI inscy vwlw mnu`Kqw
ƒ smRipq ieh ienswn mwJy dI DrqI qy ipMf sur isMG ivKy imqI 23-07-1919 ƒ s:
vswKw isMG dy Gr pYdw hoieAw , ijs dw nwm mwipAW ny bVy hI ipAwr Aqy lwf nwl
rqn isMG r`iKAw , jo A`gy c`l ky du`KI, grIb Aqy ibmwr mrIzW dw msIhw bx igAw
sI[
rqn isMG jI ny AwpxI mu`FlI ividAw toitAW iv`c hI pRwpq kIqI [aunHW dy ipqw
aunHIN idnI bMƒ ( blocsqwn )dI CwauxI dy ibjlI Gr iv`c kMm krdy sn iesy krky swry
prIvwr ƒ vI aunHW nwl auQy jwxw ipAw sI[ rqn isMG ƒ Ajy skUl iv`c dw^l
krvwieAw hI sI ik aunHW dI mwqw jI dw idhWq ho jwx krky vwps Awpxy ipMf sur isMG
AwauNxw pYy igAw [kuJ idn ipMf rihx ip`CoN rqn isMG jI dy ipqw pRIvwr smyq lwhOr cly
gey ij`Qy aunHW ƒ pVHn leI lwhOr imaUNspl borf dy skUl iv`c dw^l krvwieAw igAw
ijhVw sMn 1926 iv`c hI Ku`lHw sI[ieQy aunHW ny Ajy qIsrI jmwq hI pws kIqI sI ik
aunHW ƒ Awpxy ipqw jI nwl “brgInIAW” (ibhwr) jwxw pY igAw[ ieh ibhwr dw ie`k
rylvy stySn hY ijhVw ik nypwl dI srh`d nwl l`gdw hY[cwr-pMj mhIinAW ip`CoN vwps
Aw ky iPr ausy skUl iv`c dw^l ho ky cOQI jmwq pws kIqI [1931-33 eI: q`k ‘snwqn
Drm imfl skUl’ lwhOr CwauxI iv`c ATvIN jmwq q`k pVHweI kIqI[ nOvIN Aqy dsvIN
jmwq “kYNt hweI skUl” lwhOr CwauxI qoN pws kIqI[ AwriQk mMdhwlI hox krky A`goN
pVHweI jwrI r`KxI muSkl ho geI [
sR: rqn isMG jI ny mihsUs kIqw ik mihMgIAW AMgryjI duAweIAW nwl grIbW
leI ielwj krvwaxw muSikl hI nhIN sgoN AsMBv vI hY[ielwj dI nvIN pRnwlI
‘hoimaUpYiQk’ dw aunHW ny AiDAYn kIqw Aqy gurU dI ngrI qrn qwrn iv`c ies ivDI
nwl ielwj dw kMm sB qoN pihlW ArMiBAw [auh mrIjW koloN bVy hI DIrj nwl aunHW dw
du`K suxdy Aqy aunHW dw ielwj ArMBdy[keI vyrW qW vyiKAw igAw sI ik fwktr swihb
ieqny rihm id`l sn ik mrIj kol pYsy nw hox dI sUrq iv`c auh muPq hI duAweI dy
idAw krdy sn[
sR: rqn isMG jI ny ie`k supnw ilAw sI, ies ielwky iv`c hoimaUpYiQk mYfIkl
kwlj Aqy hspqwl KolHx dw[aunHW dw ie`ko ie`k lVkw Aqy do BYxW dw iek`lw vIr
kilAwx isMG hI aunHW dIAW AwsW dw icrwZ sI ijhVw hoimaUpYiQk fwktr bxn leI
pVHweI kr irhw sI[ies hoxhwr Aqy AwigAwkwrI PrzMd koloN sB ƒ bVIAW AwsW sn
pr Swied hoxI ƒ kuJ hor hI mnjUr sI[ 8 Agsq,1976 eI: dy kwly idn fwktr
swihb dIAW A`KW dy ies qwry ƒ ibjlI dw krMt l`g igAw Aqy auh ies jhwn qoN kUc
kr igAw[

bhuq G`t lok huMdy hn jo tu`t ky vI nhIN tu`tdy[izAwdw qW rsqy iv`c hI if`g pYNdy
hn ik hux iks leI ieh sB kuJ krnw hY[SwbwS!ies joDy fw:rqn isMG dy ijs ny
Awpxw du`K Bu`l ky iPr Awpxy Awp ƒ lukweI dy du`K nwl joV ilAw Aqy idn rwq
du`KIAW dI syvw iv`c ju`t gey [aunHW dI imhnq Aqy lgn rMg ilAweI[bwbw dyvw isMG jI
rwDw suAwmI Aqy sMq bwbw qwrw isMG jI dIAW AsIsW sdkw aunHW ny 10 AprYl, 1980
eI: ƒ qrn qwrn iv`c ‘hoimaUpYiQk kwlj dw nINh p`Qr r`iKAw[aunHW ny Awpxy jIvn
kwl iv`c hI AwpxI swrI jwiedwd Aqy kwlj dy pRbMD dI izmyvwrI ie`k trst bxw ky
aus dy spurd kr id`qI sI[
fwktrI pySy iv`c ieh Swied pihlI imswl hovygI ik ie`k fwktr ny pihlW qW
Awpxy swry jIvn kwl iv`c lok syvw kIqI hovy Aqy AMq iv`c Awpxw srIr vI fwktrI
pVH rhy b`icAW dy pRXog leI dwn kr id`qw hovy[bhuq v`fw iqAwg Aqy auswrU soc sI
ies mJYl dI[imqI 01-09-1995 ƒ fw: rqn isMG ie`k iqAwgI, vYrwgI Aqy qp`svI
ibrqI dy DwrnI ies &wnI sMswr qoN kUc kr gey[
fwktr swihb jI dI imhnq, lgn, scweI, inSkwm syvw AjweIN nhIN sI geI[
aunHW dw vyiKAw supnw swkwr ho igAw Aqy ies ielwky iv`c ‘kilAwx hoimaUpYiQk
mYfIkl kwlj Aqy hspqwl’ hoNd iv`c Aw igAw [ieh kwlj bwbw PrId XUnIvristI
AwP hYlQ swieMsz, PrIdkot nwl sbMDq hY[ies kwlz dw swrw pRbMD Aqy dyK ryK A`j
k`l aunHW dy v`fy dwmwd fw:piv`qr isMG jI ‘B`ulr’ Aqy Bu`lr swihb dI Drm pqnI
sivMdr kOr bVI hI kuSlqw nwl inBw rhy hn[s: rqn isMG jI dI mwJy dy ielwky ƒ
ieh bhuq hI v`fI dyx hY ijs ƒ hmySW Xwd r`iKAw jwvygw[

***

(DMnvwd sihq fw: piv`qr isG jI dwmwd sv: sR: rqn isMG jI koloN pRwpq vyrivAW qy
AwDwirq)

pdm sRI

s. soBw isMG jI Awritst
(sRI hrgoibMdpur, izlHw gurdwspur)

sR: soBw isMG jI dw jnm 29 dsMbr,1901 ƒ izlHw gurdwspur dy ieiqhwsk
dirAw ibAws dy rmxIk kMFy v`sy ksby sRI hrgoibMdpur ijhVw ik CyvIN pwqSwhI gurU
hrgoibMd swihb jI ny vswieAw sI,iv`c hoieAw[bcpn qoN hI sR: soBw isMG jI AwpxI
soc iv`c v`K-v`K qrHW dIAW qsvIrW Awpxy izhn iv`c aulIkdy rihMdy sn, ijnHW ƒ AmlI
zwmW pihnwaux leI auh ryq qy auNglI nwl vwh ky auqwrn dI koiSS kirAw krdy
sn[p`QrW ƒ GVH ky aus iv`coN nkS auGwVn dI koiSS krnw Aqy Awpxy jmwqIAW dIAW
kwpIAW qy aunHW dy ichry aulIkxW bwl soBw isMG dIAW bcpn dIAW KyfW iv`c Swml
sI[dUsry ArQW iv`c Awp AMdrlw klwkwr bwhr Awaux leI aus`l-v`ty lY irhw jwpdw
sI[
jdoN auh jvwn hoey qW 1919 eI: iv`c cwr ku swl leI bqOr nkSw nvIs POoj
iv`c BrqI ho ky bgdwd cly gey sn ij`Qy soBw isMG jI ny XUrpI mulkW dI ic`qrkwrI
bwry pusqkW dw AiDAYn kIqw Aqy aunHW dIAW brIkIAW jwnx dI koiSS kIqI[ ies sB
dy bwvjUd vI soBw isMG ny AwpxIAW klw-ikRqW Awpxy AwSy, AnuBv Aqy qzrby dy blbUqy
qy hI ic`qrIAW [
ie`k s`cy ic`qrkwr vWg soBw isMG jI dy bxwey hoey ic`qr jIvn dy bhuq nyVy Aqy
s`c dw Jwaulw pwauNdy nzrIN pYNdy hn[aunHW dy mn psMd ic`qr gurUAW-pIrW, sMqWmhwqmwvW, AvqwrW, pYgMbrW Aqy PkIrW dy hn[Swied ies ic`qrkwr dI AijhI soc
Aqy rucI kwrn hI aus ƒ “sMq klwkwr” dw drjw id`qw igAw hY[ soBw isMG jI ies
g`l dy DwrnI sn ik kyvl qy kyvl gurU hI mnu`K ƒ Bv-swgr ‘coN pwr kr skdw hY[aunHW
dIAW gurU nwnk dyv jI sbMDI ic`qrIAW qsvIrW ijnHw ƒ “gurU nwnk jI smwDI AvsQw
iv`c” vjoN jwixAw jWdw hY, rUhwnIAq Aqy suhjvwdI kdrW kImqW dI qrzmwnI krdIAW
hn[
gurU nwnk, gurU goibMd isMG Aqy gurU qyZ bhwdr jI dy ic`qrW qoN ielwvw Awp dy
burSW ny Bgvwn ikRSn,hzrq eIsw, Bgq rvIdws jI ƒ SrDw Bwv nwl ic`qirAw
hY[ipAwr khwxIAW qy ADwirq ik`isAW sohxI-mhIvwl, s`sI-puƒ,hIr rWJw Aqy Swh
zhwn-mumqwz byZm dy ic`qr vI ic`qrx dw sR: soBw isMG ny hONslw kIqw hY[ienHW ic`qrW
ny jg soBw vI K`tI hY[soBw isMG jI dy bxwey hoey mhwqmw gWDI, jvwhr lwl nihrU, lwl
bhwdr SwsqrI Awid dy ryKw ic`qr vI lokW dy GrW Aqy dPqrW iv`c kMDW dI SoBw bxy
hoey hn[
ie`k vyrW iksy v`loN soBw isMG jI ƒ pu`Cy jwx qy ik qusIN grIbI Aqy drd dy ic`qr
ikauN nhI bxwauNdy? aunHW ny au`qr iv`c ikhw sI, “sMswr qW pihlW hI grIbI Aqy drd
nwl BirAw ipAw hY[ mYN Aijhy ic`qr bxw ky ies iv`c hor vwDw nhIN krnw cwhuMdw[”
ies ic`qrkwr ny is`KW dy muglW nwl Xu`DW dIAW qsvIrW vI nhI ic`qrIAW, ikauNik aunHW

dI soc sI ik Aijhy ic`qr mnu`K mnu`K iv`c nyVqw nhIN ilAwauNdy sgoN mnW iv`c
duUrI,drwV Aqy nPrq pYdw krdy hn[
AwpxI ijMdgI dw izAwdw smW soBw isMG jI ny prbqW dI god kWgVw vwdI iv`c
“AMdryty” (ihmwcl pRdyS) rih ky AwpxI Awrt gYlrI Aqy stUfIE iv`c hI gujwirAw
hY[ies ic`qrkwr dI idlI ^wihS sI ik “sU^m klw dw is`K skUl” bxwieAw jwvy qW ju
Bwrq dI rUhwnIAq Aqy suhj BrI klw dy ies dy AmIr ivrsy ƒ sMBwilAw jw sky[soBw
isMG jI dIAW klw-ikRqW ƒ SrDWjlI Aqy snmwn vjoN sMn 1974 iv`c “rwj klwkwr”
Aqy sMn 1983 iv`c “pdm sRI” dy ienwmW Aqy snmwnW nwl snmwinAw igAw sI[ ies
iv`c koeI dUsrI rwie nhI ik aunHW dy bxwey hoey ic`qr swrI dunIAW iv`c Aqy Kws krky
pMjwb iv`c bhuq slwhy gey hn[
ABwgy idn 22 Agsq, 1986 eI: ƒ kudrq dy rMgW dw ieh pujwrI,dIvwnw Aqy
AwiSk aunHW rMgW iv`c hI Alop ho igAw sI[

***

jI.AYs.sohx isMG Awritst
(AMimRqsr)

jI. AYs sohn isMG dy nwm nwl jwixAw jwx vwlw ieh Awritst iksy jwxpihcwx dw muQwj nhIN[ sohn isMG dw jnm Agsq, 1914 eI: ƒ AMimRqsr ivKy BweI
igAwn isMG jI ijhVy Awpxy smyN dy mMny-pRmMny inkwS sn Aqy jo hirmMdr swihb
AMimRqsr iv`c inkwSI (rMgW nwl vyl bUitAW dI ic`qRkwrI) dw kMm kirAw krdy sn dy
Gr hoieAw[ ijvy mhwqmw gWDI jI Awpxy nW nwl Awpxy bwp dw nW iliKAw krdy sn[
(ieh aunHW idnW iv`c irvwj sI) mohn dws krm cMd gWDI ievyN hI sohx isMG vI Awpxy
nW nwl jI.AYs (igAwn isMG) ilK ky Awpxw nW sohx isMG iliKAw krdw sI[ lokW iv`c
auh jI. AYs sohx isMG nwl hI mShUr sn[
ividAk Xogqw vjoN sohx isMG ny gOrimMt hweI skUl AMimRqsr qo imfl q`k dI
hI pVHweI kIqI qy iPr mShUr Awritst s: hrI isMG jI ijhVy aus smyN dy jgq pRis`D
Awritst sn qyy mShUr ‘AYliPMstn nwtk kMpnI klkqw’ iv`c kMm krdy sn, kol
SigrdI kr leI[ 1931-32 eI: iv`c ieh kMpnI bMd ho geI sI ijs krky dovyN ausqwd
Sigrd vwps AMimRqsr Aw gey[ audoN q`k sohx isMG dy ipqw BweI igAwn isMG jI vI
hirmMdr swihb AMimRqsr dI nOkrI qoN syvw mukq ho cu`ky sn[ sohx isMG ny Awpxy ipqw
nwl iml ky Dwrimk qsvIrW,ividAwrQIAW leI cwrt bxwauxw Aqy qsvIrW Prym krn
dw kMm AwrMB id`qw[
sMn 1932 iv`c sohx isMG ny is`K XoDw bwbw bMdw isMG bhwdr dI bhu-rMgI qsvIr
bxw ky mwrkIt iv`c ilAWdI jo AwpxI iksm dw pihlw ic`qr sI[ ies ic`qr ƒ bhuq
hI slwihAw igAw [imly hoey mwx ny sohx isMG AMdr ie`k nvW joS Aqy auqSwsh Br
id`qw[ iehI kwrn sI ik ienHW ny hr swl iqMn nvyN nvyN fIjwienW iv`c qsvIrW mwrkIt
iv`c ilAwauxIAW SurU kr id`qIAW sn[ ienHW dy blwk auh lwhOr qoN iqAwr krvwieAw
krdw sI[
1951 eI: iv`c mwqw dI mOq Aqy CyqI hI mgroN 30-09-1953 iv`c ipqw dI mOq
nwl sohx isMG dy mn ƒ bhuq D`kw l`gw pr aus ny hONslw nw C`ifAw[ipqw dI Xwd ƒ
smripq aunHW dI XwdgwrI ikqwb “igAwn ic`qrwvlI” sohx isMG ny pI. vrmw dI
ibnW Srq Aqy AgvweI sdkw 1956 eI: iv`c pRkwiSq krvw leI [jy kr vrmw jI
Aijhw nw krdy qW swied ieh kMm hoxw AsMBv ho jWdw[ies nwl imlI Sohrq ny ies
klwkwr ƒ Awpxy pySy (blwk bxwauxw) iv`c nvIAW rwhW pRdwn krn dy nwl nwl ies
kMm iv`c qyjI ilAwaux dw mOkw vI pRdwn kIqw[A`gy c`l ky ies kMm dy dwA-pyc aus ny
Awpxy lVky suirMdr isMG ƒ vI smJwey ijs nwl blwk bxwaux vwly dUsry mwhrW, ijhVyy
ie`ko rMg vwly ic`qr bxwuax (monokrom) , iqMn rMgW dy ic`qr Aqy PotogRwPI dw kMm krdy
sn aunHW iv`c aus dw k`d au~cw hoieAw [

ies pySy dIAW klw ikrqW iv`c sohx isMG ny keI qrHW dy iviSAW qy qsvIrW
ic`qrIAW ijvy:-kYlMfrW dy fIzwien, pwxI Aqy qyl nwl ic`qry ic`qr, ivaupwrk lybl ,
ikqwbW dy kvr fIjwienz qoN ielwvw aus ny AKbwrW dIAW mShUrIAW dy fIjwienz,
kWgVI, phwVI Aqy mugl kwl dI siBAqw dy ic`qr vI aulIky[ sohx isMG ny purwqn
BwrqI smwrkW/ iemwrqW dy ic`qr , mnu`KI ic`qr Aqy iKAwlI/ klpq ic`qr vI ic`qry[
aus dI ic`qr klw dIAW ivDIAW, mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dI SurU krvweI geI is`K ic`qrkwrI nwl myl KWdIAW hn[
ies klw Kyqr dI Kyf iv`c ij`Qy sohx isMG ny js, dOlq Aqy pRSMsw K`tI auQy
kudrq ny aus dI JolI snmwnW nwl vI BrI[ smyN smyN dyS Br iv`c sohx isMG dIAW
l`gx vwlIAW numwieSW iv`c drjnW hI sony Aqy cWdI dy qmgy, ngd ienwm Aqy pRSMsw
p`qr aus dy ih`sy Awey[ieh islislw keI swlW q`k cldw irhw[
“BwrqI sU^m klw pRISd” dw sohx isMG jIvn kwl mYNbr rihx dy nwl nwl
mukwbilAW dw j`j bx ky jyqUAW ƒ ienwm vI vMfdw irhw[aus ny ie`k stUfIE vI cwlU
kIqw sI, ijhVw A`j vI 27-bRhm bUtw mwrkIt nyVy gurU rwm dws srW AMimRqsr iv`c
aus dI klw dIAW mihkW leI KVw hY[sR: sohx isMG v`loN ieh pusqkW pRkwiSq kIqIAw
geIAW sn:1. igAwn ic`qrwvlI
2. AMimRqsr:- is`KW dw piv`qr Sihr
3. piv`qr qIrQ AsQwn
4. jI.AYs. sohx isMG dIAW ikRq klwvW
ieh sUKm klw dw pujwrI, kudrq dw cqyrw Aqy ies dIAW brIkIAW jwnx vwlw
mJYl Aqy rwmgVHIAw kOm dw cwnx munwrw 28-02-1999 ƒ 84 swl dI aumr Bog,
dunIAW dy auqrw-cVHwA vyK ies &wnI dunIAW ƒ Alivdw kih igAw [

***

ic`qRkwr

srdwrnI PUlW rwxI (AMimRqsr)

myry mwJy dI DrqI bh-rMgI DrqI hY[jdoN sUrbIrW, mrjIviVAW, kOm leI Awpw
vwrn vwilAW, AKwiVAW iv`c srIrk qwkq vwilAW Aqy BgqI dI aucweI dI g`l huMdI
hY qW koml klw dy ^yqr iv`c vI ieh iksy g`loN ip`Cy nhIN[jdoN koml klw dI g`l cldI
hY qW J`t-p`t swfIAW A`KW A`gy sR: soBw isMG jI, jI. AYs. sohx isMG Aqy srdwrnI
PUlW rwxI ic`qrkwrW dI qsvIr swhmxy Aw jWdI hY ijnHW ny ies Kyqr dIAW bulMdIAW
CohIAW hn[
PUlW rwxI dw jnm imqI 12dsMbr,1923 eI: ƒ fwktr sR: rwm isMG jI dy Gr
mwqw srdwrnI srsvqI jI dI ku`KoN AMimRqsr Sihr dy muh`lw bMby vwlw KUh ivKy
hoieAw[aunHW dy ipqw jI aus smyN dy mMny-pRmMny fwktr sn[mu`FlI ividAw PUlW rwxI ny
AMimRqsr dy kwnvYNt skUl iv`coN pRwpq kIqI[skUlI pVHweI smyN bcpn qoN PUlW rwxI ƒ
frwieMg krn dw SONk sI[ies dI pRSMsw aus dI ie`k AMgryz AiDAwpkw kirAw krdI
sI[ aus AiDAwpkw ny PUlW rwxI dy ies SONk ƒ hor vI auqSwihq kIqw [
Awm duinAwvI kwrjW vWg PUlW rwxI dI SwdI sR: SmSyr isMG jI ijhVy aus smyN
AYm.ey. q`k pVHy hoey Aqy AMgryz srkwr dy smyN ieMnjInIAr l`gy hoey sn, nwl sMn 1944
iv`c hoeI[ pqI dI AgWh vDU soc vI PUlW rwxI dy ic`qrkwrI dy SONk dI pUrqI dw ie`k
sroq bxI [cMgw gRihsqI jIvn jIaUx dy nwl nwl cMgI sMqwn vI hY ijs iv`coN aunHW dI
bytI hrI joq vI aunHW dy hunr ƒ A`gy qor rhI hY[
A`j k`lH ieh klwkwrw AMimRqsr Sihr iv`c “pMjwb mwfrn AkYfmI AwP PweIn
Awrt (rij:) clw rhI hYy ijs iv`c puMgr rhy bwl klwkwrW ƒ ies klw dI tRyinMg id`qI
jWdI hY[PUlW rwxI jI ny gurU nwnk dyv jI dy jIvn qy ADwirq aunHW dy portryt bxwey
hn jo bhuq hI slwhy gey hn[ie`Qy hI b`s nhIN ies klwkwr ny hr ^yqr dw icqrn
kIqw hY[aus ny lYNfskyp, Pu`l bUty, mShUr hsqIAW dy portryt,rwg Aqy rwgxIAW qy
AwDwirq qsvIrW vI ic`qrIAW hn[aunHW ny sMn 1970 iv`c XU.ky dw Brmx kIqw Aqy auQy
cwr mhIny rih ky ies g`l dw AiDAYn vI kIqw ik au`Qy iv`idAw dyx dw kI qrIkw hY[
aunHW ny mwncYstr XUnIvristI iv`c “bwl klw” qy lYkcr vI id`qw [
PUlW rwxI jI dIAW pyNitMgz dI SlwGw kridAW hoieAW kuJ mShUr lokW dy kQn
ies qrHw hn:“ieh ic`qr bhuq hI vDIAw hn[”
-lUeIs jYnn
klwkwr pYrs
“aus dIAw pwxI dy rMgW nwl bxIAW qsvIrW au~c kotI dIAW hn”
AYm.AYs. rMDwvw (fw:)

“ieh ic`qr myry idl ƒ Coh gey hn[”
vI.sI. mYQXU
AwP d`KxI korIAw
ies klwkr dIAW ienHW koml klwvW sdkw mwJy dw nW swry sMswr iv`c cmikAw
hY [ ies g`l qy mwJy ƒ mwx hY[Swlw! ieh mwJy dI klwkwr hjwrW swl jIvy!
(DMnvwd sihq sR:gurnwm isG jI ‘ivrdI’ S.E.(retd.) P.S.E.B. dwmwd srdwrnI PUlW
rwxI jI koloN pRwpq vyrivAW qy AwDwirq)

***

pdm ivBUSn

srdwr Arjn isMG jI
(eyAr cIP mwrSl)

dUsry koloN Koh lYx dI pRivrqI mnu`K iv`c mu`F-kdIm qoN hI hY[iesy pRivrqI ny loV
ƒ jnm id`qw Aqy ies ‘coN kwF dI auqpqI hoeI[AkwS qy pMCIAW ƒ aufdw vyK mnu`K dI
rIJ vI aufx leI auqwvlI ho geI ijs ƒ ‘rweIt bRdrz’ ny AmlI jwmW dyx dw mu`F
ArMiBAw ijhVw A`gy c`l ky ivksq ho hvweI jhwj dw pUrn rUp Dwr igAw[mnu`K dw
supnw swkwr hoieAw Aqy A`j auh pMCIAW vWg AkwS iv`c aufwrIAW lw skdw hY[mnu`K
dI lwlsw kdy vI Kqm nhI huMdI[DrqI dI qW aus ny vMf kr leI, smuMdrW qy vI
AiDkwr jmw ky AwpxI hdbMdI kr leI pr AkwS qy kbjw AOKw sI ijs ƒ hvweI
jhwjW ny pUrw kr id`qw [hux hr dyS AwpxI DrqI, smuMdr Aqy AkwS dy ih`sy krI bYTw
hY ijs dI r`iKAw auh AwpxIAW iqMnW sYnwvW POj,smuMdrI POj Aqy hvweI sYnw nwl krdw
hY[swfy ies nwiek dw sbMD vI hvweI sYnw nwl hI irhw hY[
ipMf kuhwlI qihsIl Ajnwlw ijlHw AMimRqsr dw ie`k Cotw ijhw ipMf hY jo
AMimRqsr qoN cogwvW dy rsqy 10 ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy hY[ iesy ipMf iv`c sR: Arjn
isMG jI dy v`fy vfyry irhw krdy sn jo ip`CoN lwielpur (hux &Yslwbwd pwiksqwn) cly
gey sn[ sR: Arjn isMG dw jnm 15 AprYl 1919 eI: ƒ sR:ikSn isMG jI dy Gr
lwielpur iv`c hoieAw[mu`FlI ividAw imMtgumrI(hux swhIvwl pwiksqwn) qoN pRwpq krn
auprMq aucyrI ividAw gOrimMt kwlj lwhOr qoN pRwpq kr ky auh BwrqI hvweI sYnw iv`c
1938 eI: ƒ BrqI ho gey [ 23 dsMbr,1938 eI: ƒ rwiel eyAr Pors, kwrnvYl qoN
tRyinMg lYx auprMq sR: Arjn isMG jI dI bqOr pweIlt APsr ‘ey’ krwcI ivKy inXukqI
ho geI [aunHW dy jIvn kwl dw pihlw hvweI auprySn srh`dI sUby iv`c sI[
aunHW ny AwpxI nOkrI dOrwn bqOr pwielt APsr ieMfIAn tweIgrz suikfYrwn
dI kmWf kIqI Aqy 1944 eI: iv`c ausy sUkYf dy aunHW dI kmWf hyTW kIqy hmly
slwhuxXog hn[pihly hmly iv`c sR: Arjn isMG jI ƒ hvweI lVweI dI qknIk dy nukqy
smJx dw mOkw imilAw jdoN ik dUsrI lVweI iv`c aunHW ny Awpxy hOsly Aqy Xog AgvweI
nwl ieMPwl dI GyrwbMdI kIqI[ies bhwdrI Bry kwrnwmyN sdkw aunHW ƒ ^ws aufwrU ienwm
nwl mOky qy hI snmwinAw igAw sI[Arjn isMG jI Aijhy pihly pwielt sn ijs
ƒd`Kx-pUrbI eySIAw dI sMXukq kmWf v`loN ieh snmwn id`qw igAw sI[ Awp dy bwry
ikhw igAw sI:“sR: Arjn isMG ie`k jWbwz,infr Aqy ivl`Kx iksm dw pwielt hY ijs ny
AwpxI kwblIAq, jwxkwrI Aqy dirAw idlI nwl Awpxy swQIAW dy sihXog sdkw
ies muihMm ƒ srAMzWm id`qw[BwrqI hvweI sYnw dy suikfYrn nMbr 1 dI kwmXwbI
iv`coN aus dI kwmXwbI JlkdI hY[”

sMn 1950 iv`c jdoN Bwrq gxrwj bixAw sI qW s: Arjn isMG jI ny kSmIr qoN
kMinAw kumwrI q`k hvweI kwrz tukVI dI kmWf sMBwlI sI[ pihlW aunHW ƒhvwbwjI
kmWfr Aqy iPr eyAr vweIs mwrSl vjoN kMm krn dw mOkw imilAw sI ijhVw ik iksy
vI BwrqI hvweI sYnw dy APsr ƒ eynW lMmW smW nhI imilAw[Bwrq dI AwzwdI ip`CoN s:
Arjn isMG bhuq swry korsW leI XU. ky. gey sn, ijnHW dw vyrvw ies pRkwr hn:-rwiel
stwP kwlj,brykvYl, sMXukq syvw stwP,XU.ky.Aqy ieMpIrIAl sur`^Sw kwlz lMdn[
1 Agsq,1964 eI: ƒ aunHW ny hvweI sYnw dy qIsr hvweI sYnw mu`KIy dw pd
sMBwilAw sI[ aus smyN s: Arjn isMG jI dI aumr 45 swl dI sI[aunHW dy AgvweI
krn dy suc`jy FMg,qjrby Aqy jmWdrU svY-ivSvwS sdkw hI s: Arjn isMG ny sqMbr
1965 eI: dI Bwrq-pwk jMg iv`c Awpxy kwrj ƒ suc`jy qrIky nwl inBwieAw sI[hvweI
sYnw dw smyN isr cu`ikAw shI kdm kwrgwr is`D hoieAw sI[ jy kr pihlI sqMbr ƒ
hvweI hmlw CMB-jOVIAW sYktr qy nw kIqw igAw huMdw qW A`j Swied ieiqhws kuJ hor
hI huMdw[duSmn dy GrylU dUr itkwixAW qy kIqy hmilAW iv`c Swml pySwvr Aqy
mwaurIpur ivSyS krky vrnxXog hn[s: Arjn isMG jI ƒ sMn 1965 dI Bwrq-pwk jMg
dy kwrnwimAW dy mwx vjoN “pdm ivBUSn” dw snmwn dw ky snmwinAw igAw sI[
ies hvwbwz srdwr dI suc`jI, bhwdrI BrpUr AgvweI, cqur idmwZ Aqy svYivSvwS kwrn hI aunHW ƒ 15 jnvrI,1966 eI: ƒ hvweI sYnw dy pihly “eyAr cIP
mwrSl” dw Ahudw pRdwn kIqw igAw sI[suBwA dy p`KoN srdwr Arjn isMG im`T-bolVy
Aqy G`t bolx vwly ienswn vjoN jwxy jWdy ho[bySk aunHW dw vqIrw bhuq hI nrm hY pr
jdoN iksy kwrj is`DI leI auh mYdwn iv`c in`qrdy hn qW loh-purS ho inbVdy hn[Awpxy
kwrjkwl dOrwn aunHW ny 65 v`K v`K iksm dy hvweI jhwzW dI aufwn BrI hY Aqy ieh
lwlsw syvw mukq hox q`k pRbl rhI hY[
syvw mukqI auprMq vI srdwr Arjn isMG jI dI sUcwrU soc dy sdky aunHW ƒ
sivtzrlYNf iv`c Bwrq dw rwjdUq inXukq kIqw igAw sI[ sMn 1974-76 q`k auh
kInIAW iv`c BwrqI hweI kimSnr inXukq rhy[ie`Qy hI bs nhI auh kuJ smyN leI id`lI
dy au~p rwjpwl dy Ahudy qy vI rhy[ieh bVy hI mwx vwlI g`l hY ik 1976 eI: iv`crwiel
eyAr Pors kwlz,krwnvYl,ij`Qy 28 swl pihlW auh hvweI aufwx bwry is`Kx gey sI ausy
QW qy aunHW ƒpwisMg AwaUt pRyf dI slwmI lYx dw mwx vI hwsl hoieAw sI[A`j k`lH
srdwr Arjn isMG jI Awpxy pRIvwr nwl id`lI iv`c rih rhy hn[ r`b kry, ieh mwJy dw
sUrbIr mJYl hjwrW swl ijMdw rhy Aqy myry mwJy dw nW rOSn r`Ky!
AwmIn!

***

sR:krm isMG jI ihstorIAn
( ipMf Jbwl, izlHw, qrn qwrn )

mweI Bwgo dy vroswey hoey ies ieiqhwsk Aqy pRisD ipMf Jbwl iv`c mwrc, 1884
eI: ƒ s: krm isMG jI dw jnm hoieAw sI[BweI gurdws jI ny pRis`D is`KW dw vrnx
kridAw hoieAW bwbw lMgwh jI bwry iliKAw hY:‘p`tI AMdr cODrI iF`loN lwl lMgwh suhMdw’
ausy bwbw lMgwh dy ^wndwn iv`coN s: krm isMG sR: JMfw isMG jI dy spu`qr Aqy sR:
hkIkq isMG jI dy poqry sn[bcpn qoN hIkrm isMG KojI suBw dw sI[hr g`l qy ikMqU pRMqU
krky v`ifAW koloN g`lW suxnw aus dw ^wsw sI[cqur bu`DI Aqy is`KI nwl ipAwr ny krm
isMG ƒ sMq Aqr isMG jI dy nyVy lY AWdw sI[krm isMG ny ijhVy pMj ipAwirAW koloN
AMimRq pwn kIqw sI aunHW iv`c sMq Aqr isMG jI vI Swml sn[krm isMG dI qI^x
bu`DI vyK ky bwbw Aqr isMG jI krm isMG ƒ iPlws&r kih ky bulwieAw krdy sn[
krm isMG ny mu`FlI ividAw pRwiemrI skUl Jbwl qoN pRwpq kIqI ,imfl jmwq
Kwlsw kwlj AMimRqsr Aqy dsvIN jmwq qrn qwrn qoN pws kIqI [au`c ividAw leI
auh Kwlsw kwlj AMimRqsr iv`c dwKl ho gey sn, ij`Qy aunHW ny AYP.AYs. sI jmwq iv`c
swieMs dw ivSw cuixAw,pr krm isMG ƒ auQy ieiqhws dIAW ikqwbW pVHn dI cytk l`g
geI [ieh auh smW sI jdoN isMG sBw lihr pUry jobn iv`c sI[ krm isMG AMdr is`K
Drm dw zjbw qW pihlW hI sI, is`K ieiqhws dIAW pusqkW vwcx nwl aus dI soc qy
ies dw sony qy suhwgy vwlw kMm ho igAw sI[^wlsw kwlj iv`c aunHIN idnIN pRo: joD isMG,
mwstr qwrw isMG, sR: mwn isMG, sR: Amr isMG jI (vwsU), mwstr eISr isMG Awid
vI pVHdy sn jo A`gy c`l ky is`K pMQ dy kwrj-^yqrW iv`c DV`lydwr pMQ syvk bxy [sR:
Amr isMG, mwstr eISr isMG FotIAW(qrn qwrn) Aqy sR: gurmuK isMG krm isMG dy
Kws dosqW iv`coN sn[ienHW cwrW XwrW dI juMflI hr vkq pMQ dy mhwn kwrjW ƒ isry
cwVHn dIAW ivauNqW guMddI rihMdI sI[
hlwqW ny krvt leI[ swieMs dy ivSy qoN krm isMG dw moh BMg ho igAw [aus ny
is`K ieiqhws dI ivigAwnk FMg nwl Koj krn dw mn bxw ilAw [krm isMG smJdw
sI ik iksy kOm dw ieiqhws hI aus kOm dI ijMd jwn huMdw hY[ijhVIAW kOmW Awpxy
ieiqhws nwloN tu`t jWdIAW hn auh ijAwdw smW ijMdw nhIN rih skdIAW[iesy soc nwl
krm isMG idn rwq ies Koj dy kMm iv`c ju`t igAw sI[aus ny PwrsI Aqy ihMdI vI cMgI
qrHW is`K leI[ mu`kdI g`l ieiqhwsk pusqkW pVHn dw SONk holI-hOlI jƒn dw rUp Dwrn
kr igAw sI[
sMn 1905 iv`c jdoN krm isMG dI cOQy swl dI pRIiKAw iv`c iqMn-cwr mhIny
rihMdy sn qW aus ny Awpxw PYslw dosqW ƒ suxw id`qw , “mYN hux A`goN nhI pVHnw cwhuMdw[
mYN is`K ieiqhws dw iK`lirAw-pulirAw mswlw jo ibRD bwibAW dIAW ih`kW iv`c ipAw hY
aus ƒ iek`Tw krnw hY[ibRD bwby ie`k-ie`k krky mrdy jw rhy hn[jy kr mYN hux qoN hI
ieh kwrj nw AwrMiBAw qW myrw imSn aujV jwvygw[” pRoPYsrW, dosqW Aqy sunyhIAW ny
bQyrw smJwieAw pr auh Awpxy idRV ierwdy qoN nw iQVikAw[ipqw ny vI hux Krcw dyxw
bMd kr id`qw sI pr krm isMG pqw nhIN iks im`tI dw bixAw sI ik auh AwpxI soc qoN

nw foilAw[lokIN smJdy sn ik krm isMG pwgl ho igAw hY pr aunHW ƒ kI pqw sI ik
ijhVw kwrj auh krn jw irhw hY ik`fw mhwn kwrj hY[
AwriQk qMgI swhmxy mUMh A`fI KVI sI[p`ly pYsy nw hox krky keI vyrW aus ƒ
pd-Xwqrw vI krnI pYNdI [ krm isMG ipMf-ipMf iPrdw irhw[ ij`Qy iksy bu`Fy bwby dw
pqw l`gdw auh Awpxw klm dvwq cu`k aunHW kol phuMc jWdw, aunHW dy ibAwn klmb`D
krdw,lMgr gurduAwry dy lMgr iv`coN Ckdw Aqy rwq k`tx leI auQy hI lyt jWdw[ auh
jwxdw sI ik ienHW bwibAW dy not kIqy hoey q`Q hI aus dI ilKq dw AwDwr bx skdy
hn[krm isMG dw isrV vyK ky aus dy dosq mwstr eISr isMG ny jo ieMnHI idnIN
gujrWvwly tIcr l`gw hoieAw sI, AwpxI mhWvwrI qnKwh 15/- rupey ‘coN swFy s`q rupey
krm isMG ƒ Byjxy SurU kr id`qy sn[
aunHIN idnI pMjwb iv`c plyg dI ibmwrI PYl rhI sI[ ipMfW dy ipMf ivhly ho rhy
sn pr ieh Albylw rwhI ies dI pRvwh kIqy bgYr hI ipMfo-ipMfI GuMm irhw sI Aqy bu`Fy
bwibAW nwl Awpxw ivcwr-iptwrw KolH ky bYT jWdw sI[keI vyrW aus ƒ ies kMm iv`c
byie`zqI vI krvwauxI peI sI ikauNik lok qW ipMf C`f ky jw rhy huMdy sn jdoN ik ieh
AwpxI rwm khwxI lY ky bYT jWdw sI[aus ƒ AMdro-AMdrI ieh fr KweI jw irhw sI ik
plyg kwrn jy kr koeI bwbw ies jhwn qoN qur igAw qW aus dI ih`k iv`c d`by hoey q`Q
ikDry aus dy nwl hI nw qur jwx qy auh vyKdw hI rih jwvy,jo aus leI bhuq hI Anmol
sn[
sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dI m`kw,mdInw,bgdwd Awid QwvW dI Xwqrw bwry q`Q jwnx
leI s: krm isMG jI ny kI kI kSt nhIN sn shwry, Aqy kI kI pwpV nhIN sn vylxy
pey[ieh ie`k lMmI khwxI hY ijs qoN spSt huMdw hY ik krm isMG idRV ierwdy vwlw
ienswn sI[auh Awpxy kMm dI pUrqI leI aus AMdr ikMnI lgn Aqy dIvwnwpn
sI[bgdwd qoN vwps Aw ky krm isMG ny pusqk ‘bMdw bhwdr” ilKI Aqy iPr “kqk ik
vYswK” iliKAw[ ies pusqk dw ilKx FMg nvIn sI jo purwxy rUVIvwdI lokW ƒ psMd
nhIN sI AwieAw[Kws krky “kqk ik vYswK” pVH ky cIP Kwlsw dIvwn dy kwrkuMn vI
nrwj ho gey sn[krm isMG dy ies Koj kwrj ƒ is`K AwgUAW v`loN koeI srprsqI jW
huMgwrw nw imilAw[ipqw v`loN vI mwiek shwieqw bMd hox krky ieh kMm jwrI r`Kxw
AsMBv ho igAw sI[
hux krm isMG ny Awpxy dosq sR: Amr isMG(vwsU) nwl iml ky srgoDy
“sMinAwsI dvw^wnw” KolH ilAw [aus ƒ keI nu^sy AwauNdy sn[kmweI cMgI hoxI SurU ho
geI sI pr aus dw im`qr pMfq jvwlw isMG krm isMG ƒ Awpxy nwl pitAwly lY igAw
ij`Qy aus ny krm isMG ƒ “styt ihstorIAn” vjoN nOkrI duAw id`qI sI[ie`Qy rihMidAW
hoieAw hI krm isMG ny “mhwrwjw Awlw isMG” iliKAW [krm isMG Awzwd pMCI sI,
Awzwd iKAwl sI[ ie`QoN dw qMg vwqwvrx aus ƒ psMd nw AwieAw ijs krky aus ny
ieh nOkrI C`f id`qI [
ies ip`CoN krm isMG ny XU.pI. iv`c nYnIqwl nyVy kuJ zmINn lY ky nvIn FMg nwl
vwhI SurU kr id`qI pr Koj dy kMm ƒ nw C`ifAw[Koj dw kMMm vI nwl nwl hI jwrI
irhw[ATwrvIN sdI dy smyN Bwv sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI dy joqI joq smwaux qoN lY ky
mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy rwj smyN q`k dI Koj dw kMm krn dw aus ny mn bxw ilAw
sI[ies kMm ƒ nypry cwVHn leI aus ny ihMdusqwn dIAW lwiebRyrIAW pitAwlw,bdwXUM,
durBMgw, klkqw, AlIgVH Awid Cwx mwrIAW Aqy aus ny ienHW dy nots iqAwr kIqy
[krm isMG dI Xwd SkqI bhuq qIKx sI ijs krky izAwdw aus ƒ jbwnI hI Xwd ho
jWdw sI[auh jo pVH lYNdy sn iPr Bu`ldw nhIN
sI[aus dw ivcwr sI ik KyqIbwVI dy kMm ƒ cMgI qrHW qor ky jdoN auh nYnIqwl jwvygww qW
swl ku dy smyN ieh sB kuJ ilK lvygw[
pr APsos bMdw socdw kuJ hY qy huMdw kuJ hY[sKq imhnq, ijAwdw smW ilKx socx Aqy srIr v`loN lwpRvwh hox krky auh ibmwr pY igAw sI[iesy lwpRvwhI kwrn byrI
dw kMfw l`gx krky aus dI ie`k A`K vI jWdI rhI sI[g`l ie`QoN q`k ivgV geI ik krm

isMG ƒ qpidk ho geI[ Agsq,1930 eI: iv`c aus ƒ mlyrIAw buKwr ho igAw jo hOlI
hOlI vDdw igAw [iesy nwl nmUnIAW vI ho jwx kwrn krm isMG ƒ “inAw gwaU” qoN
qrn qwrn lY AWdw igAw[ fwktrW Aqy hkImW ny puUrI vwh lweI pr ibmwrI bhuq vD
cu`kI sI[
Awi^r 10 sqMbr, 1930 eI: ƒ ies &wnI jhwn qoN krm isMG jI ihstorIAn
kUc kr gey[aunHW dw sskwr qrn qwrn kIqw igAw [bhu-mu`lw swihqk ^jwnw jo aus
dy AMdr AxiliKAw ipAw sI auhdy nwl hI qur igAw [ihstorIAn ny jIvn kwl dOrwn
jo rcnwvW kIqIAW jW KriVAW qoN pUrIAW kIqIAW geIAw aunHW dw vyrvw hyT Anuswr
hY:-(1) bwbw bMdw bhwdr (2) kqk ik vYswK (3) jIvn hrnwm kOr (4) jIvn sdw kOr (5)
bMdw kOx Qw (aurdU) (6) mhwrwjw Awlw isMG (7) gurpurb inrxY (8) Amr ^wlsw (9)
gur kQw [
krm isMG jI ihstorIAn koloN swihq Aqy ^oj jgq ƒ ijMnIAW aumIdW AwsW sn
Aqy aus dy AMdr ijMnW swihqk ^jwnw BirAw ipAw sI aus iv`coN qW bhuq QoVHw hI
iliKAw igAw sI [jW ieMj kih lvo ik gohVy ‘coN pUxI vI Ajy nhIN sI k`qI geI [
A&sos! eyfw isrVI qy KojI mJYl Ax-boilAw, AxgOilAw Ax-ikhw hI qur igAw sI
ies zhwn qoN[

***

Awvwz dI dunIAW dw isqwrw

muhMmd r&I

(ipMf kotlw sulqwn isMG, izlHw AMimRqsr)

AwkwS qy isqwry qW AnykW hI cmkdy hn pr jo cmk- dmk DrUA qwry dI hY
auh hor iksy vI qwry dI nhIN[Awvwz dI dunIAW dw ie`k isqwrw mwJy dI sr-zmIn qy vI
cmikAw sI jo AwpxI mDur, surIlI Aqy mn qy zwdU kr dyx vwlI sur nwl swry sMswr ƒ
ckwcOND kr igAw [ aus isqwry dw nwm sI “muhMmd r&I[”
muhMmd r&I dw jnm imqI 24 dsMbr, 1924 eI: ƒ hwzI AlI muhMmd jI dy Gr
ie`k in`ky ijhy ipMf kotlw sulqwn isMG ijhVw izlHw AMimRqsr dy ksbw mjITw nyVy hY,
iv`c hoieAw[ bcpn iv`c swry hI aus ƒ “ PIkw” kih ky s`ddy sn[aus dy pMj Brw sn
ijnHW iv`coN auh sB qoN Cotw sI[aus dy ipqw jI nweI brwdrI nwl sbMDq hox krky ipMf
iv`c ivAwhW SwdIAW dy mOky kMm kirAw krdy sn[d`sdy hn ik aus dw ipqw s`q rMgW dy
cwvl bxwauNx iv`c mwhr sI[ies ipMf iv`c PIky ny cOQI jmwq q`k pVHweI kIqI [ PIky
dy jmwqI gurb^S isMG ig`l swbkw srpMc (97) Aqy kuMdn isMG (84) A`j vI aus dIAW
g`lW krky aus ƒ Xwd krdy hn[auh d`sdy hn ik ipMf iv`c ie`k &kIr svyr vyly surIlI
Awvwz iv`c gw ky A`lw dy nW qy BIK mMigAw krdw sI[rPI aus dI Awvwz dI nkl
krky auhI gIq ‘Kyfx dy idn cwr nIN mWeyN” gw ky sB dw mn moh ilAw krdw sI[‘suUlW
jMmdIAW dy mUMh iq`Ky’ dI khwvq Anuswr bcpn qoN hI r&I dI Awvwz iv`c soz, drd
Aqy surIlwpn sI[ pRmwqmw dI imhr sdkw hI Aijhy gux iksy AwdmI ƒ imldy hn[
sONk jƒn dI Skl A^iqAwr krdw jw irhw sI pr rPI dy mwpy gwauNx ƒ cMgw nhIN sn
smJdy[auh r&I ƒ ieh kih ky iJVk idMdy sn ik “ieh kMm qW mrwsIAW dw hY,AwpW ƒ
ieh soBdw nhIN[” aunHW ƒ kI pqw sI ik A`j dw ieh b`cw A`gy c`l ky aus ^wndwn dw
nW rOSn krygw[
auh jwdU hI kI jo isr cVH nw boly[r&I jdoN 14 swlW dw hoieAw qW aus dw bwp
dyS dI vMf qoN pihlW hI sMn 1935-36 iv`c lwhOr clw igAw sI Aqy Awpxy swry pRvwr
ƒ vI au~Qy hI bulw ilAw sI[lwhOr iv`c r&I dw cwcw hzwm ( nweI ) dw kMm krdw sI
ijs koloN j`dI-puSqI kMm is`Kx vwsqy r&I ƒ aus kol Byj id`qw igAw [kudrq dy rMg
inAwry hn[ ie`k idn mShUr sMgIq fwierYktr aunHW dI dukwn qy vwl ktvwaux leI
AwieAw, ijs ny r&I dI Awvwz suxI, jdoN rPIo hOlI-hOlI guxguxw irhw sI[aus ny rPI
dI Awvwz sux ky AnuBv kr ilAw ik ieh bwl klwkwr bhuq v`fw gwiek bx skdw
hY[aus ny rPI ƒ Agly idn Awpxy d`sy hoey pqy qy Awaux leI ikhw[kudrq ny rPI leI
suinhry Biv`K dy drvwjy KolH id`qy jwpdy sn[
lwhOr rihMidAW hoieAW rPI ny ‘^wn Abdul vzId ^W’, jIvn lwl‘mMto’ Aqy
‘gulSn AlI ^W’ koloN vI sMgIq dI ividAw leI [sMn 1944 iv`c pMjwbI iPlm ‘Zu`lbloc’iv`c rPI ny pihlI vwr sMgIq fwierYktr SXwm suMdr dy sMgIq qy gIq gw ky cmk

BrI dunIAw iv`c kdm r`iKAw [hr QW ivroDI qW huMdy hI hn jo AwpxI ivhu k`Fx leI
keI auprwly krdy hn[ ivroDIAW ny rPI ƒ ies mYdwn iv`coN k`Fx leI ies g`l dw
pRcwr ArMiBAw ik rPI dw ichrw mwqw dy dwgW vwlw Aqy B`dw h[Y pr sMgIq pRymIAW ny
ies dI pRvwh kIqy bgYr hI rPI dI mDur Awvwz ƒ pRvwn kr ilAw sI[
muhMmd rPI ny iPlm ‘Anmol GVI’ iv`c gwieAw Aqy iPr nUr jhW nwl ie`k dogwxw iPlm ‘swjn’ leI “XhW bdlw v&w kw by-v&weI ky isvw ikAw hY” gw ky AwpxI
Awvwz dw jwdU ib^yr id`qw [rPI dI vD rhI Suhrq ny aus zmwny dy nwmvr sMgIqkwr
nOSwd swihb dw iDAwn Awpxy v`l iK`c ilAw sI[ aunHW ny r&I jI dy hunr dIAW
fuMUiGAweIAW ƒ AwpxIAW pwrKU soc nwl nwp ilAw sI,ik ieh gwiek A`gy c`l ky sMgIq
dIAW bulMdIAW CUhygw[aunHW dI soc s`c swbq hoeI jdoN rPI jI ny aunHw dy sMgIq hyTw qy
“myrI khwnI BUlnyN vwly, qyrw zhW Awbwd rhy” (dIdwr) Aqy “Xh ArmW ly kr Awj
Apny Gr sy inkly” (Sbwb) iv`c gw ky sMgIq jgq iv`c DuMmW pw id`qIAW sn Aqy
sMgIq pRymI swh rok ky rPI jI dI jwdUmeI Awvwz iv`c guAwc gey sn[
iPr rPI jI ny ip`Cy muV ky nhIN vyiKAw[auh iPlm ieMfstrI dI ijMd jwn bx
gey sn[ rPI jI dw gwieAw ieh gwxw “E dunIAW ky rKvwly, sux drd Bry myry nwly”
(bYzU bwvrw)sroiqAW dy idlW qy Aijhw Asr kr igAw sI ik aunHW dIAW A`KW ‘coN A`QrU
Awp muhwry vih qury sn[
rPI jI suBwA dy p`KoN bhuq hI im`T-bolVy Aqy koml ihrdy dy mwlk sn[jy s`c
ikhw jwvy qW auh “sMq gwiek” sI ijs ny Awpxy sroiqAW dy idlW qy cwlI swl q`k rwj
kIqw hY[haUmw Aqy hMkwr kdy rPI ƒ CUh ky vI nhI sI lMiGAw[“mn qVpq hrI drSn
ko Awj”, iPlm bYjU bwvrw iv`c gw ky aunHW ny Awpxy koml mn dw pRdrSn kIqw sI jo
A`j q`k koml mnw qy CwieAw hoieAw hY[
Awpxy 40 swl dy gwiekI jIvn iv`c rPI jI ny 26,000 qoN v`D gIq, ZzlW,
kvwlIAW Aqy Bjn gwey jo bhuq hI slwhy gey [aunHW ƒ iPlmW dy gIqW qy Avwrf vI
imly sn ijnHW dw eyQy izkr krnw AqI jrUrI hY---1. “cODvIN kw cWd ho --” (iPlm cODvIN kw cWd)
1960
2. “qyrI ipAwrI ipAwrI sUrq ko--” (ssurwl)
1961
3. “cwhUMgw mYN quJy sWJ svyry---” (dosqI)
1964
4. “bhwro PUl brswE, myrw mihbUb AwieAw hY”(sUrj) 1966
5. “idl ky JroKy myN quJ ko ibTw kr --” (bRhmcwrI) 1968
6. “kXw huAw qyrw vwAdw--” (hm iksI sy km nhIN) 1977
ies qoN ielwvw sMn 1968 iv`c iPlm ‘nIl kml’ iv`c “bwbl kI duAweyN lyqI jw,jwh!
quJ ko su`KI sMswr imly” Aqy iPlm ‘hm iksI sy km nhI’ leI Bwrq srkwr v`loN
nYSnl AYvwrf nwl rPI jI ƒ snmwinAw igAw sI[
ijMdgI iv`c Aijhw smW vI AwieAw sI jdo iksy v`loN rPI ƒ d`isAw igAw sI ik
ieslwm iv`c gwauxw pwp mMinAW jWdw hY,jdo ik sMgIq aus leI iebwdq sI, pUjw
sI[muhMmd rPI jI kuJ smyN leI Awpxy pu`qr ‘Swihd’ kol lMdn cly gey sn[ieh auh
hI smW sI jdoN AYktr rwjyS KMnW Aqy gwiek ikSor kumwr dI joVI ny sB gwiekW-qlq mihmUd, mukyS, mMnW fy Aqy rPI q`k dI sw^ ƒ s`t mwrI sI[lMdn qoN vwpsI qy rPI
jI ny dubwrw gIq gw ky is`D kr id`qw sI ik rPI, rPI hI hY[“brbwd-ey-muh`bq kI
duAw swQ lIey jw”, “mYN qyry dr py AwieAw hUM ”, “ Xh dIvwny kI izd hY”, “ilK kr
qyrw nwm jmIN pr, quJ ko sjdy krqw hUM ”, iPlm lYlw-mjƒ iv`c gwey iehnW swry
gwixAW ny qihlkw mcw id`qw sI Aqy aunHW lokW dw Brm cUr cUr kr id`qw sI jo socdy
sn ik hux rPI b`s ho igAw hY[rPI dubwrw bulMdIAW qy sI ik ie`k idn mOq ny Aw
Awpxw jwl ivCwieAw[julweI 31, sMn 1980 dy mnhUs idn ieh cihkdw hoieAw, KuSIAW
vMfx vwlw mwJy dw bbIhw sdw leI cu`p krky ies &wnI dunIAW ƒ Alivdw kih igAw
sI[aus dy jmwqI Xwr A`j vI ro ro d`sdy hn ik “PIkw” jdoN sMn 1935-36 iv`c ies
ipMf qoN igAw sI qW ipMf dy ie`k AMb dy ru`K qy Awpxw nW cwkU nwl Kroc ky ilK igAw

sI[ aus ikhw sI ik ies ru`K ƒ nw v`Fxw[APsos! A`j auh ru`K vI nhIN irhw qy nw hI
ru`K qy Awpxw nW ilKx vwlw PIkw[
ijs ienswn ny Awpxw swrw jIvn iPlm ieMfstrI dy lyKy lw id`qw hovy aus sMq
qbIAq,inrCl Aqy haUmY qoN pry dy ienswn ƒ koeI eyfI CyqI ivswr dyvy[ du`K dI g`l
hY[ aus dI Xwd qwjw r`Kx leI iPlm jgq ny kuJ vI nhIN kIqw[pMjwbI dI khwvq hY “
jy vwgIAW ny qwh id`qI hY kI hoieAw, mwlk qW sMBwlxgy hI[” pr mwJw ikvyN Bu`l skdw
sI Awpxy ies spUq ƒ,Awpxy ies koihnUr hIry ƒ ijs dI cmk ny dunIAW ruSnw id`qI
sI[ies kMm dw bIVw “muhmMd rPI mYmorIAl soswietI AMimRqsr ny c`uikAw hY jo hr swl
aus dy jnm idn Aqy mOq dy idn ƒ Xwd krdI hoeI nqmsqk huMdI hY[ auh SwbwS dy
h`kdwr hn[ hr ie`k ny ies &wnI sMswr qoN qur hI jwxw hY[ rPI swihb dI AwpxI
Awvwz iv`c :“ AwdmI musw&r hY, Awqw hY jwqw hY[
Awqy jwqy rsqoN myN, XwdyN CoV jwqw hY[”

***

sMgIq jgq dw isqwrw

gIqkwr mihMdr kpUr
(AMimRqsr)

mwJy dy mJYlW ny jy kr smyN smyN kubwnIAW dy ky mwJy dw mwx vDwieAw hY qW dUsry
^yqrW iv`c vI ienHW dw Xogdwn iksy g`loN G`t nhIN[rwjnIqI iv`c Swm isMG AtwrI,j`sw
isMG rwmgVHIAw, swihq qy kwiv jgq iv`c hwSm,Swh muhMmd, iSv kumwr btwlvI,BweI
vIr isMG, BweI mohn isMG, nwnk isMG,eISvr cMdr nMdw ies jgq dy isqwry hn qW
sU^m klwvW iv`c (sMgIq Aqy ic`qrkwrI) iv`c soBw isMG,jI AYs sohx isMG Aqy
srdwrnI PUlW rwxI dy nW ijkr krnXog hn[isny-jgq iv`c sdw bhwr AYktr Aqy
fwierYktr dyv AnMd (gurdwspur), svrgvwsI muhMmd r&I jI ny AwpxI klw dw lohw
mMnvwieAw hY[ iesy hI kVI dw ie`k isqwrw mihMdr kpUr vI isny-jgq iv`c rih ky mwJy
dw nW rOSn kr igAw[
mihMdr kpUr jI dw jnm 9 jnvrI, 1934 ƒ AMimRqsr Sihr dy AMdrUnI ielwky
dI sMGxI AwbwdI ktVw BweI sMq isMG ivclI glI “gosWeIAW” iv`c sRI jY cMd kpUr jI
dy Gr mwqw SWqI dyvI dI ku`KoN hoieAw[mihMdr kpUr ny Awpxw bcpn Sihr iv`c hI
gujwirAw[mu`FlI ividAw aus ny Gr dy nyVy dy ‘skUl ihMdU sBw skUl Fwb KtIkW’ iv`c
leI [“suUlW jMmdIAW dy mUMh iq`Ky” dI khwvq Anuswr mihMdr kpUr ƒ bcpn qoN hI
gwaux dw SONk sI[auhnW dw pRIvwr izAwdw smW AMimRqsr nhIN irhw sgoN dyS dI vMf qoN
pihlW hI bMbeI clw igAw sI[ sMgIq klw iv`c mihMdr kpUr, muhMmd r&I jI ƒ
Awpxw AwdrS Aqy ausqwd mMndy sn[r&I pRvwr nwl kpUr pRIvwr dy GrylU sbMD
sn[gIqkwrI iv`c mihMdr kpUr ny r&I jI pwsoN bhuq kuJ is`iKAw[ sRI gulwm AlI Kwn
jI vI mihMdr kpUr dy ausqwd sn[
iPlm jgq iv`c bqOr gIqkwr kpUr jI ny 1953 eI: iv`c iPlm ‘md-msq’
leI gIq gw ky pRvyS kIqw[aunHW dI Awvwz iv`c imTws,kiSS Aqy surIlwpn sroiqAW ƒ
kIlx iv`c smr`Q sI[iPlm jgq iv`c ivcridAW hoieAW mihMdr kpUr jI ƒ “pdm
sRI” dy snmwn qoN ibnW swl 1964, 1968 Aqy 1975eI: iv`c iqMn vwr “iPlm PyAr
AvwrfW” nwl vI snmwinAw igAw[ iPlm gumrwh (1963 eI:) dy gwxy “clo iek bwr
iPr sy AznbI bx jweyN hm dono”, iPlm hmrwz (1967 eI:) “nIly ggn ky qly, DrqI
kw ipAwr ply”, iPlm “rotI kpVw AOr mkwn”(1974 eI:) dy gwxy “nhI nhI b`s AOr
nhI” leI ieh snmwn pRdwn kIqy gey sn[
pMjwbI iPlmW iv`c gwaux qoN ielwvw mihMdr kpUr jI ny hor dUsrIAW BwrqI
BwswvW dy gwxy vI gwey[pMjwbI dIAW mu`K iPlmW ijnHW iv`c mihMdr jI ny gwieAw aunHW dw
vyrvw d`sx Xog hY:-

“sohxI mhIvwl”(1958eI:),“lMbVdwrnI”(1976 eI:),“j`t pMjwbI”(1979 eI:),
“kuAwrw mwmw”(1979 eI:),“cMn pRdysI”(1980 eI:),“blbIro BwbI”(1981eI:) Aqy
“Awsrw ipAwr dw” (1983 eI:)[
Dwrimk iPlmW ijnHW leI kpUr jI ny gIq gwey ies qrHW hn:- nwnk nwm
jhwj(1969 eI:), Bgq DMnw j`t (1974 eI:), hr hr mhWdyv (1974 eI:), jY sMqoSI mW
(1975), Bgvwn sRI ikRSnw (1985 eI:), SIqlw mwqw (1987 eI:) Aqy klXug AOr
rmwiex (1987 eI:)[ies qoN ielwvw jgq pRis`D tI.vI sIrIAl “ mhw Bwrq” iv`c mu`K
ip`TvrqI gwiek vI kpUr jI hI sn[
dyS BgqI dy jjby BrpUr gwixAW dI cmk-dmk ienHW iPlmW:- “krmW”(1986
eI:), “vqn ky rKvwly”(1987 eI:), “Xy dyS”(1984 eI:) Aqy kRWqI (1981eI:) Awid
iv`c vyKI jw skdI hY[
“Ab ky brs quJy DrqI kI rwnI kr dyNgyN” A`j vI ijhn iv`c gUMjdy hn[supr ih`t
iPlmW iv`c Awp dy gwey hoey gIq A`j vI sdw bhwr hn :- mihMdr kpUr jI dy dyS
BgqI dy gIqW dw vyrvw ies pRkwr hY“myry dyS kI DrqI sonw augly augly hIry moqI” “hY pRIq XhW kI rIq sdw, mYN in`q in`q
sIs Jukwqw hUM[ Bwrq kw rihny vwlw hUM Bwrq kI bwq sunwqw hUM[” “ipAwr kIAw qo
frnw ikAw ( iPlm rwqoN kw rwjw)
“nIly ggn ky qly, DrqI kw ipAwr ply” (iPlm hmrwz)
“nw mUMh Cupw ky jIE, nw isr Jukw ky jIE” (iPlm hmrwz)
“iksI p`Qr kI mUrq sy muh`bq kw ierwdw hY” (iPlm hmrwz)
“quM husn hY mYN ieSk hUM (iPlm hmrwz)
“idn hYN bhwr ky qyry myry iekrwr ky” (vkq)
“Aw jw Aw jw ry, quJ ko myrw ipAwr pukwry”(iPlm gumrwh)
“hr idl jo ipAwr krygw vuh gwnw gweygw” (iPlm sMgm)
“idl kI Xh AwrzU QI ik koeI idlbr imly” (iPlm inkwh)
iPlmIN gIqW qoN ielwvw mihMdr kpUr jI ny iSv kumwr dIAW ZzlW ƒ AwpxI
Awvwz dy ky sroiqAW dy mnW AMdr ie`k qrHW dI ibRhoN dI A`g bwl id`qI sI[ies kYst
iv`c drj ZzlW:“kI pu`Cdy ho hwl &kIrW dw[ AsIN ndIEN ivCVy nIrW dw[”
“ AsW jobn ru`qy mrnw-----”,
“B`TI vwlIey, cMby dIey fwlIey”
“mYN kMifAwlI Qohr vy s`jxw au~gI iv`c aujwVW”
“ie`k kuVI ijhdw nwm muh`bq, guMm hY guMm hY”
“ mYƒ qyrw Sbwb lY bYTw, rMg gorw gulwb lY bYTw”
“ iPr idl grIb dw pWdw ey vwsqw[”
ies qrHW mihMdr kpUr jI ny sMgIq dy hr pihlU ƒ CUh ky Awpxy sroiqAW dy
idlW qy rwj kIqw [auh AwKrI vwr 1999 eI: iv`c sRI ivjy kumwr copVw dI pRDwngI hyTW
drigAwnw mMdr dI kwr syvw iv`c Swml hoey qyy Awpxw pRogrwm pyS kIqw ijs iv`c aunHW,
“myry dyS kI DrqI sonw augly, augly hIry mOqI” gw ky sroiqAW ƒ inhwl kIqw sI[mwJw
pihlW hI sMgIq jgq iv`c ie`k isqwrw “muhMmd r&I” dy rUp iv`c guAw bYTw sI ik 27
sqMbr, 2008 eI: ƒ Swm dy 7.30 vjy idl dw dOrw pYx kwrn dUsrw isqwrw mihMdr
kpUr vI ies zhwn ƒ Alivdw kih ky qur igAw [
“nw mUMh Cupw ky jIE nw isr Jukw ky jIE[
ZmoN kw dOr BI Awey qo muskrw ky jIE[”
dI sdw dyx vwlI Awvwz sdw leI cu`p ho geI hY!

***

ibRhw dw sulqwn

iSv kumwr ‘btwlvI’
(btwlw, ijlHw gurdwspur)

iSv kumwr dw jnm 23 julweI, 1936 eI: ƒ qihsIl SkrgVH (hux pwiksqwn)
iv`c sRI ikRSn gopwl jI dy Gr hoieAw[ Bwrq dI vMf ip`CoN auhnW dw pRIvwr btwly Aw
v`isAw sI[ btwlw Sihr ijhVw lohw sMnq krky mShUr hY, ies dw iek p`K ies ƒ is`K
ieiqhws nwl vI joVdw hY[sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dI SwdI btwly hI hoeI sI ij`Qy auh
ivAwhux Awey ie`k k`cI kMD dI CW hyTW bYTy sn jo if`g pYx vwlI sI[ gurU jI dy vr nwl
ik ieh kMD qW jugW-jugWqrW q`k rhygI A`j vI pUjxXog KVI hY[ieh Sihr vI iSv dw
ipAwr Aqy AwDwr bx igAw sI ijs ny iSv kumwr ƒ ‘btwlvI’ dw aupnwm id`qw [
pMjwbI mW bolI ƒ ipAwridAW qy siqkwridAW iSv ny AnykW hI gIq ilKy[aus dy
gIqW iv`c drd, cIs Aqy ibRhw ClkdI hY[Swied hoxI hI iSv dy mUMhoN AKvw rhI sI,
“jobn ru`qy jo vI mrdw, Pu`l bxy jW qwrw[”
iSv dI rIJ qW sdw hI mihkx dI tihkx dI Aqy ^uSI ibKyrn dI sI pr ibRhw
dw Gux jo aus ƒ AMdro-AMdrI KweI jw irhw sI,aus dw p`lw nhIN sI C`fdw jwpdw[ hux
iSv ibRhw sI Aqy ibRhw iSv[aus dy AMdr d`bI hoeI hUk jdoN gIqW dw ilbws pihn ky
sroiqAW dy ipV iv`c Aw vVdI sI qW Awlw -duAwlw ZmgIn Aqy isskIAW lYNdw AnuBv
huMdw sI[iSv dIAW kivqwvW iv`clI Sbd cox in`q dy jIvn ‘coN sI[ ieh Sbd bu`DIjIvI
vrg dI AOKI SbdwvlI nhIN sI huMdI, sgoN pMjwbI bolI dy im`Ty, suBwvk Aqy rozwnw
ijMdgI iv`c vrqy jwx vwly Sbd huMdy sn jo lokW leI sn Aqy aunHW dI p`Dr qy ivcrdy
hoey aunHW dI rUh iv`c D`sdy jWdy sn[iSv ny ‘SOkx myly dI’ iPlm vwsqy vI gIq ilKy
sn jo bhuq hI slwhy gey sn[iSv dIAW ikqwbW iv`coN “lUxW” iv`c iSv ny Awm soc qoN
ht ky nwrI dy mnovyg dI g`l kih ky sB ƒ AcMBq kr id`qw sI[nwrI ƒ DrqI nwl
qSbIh dy ky iSv kihMdw hY:“vwh! nI Drq suhwvIey, qMU ley kI lyK ilKw[
qyrw hr idhuM hI mr jWvdw, lY ikrnW dy Pwh[”
ieh Swied iSv dy Awpxy id`l dI pIV sI[aus ny sMn 1960 iv`c ‘pIVW dw
prwZw’ ikqwb ilK ky swihqk s&r ArMiBAw sI Aqy 1970 eI: iv`c “mYN qy mYN” Aw^rI
pusqk nwl mu`k igAw sI[aus dIAW pusqkW iv`c “ibRhw qUM sulqwn” Aqy “Awty dIAW
icVIAW” vI pwTkW/ sroiqAW ƒ mMqr-mugD krn dw bl r`KdIAW hn[iSv jdoN vI iksy
styj qoN AwpxI rcnw pVHdw sI qW Awm krky auh zjbwqI ho jwieAw krdw sI[mYN
(lyKk)^ud aus ƒ qrn qwrn, jdoN aus ny ieh gIq gwieAw sI qW suixAW sI---“mYN kMifAwlI Qohr vy s`jxw, au`gI iv`c aujwVW[”
gwauNdw gwauNdw auh ieMnW jjbwqI ho igAw sI ik ro hI ipAw sI Aqy gIq dy AMq iv`c
aus ny AwpxI kmIz hI pwV su`tI sI[iSv dy gIqW dI kiSS bwry ie`k vyrW swier
luiDAwxvI jI ny ikhw sI, “iSv qoN bwAd SyAr pVHnW bhuq AOKw hY ikauNik swrw

muSwierw qW auh pihlW hI lu`t lYNdw hY[” iSv AMdr pl irhw ieh drd Awi^r aus ƒ
kdoN q`k jIaUx idMdw[iSv ny Srwb dw shwrw ilAw pr auh qW koilAW qy qyl bx hor
m`cdI sI[iSv ibmwr pY igAw[ielwj leI aus ƒ lMdn ByijAw igAw[auQy vI aus ny
bI.bI.sI. ryfIE stySn qy AwpxI kivqw dw jwdU ibKyr ky lokW ƒ AwpxI klw nwl kIl
ilAw sI[vwps dyS Aw ky auh izAwdw smW swfy drimAwn nw rih sikAw[Awi^r 6
meI,1973 eI: ƒ auh pTwnkot nyVy miGAwl ipMf(aus dw shurw Gr) iv`c swfy koloN sdw
leI qur igAw [iSv ie`k Amr kvI hY jo ^uSbU vWgU A`j vI swfy idlW iv`c v`sdw hY[

***

lMmI hyk dI milkw

gurmIq bwvw

ienswn ƒ jdoN Bu`K l`gdI hY qW auh rotI nwl Awpxw iF`f Br lYNdw hY, qRyh l`gdI
hY qW pwxI pI ky iqR`pqI kr lYNdw hY pr jdoN mn iv`c audwsI hovy,rUh AiqR`pq hovy qW kI
kry ?mn dI qVp ƒ Drvws iks qrHW imly ? hY ie`k h`l :-sMgIq dI imTws!s`c qW
ieh hY ik sMgIq dI lYA rUh dI Kurwk hY[auh ienswn krmW vwly huMdy hn ijnHW qy pRBU
imhr krky gly dw soz aus dI JolI pwauNdw hY[bIn dI lYA qy s`p msq ho jWdw hY qW
ienswn sMgIqk lihr qy ikauN nw JUm au~Tygw[kuJ plW leI auh du`KW ƒ iqlWjlI dy ky
sihj AvsQw dI lihr iv`c vih jWdw hY[ieh koeI AiqkQnI nhIN ik sMgIqk lihr
jwdU vrgw Asr krdI hY[
pMjwbI lok ij`Qy suBwA p`KoN Ku`lH idly hn au~Qy auh ivhl iv`c myilAW- mswiDAW
dy vI SOkIn mMny jWdy hn[sMgIq swfy jnm qoN lY ky mrn q`k swfw swQ idMdw hY jW ieMj
kih lvo ik AsIN gIqW iv`c hI jMmdy hW Aqy gIqW iv`c hI mrdy hW[b`cw jMmx smyN KuSI
dy gIqW qy swfy pYr Qrkdy hn, ivAwh vyly suhwg Aqy GoVIAW gw ky AsIN Awpxy mn dI
KuSI dw pRgtwvw krdy hW Aqy ievyN hI mOq vI gIqW dI lY qo vWJI nhIN huMdI[ies mOky
kIrny vI gIqW dw hI rUp hn[ipfW dIAW s`QW iv`c gwaux vwilAW/vwlIAW dy AKwVy
l`gdy hn ijhVy swfy suhj-suAwd dI pUrqI krdy hn[hIr dy hyk nwl bYNq Aqy imrjy
dIAW klIAW lMmI hyk nwl gwaux vwly hux tWvyN twvyN hI rih gey hn[kihMdy hn ik iksy
cIz dw bIj nws nhIN huMdw[ mwJy ƒ A`j vI mwx hY ik aus kol lMmI hyk nwl imrzw
gwaux vwlI Awvwz dI milkw hY joo AwpxI swP su`QrI gwiekI dw lohw mMnvw cu`kI hY[
auh hY:- gurmIq bwvw !
gurmIq bwvw dw jnm mwJy dy ipMf koTw nyVy AlIvwl (AMimRqsr) iv`c sR: au~qm
isMG jI dy Gr srdwrnI rwm kOr dI ku`KoN 18 PrvrI, 1944 ƒ hoieAw[gurmIq bwvw dI
lMmI hyk hI aus dI pihcwx hY[jdoN auh kMn qy h`Q Dr, bWh aulwr ky lMmI hyk lw ky
gwauNdI hY qW sroiqAW dy mwno swh hI ruk jWdy hn Aqy auh mMqr mug`D hoey kMD nwl
l`gIAW qsvIrW vWg jwpdy hn[gurmIq bwvw ASlIl gwiekI qoN kohW dUr hY[ aus ny
swP suQrI gwiekI dw dwmn nhIN C`ifAw[
gurmIq bwvw ny pMjwbI ivrsy dy jIvn nwl juVy hoey gIq gw ky ivrsy dI gwiekI
ƒ sMBwlx dw bhuq v`fw kMm kIqw hY[lok gIqW Aqy pMjwbI dy swP su`Qry gIqW qoN ielwvw
gurmIq bwvw ny pMjwbI iPlmW iv`c iPlmIN gIq gw ky vI vwh vwh K`tI hY[A`j dy dOr
iv`c jdoN hwrI-swrI k`dU iv`c sotI AVw ky gwaux leI styj qy jw cVHdw hY qW gurmIq
bwvw dI gwiekI dIAW aucweIAW swhmxy auh bOxw ijhw l`gdw hY, ijs ny pMjwbI
siBAwcwr dy gIqW ƒ AwpxI Awvwz dy ky sdw leI Amr bxw id`qw hY[
hux jdoN gurmIq bwvw AwpxI jIvn fgr dy 65 swl pUry kr cu`kI hY Ajy vI auh
jdoN AwpxI rsIlI Aqy lMmI hyk CyVdI hY qW rUh JUmx lw idMdI hY[ieMj l`gdw hY ijvyN
aumr ny srIr qy Asr qW kIqw hY pr sMgIq dI lYA Ajy vI jvwn hY[ies ivrsy ƒ
sMBwlI r`Kx leI aus dIAW dovyN bytIAW ielwcI bwvw Aqy glyrI bwvw aus dIAW pYVW
iv`c kdm r`K rhIAW hn[pRmwqmw kry sMgIq jgq dI ieh koiel sdw hI cihkdI rhy
Aqy mwJy dy nW ƒ cwr cMn lwauNdI rhy[ AwmIn!
****

AiDAwie:-cOQw

Kyf jgq
Aqy
mJYl

mJYl Aqy hwkI
hwkI Bwrq dI kOmI Kyf hY[ies dw ipCokV ipMfW iv`c iK`do-KMUfI dy rUp iv`c sI jo
suDrdw suDrdw AjokI hwkI dw rUp Dwrn kr igAw hY[ipCly smyN dw gyNd A`j vrgw
sKq cmVy dw nhIN sI bixAw huMdw[Gr dIAW pwtIAW hoeIAW lIrW iek`TIAW kr ky aunHW
ƒ sUeI nwl sIau ky aus ƒ gyNd vrgw gol Awkwr dy id`qw jWdw sI[KMUfI vI hwkI vrgy
Awkwr dI iksy ru`K nwloN v`FI hoeI tihxI huMdI sI ijs nwl lIrW dy gyNd (iK`do) ƒ
mwirAw jWdw sI[rwijAW mhwrwijAW dw ieh SOk ‘cugwn’ AKvwauNdw sI ijs iv`c hwkI
AjokI hwkI nwloN lMmI huMdI sI, ijs dI vrqoN GoVy dI ip`T qy bYT ky iKfwrI gyNd ƒ mwrn
leI krdw sI[ieh Kyf auh rwq smyN Kyfdy sn[gyNd ƒ A`g lw leI jWdI sI qW jo auh
hnyry iv`c iKfwrI ƒ id`sdw rhy[hux qW hwkI iv`c inXm vI ADuink smyN Anuswr qbdIl
ho gey hn[hwkI dIAW grwauNfW qy hux AYstotrP ivCw id`qy gey hn ijs nwl duVwk dI
dOVn dI gqI vI pihlW nwloN kwPI vD geI hY[
sMn 1928 qoN lY ky hux q`k hwkI dy ieiqhws qy keI rMg Awey hn[Bwrq ies Kyf
dw bwdSwh irhw hY[Bwrq dI vMf ho jwx krky lwhOr Ajoky pMjwb nwloN k`itAw igAw hY,
jdo ik AxvMfy pMjwb smyN mMnw isMG lwhOr dw ie`k iKfwrI sI ijs ny mwJy dy ielwky ‘coN
BwrqI tIm dI numwieMdgI kIqI [hux qW pMjwb iv`coN hirAwxw Aqy ihmwcl dy ielwky
inkl jwx krky pMjwb ie`k sUbw nhIN sgoN ‘sUbI’ hI bx ky rih igAw hY[ies iv`c koeI
S`k nhIN hY ik duAwby dy ipMf sMswrpur iv`coN sMn 1932 qoN 1976 eI:q`k ijMnyN aulMpIAn
hoey hn auqny pUrI dunIAW iv`co ie`ko hI QW qoN nhIN hoey[ies dw mqlb ieh nhIN ik
duAwby Aqy mwlvy dI qulnw krn smyN mwJw iksy p`KoN G`t hY[
mOjUdw mwJy dI DrqI ijs iv`c izlHw AMimRqsr, qrn qwrn Aqy gurdwspur dw
ielwkw Swml hY iv`coN AnykW iKfwrI hwkI jgq iv`c hIirAW vWgUM cmky hn[AMimRqsr ƒ
hI jy kr lY ilAw jwvy qW s: b^SIS isMG Aqy blivMdr isMG SMmI iesy gurU dI ngrI
dI hI dyx hn jo hwkI aulMpIAn hoey hn[ie`Qy hI b`s nhIN inrml isMG inMmW,
AijMdrpwl isMG, guribMdr isMG nItw, minMdr isMG, AjIqpwl isMG jUnIAr,hrijMdr
isMG jo AMqrwStrI p`Dr qy ikqy nw ikqy Kyfy hn, vI iesy mwJy dI DrqI dI dyx hn[ s:
blbIr isMG Aqy hribMdr isMG AMimRqsr dy ^wlsw kwlj dI grwauNf iv`c pVwHeI dy nwl
nwl Kyfdy rhy Aqy iqMn vwr aulMipk Kyfy hn[krnl s: hrcrn isMG Aqy AMqrrwStrI
iKfwrI s: blbIr isMG vI iesy piv`qr ngrI dy rihx vwly hn[s: kpUr isMG, fwktr
SivMdr isMG sMDU, Aqy s: AYc.AYs. m`lHI dI hwkI ƒ dyx kOx Bu`l skdw hY[
AMimRqsr qoN btwlw jWidAW hoieAW rsqy iv`c jNYqIpur, mrVH, pwKrpurw, SyKUpurw
ipMf AwauNdy hn[krnl hrcrn isMG,surjIq isMG,muKbYn isMG,pRBjoq isMG,jsjIq isMG
lvlI, iesy ielwky nwl sbMDq hn Aqy swry hI aulMipk Kyfy hn[sMn 1972 dI aulMipk
hwkI Kyfx vwlI tIm iv`c muKbYn isMG aup-kpqwn Aqy hrcrn isMG dovyN hI Kyfy
sn[1975 eI:dI jyqU hwkI tIm iv`c hrcrn isMG bqOr aup-kpqwn Aqy aunHW dy nwl
surjIq isMG vI Kyfy sn[kMvlpRIq isMG pRImIAm Syr-ey-jlMDr dy kpqwn vjoN Kyfy hn,
auh vI iesy ielwky dy hn[AjokI hwkI tIm dy mYNbr pRBjoq isMG dI hwkI dy jOhrW ƒ kOx
B`uilAw hY[mOjUdw hwkI dy iKfwrI srvxjIq isMG ipMf mrVH dy jMmpl hn[kuldIp
isMG,hrjIq isMG Aqy hrdIp isMG vI ipMf mrVH dy hI rihx vwly hn[
btwlw qoN jlMDr ƒ jWidAw hoieAW mihqw cONk AwauNdw hY[ mihqw qoN AMimRqsr ƒ
Awaux vwlI sVk qy do iklo mItr dI dUrI qy ipMf aUuDo nMgl vwikAw hY[iesy ipMf dw
nwmvr AQlIt gurcrn isMG rMDwvw hoieAw hY[blbIr isMG, bldyv isMG Aqy bljIq
isMG iqMny hI jo ‘rMDwvw’bRdrz vjoN jwxy jWdy hn, iesy ipMf dy hn Aqy ieh AMqRrwStrI
p`Dr dy iKfwrI hoey hn[ienHW iqMnHW BrwvW qoN ibnW qyzbIr isMG Aqy lvpRIq isMG vI iesy
ielwky nwl sbMDq hn[
g`l ie`Qy hI nhIN mu`kdI iesy sVk qy jlMDr v`l A`gy vD jwvo[ielwkw Aw igAw
siTAwlw, buqwlw Aqy bwbw bkwlw[ies DrqI ƒ is`KW dy nOvyN gurU sRI gurU qyg bhwdr jI

dI crn Coh pRwpq hY[ies ielwky dy s: Drm isMG jUnIAr aulMipk Kyfy hn[ienHW qoN
ielwvw sivMdr isMG ib`lw,bljIq isMG Bu`lr,Xuvrwj,ibkrmjIq isMG,rwjvMq isMG rwj
Aqy XuDvIr isMG vI iesy im`tI dI mihk iv`coN iKVy hoey hwkI jgq dy Pu`l hn[
mwJy dy mJYl gBrU hI nhIN ie`QoN dIAW muitAwrW vI hwkI dI Kyf iv`c nwmnw K`t
rhIAW hn[ieMj kih lvo ik hwkI ƒ ienHW dI bhuq v`fI dyx hY[BwrqI mihlw hwkI tIm
dIAW mShUr iKfwrnW rwjbIr kOr (^fUr swihb, ijlHw qrn qwrn),AijMdrpwl kOr
(bwbw bkwlw) qoN ielwvw mwJy dIAW hwkI iKfwrnW primMdr ‘syKoN’, drSn bwjvw,
suKjIq SMmIN, hrjIq, kuldIp kOr, rwjivMdr kOr, pRmjIq, puSipMdr Aqy 1982 eI:
dIAW eySIAn KyfW dI jyqU BwrqI tIm dIAW do mYNbr inrml kOr Aqy ipRqpwl kOr vI
mwJy dIAW hI rihx vwlIAW hn[ies vyly pMjwb dIAW izAwdwqr hwkI AkYfmIAW iv`c
60 qoN 70 pRqISq auBrdy iKfwrI mwJy dI hI dyx hn[ieh kihx iv`c vI P^r mihsUs
huMdw hY ik pMjwb hwkI AYsosIeySn dy mIq pRDwn Aqy puils dy AweI. jI. s: hrdIp isMG
jI vI mwJy dy ipMf sur isMG dy rihx vwly hn[kul imlw ky ieh ikhw jw skdw hY ik Kyf
jgq iv`c hwkI vrgI kOmI Kyf iv`c mwJy dw Xogdwn pihly sQwn qy hY[
( DMnvwd sihq krnl hrcrn isMG jI dy smyN smyN AKbwrW iv`c Cpy ivdvqw Aqy
jwxkwrI BrpUr lyK ies ilKq dw mUl sroq hY)

***

mwJw Aqy pihlvwnI
mwJy dIAW iCMJW bhuq mShUr hn[Ku`lHw Kw pI Aqy ksrq krky pwly hoey ju`sy jdoN AKwVy
iv`c ie`k dUsry nwl iBVdy hn qW ieMj jwpdw hY ijvyN do phwV tkrw gey hox[nroeI
^urwk nwl ksrq iml ky sony qy suhwgy dw kMm krdI hY[srIr iv`coN cMigAwVy inklx l`g
pYNdy hn Aqy dUsry nwl Kihx ƒ jIA krdw hY[pihlvwnW dI pihlvwnI dw jy kr
ivsQwr nwl vrnx krnw SurU kr id`qw qW ieh ivSw ie`k bhuq v`fI ikqwb dw rUp lY
lvygw pr mzbUrI hY ikauNik h`Qly ivSy dw dwierw kyvl mwJy dIAW h`dW AMdr hI r`Kxw
hY[ies leI ie`Qy mwJy dy kuJ nwmvr pihlvwnW dw hI ijkr kIqw hY[mwJy dI h`dbMdI
AMimRqsr, qrn qwrn Aqy gurdwspur q`k sImq hox krky ie`QoN dy pihlvwnW dy drSn
hI ho skxgy[

pihlvwn dwrw isMG rusqmy-ihMd
( ipMf DrmUM c`k, izlHw AMimRqsr )
pihlvwn dwrw isMG dw jnm sMn 1929 eI: iv`c sR: sUrq isMG jI dy Gr ipMf
DrmUM c`k ijlHw AMimRqsr iv`c hoieAw[ dwrw isMG dw ruJwn bcpn qoN hI kuSqI v`l sI
pr aus dy ipqw jI aus ƒ ies v`loN rokdy rihMdy sn[ Swied auh nhIN sn jwxdy ik
A`gy c`l ky ieh hoxhwr jvwn iesy hI Kyf iv`c swrI dunIAW iv`c ie`k isqwry vWgUM
cmkygw, mwipAW Aqy dyS dw nwm rOSn krygw[sMn 1949 iv`c dwrw isMG Awpxy cwcy
s:nrMjn isMG kol isMgwpur clwigAw, ij`Qy aus ny pihlvwn s: hrnwm isMG vrHwxy vwly
ƒ Awpxw ausqwd Dwr ilAw [ipMf dy AKwiVAW iv`c dysI kuSqI qW aus ny pihlW hI
is`KI hoeI sI, ie`Qy Aw ky aus ny PRI stwiel kuSqI vI is`K leI[QoVHy hI smyN iv`c dwry ny
auQoN dy pihlvwnW ƒ Fwh ky auQoN dI cYNpIAniSp ij`q leI sI[ienHI idnIN hI dwry ny lMkw
Aqy ieMfonySIAw dy pihlvwnW ƒ vI ic`q kIqw[
sMn 1953 iv`c rusqmy-ihMd dw i^qwb vI dwrw isMG dI JolI pY igAw[ij`q qy ij`q
dwrw isMG dy kdm cuMmdI geI Aqy 1954 eI: iv`c aus ny dyE k`d pihlvwn ikMg kWg ƒ
Fwh mwirAw sI[meI,1957 eI: iv`c dwrw isMG dI t`kr auQoN dy pihlvwnW nwl hoeI Aqy
swrIAW kuSqIAW iv`c ij`q ny ies dy kdm cuMmy [iesy swl dsMbr iv`c dwrw isMG dI
kuSqI AwlmI pihlvwn lo Qoz nwl hoeI jo brwbrI qy Cufw id`qI geI sI[ies qoN ip`CoN
qW ijvNy pihlvwn aus dy kdmW iv`c ivCdy hI gey [aus ny AmrIkw, knyfw,
sivtzrlYNf, &rWs, hMgrI Aqy nwrvy iv`c vI m`lW mwrIAW[ ihMdusqwn dy nW dw fMkw
swrI dunIAW iv`c vjw dyx vwlw ieh mJYl sBnw dI A`K dw qwrw bx igAw sI[
kudrq iksy ƒ ie`k gux nwl invwzdI hY iksy ƒ do nwl pr dwrw isMG qy qW ijvy
kudrq izAwdw hI imhrbwn sI[ aus ƒ SkqISwlI srIr qy rihm idl suBwA
id`qw[husn Aqy glYmr dI dunIAW (iPlmI jgq ) iv`c vI aus ny Awpxy hunr dw lohw
mMnvwieAw Aqy aus smyN dIAW husIn AYyktrsW nwl aus ny kwmXwb iPlmW

kIqIAW[iPlm jgq iv`c dwrw isMG ny bqOr hIro klwkwrI dw hYrwn kr dyx vwlw ivKwvw
vI kIqw [
Kyf jgq, iPlmI jgq qoN ip`CoN aus ny rwjnIqI ^yqr iv`c bqOr rwj sBw dy
mYNbr bx Awpxy jIvn dw So pyS kIqw hY[dwrw isMG ny jIvn dw isKr hMFwieAw hY[dwrw
isMG dw k`d 6 Pu`t 2 ieMc Aqy vjn ie`k kivMtl qIh iklo d`isAw jWdw hY[ies
pihlvwn dI rozwnw dI ^urwk iv`c ie`k murgw, cwr syr du`D, ie`k syr iGau Aqy ds AWfy
Swml dsdy hn[

joigMdr isMG ‘tweIgr’

( ipMf syroN, izlHw qrn qwrn )

ipMf syroN, ijlHw qrn qwrn dw ie`k Aijhw ipMf hY ijs ƒ pihlvwnW dw ipMf hox
dw mwx hwsl hY[ jy kr ieh kih ilAw jwvy ik ieh iMpMf pihlvwnW dI nrsrI hY qW
koeI AiqkQnI nhIN[ieh ipMf qrn qwrn qoN hrI ky jwx vwlI sVk qy Cy ku iklo mItr
dI dUrI qy v`isAw hY[ ies ielwky dw Awlw duAwlw hI pihlvwnI dw dIvwnw hY[iesy
ipMf dy nwmvr pihlvwn pUrn isMG Aqy v`sx isMG vI hoey hn[
joigMdr isMG dw jnm 1926 eI: iv`c mwJy dy ipMf SyroN (ijlHw qrn qwrn)iv`c
hoieAw [ieh auh smW sI jdoN mwJy dI DrqI ƒ pihlvwnW dw gVH mMinAw jWdw
sI[AKwiVAW iv`c gwmW Aqy guMgw pihlvwn bu`kdy iPrdy sn[mwJy dI im`tI iPr mhwn
pihlvwn ikvyN nw jMmdI?joigMdr isMG ƒ bcpn qoN hI kuSqI dI cytk l`g geI sI[ auh
fMf bYTkW mwrdw Aqy Gr iv`c lvyrw Ku`lHw hox krky r`jvIN Kurwk KWdw [CotI aumry hI
aus ny FotIAW vwly pihlvwn sR: Arjn isMG ƒ Awpxw ausqwd Dwr ipAw sI[kuSqI
lVdy smyN joigMdr isMG dI Syr vrgI PurqI Aqy swhn vrgI qwkq vyK ky hI aus dy nW
nwl ‘tweIgr’ dw aupnwm juV igAw sI[hux auh joigMdr isMG ‘tweIgr’ dy nwm nwl
jwixAw jWdw sI[joigMdr isMG iv`c ieh ^wsIAq sI ik auh PRI stwiel Aqy dysI kuSqI
dovy hI lV lYNdw sI[
`
kuSqI dy Kyqr iv`c dwKlw hI ies dw qrn qwrn dy pihlvwn n`Qy ƒ Fwh ky
hoieAw sI[ies qoN ip`CoN tweIgr ny srdwr KW jlMDrI ƒ ic`q kIqw [pihlvwn ^Vg
isMG nwl ies dI kuSqI brwbr rhI sI[sMn 1961 iv`c jdoN Amwm bKS dy lVky Aslm
Syir-pwiksqwn ny eySIAw dy pihlvwnW ƒ vMgwirAw sI qW aus nwl t`kr lYx leI sB qoN
pihlw pihlvwn joigMdr isMG hI sI[ieh Gol krwcI iv`c hoieAw sI pr koeI PYslw
nhIN sI ho sikAw[
jdoN joigMdr isMG isMGwpur igAw qW auQy vI bhuq swirAW pihlvwnW ƒ Fwaux
auprMq aus dw v`fw mukwblw aus smyN dy rusqim-jmW ijMm lMufoz nwl hoieAw [ieh kuSqI
lMmW smW huMdI rhI sI ikauNik dovyN pihlvwn hI kihMdy-kuhwauNdy sn[ ies kuSqI ƒ vI
brwbrI qy Cufwauxw ipAw sI[ies kuSqI nwl ‘tweIgr’ dw crcw dunIAW Br iv`c hox
lg ipAw sI[

isMGwpur qoN vwps Bwrq Awaux qy tweIgr ny jwrj kOstYtn, golf stYn Aqy
jwrz gYimz ƒ vI FwieAw [ies qrHW aus ny eySIAw dy swry pilvwnW ƒ Fwh ky d`KxI
eySIAw dy cYpIAn dw i^qwb ij`q ilAw [ies Cy Pu`t dy jvwn dI CwqI dw Gyrw krIb 50
ieMc Aqy srIr dw vjn 135 iklo sI[kuSqI lVdy smyN joigMdr isMG kobrw holf , hwP
nYlsn Aqy &lweIg myAr dwvW dI vrqoN kirAw krdw sI[APsos! hux ieh mwJy dw Syr
swfy drimAwn nhIN irhw[

(3) dwrw isMG ‘iklr’ rusqm-ey-ihMd

ieh pihlvwn mwJy dy cotI dy pihlvwnW ‘coN sI[ies dw jnm ipMf dulcI pur
(hux izlHw qrn qwrn) iv`c sMn 1923 iv`c hoieAw [srIr dw inroAw sI Aqy ruJwn vI
kuSqI v`l sI[ ies ny PRI stwiel kuSqI vI is`KI sI pr bdiksmqI nwl ipMf iv`c
JgVw ho jwx krky ies koloN kql ho igAw ijs dI sjw vjoN aus ƒ jyhl ho geI sI[
sMn 1955 iv`c jdoN pMjwb dw mu`K mMqrI sRI BIm sYn s`cr sI qW rUs dw nyqw mwrSl
bulgwnn Aqy ^ruScov Bwrq Awey sn[ aunHW ƒ ie`QoN dIAW KyfW iv`coN kuSqI Aqy kb`fI
ivKweI sI[ dwrw isMG ‘iklr’ Aqy gurid`q isMG dI kuSqI iv`c dwrw isMG ny aus ƒ Fwh
ilAw sI ijs qy aunHW dohW mihmwnW ny hYrwnI pRgt kIqI sI qy pu`iCAw sI ik ieh
pihlvwn jyhl iv`c ikauN bMd hY? sRI BIm sYn s`cr ny aunHW dI isPwrS qy bwAd iv`c
dwrw isMG ƒ irhw kr id`qw sI[mYN ( lyKk ) ^ud dwrw isMG ƒ qrn qwrn m`isAw iv`c
vyiKAw hY[ aus dw k`d Cy Pu`t igAwrW ieMc hox krky auh BIV iv`c dUroN hI id`s pYNdw
sI[jyhl ‘coN irhw hox auprMq aus ny kONstYtn ƒ vI FwihAw sI[APsos!A`j ieh
drSnI pihlvwn swfy ivckwr nhIN irhw[

(4) pdm sRI krqwr isMG pihlvwn rusqm-ey-zmw,
(ipMf sur isMG izlHw qrn qwrn)

krqwr isMG pihlvwn mwJy dI ieMnklwbI DrqI dy ipMf sur isMG dw spUq hY,ijs
dw jnm 7 AkqUbr, 1953 ƒ s: krnYl isMG dy Gr hoieAw[bcpn qoN hI aus ƒ kusqI
dw SONk sI[auh 1977-78 eI:iv`c pI.ey.pI iv`c bqOr ieMnspYktr BrqI hoieAw Aqy
qr`kI krdw krdw keI AhuidAW qy rih A`j k`l auh AweI. pI. AYs. dy Ahudy qy
ibrwjmwn hY[
krqwr isG Kyf ivBwg dw fwierYktr vI irhw[pihlvwn krqwr isMG ny smW
1980,1984 Aqy 1988 iv`c lgwqwr aulMipk KyfW iv`c vDIAw kwrgujwrI ivKweI Aqy
Bwrq dw nW rOSn kIqw[1978 eI: iv`c bYNkwk iv`c hoeIAW eySAweI KyfW iv`c Bwrq leI
aus ny qgmw vI ij`iqAw[1982 eI: iv`c id`lI iv`c hoeIAW eySIAweI KyfW iv`c cWdI dw
qmgw,1986 eI:dIAW isaul iv`c hoeIAW eySIAweI KyfW iv`c krqwr isMG ny sony dw
qgmw Bwrq leI ij`q ky Awpxy dyS dw nW rOSn kIqw[

sMn 1982 iv`c ies pihlvwn ƒ Bwrq srkwr v`loN Arjn AYvwrf Aqy 1987
eI: iv`c “pdm sRI” dy snmwn nwl snmwinAw igAw [auh pMjwb kuSqI sMsQw dw pRDwn
Aqy BwrqI kuSqI sMsQw dw jnrl sk`qr vI hY[qurkI ivKy hoeI 16vI ivSv vYtrn
kuSqI cYpIAniSp dy 97 iklo vrg dy PweInl mulwbly ’c eIrwn dy pRisD pihlvwn
ZdrI jmSId ƒ hrw ky 12vI vwr ivSv cYpIAn bixAw hY[ij`qW dy islsly ƒ jwrI
r`KidAW hoieAW aus ny huxy huxy 13vIN vwr pihlvwn Asgr eIAn AlqPq ƒ 2-1 dy
AMkW nwl mwq dy ky sony dw qgmw ij`iqAw Aqy ivSv mwstr kuSqI iv`c lgwqwr 13vW
son qgmw ij`q ivSv rIkwrf pYdw kIqw hY[A`j k`l krqwr isMG pihlvwn pMjwb pulIs
iv`c AYs.AYs.pI. dy Ahudy qy qweInwq hY[

(5) bwbw Pqih isMG--rusq-ey-ihMd

ies pihlvwn dw jnm sMn 1815 iv`c mwJy dy ipMf vltohw (hux ijlHw qrn qwrn)iv`c
sR: ^jwn isMG dy Gr hoieAw[ ipqw dI rIJ sI ik aus dw pu`qr ie`k cotI dw pihlvwn
bxy,ijs krky auh aus dI ^urwk Aqy ksrq v`l Kws iKAwl r`Kdw sI[ie`k Gtnw bwry
d`sdy hn ik Piqh isMG ƒ ie`k &kIr dI Qwpnw sI ik auh hr mYdwn Pqih hwsl
krygw[Swied ienHW AsIsW dw hI Asr sI ik aus ny aus smyN dy mShUr pihlvwn lUeI
ƒ ipSwvr iv`c
ic`q kIqw sI[POj iv`coN nW ktvw ky auh Awpxy ipMf Aw igAw sI ij`Qy aus ny Awly-duAwly
AwpxI qwkq dIAW DuMmW pweIAW sn[aus smyN dy cotI dy pihlvwn bUty ƒ Swied ies
koloN ^qrw sI qW hI auh ies nwl ^wr KWdw sI[lUeI ƒ Fwaux ip`CoN aus ny suMdr
ausmINey ƒ vI FwihAw[ aus ny rusqm-ey- ihMd dw i^qwb ij`iqAw sI[

(6) gu`qw isMG pihlvwn

AMimRqsr qoN jlMDr dy rsqy jrnYlI sVk qy reIAw ksby qoN ip`Cy A`fw ^lcIAW
qoN lihMdy v`l 7 ku ik:mI: dI dUrI qy ipMf K`K hY[iesy ipMf iv`c sMn 1877 iv`c sR: vswvw
isMG dy Gr ies pihlvwn ny jnm ilAw [Br jvwnI iv`c gu`qw isMG ny AMiMmRqsr dy
pihlvwn ‘k`lU’ ƒ Awpxw ausqwd Dwr ilAw sI jo aus smyN dw mShUr pihlvwn
sI[ausqwd dy d`sy dwA-pycW sdkw ies ny v`ifAW v`ifAW pihlvwnW dIAW gofIAW lvw
id`qIAW sn ijnHW iv`c A`lw b^S, bu`DU gV`bw Aqy bdrw ^ws qOr qy vrnxXog hn[
ienHW muFlIAW ij`qW qoN ip`CoN gu`qw isMG ny lwhOrIAw pihlvwn, ^lIPw GoVw
pihlvwn, kmraudIn, n`Qw cMgV, Tylw pihlvwn Aqy dInw pihlvwn ‘id`lI vwlw’ ƒ DUV
ctweI sI[mulk dy v`fy-v`fy pihlvwn ies nwl dsq-pMjw lYx qoN kMnIN kqrwauNdy
sn[ies dI qwkq Aqy iBVMq vyK ky ies dw nW ‘rwSw’ pY igAw sI[sMn 1928 iv`c g`uqw
ibmwr pY igAw sI Aqy kuJ idn bImwr rih ky ibmwrI nwl Guldw hoieAw mOq koloN Fwh
Kw igAw

(7) sohxI pihlvwn-rusqm-ey-ihMd

ies pihlvwn dw jnm 1896 iv`c ipMf ivCoAw, izlHw AMimRqsr ivKy hoieAw sI[
ies ny AMimRqsr Sihr dI iGau mMfI dy pihlvwn iebrwhIm ƒ Awpxw aysdwd DwirAw
sI[Awpxy jIvn kwl iv`c aus dIAW vrnxXog kuSqIAW iv`c aus dI pihlvwn sUrq
isMG Aqy gONsy pihlvwn dIAW kuSqIAW hn ijs iv`c ies ny ienHW ƒ lwhOr iv`c FwihAw
sI[ Swh Awlm ^W pTwx ƒ ies ny fyrw iesmwiel KW iv`c FwihAw sI[dyS qoN bwhr vI
ies ny kuSqIAW lV ky ij`qW hwsl kIqIAW sn[

(8) lwB isMG -rusmq-ey-ihMd

ies pihlvwn dw jnm ipMf siTAwlw, izlHw AMimRqsr sR: gMfw isMG dy Gr
hoieAw[ bcpn qoN hI ies ƒ kuSqI dw SONk hox krky ies ny pihlvwn kyhr isMG
‘vfwlIey’ ƒ Awpxw ausqwd Dwrn kr ilAw sI[kuSqI jgq iv`c ies dI mShUrI sux
ky mhwrwjw jwm ngr ny ies ƒ Awpxy kol s`d ilAw sI, ij`Qy sohxI ny pRqwp isMG Aqy
b^qwvr isMG vrgy pihlvwnW dIAW ip`TW lweIAW sn[aus ny sMn 1911 iv`c AsmweIl
pihlvwn ƒ vI FwihAw sI[ sMn 1938 iv`c ieh pihlvwn r`b ƒ ipAwrw ho igAw sI[

(9) gMfw isMG jOhl--rusmq-ey-ihMd

gMfw isMG dw jnm sR: ArUV isMG dy Gr ipMf siTAwlw, izlHw AMimRqsr ivKy sMn
1899 ƒ hoieAw [kuSqI dy hunr is`Kx leI aus ny pihlvwn gu`qw isMG ƒ Awpxw ausqwd
bxw ilAw[ sB qoN pihlI kuSqI iv`c gMfw isMG ny suMdr pihlvwn ƒ goieMdvwl ivKy
FwihAw [ie`k vwr qW ies dI kuSqI tweIgr dOly (gVHSMkr vwlw ) nwl brwbr rhI sI
pr dUsrI vwrI ies ny aus ƒ Fwh ilAw sI[1936 eI: iv`c gMfw isMG hWgkWg clw
igAw sI, ij`Qy aus ny bwb krUzI Aqy fyivf zwhnsn ƒ FwihAw [
1941 eI: dw SwhI dMgl ijhVw qrn qwrn iv`c hoieAw sI aus iv`c ies ny
pihlvwn golf stYn ƒ FwihAw sI[1942 eI: iv`c gMfw isMG ny SwhI dMgl jo lwhOr
hoieAw sI iv`c brkq pihlvwn ƒ Fwh ky dUsrI gurz hwsl kIqI sI[ies pihlvwn dI
qwkq dw hvwlw dyx leI A`j vI kih id`qw jWdw hY, “jwh! qUM ikhVw gMfU jOhl eyN[”
AMimRqsr Sihr dy vI. jy. hspqwl iv`c sMn 1964 iv`c ieh pihlvwn SUgr dI ibmwrI
kwrn Akwl clwxw kr igAw sI[

(10) Arjn isMG ‘FotIAW’:- rusqm-ey-ihMd

Arjn isMG pihlvwn dw jnm qW bySk izlHw lwielpur (hux &Yslwbwd,
pwiksqwn ) dy ipMf c`k nM: 521 iv`c hoieAw pr ienHW dw ipCokV ipMf FotIAW izlHw
qrn qwrn ijhVw qrn qwrn qoN 10 ik:mI: dI dUrI qy hY dw hY[ ieh ipMf pihlvwnW dy
ipMf vjoN jwxy ipMf ‘syroN’ qoN koeI pMj ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy hY[iesy krky ies
pihlvwn dy nW nwl aupnwm‘FotIAW’ juiVAw hoieAw hY[
pihlI kuSqI Arjn ny guMgy pihlvwn dy Brw ‘sdry’ nwllVI sI jo brwbr rhI
sI[dUsrw joV vI ies dw mShUr pihlvwn gMfw isMG nwl ipAw sI[ dovyN hI mhWrQI hox
krky ieh kuSqI brwbrI qy hI ^qm krnI peI sI[ies qoN ip`CoN AMimRqsr iv`c ies ny
crwZ gu`jr Aqy A`lw b^S ƒ FwihAw sI ijs ny kdI hmIdy vrgy pihlvwn ƒ nwnI Xwd
krvw id`qI sI[1937 eI: iv`c ieh isMgwpur qy iPr brmw clw igAw sI ij`Qy ies ny mYk
krYfI,gwrfn,tYf kirstI Aqy if`k rynz vrgy pihlvwnW ƒ FwihAw sI[iesy ipMf dw
dybw pihlvwn vI hoieAw hY[

(11) sR: hrnwm isMG isqwrw-ey- ihMd

hrnwm isMG pihlvwn dw jnm sMn 1908 iv`c ipMf vrHwxw (hux izlHw qrn
qwrn) dy sR: bUV isMG dy Gr hoieAw sI[ieh pihlvwn kuSqI dy dwA pyc is`Kx leI
gwmy k`lU vwly kol clw igAw Aqy aus ƒ Awpxw ausqwd bxw ilAw sI,ijs dI SigrdI
kridAW hrnwm isMG ny dyS Br iv`c Awpxy zor dIAW DuMmW pweIAW sn[
sMn 1935 iv`c ies ƒ sqwr-ey-ihMd dy snmwn nwl invwizAw igAw sI[ies ny
gwmUM pihlvwn rusqm-ey-ihMd ƒ ieMdOr ivKy FwihAw [ iPr ies ny A`lw b^S lwhOrI
Aqy srdwr ^W jlMDrI ƒ vI ic`qkIqw[bwhrly mulkW ieMfonySIAw, cIn,knyfw,ieMglYNf,
AmrIkw,jpwn Aqy AstrylIAw iv`c vI ies ny nwmvr pihlvwnW ƒ FwihAw [ies dy
vMS iv`coN ies dw pu`qr AjIq isMG vI mShUr pihlvwnW ‘coN hY[ienHW pihlvwnW qoN ibnW
mwJy dy v`K -v`K ipMfW dy pihlvwn hyT Anuswr hn:-

(12) vsx isMG pihlvwn:-ipMf FotIAW,ijlHw qrn qwrn[
(13) dybw isMG pihlvwn :- ipMf FotIAW, ijlHw qrn qwrn[
(14) Twkur isMG pihlvwn:-ipMf mwVI kMbokI (qrn qwrn)[
(15) bUtw aurP bUtI pihlvwn-ipMf mMnx nyVy Jbwl,ijlHw qrn qwrn[
(16) qyjw isMG pihlvwn:-ipMf gMfIivMf, ijlHw qrn qwrn[
(17) bcn isMG pihlvwn:-ipMf gMfy coxyky, ijlHw gurdwspur
(18) sMqoK isMG soKI pihlvwn vI Awpxy smyN dw nwmvr pihlvwn hoieAw hY[ aus dw
ipMf KlcIAW qoN ^fUr swihb dy rsqy iv`c pYNdy ipMf srwey nyVy ipMf dylWvwl sI[

AMimRqsr Sihr dy pihlvwn

AMimRqsr Sihr iv`c aus smyN AnykW hI A^wVy sn ijnNHW iv`c nwmI pihlvwn
Awpxy p`iTAW ƒ kuSqI leI iqAwr krdy sn[hux bySk pihlW vrgw SONk nhI irhw pr
A`j k`l vI ie`Qy A^wVy hn[ies Sihr dy vrnxXog pihlvwn hyT Anuswr hn:(1) Zwmw pihlvwn (Cotw)-- rusqm-ey-ihMd
(2) pihlvwn rhImw cODrI rusqm-ey-ihMd
(3) pihlvwn bwbw Pqih isMG---rusqm-ey-ihMd
(4) Aihmd b^S Bu`kI vwlw----rusqm-ey-ihMd
(5) k`lU pihlvwn---sqwr-ey-ihMd
(6) gulwm pihlvwn-- rusqm-ey-zmW
(7) AwlIAw pihlvwn--- rusqm-ey-ihMd
(8) muhMmd rmzwn (rmzI)--- dihr-aul-muk`lb
(9) cODrI rhImw--- rusqm-ey-ihMd
(10) hYdr pihlvwn
(11) ibjlI pihlvwn
(12) mnjUr hUsYn Bol
(13) hmIdw pihlvwn
( ieh vyrvy DMnvwd sihq blbIr Awsl jI rwhIN sR: blbIr isMG jI ‘kMvl’ dI pusqk
Bwrq dy pihlvwn ‘coN DMnvwd sihq ley gey hn)

***

kb`fI Aqy mJYl
Kyf jgq, Kyf dIAW AnykW vMngIAW Awpxy AMdr sMBwlI bYTw hY[hwkI,
kuSqI,r`sw-kSI, dOV, nyjw bwjI,kirkt vWg hI kb`fI vI vrnx Xog Kyf hY,ijs iv`c
ksrq kr ky kmwey hoey srIrW dI pRdrSnI dy nwl iKfwrI dI ies Kyf iv`c muhwrq dw
vI pqw l`gdw hY[^urwk KwxI, ksrq krnI Aqy srIr pwlxy mwJy dw ^wsw hY[iPr ieh
jvwn Awpxy srIr Aqy zor dI pRdrSnI krn qoN ip`Cy ikvyN rih skdy hn[ ies Kyf iv`c
do tImW dy iKfwrI vwrI vwrI bqOr ryfr bx ky dUsrI tIm dy iKfwrIAW auu~qyy hmlw krdy
hn Aqy aunHW dy Gyry iv`coN Awpxw bcwE kr ky AwpxI h`d AMdr Awaux dw auprwlw krdy
hn[ijhVw iKfwrI Awpxw swh qoVy ibnHW hI AwpxI h`d AMdr phuMc jWdw hY auh jyq U
mMinAW jWdw hY Aqy poAwieMt aus tIm dy h`k iv`c bx jWdw hY[s`c qW ieh hY ik ieh
Kyf iksy srIro kmzor Aqy kmzor idl vwly dy v`s dI Kyf hY hI nhIN[ieh qW swhnW dy
ByV vrgw mslw hY[srIr dw PurqIlwpx, qyz dOV, lMmy smyN q`k ieko swh iv`c kb`fIkb`fI lgwqwr bolx dy nwl cIqy vrgI SkqI vI zrUrI hY[

pihlvwn mihMdr isMG mMmxky

mwJy dy isr k`F iKfwrIAW dw ijkr krdy smyN ipMf mMmxky (ijlHw qrn qwrn)
ijhVw qrn qwrn qoN 16 iklo mItr dI dUrI qy lihMdy vwly pwsy Swhbwjpur A`fy qoN ie`k
iklo mItr dI dUrI qy vwikAw hY,A`KW swhmxy Aw jWdw hY[ ie`QoN dw kb`fI dw iKfwrI s:
mihMdr isMG, ijs ny pMjwb dI smu`cI kb`fI tIm ijhVIo pwiksqwn Kyfx geI sI dI
kpqwnI kIqI sI[A`j imqI 06-06-2008 ƒ Aijhw sb`b bx igAw sI ik mYƒ Awpxy
ie`k dosq sR: jsvMq isMG dI AMiqm Ardws iv`c Swml hox leI ipMf mMmx ky jwxw
ipAw[ vwpsI qy mYN Awpxy dosq sR: jsvMq isMG jI ‘iF`loN’ ƒ AwpxI ie`Cw d`sI ik mYN
Blvwn mihMdr isMG ƒ imlxw cwhuMdw hW[ auh mYƒ aunHW dy Gr lY igAw[
mYN mihMdr isMG nwl kb`fI dIAW g`lW Coh ky bYT igAw[ Blvwn ny mYƒ d`isAw
ik audoN sR: prqwp isMG jI ‘kYroN’ pMjwb dy mu`K mMqrI huMdy sn Aqy hr swl 26 jnvrI
vwly idn qrn qwrn kb`fI huMdI sI[kYroN swihb ƒ Aijhy SONk sn Aqy auh iKfwrIAW dI
kdr vI krdy sn[swfy nwl Kyfx vwilAW iKfwrIAW iv`c ikrpwl isMG ‘swD’ ipMf
rwhl cwhl dw vI sI[ swD bhuq hI vDIAw iKfwrI sI[ auh hY qW iekhry ijhy srIr
dw sI pr ijs dw vI gu`t PVH lYNdw sI iPr C`fdw nhIN sI huMdw[ieh auhdw irkwrf sI
ik aus koloN koeI gu`t nhIN sI Cufw sikAw[
ie`k iKfwrI sUbw isMG ipMf ^wrw jo srhwlI dy nyVy hY, auQoN dw sI[iesy qrHW joqw
sBrwvW vwlw,myjw isMG mnwvW dw,rCpwl isMG in`ky AYmyN dw Aqy s`jx isMG Swhbwjpur
dw sI jo swfy smyN dy kb`fI dy iKfwrI sn[BUry kony dw ie`k qr^wxw dw muMfw vI sI jo
bhuq hI jvwn sI Aqy kOfI dw cMgw iKfwrI sI ijs dw hux mYƒ nW Xwd nhIN Aw
irhw[cUslyvV dw hrbMs isMG Awpxy smyN dw iek`ly nwl iek`lw vwlI kOfI dw bhuq hI
mShUr iKfwrI huMdw sI[A`j k`lH p`DrI ipMf dw Bjw (Bjn isMG) cMgw iKfwrI d`isAw
jWdw hY[

sR: srbjIq isMG jI ‘ivrk’ swbkw fI.jI.pI.dy ipqw sR: kuldIp isMG jI
‘ivrk’ swfI kb`fI tIm ƒ pwiksqwn kb`fI dw mYc iKfwaux leI lY ky gey sn Aqy
AsIN ij`q ky Awey sW[ ieh swrI jwxkwrI mYN sR: mihMdr isMG pwsoN lY ky aus dw DMnvwd
kr vwps Aw igAw sW[gurdwspur ijlHy ipMf ‘b`brI’ dw ijMd vI Awpxy smyN dw mMinAwpRmMinAw kb`fI dw iKfwrI irhw hY[ievyN hI ^fUr swihb qoN 10 ku ikloo mItr dI dUrI qy
ipMf mIAW ivMf dw kb`fI iv`c DwvI kmljIq isMG ‘kwlw’ kb`fI iv`c nwm roSn kr irhw
hY[auh huxy huxy hI knyfw ‘qoN v`fIAW m`lW mwr ky AwieAw hY[A`j q`k auh 300 qoN v`D
tUrnwmYNtW iv`c AwpxI qwkq dw lohw mMnvw cu`ikAw hY[ ieh sB iKfwrI mwJy dy hI hIry
hn[

***

mwJy dIAW kb`fI iKfwrnW
kb`fI pihlW bySk nOjvwn g`BrUAW dI hI Kyf mMnI jWdI sI pr smyN dI bdlI
hoeI krvt ny l`g p`g hr Kyf iv`c hI lVkIAW ƒ vI Swml kr ilAw hY[ auh mrdW
vWg kirkt, hwkI, jUfo-krwty,kb`fI,kuSqI,nyjwbwzI, ifsks su`txw, lMmI Cwl mwrnI,
dOV lwauxI, g`l kI hux koeI Aijhw Kyf ^yqr nhIN irhw ijs iv`c lVkIAW ih`sw nw lY
rhIAW hox[
pMjwb dI kb`fI tIm iv`c jy A`j k`l cotI dIAW cwr iKfwrnW hn qW aunHW iv`coN
iqMn mwJy dIAW hn[myrw Bwv hY ik hrivMdr nonw, SrnjIq kOr, nvnIq Aqy rwjU mwn
cotI dIAW iKfwrnW dI igxqI iv`c AwauNdIAW hn[ kRmvwr ieh ijlHw ropV(mwlvw), ipMf
T`Tw izlHw gurdwspur (mwJw), ipMf iklHw jIvn isMG izlHw AMImRqsr (mwJw) Aqy ipMf
PqihgVH cUVIAW izlHw gurdwspur (mwJw) dIAW hn[ swP hY ik ies Kyf iv`c vI mwJy dI
srdwrI hY[
iKfwrn nvnIq kOr dw jnm 24 AprYl, 1989 eI:ƒ s:blijMdr isMG dy Gr
mwqw hrijMdr kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf iklHw jIvn isMG izlHw AMimRqsr hoieAw[ies iKfwrn ny
nOvIN jmwq q`k dI pVHweI mwnWvwlw dy srkwrI sInIAr sYkMfrI skUl iv`c kridAW
hoieAW ies Kyf dI pMjwb stwiel kb`fI iv`c pYr r`iKAw[aus dy d`sx Anusr auh
AwpxI BYx ƒ kb`fI Kyfdy vyK ky hI ies Kyf v`l auqSwihq hoeI sI Aqy aus ny kb`fI dI
iKfwrn bxn dw supnw vyiKAw sI jo aus ƒ pUrw huMdw jwpdw hY[
iKfwrn SrnjIq kOr dw jnm sMn 1989 iv`c s:ngInw isMG dy Gr mwqw sRI mqI
AmrjIq kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf T`Tw izlHw gurdwspur iv`c hoieAw[aus ny AwpxI mu`FlI pVHweI
s.s.s.skUl PqihgVH cUVIAW ijlHw gurdwspur qoN kIqI[skUl iv`c dUsrIAW lVkIAW ƒ
kb`fI KyfidAW vyK ky aus dw vI mn Kyfx ƒ au~sl v`ty lNYdw rihMdw sI[ AKIr koc sRI
Em pRkwS jI dI rihnumweI hyTW aus ny ies Kyf dy dwA-pyc is`Ky ijs dI bdOlq aus ny
AwpxI tIm iv`c Kyf dw cMgw pRdrSn krky AwpxI tIm ƒ C`qIsgVH iv`c dUsrI Aqy
sWglI(pUnw) iv`c qIsrI pujISn idvweI sI[ies qoN ielwvw ausny Epn nYSnl
cYNpIAniSp id`lI ivKy vI AwpxI cMgI Kyf dw pRdrSn kIqw sI[
kb`fI dI iKfwrn rwjU mwn dw jnm s:sMpUrn isMG dy Gr mwqw srbjIq kOr dI
ku`KoN ipMf PqihgVH cUVIAW, izlHw gurdwspur ivKy hoieAw [rwjU bcpn qoN hI kb`fI Kyfx
dI SOkIn sI[Awpxy mwqw ipqw dI h`lw SyrI Aqy Awpxy koc SRI Em pRkwS EmI dI
vDIAw isKlweI ny aus ƒ ie`k vDIAw jwPI bxw id`qw hY[ieh iKfwrn swl 2005 iv`c
hYdrwbwd iv`c hoeI sInIAr nYSnl kb`fI cYNpIAniSp Aqy soln (ihmwcl pRdys) iv`c
hoeI ieMtr XUnIvristI cYNpIAniSp iv`c ie`k vDIAw jwPI vjoN auBrI hY[ ieh iKfwrn
“hr mswly ipplw mUl” Bwv sB pwsy hI cMgI swbq hox vwlI is`D hoeI hY[ kyvl KyfW
iv`c hI nhIN, pVHn iv`c vI bhuq huiSAwr hY[ ieh bYfimMtn Kyfx dw vI SOk r`KdI hY[
fyrw bwbw nwnk ivKy rwjU ƒ pMjwb srkwr v`loN snmwinq vI kIqw jw cu`kw hY[ ies dy
supinAw iv`c sB qy BwrU ies dI ieh ^wihS hY AweI.pI.AYs bxnw[

***

AiDAwie:-pMjvW

svqMqrqw sMgRwm lihr,
gruduAwrw suDwr lihrW,
kUkw lihr,
swikAW Aqy GlUGwirAW
iv`c
mJYlW dw Xogdwn

AwzwdI sMgrwm dw pihlw is`K ShId

BweI mhwrwj isMG jI

AMgryjW dy gulwmI dy jUly iv`coN isr k`Fx leI ArMiBAw igAw auprwlw
ieiqhwskwrW Anuswr sMn 1857 dw gdr mMinAw jWdw hY jdoN ik s`c qW ieh hY ik ieh
rwijAW rjvwiVAW dw AwpxI Ku`s cu`kI qwkq dI muV pRwpqI dw auprwlw sI[ies ƒ
AwzwdI dI lok lihr kihxw iksy qrHW vI auic`q nhIN ikauNik AjwdI pRwpqI dI jMg dw
ibgl qW bhuq pihlW hI sMn 1850 iv`c BweI mhwrwj isMG v`loN AMgryjW dy ivru`D
vjwieAw jw cu`kw sI[iesy kVI dI pYrvI krdw hoieAw kUkw lihr dw Awgwz sMn 1960
iv`c hoieAw sI[Asl iv`c AwzwdI pRwpqI leI ieh lok lihrW sn ijnHW rwhIN AMgryz
srkwr ƒ is`Dy qOr qy vMgwirAw igAw sI[ieiqhwskwr iehnW lihrW ƒ A`KoN proKy kr ky
isrP sMn 1857 dy gdr ƒ AwzwdI pRwpqI dw AwrMB kih ky iehnW lihrW nwl ^ws
krky is`KW dIAW kurbwnIAW dw glq mUlAMkx kr rhy hn[ieiqhwskwrW ƒ ies v`l
iDAwn dyx dI loV hY[
gurU goibMd isMG jI ny is`K kOm dI isrjnw krky ijs qrHW dy Kwlsy dy rUp dw
mwfl mn iv`c icqivAw sI auh ie`k sMq ispwhI dw rUp sI[iehI kwrn hY ik jdoN vI
dyS jW kOm qy BIV bxI qW ies kOm ny AwpxI jwn dI pRvwh kIqy bgYr aus vMgwr ƒ
pRvwn kIqw[sR: inhwl isMG ijnHW ƒ Awm krky BweI mhwrwj isMG dy nW nwl jwixAw
jWdw hY AslI ArQW iv`c ie`k sMq-ispwhI sn, ijnNHw dw swrw jIvn hI kOm leI
jUJidAw bqIq hoieAw[auh s`cy-su`cy jIvn vwly guris`K sn[inhwl isMG dw jnm 13
jnvrI,1770 eI: ƒ ipMf rubo au~cI (mlOd) izlHw luiDAwxw iv`c hoieAw[inhwl isMG
ArQwq mhwrwj isMG jI dy mu`Fly jIvn bwry bhuqw pqw nhIN l`gdw, kyvl ieh hI q`Q
imldy hn ik auh bwbw bIr isMG jI nOrMgwbwd vwilAW dy syvk sn[bwbw bIr isMG jI
kol Awaux qoN pihlW auh Awpxy ipMf ‘rubo’ nyVy TIkrIvwly dy inrmilAW dy fyry qy rihMdy
sn[
mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy smyN Aqy ies qoN ip`CoN vI bwbw bIr isMG jI dw is`K
hlikAW iv`c cMgw Awdr snmwn sI[bwbw bIr isMG jI dI AwdrS SKsIAq qoN BweI
mhwrwj isMG ieMny pRBwvq hoey sn ik auh fyry iv`c hI rih ky qno mnoN syvw krn l`g pey
sn[mhwrwj isMG dI inSkwm syvw,im`TI Awvwz Aqy rUhwnI soc ny CyqI hI aunHW ƒ sBnW
iv`c hrmn ipAwrw Aqy siqkwrXog bxw id`qw sI[BweI swihb dy s`cy-su`cy jIvn qoN is`K
hI nhIN muslmwn vI pRBwvq sn Aqy aunHW dw cMgw mwx snmwn krdy sn[aunHW dy ies
pRBwv sdkw hI aunHW ƒ ‘mhwrwj’ kih ky blwauNdy sn[
jlMDr dy aus smyN dy kimSnr mYklf Anuswr “ BweI swihb keI p`KW qoN bhuq
mh`qvpUrn ivAkiqqv dy mwlk sn[aunHW kol Aiq dw svY-ivSvwS Aqy isAwxp
sI[auh ieMny gihr gMBIr Aqy isAwxy sn ik aunHW dy mn dI g`l dw kyvl aunHW ƒ
hI pqw huMdw sI jW aus bwry iksy ƒ audoN hI pqw l`gdw sI jdoN auh aus ƒ AmlI

rUp dy lYNdy sn[auh nw isrP koeI ivauNq bxw skdy sn sgoN aus ƒ v`K v`K
ivAkqIAW dI mdd nwl isry cwVHn dI Xogqw vI r`Kdy sn[”
mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy Akwl clwxy ip`CoN is`K rwj qyjI nwl fogirAW Aqy
AMgryzW dI kutl nIqI dw iSkwr ho igAw[ bwbw bIr isMG jI vI ies g`l qoN bhuq du`KI
sn[ pMQ drdI hox krky auh ieh qmwSw cu`p cwp nhIN sn vyK skdy[aunHW ny srdwrW ƒ
jQybMd krnw SurU kr id`qw[ rwjw hIrw isMG ny, ijhVw nwbwlg dlIp isMG dy rwj g`dI
qy bYTx smyN rwj kwj dy swry AiDkwr sWBI bYTw sI, bwbw bIr isMG jI dy fyry qy ho
rhIAW srgrmIAW ƒ dbwaux leI POj cwVH idqI[POj nwl ies mu`T ByV iv`c bwbw bIr
isMG jI ShId ho gey sn[
bwbw bIr isMG jI dI Shwdq qoN ip`CoN BweI mhwrwj isMG ny ies fyry dI AgvweI
dI vwg for sMBwlI[sMn 1846 q`k auh fyry iv`c rih ky ijvyN ikvyN Awpxy Prj inBwauNdy
rhy pr jdoN vyiKAw ik hux AMgryz AwpxIAW nIc hrkqW qoN bwj nhIN Aw rhy qW aunHW ny
ienHW nwl do h`Q krn dw mn bxw ilAw[aunHW ny nOrMgwbwd dw fyrw C`f id`qw Aqy
AMimRqsr jw fyry lwey, ij`QoN auh ipMf ipMf c`kr lwauNdy Aqy Awpxy kwrj dI pUrqI leI
lokW ƒ lwmbMd krdy rhy[aunHW dIAW srgrmIAW dw is`tw pRis`D ‘pRymw swijS’ dy rUp
iv`c swhmxy AwieAw[ies swijS dw mMqv sI rYzIfYNt hYnrI lwrMs, dyS DRohI fogirAW
Aqy aunHW dy swQIAW ƒ 21 AprYl,1847 eI: ƒ SwlImwr bwZ lwhOr iv`c hox vwlI
mIitMg smyN kql krnw[ies mIitMg iv`c lwhOr drbwr dy kuJ srdwr Aqy mhwrwxI izMdW
dy Swml hox krky ies skIm ƒ isry nw cwiVHAw jw sikAw[ bdiksmqI nwl ies
swijS dw AMgryzW ƒ vI pqw l`g igAw[ swry pMjwb iv`c PVHo-PVHI dw dOr SurU ho igAw
sI[AMgryzW v`loN doSIAW ƒ pnwh dyx vilAW ƒ kYd Aqy jwiedwd zbq krn dy hukm
jwrI kr id`qy gey sn[
BweI swihb dy bhuq swry in`jI syvk PVH ley gey sn ijnHW ƒ qsIhy dy ky BweI
swihb dw pqw itkwxw pu`iCAw jw irhw sI pr iksy vI mUMh nw KoilHAw[BweI mhwrwj
isMG jI dI jwiedwd kurk kr leI geI Aqy aunHW ƒ PVwaux qy ds hjwr rupey dw
ienwm r`iKAw igAw[ieh sB sKqIAW dy bwvjUd vI ieh isrl`Q XoDw Awpxy rwh qoN nw
iQVikAw[pRymw swijS AsPl hox qoN CyqI hI ip`CoN AprYl,1848 eI: iv`c dIvwn swvx
m`l dy hoxhwr pu`qr dIvwn mUl rwj ny mulqwn iv`c AMgryzW ivru`D Ku`lHI bgwvq kr
id`qI[mhwrwxI izMdW ny aus dI mdd dw AYlwn kr id`qw sI ijs krky AMgryzW ny
mhwrwxI ijMdW ƒ dyS inkwlw dy id`qw[auic`q mOkw jwx BweI mhwrwj isMG ny mwJy iv`c
bgwvq dw JMfw cu`k ilAw Aqy ipMfW iv`c lokW ƒ AMgryzW iKlwP lwmbMd krnw SurU kr
id`qw[ khwvq hY “duSmx dw duSmx Apxw dosq[” mUl rwj dw sunyhw imlx qy BweI
swihb ny mulqwn v`l kUc kr id`qw[BweI swihb dI mdd nwl mUl rwj dI bgwvq
AMgryzW leI v`fI isrdrdI bx geI sI[AMgryzW ny BweI swihb ƒ PVHn leI kYptn
kOks ƒ do vwDU AMgryj pltnW, ie`k rjmYNt Aqy qopKwny smyq ByijAw igAw sI pr BweI
swihb AMgryz puils Aqy POj dy h`Q nw Awey[BweI mhwrwj isMG ny mulqwn dI bgwvq
iv`c mUl rwj dI cMgI mdd kIqI sI pr CyqI hI auh mUl rwj nwl nrwz ho gey sn
ikauNik mUl rwj lVn vwly ispwhIAW ƒ bhuq QoVHI qnKwh idMdw sI[
mulqwn qoN vwps Aw ky BweI swihb ny jsvW Aqy k`t lihr dy rwjpUq rwijAW,
aUny dy bwbw ibkrm isMG, krqwrpur dy l`Dw isMG,nUrpur dy rwm isMG Aqy rMGV nMgl dy
lwl isMG Aqy Arjn isMG ƒ nwl lY ky nvyN isirEN AMgryzW ivru`D bgwvq dw ibgl vjw
id`qw pr AMgryzW ny ies ƒ CyqI hI dbw id`qw sI[ies auprMq mhwrwj isMG ny AtwrI
vwly srdwrW dI shwieqw krky,srdwr cqur isMG ƒ ies dw AwgU bxw nvI lihr
AwrMBI[ cyilAW vwlw Aqy gujrwq dIAW lVweIAW iv`c BweI mhwrwj isMG ft ky
liVAw[ ienHW lVweIAW iv`c AMgryzW ƒ inrwSw BrI hwr hoeI ijs dy nqIjy vjoN AMgryz
kmWfr gP ƒ vwps vlYq bulw ilAw sI Aqy aus dI QW qy nypIAr ƒ Bwrq ByijAw
igAw sI[

gujrwq dI lVweI ies kVI dI AwiKrI lVweI sI ijhVI sImq swDnW krky isMG
hwr gey sn[ienHW dw ip`Cw jnrl iglbrt ny 15,000 jvwnW Aqy BwrI qopKwny nwl
krnw SurU kIqw[ BweI mhwrwj isMG dw qW ivcwr sI ik ie`k vwr rwvlipMfI jW hsn
Abdwl (pMjw swihb) iv`c AMgryzW nwl do tu`k lVweI lVI jwvy pr AtwrI dy srdwrW ny
ieh qzvIj nw mMnI Aqy 14 mwrc, 1849 eI: ƒ rwvlipMfI dy AsQwn qy hiQAwr su`tx
dw PYslw ilAw[ BweI swihb ƒ AtwrI vwilAW qoN bhuq AwsW sn pr aunHW dI ies
kwrvweI qoN auh bhuq du`KI hoey sn[
pMjwb iv`c AMgryzW dy pYr p`ky ho cu`ky sn Aqy auh BweI swihb dIAW gqI
ivDIAW qoN vI cukMny sn[BweI swihb jwx cu`ky sn ik aunHW dw lVweI dw gurIlw FMg
pMjwb iv`c nhIN c`l skdw ies leI auh jMmU v`l inkl gey Aqy Awpxy syvkW ƒ hdwieq
kIqI ik aunHW dy Agly hukmW q`k auh ipMfW iv`c iKMf puMf jwx[jMmU qoN auh iBMbr, AKnUr
qy dyvI vtwly cly gey[ ieh ielwkw jMglW nwl iGirAw hox krky mhwrwj isMG jI leI
srgrmIAW jwrI r`Kx leI sur`iKAq Aqy auic`q AsQwn sI[aunHW ny dyvI vtwlw Aqy
cMbI dovW QwvW qy fyry jmweIy r`Ky[ieQoN BweI swihb ny dubwrw AMgryzW ivru`D Awpxw
sMGrS AwrMiBAw[aunHW ny pihlW dyS DrohIAW nwl nij`Tx dw mn bxwieAw Aqy cMbI nyVy
rwm ngr dy ikly qy h`lw kIqw[iPr BweI swihb ny jMmU kSmIr dw ielwkw C`f ky btwly
(izlHw gurdwspur)nyVy Aw fyry lwey sn[
BweI swihb ny mhwrwjw dlIp isMG ƒ AMgryzI pRBwv qoN mukq krvwaux dI Xojnw
bxweI ijs qihq aunHW ny vIh mMny-pRmMny Aqy dlyr srdwrW ƒ ies kMm leI cuixAw,ijnHW
iv`c kmWfYNt pRym isMG,rwm isMG rwvl,bUtw isMG, jvwhr isMG srhwlI, mihqwb isMG
nOSihrw, BUup isMG, dl isMG pRmu`K ivAkqI sn[iksmq ny ie`Qy vI mhwrwj isMG dw swQ
nw id`qw Aqy smyN isr ies swijS dw pqw AMgryzW ƒ l`g igAw[ ies swijS iv`c Swml
keI srdwr igRPqwr kr ley gey [mhwrwj isMG jI dy syvk tolIAW dy rUp iv`c kwbl
Aqy kMDwr v`l inkl gey sn[Awpxy syvkW ƒ BweI mhwrwj isMG ny hdwieq kIqI hoeI
sI ik auh gRMQI isMGW dI mdd nwl Awm AwdmIAW iv`c ivcrdy hoey lokW ƒ AMgryzW
ivru`D lwmb`D krn[BweI mhwrwj isMG Awp ibjlI dI qyzI nwl huiSAwrpur, kpUrQlw
Aqy AMimRqsr dy ipMfW iv`c kuJ hI idnW iv`c GuMm gey[aunHW dw mn sI POj dIAW
CwauNxIAW iv`c ies jdo-jihd dw pRcwr krnw Aqy srkwrI Kzwnw lu`txw[mhwrwj isMG
jI ƒ jn sDwrn dw BrpUr huMgwrw imilAw[ieMnIN hI idnI BweI swihb ny kwbl dy AmIr
dosq muhMmd Kwn ƒ mdd leI sunyhw vI ByijAw[mhwrwj isMG ƒ kwbl dy AmIr dw mdd
dw sunyhw vI imilAw pr auh AwriQk qMgI kwrn qruMq koeI kdm cu`kx qoN AsmrQ
sn[ienHW hwlwqW iv`c vI BweI swihb dw hONslw bulMd sI[
sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dI hjUrI iv`c vwk ilAw igAw Aqy 20 poh,1849 eI: ƒ
huiSAwrpur Aqy jlMDr dIAW CwauNxIAW qy hmlw krn dw idn inscq kIqw igAw[ieh
AYlwn krky BweI swihb tWfw,hzUrw,kMfolw bwlIvwl, Awdmpur, Swm curwsI Awid ipMfW
dy dOry qy inkl gey [AMgryz srkwr vI AvyslI nhIN sI bYTI[aus dy sUhIey ku`iqAW vWg
QW QW hrl-hrl krdy iPr rhy sn[28 dsMbr,1849 eI: ƒ sUhIey rwhIN jlMDr dy
ifptI kimSnr, hYnrI vYinstwrt ƒ Kbr imlI ik BweI mhwrwj isMG Swm curwsI Aqy
Awdmpur dy KyqW iv`c mIitMg kr irhw hY[J`t p`t puils Pors ny KyqW ƒ Gyrw pw ilAw[
AMgryzW nwl ies mu`T ByV iv`c BweI swihb dw swQI AmIr isMG mwirAw igAw Aqy 21
kuu isMGW smyq BweI swihb ƒ, ijnHW kol aus smyN svY r`iKAw leI koeI hiQAwr vI nhI
sI, igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw[
igRPqwrI auprMq BweI swihb dI Snw^q ho jwx ip`CoN hI AMgryz srkwr ny su`K dw
swh ilAw[BweI swihb dI igRPqwrI dw sux ky hjwrW is`K zylH dI hdUd AMdr iek`Ty hox
l`g pey sn[AMgryz ƒ fr sI ik ikDry ieh hjUm jylH qy hmlw kr ky BweI swihb ƒ
Cufw hI nw ley[iesy fr qihq BweI mhwrwj isMG, ijnHW ƒ zMjIrW iv`c jkV ky sKq
pihry hyTW kYd koTVI iv`c f`ikAw hoieAw sI,AMgryz pRSwSkI borf dI hdwieq qy
bRgyfIAr vIlHr dI ingrwnI hyT jlMDr qoN Alwhbwd Byj id`qw [lwrf flhOjI dw idl

audoN q`k frdw irhw sI jdoN q`k BweI swihb pMjwb qoN bwhr nhIN sn Byj id`qy gey[30
jnvrI,1850 eI: ƒ lwrf flhOjI dy hukmW dI pwlxw krdy hoey BweI swihb ƒ
Alwhbwd qoN klk`qy phuMcw id`qw igAw[swry rwh hI mhwrwj isMG ƒ byVIAW pw ky r`KIAW
geIAW sn[klk`qy dy ivlIAm Port iklHy iv`c mhInw ku r`Kx bwAd 15 meI ƒ BweI
swihb ƒ smuMdrI jhwz rwhIN isMGwpur Byj id`qw igAw [ijnW icr q`k ieh smuMdrI jhwj
fUMGy pwxI iv`c nhIN sI phuMc igAw mhwrwj isMG jI dIAW byVIAW nhIN sn auqwrIAW
geIAW[
9 jUn 1850 eI: ƒ BweI swihb ƒ isMGwpur dI kYd koTVI ijhVI dUsrI mMizl qy
sI ies froN kYd kr id`qw igAw ik ikDry auh dOV nw jwx[ies koTVI dIAW cwnx
Awaux leI bxweIAW dovyN iKVkIAW vI bMd kr id`qIAW geIAW sn Aqy brWfy ƒ ie`k
mjbUq lohy dy drvwzy nwl bwkI kmirAW nwloN iblkul inKyV id`qw igAw sI[ies G`up
hnyrI koTVI iv`c rwq idn sMglW nwl nUV hoey BweI mhwrwj isMG dI ishq ivgVn
l`gI[aunHW dI nzr vI kmzor hox l`g peI sI Aqy joVW dw drd vI zor PVHdw jw irhw
sI pr Dn sI mwJy dw sUrbIr ijs ny au~P q`k nw kIqI Aqy ieh swry qsIhy iKVy m`Qy
sihMdw irhw[Agsq 1851 eI: ƒ ie`k ic`TI rwhIN isMGwpur qy hor twpUAW dy AMgryz
gvrnr ny Bwrq srkwr ƒ iliKAw sI-“ jdoN dy BweI swihb swfI jylH iv`c Awey hn, aunHW dw ivvhwr iblkul TIk irhw
hY[ijs qrIky nwl aunHW ny sB musIbqW qy kSt shwry hn Aqy foly nhIN, auh sB
kuJ is`K gurUAW v`loN d`sy rwh dy AnkUl hY[”
rYjImYNt kONsl ny vI Bwrq srkwr ƒ mhwrwj isMG jI ƒ kuJ Ku`lHw smW dyx bwry
isPwrS kIqI sI ik aunHW ƒ hvw ^orI leI bwhr iljwxw zrUrI hY BwvyN Aijhw krVI
ingrwnI hyT hI ikauN nw kIqw jwvy[ Bwrq srkwr ny ieh mwmUlI KulH dyx qoN vI swP
ienkwr kr id`qw sI[ jnvrI,1853 eI: ƒ BweI swihb dI A`KW
dI joq iblkul bMd ho geI Aqy auh AMnHy ho gey sn[
AMq 5 julweI,1856 eI: ƒ ieh AwzwdI sMgrwm dI lt lt bldI SmW sdw leI
buJ geI[BweI swihb dy sbr dI dwd dyx qoN duSmx AMgryz nhIN sI rih sikAw[
vYintwrt dy SbdW iv`c, “mYN qW cwhuMdw sI ik ies bMdy dI gOrvqw ƒ nzr AMdwz kr
C`fW qy ies nwl Awm kYdI vWg hI slUk krW[ pr ies iv`cly s`cy -su`cy Dwrimk
jIvn swhmxy myrI ieauN krn dI ihMmq nhIN qy nw hI mYN ieauN kr ky mhwn is`K kOm
dI kropI mu`l lY skdw hW[” Swied Aijhy AwzwdI GulwtIAW leI hI ieh ikhw igAw
hY:“ShId dI mOq kOm dI hXwq huMdI hY[”

***

AwzwdI sMgrwm dw ie`k pihlU
kUkw lihr Aqy mJYl

siqgurU rwm isMG jI
nwmDwrI sMpRdwie dy moFI siqgurU rwm isMG jI ies g`l qoN BlI BWq jwxU sn ik
AMgryz srkwr dI pwVo Aqy rwj kro dI kuitl nIqI nwl BwrqIAW dy mnoN bl ƒ Fwh
lw rhI hY[auhnW ny ies dy ivroD iv`c ies dy qoV leI juVo Aqy jUJo dw isDWq dy ky lokW
ƒ jwigRq kIqw[AMgrz srkwr ƒ mwq dyx leI auhnW ny brwbr dI srkwr bxw ky
AMgryzW nwl nw imlvrqx dI lihr dw ArMB kIqw sI[ies lihr Anuswr auhnW ny hokw
id`qw sI BwrqI lok :1. AMgryz srkwr dI nOkrI nw krn[
2. srkwr dy clwey hoey skUlW iv`c b`icAW ƒ ividAw nw dvwaux[
3. srkwrI AdwlqW dw bweIkwt krn[
4. ivdySI bxIAW vsqW dw bweIkwt krn[
5. fwk qwr Aqy ryl dw bweIkwt krn[ies qrHW krnw is`Dy qOr qy AMgryz srkwr ivru`D
bgwvq krnw sI[ ies sMpRdwie dy pYrokwr aucI aucI Sbd pVHdy hoey glIAW bjwrW iv`coN
lMGdy Aqy nwl nwl ies g`l dw vI pRcwr krdy sn[ ies krky iehnW ƒ ‘kUky’ ikhw
jWdw sI, ikauNik ieh kUk kUk Bwv au~cI-au~cI bol kyy ies dw pRcwr krdy sn[
AMgryz Bwrq vwsIAW dIAW Dwirmk BwvnwvW ƒ Tys mwrn leI Aqy auhnW ƒ
gulwm hox dw Aihsws krvwaux dy nwl nwl ihMdU, is`K Aqy muslmwnW iv`c qRyV pwaux
leI hr h`Q-Arbw vrqdy sn[iesy mqlb ƒ pUrw krn leI hI auhnW v`loN AMimRqsr,
mlyr kotlw Aqy rwey kot dy Dwrimk AsQwnW nyVy bu`cVKwnyN KulHvw id`qy sn[ auh jwxdy
sn ik ihMdU / is`KW leI smwj iv`c gaU mW dw drjw r`KdI hY[iehnW bu`cVKwinAW iv`c
gaUAW ƒ v`Fxw hI nhIN sI SurU ho igAw sgoN iehnW bu`cVW v`loN gW dw mws vyicAw jwxw
vI SurU ho igAw sI[nwmDwrIAW lokW koloN ieh sihx nw ho sikAw Aqy auhnW dI AMgryz
srkwr nwl is`DI t`kr ho geI[nwmDwrIAW ny AMimRqsr iv`cly bu`cVW dw kql kr
id`qw,ijs dI sjw vjoN nwmDwrIAW ƒ PVH ky SryAwm PWsI dy id`qI geI[
“ qyrI Srn myry dIn idAwlw, suK swgr myry gur gopwlw[
kr ikrpw nwnk gux gwvy, rwKo srx AswfI jIE”[
ies Sbd dw jwp krdy hoey ieh mJYl nwmDwrI is`K ijhVyo iesy hI ielwky dy
rihx vwly sn ny Awpxy h`QIN r`sy Awpxy glW iv`c pw ky ShIdI dw jwm pIqw sI[ienHW
ShIdW qy is`K kOm ƒ mwx qW hY hI mwJy dw isr vI &Kr nwl au~cw huMdw hY[

14 jUn, 1871 dI A`DI rwq ƒ nwmDwrI is`KW dy ie`k jQy nyN AMimRqsr dy
bu`cVKwinAW auqy hmly kr ky ijbwh krn leI b`DIAW hoeIAW gwvW dy r`sy v`F id`qy Aqy
mukwbly leI Awey bu`cVW qy qlvwrW, briCAW Aqy gMfwisAW nwl hmlw krky hnyry dI
AwV iv`c ikDry Alop gey sn[iehnW iv`c mu`K qOr qy Swml nwmDwrI is`KW ƒ iesy hI
doS iv`c 15sqMbr,1871 ƒ ie`k bohV nwl jo ik A`j vI V.J. Hospital, Amritsar dy
drvwjy nwl lgdy QW qy KVw auhnW ShIdw dI Xwd qwjw kr irhw hY[iehnW nwmDwrI
is`KW ƒ SryAwm ivSyS qOr qy iqAwr kIqy rySm dy r`isAW nwl jo Kws qOr qy iesy hI kMm
leI iqAwr kIqw igAw sI, Pwhy lw id`qw igAw sI[ieh is`K ieSnwn krn auprMq ieh
Sbd pVHdy hoey Awp c`l ky PWsI vwlI QW qy pu`jy sn:(AMimRqsr Sihr iv`c bohV dw auh ru`K ijs nwl nwmDwrIAW ƒ Pwhy lwieAw sI)[
A`j k`lH ies boVH dy nwl hI ie`k ip`pl dw ru`K vI hY[ bohV dy tihx zmIn v`l
Ju`ky hn ijvy auh ienHW shIdw dw sog mnw rhy hox[

***

AMimRqsr dy swky dy ShId

15 sqMbr,sMn 1871 ƒ AMimRqsr iv`c cwr nwmDwrI is`K SryAwm PWsI lw ky ShId kIqy
gey sn[
1. ShId lihxw isMG jI:- lihxw isMG jI dy ipqw dw nwm sR: ms`dw isMG Aqy mwqw
dw nwm sdw kOr sI ijhVy rwmgVHIAw is`K sn[aunHW dI goq B`tI sI[ BweI lihxw isMG
jI ipMf pMnvW (audoN ieh ipMf qihsIl SkrgVH , izlHw gurdwspur iv`c sI hux ieh
pwiksqwn iv`c cilAw igAw hY[) iv`c pYdw hoey sn[kMm kwr leI auh Awpxy nwnky
AMimRqsr Aw geyy sn qy ie`Qy hI v`s gey sn[
2. ShId bIhlw isMG jI:-BweI bIhlw isMG jI ijmINdwrw pRvwr nwl sbMDq sn Aqy
aunHW dI goq sMDU sI[ BweI bIhlw isMG dw jnm ipMf nwrlI, blwk iB`KIivMf qihsIl
p`tI izlHw AMimRqsr ( hux qrn qwrn ) iv`c hoieAw [aus dI Ajy SwdI vI nhI sI hoeI
jdoN auh ShId kr id`qy gey sn[BweI bIhlw isMG dy do Brw ijaux isMG Aqy gurid`q
isMG sn[nwrlI ipMf iB`KIivMf qoN koeI 10 ku iklo mItr dI dUrI qy siQq hY[
3. ShId hwkm isMG jI ptvwrI:-hwkm isMG jI jwq dy mwrkMfy bRwhmx sn Aqy goq
kwnS sI[hwkm isMG jI dy ipqw dw nwm sRI rUpw sI[BweI swihb dw jnm ipMf mOVy klW,
hux blwk cugwvW, qihsIl Ajnwlw izlHw AMimRqsr iv`c hoieAw[ aunHW dw pihlw nwm
hwkm rwey sI[auh ApxI ivDvw mwqw dy ieklOqy pu`qr sn[
4. sMq Piqh isMG jI:-ieh AMimRqsr Sihr dy vwsI sn Aqy ie`Qy hI dukwn krdy sn[
auh nOjvwn AvsQw iv`c hI ShId ho gey sn[
5. ShId JMfw isMG jI:-auh ijmINdwr sn Aqy aunHW dI goq AOlK sI[BweI JMfw isMG
ipMf T`Tw (rwvl), hux blwk cogwvW qihsIl Ajnwlw, izlHw AMimRqsr dy nwmDwrI is`K
sn[ipMf mOVy klW qoN ies ipMf dw Pwslw krIb 5 iklo mItr dw hY[JMfw isMG jI ƒ
AMimRqsr dy swky dy mukdmy iv`c BgOVw krwr id`qw igAw sI Aqy do swl bwAd aunHW ƒ
kwbl qoN vwpsI qy AMgryz srkwr v`loN 11 Agsq,sMn 1873 ƒ PiVAw igAw [ ie`k idn
iv`c hI muk`dmy dI swrI kwrvweI pUrI krky 12 Agsq, sMn 1873 ƒ doSI TihrwieAw
igAw Aqy ausy hI idn PWsI dy ky ShId kr id`qw igAw sI[

AMimRqsr dy swky iv`c kwly pwxI dI szw k`tx vwly:-

ShId ispwhI lwl isMG Aqy ShId lihxw isMG jI spu`qr sR: bulwkw isMG dovyN hI
AMimRqsr dy rihx vwly sn ijhnW qy AMimRqsr dy swky mgroN c`ly mukd
` my iv`c 31 Agsq
sMn 1871 ƒ kwly pwxI dI szw ho geI sI[ ieh kwly pwxI qoN muV vwps Awpxy vqn
nhI sn Awey[

mlyrkotlw dy swky iv`c ShId hox vwly

1. ShId hwkm isMG jI :-ShId lihxw isMG jI dy ipqw dw nwm sR: bu`D isMG jI sI
ijhVy ipMf Jbwl, qihsIl Aqy izlHw qrn qwrn dy rihx vwly sn[Jbwl AMimRqsr qoN
Kymkrn sVk qy siQq hY[ qrn qwrn qoN Jbwl ƒ vI sVk jWdI hY[ ieh qrn qwrn qoN
lgpg 17iklo mItr dI dUrI qy hY[
mlyrkotly dy swky iv`c 68 nwmDwrI is`KW ƒ Syrpur dy Qwxy ‘coN ilAw ky 17
jnvrI, sMn1872 ƒ muk`dmw clwieAw igAw sI[ auhnW iv`c do bIbIAw ( mweI ieMd kOr
Aqy mweI Kym kOr ) ƒ C`f ky 49 is`KW ƒ mlyr kotlw dy r`kV iv`c qopW nwl aufw id`qw
igAw sI[bwkIAW ƒ s`q-s`q dIAW tolIAW bxw ky 18 jnvrI, sMn 1872 iv`c ShId
kIqw igAw sI[ShId hox vwly is`KW ivcoN Awp vI mlyr kotly dy swky iv`c mwJy dy ShId
vwilAW ‘coN ie`k hn[

svqMqrqw sMgrwm
iv`c jylHW k`tx vwly nwmDwrI mJYl is`K
1. sUbw swihb isMG:-‘sUbw’ Sbd nwmDwrI sMpRdwie iv`c ie`k ruqbw hY ijs qrHW
AkwlIAW iv`c ‘jQydwr’ hY[sUbw swihb isMG jI dy ipqw sR: idAwl isMG jI ipMf

bnvwlI pur (ijs ƒ bMgwlI puur vI ikhw jWdw hY ), blwk nOSihrw pMnUMAW, qihsIl Aqy
izlHw qrn qwrn dy rihx vwlyy sn[auh rwmgVHIAw brwdrI dy sn Aqy qrKwxw kMm krdy
sn[swihb isMG dw jnm sMn 1834 iv`c hoieAw [sUbw swihb isMG dy Awpxy kQn
Anuswr auh kUkw bxn qoN 9 swl pihlW audwsI swD bixAw irhw sI[Adn jylH qoN hjwrI
bwg (ibhwr) jylH iv`c Awaux qoN bwAd s^q kYd iv`c 10 jUn,sMn 1876 ƒ sUbw swihb
isMG Awpxy pRwx iqAwgy sn[pMjwb dy svqMqrqw sMgrwm dy gOrvmeI ieiqhws iv`c ies
mJYl dw nW sdw Amr rhygw[
AMgryj APsr mYknb ny sUbw swihb isMG bwry Awpxy ivcwr ies qrHW ibAwn kIqy
hn:- “cqur nzrW iv`coN ierwdw t`pkdw hY Aqy auh sUibAW iv`coN sB qoN huiSAwr hY[”
2.sUbw rUV isMG dw jnm sMn 1831 iv`c hoieAw[ auh sUbw swihb isMG jI dy sky Brw
sn[
AMgryj APsr mYknb Anuswr:-“bMdw inswny vwlw nhIN, swihb isMG dw BweI hoxw hI
ayus dw ruqbw hY”[s^q kYd iv`c BweI rUV isMG nvMbr,sMn1884 ƒ iklHw AsIr gVH ivKy
pRwx iqAwg igAw[
3. sUbw hukm kOr:-siqgurU rwm isMG jI dI SurU kIqI hoeI nw-imlvrqx dI lihr ƒ
sucwrU FMg nwl clwaux leI swry ielwky iv`c 22 sUibAW dI sQwpnw kIqI geI sI[
iehnW iv`c mweI hukm kOr ipMf virAWh, hux blwk cohlw,qihsIl Aqy izlHw qrn qwrn
ƒ vI sUbw QwipAw igAw sI[bIbI hukm kOr ny suqMqrqw sMgrwm iv`c jylHW vI k`tIAW [
4. BweI nYxW isMG jI:-BweI nYxW isMG jI sUbw hukm kOr dy Brw sn[iehnW vI ies
lihr iv`c AjwdI pRwpqI leI keI vwr jylH Xwqrw kIqI sI[
5. BweI myjw isMG:-‘kUkw AMdoln’ dy nwmDwrI is`K BweI myjw isMG sMDU
(izmIdwr)spu`qr sR: bu`D isMG ipMf suhwvw, blwk cohlw swihb, ijlHw qrn qwrn dy
svqMqrqw sMgrwmI sn[BweI myjw isMG pihlW AMgryz POj iv`c sn pr bwAd iv`c
ieDroN inkl ky nyqw jI suBwS cMdr dI bxweI hoeI Azwd ihMd POj iv`c Swml ho gey
sn[AMgryzW v`loN aunHW ƒ vyKidAW hI golI mwr dyx dw hukm sI[sMn 1937 qoN 1947eI:
q`k auh lwpqw rhy [
6. BweI Bgvwn isMG jI AVbMgI :-‘kUkw AMdoln’ dy ie`k auGy nwiek BweI Bgvwn
isMG jI AVbMMgI ipMf mrwhxw, blwk nOiShrw pMnUMAW, ijlHw qrn qwrn dy pRmu`K
svqMqrqw sMgrwmI rhy hn[aunHW dw jnm sMn 1820 dy nyVy-qyVy hoieAw d`isAw jWdw
hY[aunHW ny krIb 70 swl dI aumr iv`c ie`k hMkwrI ispwhI gyNdw isMG ijhVw nwmDwrI
is`KW ƒ bhuq ijAwdw qMg kirAw krdw sI,ƒ kql kr id`qw sI[ 2 jUn,sMn 1871 qoN
mwrc, sMn 1912 q`k BweI Bgvwn isMG ny pUry 41 swl svqMqrqw sMgrwm dy Gol iv`c
bqIq kIqy sn[
7. BweI myhr isMG ipMf lopoky, blwk cogwvW, qihsIl Ajnwlw,ijlHw AMimRqsr dw rihx
vwlw sn[ myhr isMG AMimRqsr dy kys iv`c BgOVw irhw Aqy auh Awpxw nWA sMqw isMG
r`K ky ivcrdw irhw sI[

***

(ieh vyrvy DMnvwd sihq sR: Swm isMG jI nwmDwrI qrn qwrn rwhIN pusqk “kUkw
AMdoln dy mhwn suqMqrqw sMgrwmI nwmDwrI ShId” qy ADwirq hn )

Cotw G`lUGwrw

Bwrq qy izAwdw kr ky bwhrly jrvwixAW dy hmly pMjwb rwhIN hI hoey hn[
ienHW AwPqW dI bldI dy bu`Qy pMjwb Aqy ^ws krky mwJy dy lokW ƒ Awauxw pYNdw irhw
hY[mwJy dy lokW dI hI izAwdw jwn-mwl dI lu`t-Ksu`t huMdI rhI hY[ mugl kwl smyN zwlm
hwkmW ny is`KW dw Kurw Koj imtw dyx dI TwxI hoeI sI[AnykW isMG blI vydI qy
kurbwnIAW dy cu`ky sn[ is`KW dy isrW dy mu`l r`K id`qy gey sn[ AijhI zulm dI hnyrI qoN
bcx leI is`KW ny Awpxy Gr bwr C`f jMglW Aqy mwrUQlW iv`c Et Awsrw lY ilAw sI[
ies smyN hI ie`k AijhI Gtnw vwpr geI jdoN ik QW QW qoN D`ky hoey is`KW dw
ie`k jQw AYmnbwd ivKy gurduAwrw ‘roVI swihb’ dy drSn krn leI au~Qy pu`jw sI[ ies
ielwky dy POjdwr ny aunHW ƒ qruMq au~QoN cly jwx dy hukm suxw id`qy sn [ isMGW ny auhƒ
ikhw sI ik auh cly jwxgy pr aunHW ƒ kyvl ie`k rwq leI rihx Aqy rsd Awid KrId
ky AMn pwxI Ck lYx id`qw jwvy[isMG keI idnW qoN Pwky qy sn[ hMkwry hoe y jspq rwey ny
aunHW dI ie`k nw mMnI qy isMGW ƒ POj lY ky Aw GyirAw [ is`KW ny aus dw ft ky twkrw
kIqw ijs iv`c jspq rwey mwirAw igAw[ jspq rwey lKpq rwey dw Brw sI[ Brw dI
mOq dw sux ky lKpq rwey A`g bbUlw ho igAw[
aus ny pRx kIqw sI ik auh vI ^qrI hY Aqy ^wlsw pMQ swjx vwlw gurU goibMd
isMG vI ^qrI[ auh Awpxy Awp ƒ qd q`k ^`qrI nhI AKvwvygw jdoN q`k Brw dI mOq dw
bdlw nhIN lY lYNdw[ lKpq rwey ijhVw auus smyN XhIAw KW kol dIvwn sI, AwpxI
PirAwd lY ky XhIAw KW kol pyS hoieAw[ aus ny sUubw lwhOr kol POjI mdd mMgidAW
hoieAW pRx kIqw ik auh is`KW dw Kurw Koj imtw ky hI dm lvygw[ aus ny sB qoN pihlw
kMm ieh kIqw ik lwhOr Sihr iv`c ijqny is`K v`sdy sn aunHW ƒ igRPqwr krky
mwrc,1746 eI: ƒ kql krn leI bu`cVW dy hvwly kr id`qw lKpq rwey dy kul -gurU
gusWeIN jgq Bgq ny Awpxy dUsry swQIAW ƒ nwl lY ky aus ƒ Aijhw nIc kMm krn qoN
roikAw pr auh nw tilAw Aqy swry is`KW ƒ kql krvw id`qw igAw [
XwhIAw KW Aqy lKpq rwey dI sWJI kmwn hyTW bhuq v`fI POj smyq hkUmq dy
dUsry hmwieqIAW dI POj ny is`KW dw nwmo inSwn imtwayx leI “kwhƒvwn dy CMB” ijhVw
izlHw gurdwspur iv`c pYNdw sI v`l kUc kr id`qw[ ies CMB iv`c aus smyN 15 hzwr dy
krIb isMG Srn leI bYTy sn[ ru`KW dy JuMf hox krky mugleI POj ƒ nwl ilAWdIAW qopW
lY ky jMgl AMdr dwKl hox iv`c AOkV pyS Aw rhI sI[ muglW ny ru`K v`F ky rwh p`Drw
kIqw qy aunHW ny qopW dy jor qy isMGW ƒ CMB iv`coN auKyV ky dirAw rwvI v`l D`k id`qw[ isMG
dirAw rwvI pwr krky ‘pVol’ Aqy ‘kTUhy’ ielwky v`l vDy[ isMGW ƒ Aws sI ik aus
ielwky dI ihMdU jnqw aunHW dw swQ dyvygI pr hoieAw ies dy ault[aunHW dI ieh Aws
JUTI inklI ikauNik mugl hkUmq ny pihlW hI hukm jwrI kr id`qw sI ik ijhVw vI is`KW
dI mdd krygw jW pnwh dyvygw szw dw BwgI hovygw[ mdd dI QW isMGW dw suAwgq p`QrW
Aqy golIAW nwl hoieAw[fwFI hI gMBIr siQqI bx geI sI[ swhmxy is`Dy KVy phwV
sn, s`jy pwsy TwTW mwrdw dirAw Aqy ip`Cy qoN vYrI dI mwro-mwr krdI vD rhI POj[
Kwx-pIx dI rsd ^qm ho cu`kI sI[ GoVy vI qur-qur ky inFwl ho ky mr rhyy sn[

ies ibpqw iv`c vI isMGW ny hONslw nw C`ifAw[AwgUAW ny PYslw kIqw ik pYdl
jvwn phwVW vl vDx Aqy GoV Asvwr vyYrI dl ƒ cIr ky inklx dw Xqn krn[
ijhVy phwVW v`l gey sn auh ‘mMfI’ Aqy ‘kulU’ dy ielwky ‘coN huMdy hoey kSt J`ldy Cy
mhIinAW ip`CoN kIrqpur swihb ^wlsy ƒ jw imly sn[ bwkI rihMdy isMG BweI su`Kw isMG
jI dI AgvweI hyTW vYyrI dl qy tu`t pey [ isMGW dI igxqI bySk QoVHI sI pr auh
hONsly nwl lVdy hoey vYrIAW dI mwr ‘coN inklx iv`c sPl ho gey sn[ ies lVweI iv`c
bhuq swry isMG ShIdIAW pw gey [
do-iqMn hzwr isMG rwvI dirAw pwr krky gurdwspur dy irAwVkI ielwky iv`c
phuMc gey[grmIN A`q dI sI[ qpdI ryq qoN bcx leI aunHW ny Awpxy lIVyy pwV ky pYrW qy
p`tIAW bxw ky bMnH ley sn[ Kwx leI lMgr iqAwr krn leI aunHW ny AwpxIAW FwlW ƒ
ryq qy r`K grm kr ky rotIAW bxwauxIAW AwrMBIAW hI sn ik ^br imlI ik lKpq
rwey dI POj aunHW dw ip`Cw krdI hoeI dirAw pwr kr nyVy phuMc geI hY[ ryqlw ielwkw
lMG isMG sRI hrgoiMbMdpur dy nyiVau dirAw ibAws pwr kr ky dirAw sqluj v`l vD geyy
sn[ AwlIvwl dy p`qx qoN aunHW ny sqluj dirAw pwr kIqw Aqy auh mwlvy iv`c phuMc gey
[ ieh Gtnw jUn, sMn 1746 dI hY[ l`Kpq rwey dI POj vI lV-lV ky hMB geI sI Aqy
bhuq swrI POj mr- Kp vI geI sI[iesy krky lKpq rwey vI vwps lwhOr prq igAw
sI[
ies muihMm iv`c l^pq rwey ny Gto-G`t sq hzwr isMG ShId kIqy Aqy iqMn ku
hzwr isMGW ƒ kYd krky Awpxy nwl lwhOr lY igAw sI, ij`Qy aunHW ƒ qsIhy dy ky ShId
kr id`qw igAw sI[ aunHW dy isrW dy mInwr bxwey gey sn jdoN ik loQW ƒ ie`k msIq dI
dIvwr hyTW dPn kr id`qw igAw sI[ ieh pihlw mOkw sI jdoN is`KW dw ie`ko hI muihMm
iv`c eyfw v`fw nukswn hoieAw sI[ ies swky ƒ “Cotw GlUGwrw” dy nW nwl Xwd kIqw
jWdw hY ijs iv`c mwJy ny v`fw sMqwp hMFwieAw sI[

***

morcw gurU kw bwZ

is`K kOm ijs dw jnm KMfy dI Dwr iv`coN hoieAw hY Aqy ijs dy krmW iv`c hI
Swied jUJxw iliKAw hY, dw hwl hI ieh hY ik “ BMfw BforIAw ikMnw ku Bwr, ie`k
mu`kI cu`k lY dUjI iqAwr[” musIbqW Aqy muSklW aunHW dw rwh vyK rhIAW huMdIAW
hn[vIhvIN sdI iv`c AijhI hI ie`k Gtnw jWdI jWdI blw vWgUM is`KW dy gl Aw peI
sI[gurDwmW dy suDwr dI lihr zor PVHdI jw rhI sI ik 20 PrvrI sMn 1921 ƒ nnkwxw
swihb dw KuUnI swkw vwpr igAw [guduAwirAw dy pRbMDk mhMq gurU Gr dw Dwn Kw-Kw ky
AwPr gey sn Aqy icR`qrhIn vI ho geyy sn[gurU ky bwZ dI dwsqwn vI AijhI hI ie`k
Gtnw hY[
AMimRqsr qoN 13 ku mIl dI iv`Q qy ie`k ieiqhwsk gurduAwrw hY ijs ƒ pMjvyN
pwqSwh sRI gurU Arjn dyv jI Aqy nOvyN pwqSwh sRI gurU qyg bhwdr swihb jI dI crn
Coh pRwpq hY[ie`QoN dw mhMq suMdr dws audwsI jo ik nnkwxw swihb dy mhMq nrwiex dws
dw Xwr sI, ausy vWg hI AwXwS Aqy ie^lwk qoN igirAw hoieAw ienswn sI[ auh
AMgryzW dI Sih qy mnmwnIAW kirAw krdw sI[nnkwxw swihb dI du`KdweI Gtnw qoN
bwAd ieh is`KW dI nzr iv`c rVkdw sI[8Agsq,sMn1922 vwly idn kuJ is`K lMgr
vwsqy pYlIAW ‘coN l`kVW v`Fx gey qW aunHW ƒ ies mhMq dI Sih qy puils v`loN igRPqwr
kr ilAw igAw Aqy A`goN kwrvweI leI Adwlq iv`c pyS kr id`qw igAw sI[ Adwlq
v`loN aunHW ƒ Cy-Cy mhIny dI kYd suxw id`qI geI sI[ijs zmIn iv`coN ieh l`kVW v`F rhy
sn auh zmIn vI gurduAwry dI mlkIAq sI[ ies leI szw dx dI qW koeI quk hI nhI
sI bxdI[ies kIqy hoey D`ky ny is`K jgq dy mnW iv`c gu`sy dw BWbV bwl id`qw
sI[AwgUAW ny ies ivru`D morcw lwaux dw ibgl vjw id`qw[
SoRomxI kmytI v`loN pMj-pMj isMGW dy jQy bxw ky igRPqwrIAW dyx
leI Byjxy SurU kIqy gey sn ijnHW ƒ AMgryz puils igRPqwr kr ky bhuq dUr iljw ky C`f
idMdI sI[ie`Dr igRPqwrI dyx leI isMGW dI igxqI vDw id`qI geI au~Dr srkwr v`loN
ienHW siqAwgRihIAW qy qS`dd v`Dw id`qw igAw sI[ puils mu`KI bI,tI. ny au~c APsrW
nwl slwh krky s^qI dw dOr qyz kr id`qw sI ik 26 Agsq ƒ l`kVW lYx gey 36
isMGW dy jQy dI aus ny mwr kutweI kIqI[ sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dI syvw kr rhy isMGW ƒ
vwlW qoN pkV ky DUihAw igAw[ bMdUkW dy b`tW Aqy fWgW mwr mwr ky aunHW dw bur w hwl
kr id`qw igAw [AijhIAW vwpr rhIAW GtnwvW qy ivcwr krn leI iesy idn SRomxI
kmytI Aqy SRomxI AkwlI dl dI ie`k ivSyS mIitMg AMimRqsr iv`c bulweI geI[mqw pws
krky pRDwn Aqy dUsry AwgU ie`k jQy dy rUp iv`c igRPqwrI leI rvwnw hoey [pRoPYsr mohn
isMG dIAW sqrW Xwd AwauNdIAW hn ijnHW iv`c aus dw joS TwTW mwrdw idKweI idMdw
hY:“ swfw gurU qy gurU kw bwZ swfw [
qusIN l`gdy kI PrMgIE Eey[”
ieh morcw hux puUrI qrHW B`K igAw sI Aqy QW QW qoN isMG igRPqwrI dyx leI
Awauxy SurU ho gey sn[ sRI Akwl q^q swihb qoN hux jQy pUrn rUp iv`c Swq rih ky ies

Drm Xu`D iv`c igRPqwrIAW dy rhy sn[ auh siqnwm vwihgurU dw jwpdy krdy hoey puils
dIAW fWgW Awpxy srIr qy sihMdy hoey iblkul Swq rihMdy sn[ ieh zulm Aqy sbr dI
t`kr dw ie`k idRS sI[ijhVy isMG fWgW dI mwr nwl P`tV ho ky zmIn qy if`g pYNdy sn
aunHW qy GoVy duVwey jWdy sn[ ies zulm dIAW ^brW dyS iv`c hI nhIN dyS qoN bwhr vI
phuMcIAW ijs krky AMgryz srkwr ƒ iPtkwrW pYxIAW SurU ho geIAW sn[ hmdrdI
r`Kx vwly v`K-v`K DrmW dy lok gurU ky bwZ pu`jx l`gy [ienHW iv`c ie`k AMgryz pwdrI
sI. AYP. AYNfiraUz, pMifq mdn mohn mwlvIAw, pRo: rucI rwm swhnI,hkIm Azml KW,
sRImqI srojnI nwiefU dy nW ^ws qOr qy vrnxXog hn[ AMgryz pwdrI dy mn qy ies dw
bVw Asr hoieAw sI ik aus dI kOm iv`c qW ie`k hI Aijhw msIhw sI ijs ny zulm ƒ
SwqI nwl jirAw qy sUlI qy ciVHAw sI pr ie`Qy qW AnykW hI Aijhy ienswn hn jo
inDVk ho ky SWq ic`q rih ky zulm dw twkrw kr rhy hn[aus ny ies sbMDI pMjwb dy
gvrnr sr mYklYgn nwl ivSyS mulwkwq kr ky ies zulm ƒ bMd krn leI zor
pwieAw[ aus dI ies mulwkwq dw ieh Asr qW zrUr hoieAw ik 13 sqMbr ƒ gvrnr
Awp gurU ky bwZ AwieAw Aqy qS`dd dw dOr bMd ho igAw pr igRPqwrIAW dw islislw
17 nvMbr, sMn 1922 q`k inrMqr jwrI irhw sI [ ies morcy iv`c 839 isMG zKmIy Aqy
5605 isMG igRPqwr hoey sn[is`KW ny ijs sbr sMqoK, bhwdrI Aqy dlyrI dw sbUq dy ky
ieh morcw ij`iqAw sI aus dI ausqq pMifq mylw rwm vPw ny ies qrHW ibAwn kIqI hY:-

“iqrI kurbwnIauN kI DUm hY Awj ies zmwny myN[
bhwdr hY Agr koeI qo ,voh eyk qMU AkwlI hY[
zwlmoN kI lwTIAW qMU ny, shI sInw-ey-spr ho kr[
luq& ies pY ik lb pih Skwieq hY nw gwlI hY[”
mwJy iv`c vwprI ies Gtnw qoN mJYlW dy isdk, isrV,swhs, sUJ Aqy sMjIdgI jo aunW dy
^wsy Aqy hNOsly dw pRqIk hY, dI Jlk spSt nzrIN pYNdI hY[

***

jMgy AwzwdI dw pRvwnw Aqy gdr pwrtI dw moFI
kwmryf bwbw kwmryf sohx isMG jI Bknw
(ipMf Bknw, izlHw AMimRqsr)

bwbw sohx isMG jI Bknw dw jnm jnvrI, 1870 eI: iv`c ipMf ^qrwey klW iv`c
hoieAw [ieh ipMf AMimRqsr dI cVHdI bwhI v`l vwikAw hY[pMjwb dy ipMfW dI ijvyN pihlW
qoN clI Aw rhI rIq mMnIN jWdI hY, lVkI Awpxw pihlw jxypw Awpxy pyky Gr hI k`itAw
krdI sI[ bySk hux smW bdldw jw irhw hY qy ies g`l ƒ izAwdw AihmIAq nhIN id`qI
jWdI[ ieh ipMf bwbw jI dw nwnkw ipMf hY[aunHW dy ipqw BweI krm isMG jI ‘Syrig`l’
ipMf Bknw dy rihx vwly sn Aqy purwxy iKAwlW dy DwrnI, pr sKq jwn Aqy imhnqI
ikrswn sn jo ielwky dy loVvMdW Aqy grIbW dI mdd krn leI hr vyly q`qpr rihMdy
sn[Bknw jI dI mwqw rwm kOr ie`k sDwrn Aqy Swq ic`q pyNfU AOrq sI [sohx isMG ƒ
ijs g`l dw hmySW hI Awpxy Awp qy krz mihsUs huMdw sI, auh sI AwpxI mqryeI mW,
hr kOr qoN imilAw ipAwr Aqy sunyh BrI bu`kl dw in`G[
pMjwb qoN dUsry mulkW iv`c jw ky imhnq mzdUurI krn vwly dUusry pRvwsIAW vWg
sohx isMG jI vI 1907 eI: iv`c AmrIkw cly gey sn ij`Qy jw ky aunHW ny kYlyPornIAw
ie`k itMbr kMpnI iv`c nOkrI kr leI [ies ielwky iv`c izAwdw krky pMjwbI lok
sn[bwbw jI ny vyiKAw ik BwrqIAW dI AwriQk dSw qrsXog bxI hoeI sI, ijs ƒ vyK
ky aunHW dw ihrdw qVp au~iTAw [knyfw iv`c pihlw v`sx vwly lokW ƒ ijhVy isAwsI h`k
hkUk hwsl sn auh ienHW pRvwsIAW ƒ pRwpq nhIN sn[ies qVp ny sohx isMG ƒ ie`k
sDwrn AwdmIN qoN dyS Bgq iv`c pRIvriqq kr id`qw sI[ies grIbI dy Awlm iv`c pl
rhy lokW pRqI bdySI srkwr dy ru`Ky vqIry Aqy h`k pRwpqI leI rwh l`Bx leI kuJ
vqnpRsq iek`Ty hoxy SurU ho gey sn ijMnHW iv`c lwlw hridAwl,pMfq kWSI rwm, pI. AYs.
KoKzy,brkqaulw Aqy Bknw jI qoN ielwvw bhuq swry mYNbr kYlyPornIAw Aqy brkly
XUnIvristIAW dy ividAwrQI idAwl, qwrk nwQ dws,krqwr isMG srwBw Aqy
vI.jI.ipMgly vI Swml sn[ies smyN “pYsyiPk BwrqI KwVI sBw” dI sQwpnw kIqI geI
Aqy sohx isMG Bknw jI ƒ ies dy pihlw pRDwn QwipAw igAw sI[ieh hI sMsQw A`gy
c`l ky “gdr pwrtI” dy nW nwl jwxIN jwx l`gI [iesy pwrtI dIAW AxQ`k koiSSW
sdkw Aqy kwmXwbI nwl kIqIAW rYlIAW ny AmrIkw iv`c inrwsw BrI ijMdgI ijau rhy
ihuMdsqwnIAW ƒ gdr pwrtI nwl joiVAw sI[
ies pwrtI dI sQwpnw sbMDI KbrW ieMglYNf, knyfw Aqy eySIAW iv`c v`sx vwly
pMjwbIAW ƒ vI iml geIAW sn Aqy aunHW v`loN mdd dy sMdySy vI pRwpq hox l`g pey
sn[ies pwrtI dIAW mIitMgW lwseyNzlz, vIAwnw, vwiSMgtn Aqy SMGweI iv`c hoieAw
krdIAW sn[pwrtI iv`c ie`ksurqw Aqy v`Ddy joS ƒ vyK ky pwrtI v`loN Bknw jI ƒ
AmrIkw qoN Bwrq jwx dI rwey id`qI geI qW jo sMswr Xu`D SurU hox qoN pihlW hI
kRWqIkwrIAW Aqy Asly smyq kwmwgwtw mwrU dy ip`Cy ip`Cy Bwrq phuMicAw jwvy[jdoN pwrtI

ƒ pqw l`gw ik julweI 1914 eI: iv`c lVweI l`gx vwlI hY qW sohx isMG jI ny muVdy hoey
kwmwgwtw mwrU zhwj nwl rwbqw kwiem krky jwpwn dI “Xokohwmw”bMdrgwh qy bwbw
gurid`q isMG jI ƒ hiQAwrW dI ie`k Kyp Byj id`qI sI qW ju ieh loV vyly kMm Aw
sky[XUrp iv`c jMg iCV jwx nwl gdr pwrtI iv`c vI qyjI Aw geI sI[ Bknw jI dUsry
kRWqIkwrIAW smyq zhwj “nwmsMg”rwhI 13 AkqUbr, 1914 eI: ƒ klkqy phuMcy sn pr
aunHW ƒ CyqI hI igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw Aqy luiDAwxw jylH iv`c Byj id`qw igAw sI[
ieQoN bwbw sohx isMG jI ƒ sYNtrl jylH mulqwn qbdIl kr id`qw igAw sI[bgwvq dy
zurm iv`cbwbw jI qy “pihlw lwhOr swijS kys” clw ky aunHW ƒ sjwey mOq dw hukm
suxw id`qw igAw sI[bwbw jI dI swrI jwiedwd vI kurk kr leI geI sI[hweI kort
iv`c ApIl krn qy ieh sjw aumr kYd iv`cqbdIl kr id`qIy geI sI Aqy aunHW ƒ kwly
pwxI (AMfymwn) Byj id`qw igAw sI[
imqI 10 dsMbr,1915 eI:ƒ bwbw sohx isMG jI kwly pwxI phuMcy,ij`Qy kYdIAW ƒ
imlx vwly mwVy Kwxy dy ivroD iv`c aunHW ny Bu`K hVqwl kIqI Aqy swQIAW ƒ ienswP
dvwieAw [sMn 1921 iv`c sohx isMG jI ƒ koieObtor jylH iv`c qbdIl kr id`qw[ ies
jylH iv`c kYdIAW ƒ p`g nhIN sI bMnHx id`qI jWdI Aqy nw kCihrw pwaux dI iejwzq
sI[ies D`ky ivru`D bwbw jI Bu`K hVqwl qy bYT gey Aqy ienswP imlx q`k ies qy fty
rhy sn[ie`QoN aunHW ƒ sYNtrl jylH lwhOr qbdIl kr id`qw [ ie`Qy vI jylH dIAW vDIkIAW
dw bolbwlw sI[ nIvIN jwq vwly (mjHbI is`K) kYdIAW ƒ svrn jwqI dy kYdIAW nwloN v`K
kr ky Kwxw id`qw jWdw sI[ ies ivqkry ivru`D bwbw Bknw jI ny Bu`K hVqwl krky ies
ivqkry ƒ dUr krvwieAw [ sMn 1919 iv`c Bknw jI ny s: Bgq isMG qy aus dy swQIAW
nwl hmdrdI vjoN Bu`K hVqwl vI kIqI[ies qrHW 16 swl jylH dy kSt sihMdy hoey
julweI,1930 iv`c sohx isMG jI Bknw ƒ irhweI imlI sI[
jylH ‘coN irhwA hox auprMq vI auh srgrm isAwsq iv`c rhy Aqy auh kOmI Aqy
isAwsI lihrW iv`c jUJdy rhy[mu`K qOr qy bwbw jI dy ienHW GolW ƒ BwrqI kimaUinst
pwrtI dy GolW dw nW id`qw jWdw hY[hux sohx isMG jI Bknw ny Awpxw izAwdw smW
ikswn sBwvW giTq krn dy nwl nwl gdrI bwby, jo nzr bMd kIqy hoey sn dI irhweI dy
kwrjW v`l lwieAw[dUsry ivSv Xu`D dy smyN vI Bknw jI ƒ igRPqwr kr ifaUlI kYNp jylH
ijhVI hux rwjsQwn iv`c hY, Byj id`qw igAw sI ij`Qy auh iqMn swl q`k kYd rhy[
Bwrq dy Awzwd hox auprMq sohx isMG jI Bknw pUry qOr qy kimaUinst pwrtI
nwl juV gey sn[ 31 mwrc,1948 eI:ƒ dubwrw aunHW ƒ igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw sI pr
CyqI hI 8 meI, 1948 eI: ƒ irhwA kr id`qw igAwsI[igRPqwrIAW qy bwbw jI dw ijvyN
colI dwmn dw swQ bx igAw sI[Bknw jI ƒ iPr igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw sI pr aus
smyN dy pRDwn mMqrI pMifq jvwhr lwl nihrU jI dy dKl dyx qy jylHW dw KihVw Cu`t
igAw[ buFwpy dw zor Aqy nmUnIey dI ibmwrI dI mwr ny ies loh-purS gdrI bwby
kwmryf sohx isMG jI ƒ AMimRqsr ivKy 21, dsMbr, 1968 eI: vwly idn Fwh ilAw sI
Aqy mwJy dw ieh isrmOr AwzwdI GulwtIAw ies zhwn ƒ sdw leI Alivdw kih igAw
sI[
***

Zdr dI SmW dw pRvwnw

ShId sohx lwl ‘pwTk’
( Sihr p`tI , izlHw qrn qwrn )

ieiqhwsk Sihr p`tI pihlW lwhOr qy Pyr izlHw AMimRqsr dI qihsIl irhw hY
pr hux qrn qwrn izlHw bx jwx krky ieh ies izlHy dI qihsIl bx igAw hY[ieh
Sihr qrn qwrn Aqy AMimRqsr nwl sVk Aqy ryl rwhIN juiVAw hY[qrn qwrn qoN 25
iklo mItr dI dUrI qy siQq hY[iesy ieiqhwsk Sihr iv`coN AwzwdI dI SmW qy jl jwx
vwlw ie`k pRvwnw pYdw hoieAw sI ijs dw nW sI sohx lwl ‘pwTk’[
sohx lwl dw jnm 7 jnvrI,1883 eI:ƒ ie`k grIb bRwhmx pRIvwr iv`c pMifq
cMdw rwm jI dy Gr mwqw ikrpw dyvI dI ku`KoN hoieAw [auh iqMn Brw sn[ nwnk cMd sB
qoN v`fw sI Aqy mohx lwl sB qoN Cotw[ aunHW dI ie`k BYx pRqwp kOr vI sI jo ivDvw ho
geI sI[sohx lwl Aqy aus dw Cotw Brw mohn lwl Ajy pVHdy hI sn ik aunHW dI mW dI
imRqU plyg dI ibmwrI kwrn ho geI sI[iesy bImwrI nwl aunHW dI BrjweI (pqnI nwnk
cMd) dI vI mOq ho geI sI[ mW dy ipAwr bwry d`isAw jWdw hY ik mrn smy N aus ny Awpxy
pqI pMifq cMdw rwm ƒ ikhw sI, “jI!qusIN sohx qy mohn ƒ ipMf nw bulwxw[myry klyjy dy
toitAW ƒ ikDry ieh nwmurwd ibmwrI plyg nw cMbV jwvy[aunHW ƒ ^br vI nw krnI[ pVH
lYx idau[pws ho lYx idau[” mmqw dI mUrq mW b`icAW ƒ vyKx leI qrsdI hI mr geI
sI[sohx lwl pwTk dw mu`Flw jIvn grIbI Aqy muSklW BirAw bIiqAw sI[
pwTk ny AwpxI mu`FlI pVHweI iesy Sihr dy skUl iv`c kIqI[qIKx bu`DI dw
mwlk hox krky pwTk jmwq iv`c huiSAwr ividAwrQIAW iv`c igixAw jWdw sIiesy krky
aus ny keI ienwm ij`qy Aqy vjIPw vI pRwpq krdw irhw sI[imfl pws krn auprMq jdoN
auh A`gy pVHweI leI nwrml skUl lwhOr iv`c dwKlw lYx igAw qW aus ƒ AXog krwr dy
ky dwKl nhIN sI kIqw igAw[ pwTk ƒ pVHweI iv`cy C`fxI peI sI Aqy aus ƒ rujgwr
leI nihr dy mihkmy iv`c Cy rupey pRqI mhIny qy nOkrI krnI peI sI[
kuJ smW nOkrI krn ip`CoN sohx lwl ny dubwrw nwrml skUl lwhOr iv`c jdoN
dwKly leI koiSS kIqI qW dwKlw qW iml igAw sI pr fwktr ny ikhw sI, “sohx lwl
kuJ KwieAw-pIAw kr[qUM ipCly swl vI AwieAw sI[ qyrw srIr vyK ky qW hux vI qYƒ
AXog krwr dyx ƒ jIA krdw hY pr qyrw idmwg bVw cldw ey ‘qy qMU bVy p`ky hONsly
vwlw eyN [ ies leI mYN qYƒ dwKl kr lYNdw hW[” pwTk dw srIr pqlw,rMg kxkvMnw,in`kIAW-in`kIAW mu`CW, bwhW pqlIAW pqlIAW Aqy vjn sO pONf qoN kdy vI v`D nhIN
sI hoieAw[nwrml skUl dI pRIiKAw pws kr ky sohx lwl ny bqOr skUl AiDAwpk
nOkrI kr leI[
jdo pwTk lwhOr iv`c sI qW aus dw myl-imlwp ieMnklwbIAW nwl hoxw SurU ho
igAw[ieh 1905-07 eI: dw smW sI jdoN ies lihr dy kwrkuMnW dy myl-jol ny aus dy mn
qy fUMGw Asr kIqw Aqy auh ies lihr iv`c ih`sw vI lYx l`g ipAw sI, ijs bwry aus dI
hYfmwstr kol Skwieq vI hoeI sI ik aus dw myl jol lwlw ljpq rwey jI nwl
hY[hYfmwstr ny pwTk ƒ lwlw jI Aqy dUsry ieMnklwbIAW nwl sbMD qoV lYx leI

qwiVAw sI pr sohx lwl ny myl-imlwp C`fx dI bjwey nOkrI qoN hI iqAwg p`qr dy
id`qw sI[ies ip`CoN pwTk p`ky qOr qy lwlw jI dI Cqr CwieAw hyTW inklx vwly aurdU
A^bwr “vMdy mwqrm” iv`c bqOr sMXukq AYfItr kMm kr l`g ipAw sI[dPqrI kMm dy
nwl nwl sohx lwl lwlw hridAwl jI dIAW nOjvwnW ƒ AwzwdI pRqI cyqnw dyx vwlIAW
jmwqW iv`c vI jwx l`g ipAw sI[lwlw jI dy iKAwl sux Aqy smJ ky pwTk dy AMdr
dyS pRym dI jvwlw m`c au~TI sI[ AMgryz ƒ dyS ‘coN k`Fx dy qrIky socx qoN ielwvw aus
ƒ hor kuJ su`Jdw hI nhIN sI [
sohx lwl dy ipqw dI ieh KwihS sI ik aus dw pu`qr AmrIkw jw ky kmweI kry
Aqy Gr dI grIbI dUr kry[ pr aus ƒ kI pqw sI ik aus dw pu`qr qW dyS dIAw gulwmIN
dIAW jMjIrW k`tx dy Awhr iv`c l`gw hoieAw hY[ sohn lwl ny Awpxy dosqW nwl iml ky
gujrWvwly dy nyVy dy ‘D`kI’ dy jMgl iv`c dyS ƒ Awzwd krvwaux dIAW ksmW KwDIAW
sn[sohx lwl AmrIkw clw igAw ij`Qy gdr pwrtI iv`c auh auu~Gw lIfr bx ky
auBirAw sI[krqwr isG srwBw, BweI blvMq isMG Kurdpur Aqy hor AnykW gdrI ShIdW
dy sMprk iv`c rihx nwl dyS BgqI dI pu`T hor gUVHI ho geI sI[aunHW dy mnW iv`c qW
ie`k hI Awvwz gUMjdI sI,
“gdr pwrtI bIVw cu`ikAw, ihMd Awzwd krwvx dw[
AwE Syro gdr mcweIey, vylw nhIN KuMJWvx dw”[
AmrIkw iv`c vYnkUvr dy gurduAwry iv`c hoey JgVy iv`c srkwr dy ip`TU bylw isMG
vloN golI clweI geI ijs nwl BweI Bwg isMG Aqy BweI bqn isMG ShId ho gey sn jdoN
ik sohx lwl jKmIN ho igAw sI[ pwrtI ny sohx lwl dw kwrj Kyqr bdlx dw mn bxw
ilAw sI, ijs krky aus ƒ brmw jwx dw hukm hoieAw sI qW ju brmIAW ƒ ijhVy ik
BwrqIAW vWg AMgryz srkwr dy gulwm sn ƒ sucyq kIqw jw sky Aqy AwzwdI dy Gol
iv`c Swml kIqw jw sky[AmrIkw jwx qoN pihlW pwTk kuJ icr isAwm rih cu`kw
sI[ies leI aus ƒ isAwmI bolxI qy smJxI AwauNdI sI[
isAwm iv`c aus dw myl bu`Fw isMG, Amr isMG, cwlIAw rwm Aqy hor
ieMnklwbIAW nwl hoieAw jo vqn dI Kwiqr jwn qlI qy r`KI iPrdy sn[sohx lwl ny
swQIAW nwl iml ky pihlW pihl Awpxw A`fw “pwKo”(pwknwmPo) iv`c bxwieAw ij`QoN
“Zdr” nW dw ie`k prcw k`Fxw SurU kIqw[ies jQy dI vwg for bu`Fw isMG ny sMBwlI hoeI
sI[cyq rwm Aqy jIvn isMG Pyloky dy ijMmyN ieh prcw vMfx dI ijMmyNvwrI lweI geI
[ieMdr isMG, Drm isMG Aqy krm cMd, bu`Fw isMG dI AgvweI hyTW ies kwrj leI
mwieAw iek`TI krn dy kMm iv`c ju`t gey sn[ies A`fy dw kMm pwlw isMG ƒ sONp
ky
bwbU Amr isMG ieMjInIAr Aqy bwbU hrnwm isMG kwhrI-swhrI smyq sohx lwl brmw
v`l cl ipAw sI[isAwm qoN c`l rsqy dy kSt shwrdw hoieAw ieh tolw mWfly q`k phuMc
igAw[ ies kMm iv`c pwTk dw myl brmw dy SwhI Kwndwn nwl vI hoieAw ijnHW ny ies
AwzwdI dI jMg iv`c aunHW dw pUrw pUrw swQ dyx dw vwAdw kIqw sI[brmIAW ƒ ieh
Aihsws idvwieAw jWdw sI, “ihMdusqwn dw Aw^rI bwdSwh bhwdr Swh z&r brmw
iv`c dPn hY Aqy brmw dw AwKrI bwdSwh Aqy mhwrwxI dIAW AsQIAW ihMdusqwn
iv`c dPn hn[ieh ie`k AjIb g`l hY[quhwfw Aqy swfw duKWq ie`k hI hY[qusI vI
gulwm ho AsI vI gulwm hW[”
sohx lwl Aqy aus dy swQIAW dw roz dw kMm sI imltrI dIAW CwauxIAW iv`c
jw ky brmI Aqy dysI POjIAW AMdr ies g`l dw pRcwr krky Aihsws pYdw krnw ik auh
AMgryzW dI gulwmI dw jUlw lwhux leI Aqy AwzwdI leI j`do-jihd krn leIy
ieMnklwbIAW dw swQ dyx[ies qrHW aunHW ƒ AMgryzW ivru`D iqAwr krnw hI mu`K audyS
sI[sohx lwl Aqy aus dy swQI ie`k nwhrw lwieAw krdy sn:“ B`jy jwx PrMgI, v`jy GuMgrU[”
AMgryz srkwr vI AvyslI nhIN sI[aunHW ny dys qoN krqwr isMG Aqy mQrw dws
vrgy tofIAW ƒ brmw s`d ky ienHW ieMnklwbIAW ƒ PVHn leI jwl ivCwey hoey sn[purwxI
khwvq hY “Gr dw BydI lMkw Fwhy[” muKbrW dI muKbrI kwrn hrnwm isMG PiVHAw

igAw sI Aqy aus ƒ mOlmIn jylH iv`c kYd kr id`qw igAw sI[ cwlIAw rwm ƒ PVH ky
isAwm dI srh`d qy cONkI ‘mwXwvwdI’iv`c f`ikAw hoieAw sI[isAwmI srkwr vI AMgryzW
dI kTpuqlI bx cu`kI sI[krqwr isMG ijhVw ieMfo-isAwmI kMpnI iv`c mulwzm sI hr
vyly ienHW kRWqIkwrIAW dy mgr l`gw rihMdw sI Aqy imMt imMt dI ^br bMkOk dy AMgryz
kONslr ‘lweI’ q`k phuMcwauNdw rihMdw sI[
POj dI rjmYNt nMbr 23 iv`cly jmwdwr imSrI vwlw nwl sohx lwl pwTk nyVqw
bxweI hoeI sI, ikauNik auh ienHW ƒ XkIn dy irhw sI ik auh hiQAwr splweI krygw
Aqy jdoN ieh bgwvq dw ibgl vjwauxgy ies dy swQI AMgryzW ivru`D aunHW dw swQ
dyxgy[ie`k idn sohx lwl iesy AwSy nwl jmwdwr imSrI vwlw ƒimlx igAw sI[gdwr
imSrI vwlw ny ZdwrI kr ky Awpxy swQIAW dI mdd nwl sohx lwl ƒ PVH ky bMnH ilAw
[sohx lwl dI jwmW qlwSI smyN aus koloN iqMn psqOl,l`k nwl b`JI vWslI ‘coN ie`k
hjwr pOf,283 golIAW,jyb iv`coN ie`k kwZj imilAw sI ijs qy bMb bxwaux dw nus^w Aqy
‘gdr’ dw prcw brwmd hoieAw sI[
“idl ky &loly jl auTy sIny ky dwZ sy,
ies Gr ko Awg l`g geI Gr ky icrwZ sy”
PVHo PVHI dw dOr SurU ho cu`kw sI[ ienHw dw swQI nrYx isMG vI PiVHAw igAw sI[ aus ƒ
vI sohx lwl vWg mWfly jylH iv`c Byj id`qw igAw[sohx lwl dy PVHy jwx nwl qW ijvyN
pwrtI dI rIVH dI h`fI hI tu`t geI sI[AMgryz srkwr v`loN ieh swrw kwrw dyS DRohI dw
mMinAw igAw sI[ ienHW kRWqIkwrIAW qy dyS DRohI dw mukdmw clwieAw igAw Aqy ies
kys ƒ “pihlw mWfly kOnspIrysI kys” dw nW id`qw igAw sI, ijs iv`c ienHW ieMklwbIAW
ƒ hyT ilKy Anuswr sjwvW id`qIAW
geIAW sn:1. sohx lwl pwTk
sjwey mOq(PWsI)
2. hrnwm isMG kwhrI-swhrI
sjwey mOq(PWsI)
3. nrYx isMG
sjwey mOq(PWsI)
4. inrMjn isMG
sjwey mOq(PWsI)
5. pwlw isMG
sjwey mOq(PWsI)
6. cwlIAw rwm
sjwey mOq(PWsI)
7. vswvw isMG bwVw
sjwey mOq(PWsI)
1. bu`Fw isMG Pyloky
aumr kYd kwly pwxI
2. ikrpw rwm mWgt
aumr kYd kwly pwxI
3. cyq rwm vYrovwl
aumr kYd kwly pwxI
4. jIvn isMG Pyloky pMifq
aumr kYd kwly pwxI
5. kpUr isMG mohI
aumr kYd kwly pwxI
6. hrid`q isMG lMgy
aumr kYd kwly pwxI
7. igAwn cMd morI mihl
sq swl kYd kwly pwxI
kihMdy ny ik ienHW ieMnklwbIAW ƒ PWsI dyx leI ijs zlwd ƒ bulwieAw igAw
sI auh ienHW dw hONslw qy ichry dw jlwl vyK ky dMg rih igAw sI Aqy aus ny PWsI dyx
qo ienkwr kr id`qw sI, ijs kwrn mjbUrn ie`k AMgryz ƒ ieh kMm krn leI ikhw
igAw sI ijs ny vwrI vwrI ienHW kOmI pRvwinAW ƒ 10 PrvrI, 1916 eI: ƒ PWsI id`qI
sI[
“ gwzIEN myN bU rhygI jb qlk eImwn kI,
qb qo lMfn qk clygI, qyZ ihuMdsqwn kI”
( bhwdr Swh zPr)
( ieh vyrvy bIbw pRIq pwl kOr ‘huMdl’ rwhIN fw: dys rwj jI ‘AnoKw’ pwsoN Aqy “jM \
lwiVHAWdI” lyKk s: kysr isMG jI qy AwDwriq hn)

***

bwbw gurid`q isMG jI
hIro kwmwgwtw mwrU
(ipMf srhwlI,izlHw qrn qwrn)

jdoN mwJy dy mJYlW dy hONsly, dlyrI Aqy sUrmgqI dI g`l qurdI hY qW ie`k ivSySx
hor ies iv`c Aw juVdw hY, ienHw dI corI krn dI pRivrqI dw[jy kr ies dw dUsrw
pihlU vyiKAw jwvy qW kihxw pvygw ik corI krnw koeI sOKw kMm nhIN[dUsry dy Gr iv`c
corI krn leI jw vVn leI hONsly dI loV pYNdI hY[ mgr l`gIAW vwhrW dw mukwblw
krnw koeI ^wlw jI dw vwVw nhIN huMdw[
mwJy dy ies ^wsy dI g`l kridAW ipMf srhwlI dw izkr AwauNdw hY qW Awp
muhwry hI mUMhoN inkl jWdw hY “corW dI srhwlI”[iesy hI ipMf ny AwzwdI dy sMgrwm dw
ie`k GulwtIAw dyS dI JolI pwieAw sI, ijs dw nW ‘kwmwgwtw mwrU’ dy hIro vjoN vI
jwixAw jWdw hY[myrI murwd hY bwbw gurid`q isMG jI qoN, ijs ny 1859 eI: iv`c s: hukm
isMG jI vwsI srhwlI (ijlHw qrn qwrn ) dy Gr jnm ilAw[ srhwlI ipMf qrn qwrn
qoN hrIky p`qx ƒ jWidAW 12 ku ik: mI: dI dUrI qy hY[
bcpn qoN hI gurid`q isMG bVy hNOsly vwlw sI[ Cy swl dI aumr iv`c hI aus ny
ie`k sMinAwsI kolo pMj gRMQI dw pwT krnw is`K ilAw sI Aqy skUlI pVHweI CotI aumry hI
C`f id`qI sI[jvwnI iv`c gurid`q isMG AwpxI irSqydwrI dy ie`k ivAwh iv`c Swml
hoieAw sI ij`Qy ie`k mUMh zor GoVI qy aus ny AsvwrI kr ky sB ƒ cikRq kr id`qw sI
ijs ƒ vyK ky ie`k AwdmI ny aus ƒ POj iv`c BrqI hox dI rwey id`qI sI pr AMgryj
APsr ny ieh kih ky“ABI tumwrI(qyrI) CwtI(CwqI) CotI hY, qkVw ho kr Awnw”
BrqI krn qoN ienkwr kr id`qw sI[ies qoN ip`CoN guridq isMG iPr kdI vI iPr BrqI
hox leI nhIN sI igAw[ auh mlwieAw clw igAw sI ij`Qy aus ny cONkIdwrI dw kMm kIqw
Aqy iPr AYsw sb`b bixAw ik aus ny TykydwrI krnI SurU kr id`qI sI[
1883 eI:iv`c bwbw guridq isMG dI SwdI ho geI pr aus ƒ AOlwd dw su`K nw
imilAw[aus ny dUsrI SwdI krvw leI ijs iv`coN ie`k lVkw pYdw hoieAw sI jo iqMn ku
mhIny dw ho ky hI mr igAw sI[ iPr dUsrw lVkw pYdw hoiAw sI pr bdiksmqI nwl
aus dI mW mr jwx krky aus dI sWB sMBwl dI ijmyNvwrI guridq isMG qy Awx peI sI[
Bwrq iv`c AMgryz srkwr dy pYr jMm cu`ky sn[ pMjwb dy imhnqI ikrswn
mMdhwlI dI ijMdgI bqIq kr rhy sn[ ie`QoN q`k ik aunHW leI mwmlw qwrnw vI AOKw ho
igAw sI[mlwieAw,isMgwpur, brmw Awid mulkW iv`c v`sx vwly pMjwbI goirAW dIAW
koTIAW dI rKvwlI dw kMm krdy sn[pMjwbIAW dI bhwdrI sdkw hI ienHW ƒ POz iv`c
BrqI krnw SurU kr id`qw igAw sI[bMdrgwh dy nyVy v`sx krky ienHW pMjwbIAW dw myl
jol AmrIkw, knyfw Awid dySW dy lokW nwl Awm krky huMdw rihMdw sI[AMgryzW dI
^uShwl ijMdgI vyK ky ienHW dy mnW AMdr ie`k hUk ijhI auTdI sI ik Awpxy mulk qoN dUr
rih ky vI AsIN ^uShwlI dw in`G ikauN nhI mwx rhy?

ijauN ijauN BwrqI mjdUrW dIAW muSklW vDdIAW geIAW,AMgryj leI ienHW dy
mnW iv`c n&rq Aqy ivroD (AMgryz Bwrq Aqy knyfw dovW dySW qy rwj kr rhy sn)
vDdw igAw[aunHW ƒ mihsUs hoieAw ik auh ZulwmI dI jUn jIau rhy hn[
jnvrI, 1914 eI: ƒ jdoN hWgkWg dy gurduAwry iv`c dsm ipqw sRI gurU goibMd
isMG jI dw jnm idn mnwieAw igAw qW auQy dIvwn iv`c POj dw ie`k vI is`K POjI nzrIN
nw ipAw[pVqwl krn qy pqw l`gw ik srkwr v`loN POjI is`KW ƒ gurduAwry jwx qoN rok
id`qw igAw hY[ies du`KdweI Gtnw bwry bwbw jI ny bVw joSIlw lYkcr id`qw Aqy ies g`l
dw inscw kIqw igAw ik “ieh ZulwmI dw jUlw BwrqIAW dy gloN jdoN q`k nhI lihMdw audoN
q`k ieho ijhIAW bMdSW Aqy pwbMdIAW dw AMq nhI hoxw[ies leI Aswƒ sB ƒ jQybMd
hox dI loV hY[” dIvwn ^qm hox qy knyfw vwsI pMjwbIAW ny vI Awpxy du`KVy bwbw jI
A`gy roey Aqy ies leI ivauNqbMdI krn dI bynqI kIqI[
bwbw guridq isMG ny klkqy jw ky “gurU nwnk stImiSp kMpnI” dy nW qy ie`k
ieSiqhwr rwhIN lokW ƒ sUicq kIqw ik auh klkqy qoN is`Dw jhwj lY ky knyfw jw rhy
hn[ies kMm iv`c AMgryzW dI vrqI geI sKqI Aqy ivroDIAW dy pRcwr kwrn ies
Xwqrw leI koeI iqAwr nw hoieAw[vwps isMgwpur jw ky bwbw jI ny 24 mwrc,1914 eI:
ƒ “kwmwgwtw mwrU” nW dw ie`k jwpwnI jhwj Cy mhIinAW leI 11,000 fwlr pRqI
mhInw ikrwey qy lY ilAw[500 sO XwqrU knyfw jwx leI isMgwpur qoN hI iml gey[ ies
jhwj dw nW “gurU nwnk zhwj” r`iKAw igAw [
‘gurU nwnk zhwj’ hWgkWg dI bMdrgwh qy jwx leI iqAwr KVw sI[ rsqy leI
loVIdIAW vsqW dwl, Awtw, cwvl, qyl vgYrw Aqy duAweIAW Awid dw pRbMD kr ilAw
igAw sI[jy kr dyr sI qW isrP gvrnr hWgkWg koloN qurn leI AwigAw p`qr imlx
dI[srkwr dy mn iv`c ^ot sI[mwrc 1914 eI: ƒ bwbw gurid`q isMG jI ƒ Acwnk kYd
kr ilAw igAw[kMpnI dy dPqr qy kbzw kr lYx nwl muswPrW iv`c hPVw-dPVI m`c
geI Aqy auh iKMf-puMf gey [cwl qW isrP ivGn pwaux dI hI sI ies leI Agly hI
idn bwbw jI ƒ irhw kr id`qw igAw [ies D`kySwhI dw Asr ieh hoieAw ik 500 sO
XwqrUAW iv`coN hux kyvl jwx vwly 135 XwqrU hI rih gey sn[4AprYl, 1914 eI: ƒ
ieh zhwj 135 muswPr lY ky hI knyfw leI rvwnw ho igAw[SMGweI qy koby bMdrgwhW qoN
hor muswPr iml jwx kr ky ieh igxqI 360 qy phuMc geI sI[
QW QW qy zhwj dy A`gy jwx qy rukwvtW pweIAW jw rhIAW sn[ A^Ir ieh zhwj
21-05-1914 eI: ƒ SMGweI, mOjI Aqy Xokohwmw bMdrgwhW qoN huMdw hoieAw knyfw dI
ivktorIAw bMdrgwh qy jw pu`jw[ie`Qy vI iemIgRySn mihkmy v`loN jhwj ƒ bMdrgwh AMdr
Awaux qoN rok id`qw igAw[ vYnkUvr Sihr qoN BweI blvMq isMG jI gRMQI Aqy aynHw dy hor
swQI bMdrgwh qy svwgq leI AgWaU pu`jy hoey sn[ zhwj dy jpwnI kpqwn dI ^otI
nIAq sI ijs ny ikhw ik aus kolNo zhwj dw rvwngI p`qr guAwc igAw hY[bwbw jI ny
aus dy kwgzw dI Prolw-PwlI kr auh p`qr l`B ky pyS kr id`qw[ swrIAW koiSSW krn
qy Agly idn ieh jhwj vYnkovr dI bMdrgwh dy nyVy pu`jw[zhwj dy kYnyfw phuMcx dIAW
^brW A^bwrW iv`c CpIAW jo Bwrq vwsIAW ny vI pVHIAW[ zhwj dy ikrwey dI ikSq vI
isr qy KVI sI[ ies leI ieh jhwj nvyN TykydwrW ny Awpxy nW krvw ilAw pr pihly
Tykydwr ny zhwj dw kbzw nw id`qw Aqy PYslw hox q`k muswPrW ƒ jhwj ‘coN auqrn vI
nw id`qw igAw[ muswPrW dI hwlq qrsXog bxI hoeI sI[ purwxy Tykydwr ny muswPrW ƒ
rsq pwxI dw vI pRbMD nw krn id`qw[ auDr knyfIAn BwrqIAW dI bxweI hoeI ifPYNs
kONsl dI jdo jihd nwl zhwj vYnkUvr dI bMdrgwh q`k qW Aw igAw pr nwl hI hukm
hoieAw ik ieh zhwj do GMitAW dy AMdr-AMdr bMdrgwh dI h`d qoN dUr clw jwvy[
bwbw jI ny ieh pRsqwv nw mnjUr kr id`qw ikauNik ies dw is`Dw hI mqlb sI
smuMdr iv`c Bu`iKAW mrnw[ies mOq nwloN aunHW ny lV ky mrnw cMgw smiJAw[ies ienkwr
qy goirAW v`loN ies zhwj v`l jMgI byVw Byj id`qw igAw ijs dIAW qopW dw mUMh ieDr
kIqw hoieAw sI[kYnyfw srkwr dI ^uPIAW eyjMsI dI id`qI sUcnw ik “ies zhwj iv`c
90% qoN 95% isMG hn ijhVy mrn qoN nhI frdy[” ies ^br ny aunHW dI Akl itkwxy

ilAWdI ik aunHW nwl lVnw mihMgw pvygw[knyfIAn hwkmW ny jMgI byVw vwps bulw
ilAw[Cy idnW qoN Bu`Ky XwqrUAW ƒ knyfIAn BrwvW ny qs`lI nwl Bojn krvwieAw[hor
JgVy iv`c pYx dw hux koeI mqlb nhIN sI irhw ies leI ies zhwj ƒ klkqy leI
rvwnw kr id`qw igAw [
knyfw qoN c`l ky ‘kwmwgwtw mwrU jhwj’ Cy mhIny ip`CoN pInWg huMdw hoieAw bMgwl
dI KwVI iv`c dwKl hoieAw[ imqI 27-09-1914 ƒ huglI dirAw iv`c dwKl hoieAw pr
klkqy qoN 17 ik:mI: dUr hI ‘bzbz Gwt’ qy rok ilAw igAw[rokx dw kwrn pu`Cx qy
d`isAw igAw ik zhwj dy muswPrW ƒ klkqy nhI jwx id`qw jwvygw, sgoN ie`QoN hI is`Dy
ryl rwhIN GrW ƒ Byj id`qw jvygw[bwbw gurid`q isMG ny d`isAw ik auh ie`k ivaupwrI hY
Aqy aus ny klkqy jw ky jwpwnI kMpnI nwl ihswb-ikqwb krnw hY Aqy hor zhwj vI
KrIdxw hY[ies g`l qy ie`Qy AMgryzI APsr dw ienHW nwl qkrwr ho igAw[bwbw jI dy 7
swl dy lVky ƒ roNidAW cIkidAW ie`k ispwhI ie`k pwsy iK`c ky lY igAw jo iPr kdI
nhIN sI imilAw[AMgryz APsr eIstvuf ny Awpxy psqOl nwl golI clw id`qI sI, ijs
iv`coN ie`k golI s: hrnwm isMG dI p`g iv`c l`g ky inkl geI jdoN ik dUsrI s: Twkur
isMG ipMf audo nMgl (nyVy mihqw cONk, izlHw AMimRqsr) dy l`gx nwl auh P`tV ho igAw
sI[ b`s Pyr kI sI muswPrW iv`coN iksy ny eIstvuf ƒ pwr bulw id`qw[pulsIAW ny golIAW
dw mINh vrsw id`qw ijs nwl mOky qy hI 40 muswPr ShId ho gey sn[dUsry muswPrW qy vI
qS`dd SurU ho igAw[bwbw gurid`q isMG qy aunHW dy do swQI swrI rwq ie`k CMB iv`c rhy
ij`Qy aunHW dIAW l`qW ƒ jokW cMbVdIAW rhIAW Aqy auh qoV qoV s`utdy rhy[
phu Putwlw hox qoN pihlW hI bwbw jI, jdoN aunHW dy swQI su`qy sn aus QW qy gey
ij`Qy ieh kwrw vwpirAw sI[gwrf aUNG rhy sn[ auh anHW lwgoN cu`p krky inkl gey Aqy
iksy bsqI dI Bwl krn l`gy ij`Qy auh bMgwlI lIfrW ƒ iml ky ies Gtnw dw vyrvw dyxw
cwhuMdy sn pr aunHW dw ieh pRXojn sPl nw ho sikAw[iek rihm idl bMgwlI ny aunHW
leI bMgwlI pihrwvy dw bMdobsq zrUr kr id`qw sI ijs ƒ pihn ky bwbw jI ryl rwhIN
jgn nwQ purI leI rvwnw ho gey [ijs ryl iv`c auh sPr kr rhy sn aus iv`c sI.
AweI.fI. dy do AwdmIN vI sn jo bwbw jI qy S`k krdy hoey aunHW dI ingrwnI kr rhy
sn[
ie`k stySn qoN jdoN g`fI c`lI hI sI qW bwbw jI mOky dw Pwiedw auTw ky g`fI iv`coN
ku`d gey Aqy g`fI dy rukx q`k auh ispwhIAW qoN bhuq dUr inkl cu`ky sn[guridq isMG
AwbwdI Aqy jrnYlI sVk qoN dUr dUr rih ky AwpxI mMijl v`l vD rhy sn[ Ai^r auh
jY pur Aqy mwrvwV dy ielwky iv`c jw phuMcy[ieQy kuJ icr rukx ip`CoN bwbw jI bMbeI cly
gey ij`Qy auh gWDI jI, moqI lwl nihrU qy hor lIfrW ƒ imly Aqy aunHW nwl vwprI Gtnw
bwry crcw kIqI pRMqU aunHW dI mdd krn dI bjwey gWDI jI ny aunHW ƒ slwh id`qI ik auh
AwpxI igRPqwrI dy dyx[ bwbw jI ny BWp ilAw sI ik ienHW iqlW iv`c qyl nhIN[
ienHIN idnIN hI pMjwb iv`c nnkwxw swihb dw ^UnI swkw vwpr igAw sI ijs nwl
is`K jgq dw ihrdw vlUMDirAw ipAw sI[bwbw guridq isMG jI nnkwxw swihb gurU nwnk
dyv jI dy pRkwS auqsv qoN ie`k idn pihlW nnkwxw swihb phuMc gey sn[ ie`Qy hI aunHW
ny AwpxI igRPqwrI dw AYlwn kIqw[ bwbw jI ƒ igRPqwr krky lwhOr jylH iv`c Byj id`qw
igAw ij`QoN fyrw ZwzI ^wn dI jyhl iv`c qbdIl kr id`qw igAw sI[ imqI 26-12-1922
eI: ƒ aunHW ƒ irhw kr id`qw igAw sI[
ies qoN ip`CON vI keI vwr aunHW ny AwzwdI sMgrwm leI jylH Xwqrw kIqI [ hux
bwbw jI dI aumr 95 swl dI ho cu`kI sI[ jdoN auh klkqy gey hoey sn qW aunHW dI
qbIAq ^rwb hox krky bwbw jI ƒ pMjwb ilAWdw igAw[Awi^r imqI 24-07-1954 Swm
6. 45 qy lgpg 96 swl dI aumr Bog ky ieh AwzwdI dw pRvwnw Aqy mwJy dI Swn ies
&wnI zhwn ƒ Alivdw kih igAw[Agly idn bwbw dI ArQI dw jlUs AMimRqsr dy
bzwrW iv`coN huMdw hoieAw ShIdW dI DrqI ‘jilHAWvwlw bwZ’ pu`jw, ij`QoN aunHW ƒ aunHW dy
ipMf srhwlI ilAw ky bVI DUMm Dwm nwl AMqm sskwr kIqw igAw[ ieh TIk hY ik aus
smyN dI kYnyfw srkwr ny pMjwbIAW nwl D`kw kIqw sI pr hux jdoN smyN ny krvt bdlI hY

Aqy Bwrq Awzwd hY auQoN dI AjokI srkwr ny ies iGnwauxy kwrnwmy leI Bwrq srkwr
dy lokW qoN muAwPI mMgI hY[
“ mrnw kOm leI ijMdVIey bVw AOKw,
g`lW krnIAW bVIAW suK`lIAW ny[
ijnHW dyS qy kOm leI ijMd vwrI,
aunHW l`K musIbqW J`lIAW ny[”
( krqwr isMG srwBw )

***

gdr pwrtI dw pihlw ShId

sR: myvw isMG jI lopoky
(qihsIl Ajnwlw izlHw AMimRqsr)

mnu`K dIAw jIvn inrbwh leI iqMn mu`K loVW hn ku`lI, gu`lI Aqy ju`lI[auh ienHW
iqMn cIjW dI pUrqI leI hI swrw jIvn sMGrS krdw rihMdw hY[duUsrIAW kOmW nwloN is`K
kOm izAwdw imhnqkS Aqy jUJwrU igxI geI hY[ieh smW AMgrz rwj dw sI jdoN Bwrq
pUrI qrHW gulwmI dIAW jMzIrW iv`c jkiVAw jw cu`kw sI[pMjwb dw sUbw vI Awpxy
GridAW gdwrW Aqy ByqIAW kwrn AwpxI lMkw lutw cu`kw sI[mwJy dy isrVI lok vI
AwpxI rozI rotI dI Bwl iv`c vqn qoN dUr jwxw SurU ho gey sn[
bwbw gurid`q isMG jI srhwlI vwilAW dy auprwly nwl 376 pMjwbI krwey qy ley
ie`k jpwnI smuMdrI zhwj ijs dw nW “kwmwgwtw mwrU” sI iv`c Asvwr ho ky ruzgwr dI
Bwl iv`c inkl qury sn[v`K v`K bMdrgwhW qoN huMdw hoieAw ieh zhwj jdoN kYnyfw dI
bMdrgwh nyVy pu`jx vwlw qW knyfw srkwr ny Awpxy smuMdrI jhwj “sI lwien” iv`c POj
dI ie`k tukVI Byj ky BwrqI jhwj ƒ KdyVn dw hukm id`qw[pr muswPrW ny Awpxy hONsly
dw pRdrSn kridAw hoieAW ies hmly ƒ nwkwm bxw id`qw sI Aqy zhwj dI qoV BMn vI
kr id`qI sI[ies nwkwmIN qoN iK`J ky srkwr ny kwmwgwtw mwrU qy qopW nwl hmlw krn
dw PYslw ilAw pr kYnyfw iv`c v`sdy BwrqIAW dy dbwA kwrn AiDkwrIAW ƒ ieh PYslw
vwips lYxw ipAw[
knyfw dw ie`k AiDkwrI hwpiknsn bVw hI bdnwm Aqy duSt soc dw AiDkwrI
sI ijs ny sQwnk BwrqIAW qy julm krky aunHW dw n`k iv`c dm kIqw hoieAw sI[ies
julm qoN BwrqI pRvwsI qrws qrws krdy sn[ies AiDkwrI ny AwpxI sPlqw vwsqy
ie`k gdwr BwrqI bylw isMG dI ip`T qy h`Q r`iKAw hoieAw sI ijhVw Zdr pwrtI dy
ieMnklwbIAW dI sUh ies APsr ƒ idMdw rihMdw sI[ies APsr dI Sih qy hI bylw isMG
ny vYnkUvr dy gurduAwry iv`c golI clw id`qI sI ijs nwl Bwg isMG (ipMf iB`KIivMf, izlHw
AMimRqsr) Aqy vqn isMG ShId ho gey sn[ies qoN ielwvw hor 12 dUsry BwrqI P`tV vI
ho gey sn ijnHW iv`c sohn lwl pwTk vI sI[
ies Gtnw ny ieMnklwbIAW dy mnW iv`c bdly dy BWbV bwl id`qy sn[auh hr vyly
iesy qwk iv`c rihx l`g pey sn ik kdoN mOkw imly Aqy auh hwpiknsn ƒ nrk
phuMcwaux[AwiKr myvw isMG ƒ ie`k idn mOkw iml hI igAw jdoN hwpiknsn vYnkUvr dI
kcihrI iv`c igAw hoieAw sI[myvw isMG ny aus ƒ kcihrI iv`c hI golIAW mwr ky jhnm
phuMcw id`qw[ myvw isMG ƒ igRPqwr krky kYd iv`c su`t id`qw igAw ij`Qy aus qy Akih Aqy
Asih julm Fwey gey pr ies Syr dUly ny sI nw kIqI Aqy AwiKr 11jnvrI, 1915 ƒ
h`sdw h`sdw PWsI qy JuUl igAw[ Zdwr bylw isMG ƒ bcwaux leI AMgryz srkwr ny hr
hIlw kIqw[aus ƒ svY r`iKAw leI ispwhI dy ky aus dy ipMf jYnI, izlHw huiSAwrpur Byj
id`qw igAw sI pr aus dy mgr l`gy ieMnkwlbIAW ijnHW iv`c hrI isMG sUMF, ieMdr isMG
Awid Swml sn ny aus ƒ aus dy ipMf iv`c hI sdw dI nINd svw id`qw sI[
***

ie`k s`cw smwj syvk Aqy duKIAW dw sunyhI

sR: gihl isMG jI C`jlv`fI
(ipMf C`jlv`fI, izlHw AMimRqsr)

sR: gihl isMG dw jnm 1900 eI: iv`c izlHw AMimRqsr dy ipMf C`jlv`fI iv`c sR:
hukm isMG jI dy Gr mwqw mwlW dI ku`KoN hoieAw[aus dy ipqw jI Coty moty kMmW qoN qr`kI
krdy hoey AwpxI imhnq sdkw TykydwrI dy ^yqr iv`c aucweIAW qy jw pu`jy sn[ ielwky
iv`c aunHW ny KUb nwmnw vI K`itAw[ AMgryz srkwr v`loN hukmisMG ƒ srdwr swihb dw
i^qwb vI hwsl sI[mu`FlI pVHweI leI gihl isMG kuJ icr qW skUl igAw pr iPr aus
ny skUl C`f TykydwrI dw kMm krnw SurU kr id`qw sI[C`jlv`fI dy nyVly ipMf mu`Cl dy
rihx vwly ie`k nOjvwn ivswKw isMG nwl gihl isMG dw sky BrwvW vrgw ipAwr
sI[ivswKw isMG ƒ A`gy c`l ky AMgryz hkUmq v`loN rwie swihb dy i^qwb nwl invwijAw
igAw sI[ienHW dovW pRIvwrW dI pRIvwrk sWJ vI sI pr gihl isMG mn iv`c qW lokW
vwsqy kuJ krn dw bIj puMgr cu`kw sI ijs leI auh TykydwrI C`f vwips Awpxy ipMf Awky
smwj syvw dy kwrjW iv`c ju`t igAw sI[
gihl isMG pdwrQvwdI soc qoN au~pr au~T cu`kw sI[smwj iv`c dwj pRQw vrgIAW
kurIqIAW dw auh ivroDI sI[mwieAw dw moh aus ƒ AwpxI lpyt iv`c nhIN sI lY
sikAw[lokW swhmxy auh mwfl bx ky AwieAw Aqy aus ny Awpxy swry DIAW pu`qrW dIAW
SwdIAW dwj rihq swdw FMg nwl kIqIAW[ bySk Gr iv`c hr qrHW dIAW shUlq
auplbD sn, nwnk SwhI ie`tW dy mihl-numw mkwn sn iPr vI gihl isMG dI qrkSIl
soc ny sB ƒ inkwr ky du`KI mnu`Kqw dy kMm Awaux dw bIVw cu`k ilAw sI[gihl isMG dy
ies kMm iv`c aus dI supqnI hrnwm kOr dw v`fw sihXog sI[auh Awpxy pqI dy rwh dw
roVw nhIN sI bxI sgoN aus dI SkqI bx gihl isMG dy dyS BgqI dy rwh ƒ swP kIqw[
gihl isMG ny Awpxw isAwsI jIvn ZdrI bwibAW sohx isMG Bknw, bwbw jvwlw
isMG Aqy bwbw kysr isMG dI mwrksvwdI ivcwrDwrw dy pRBwv hyTW SurU kIqw[ikrqI
lihr iv`c gihl isMG pihlI vyrW jylH igAw[ZdrI bwibAW dI clweI hoeI lihr iv`c
auh vI ikswnW Aqy mzdUrW ƒ jQybMD krn iv`c pUrI qndyhI nwl ju`t igAw sI[ies
lihr dI sPlqw vwsqy aus ny idn rwq ie`k kr id`qw sI[ikswn kmytIAW giTq krn
iv`c gihl isMG dI ivSyS BUimkw rhI sI[zmIn dw mwlIAw Aqy AwbIAwnw vDwaux
iKlwP iv`Fy sMGrS iv`c BMfwrI pul (AMimRqsr) qy puils v`loN kIqy qS`dd iv`c gihl
isMG vI swQIAW smyq P`tV ho igAw sI[
gurduAwirAW dy suDwr sbMDI cwlU hoeI AkwlI lihr iv`c gihl isMG ny v`D cVH
ky ih`sw ilAw Aqy ies lihr iv`c lokW ƒ auqSwihq krn leI aus ny Awpxy ipMf dy
curwhy iv`c ie`k v`fy swry kVwhy iv`c nIlw rMg kwhV ky ipMf vwilAw dIAW p`gW rMg
id`qIAW sn[gurU Gr iv`c SrDw eynI pRbl ho geI sI ik dovW pqI pqnI ny AMimRq Ck
ilAw sI Aqy roz svyry au~T c`kI nwl Awtw pIs ky Awtw mwqw gujrI gurduAwry bwby
bkwly phuMcwieAw krdy sn[gihl isMG ny dUsry lokW ƒ nwl lY ky kwr syvw AwrMB
gurduAwrw gory vwlw auswirAw Aqy ies kwr syvw iv`c aus ny Awp vI isr qy tokrI

FoeI[ ie`Qy hI b`s nhIN aus ny AwpxI pqnI dy gihxy quVvw ky C`by bxvw ky gurduAwry dI
pwlkI swihb leI gurduAwry cVHw id`qy sn[sMn 1936 qoN 1939 q`k gihl isMG SRomxI
gurdvwrw pRbMDk kmytI dw mYNbr vI irhw Aqy hrsw CInw dy moGw morcw iv`c kYd vI
k`tI[
suDwrvwdI pRivrqI dy hox krky gihl isMG ny CUqCwq ivru`D JMfw bulMd vI kIqw
Aqy ies ƒ AmlI rUp dyx leI ipMf dy cONk iv`c colW dI ie`k v`fI dyZ irMnH ky sB ƒ
ie`k QW bYTw ky Ckwaux dw kMm kIqw ijs dI szw vI aus ƒ Bu`gqxI peI[rUVIvwdI Aqy
ipCWh iK`cU ivcwrW dy lokW ny Agly hI idn ies pRIvwr dw bweIkwt kr id`qw pr ies
pRvwh kIqy bgYr gihl isMG Awpxy inscy qy kwiem irhw[
1947 eI: iv`c dyS dI vMf dw smW bVw hI iBAwnk smW sI ijs iv`c l`KW hI
ihMdU,is`K Aqy muslmwn pRIvwr GroN byGr hoey,lu`t-Ksu`t hoeI,DIAW BYxW dI p`q lu`tI geI,
byksUr Aqy mwsUmW dw lhU pwxI vWg vhwieAw igAw[ BweI gihl isMG ny hm-iKAwl
lokW ƒ nwl lY ky ies iPrkU hnyrI ƒ rokx Aqy bydoSIAW jwnW bcwaux vrgw nyk kMm
kIqw[ies rOly-r`py ƒ jdoN kuJ T`lH peI qW aus ny ‘skInw’ nW dI ie`k muslmwn kuVI
ijhVI Awpxy mwipAW qoN ivCV geI sI ƒ aus dy mwipAW nwl imlwaux dw puMn vwlw kMm
kIqw sI[
iPrkwpRsq lokW ƒ gihl isMG dy ieh suDwr Aqy lok BlweI dy kMm Pu`tI nzwry
vI nhIN sn BwauNdy[ auh gihl isMG ƒ Awpxy rwh dw roVw smJdy sn[ aus ƒ keI vwr
DmkIAW vI imlIAW sn ik auh ieh kMm C`f ky Gr bYT jwvy pr ieh ig`dV BbkIAW
ies inDVk Aqy Awpxy AkIdy dy p`ky ienswn ƒ Awpxy p`Q qoN nhIN sn fulw
skIAW[ie`k idn gihl isMG jdoN AMimRqsr qoN Swm vyly Awpxy swiekl qy Gr muV irhw
sI qW rcI hoeI swijS qihq aus ƒ jrnYlI sVk qy ipMf dburjI nyVy Gyr ilAw igAw
sI[ aus ƒ jbrdsqI ie`k jIp iv`c su`t ky ieh ivroDI Awpxy nwl lY gey sn, ij`Qy
aunHW v`loN aus qy qS`dd kr ky AwpxI eIn mMnvwaux dI koiSS kIqI geI sI pr auh nw
mMinAW ijs krky aus ƒ ShId kr id`qw igAw sI[ieh vI ikhw jWdw hY ik gihl isMG
ƒ ShId krn auprMq aus dy srIr ƒ hirmMdr swihb AMimRqsr dy lMgr dI bldI B`TI
iv`c su`t id`qw igAw sI[
ies qrHW ieh inDVk, suDwrvwdI soc vwlw, du`KI lokW dw hmdrd Aqy Awpw vwr
dyx vwlw, lokW dw rwh dsyrw, lokW leI hI jIivAw Aqy lokW leI hI mr igAw[A`j vI
mwJy ƒ ies iqAwgI ienswn qy mwx hY[

***

sMq bwbw vswKw isMG jI
(ddyhr swihb, izlHw qrn qwrn)

bwbw vswKw isMG jI dw jnm sMn 1877 ƒ sR: idAwl isMG jI dy Gr mwqw ieMd
kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf ddyhr swihb izlHw AMimRqsr (hux izlHw qrn qwrn) iv`c hoieAw[ ieh
ipMf srhwlI qoN hrIky p`qx v`l jWidAW hoieAW rsqy iv`c AwauNdw hY[ bwbw jI dw
^wndwn bhwdrI Bry kwrnwimAW leI ielwky iv`c pRis`D hY[aunHW ny jdoN jvwnI dI
dihlIz qy pYr r`iKAw hI sI ik aunHW dI SwdI PrIdkot dy ipMf luhwrw dy vwsI kwlw isMG
dI pu`qrI bIbI rwm kOr nwl kr id`qI geI jo SwdI qoN ip`CoN CyqI hI Akwl clwxw kr
geI sI[bwbw jI ny jIvn Br dubwrw SwdI nw krn dw mn bxw ilAw Aqy Awpxy jIvn
ƒ dyS syvw leI smripq kr id`qw sI[
bwbw vswKw isMG jI ies g`l dy DwrnI sn “nw koeI bYrI nwih bygwnw, sgil
sMg hm ko bn AweI[” iesy kr ky bwbw jI dy sMq suBwA Aqy mn iv`c lok syvw dI
Bwvnw hox krky auh swry lokW iv`c bhuq hI hrmn ipAwry sn Aqy sB v`loN siqkwry
jWdy sn[ imqI 10 jnvrI 1931eI: ƒ qrn qwrn swihb dy gurduAwry dy srovr dI
syvw,14 AkqUbr, 1931 eI:ƒ gu: pMjw swihb(hux pwiksqwn)dy gurduAwry dw nINh p`Qr
r`Kx, gu: Cyhrtw swihb (AMimRqsr),gu: v`fI sMgq (klk`qw) dI iemwrq Aqy srhwlI dy
gurduAwry dI baulI dw nINh p`Qr r`Kx smyN inscq kIqy gey pMj ipAwirAW iv`c bwbw
jI Swml kIqy gey sn[aunHW dI syvw, dyS BgqI Aqy jIvn cir`qr bwry bwbw sohx isMG
jI ‘Bknw’ AwjwdI GulwtIey ny ‘jIvnsMgrwm’ iv`c vYswKw isMG jI bwry ies qrHW AMikq
kIqw hY:- “sMq bwbw vswKw isMG jI, pRDwn dyS Bgq pirvwr shwiek kmytI,
vwkeI sMq sn[aunHW ny kYdI pRIvwr shwiek kmytI dI AwKrI dm q`k Atu`t syvw
kIqI Aqy aus dy pRDwn rhy[s`c qW ieh hY ik Zdr pwrtI ijMdw hI ies syvw dy isr
qy rhI hY[”
( pMnw-102)
au`cy ikrdwr dy mwilk bwbw vswKw isMG jI ƒ SRomxI gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI v`loN
21 AkqUbr, 1934 eI: ƒ Akwl q^q swihb dI jQydwrI sONpI geI sI[ bwbw jI k`tV
AMgryz ivroDI Aqy nw-imlvrqn dy hwmI sn[bwbw jI dI gYr hwzrI iv`c 24 dsMbr,
1934 eI: ƒ s:mMgl isMG AYm.AYl.ey. dI isPwrS qy srkwrI APsr Kwn bhwdr nvwb
muz`Pr ^W ƒ Akwl q^q swihb qoN isropw dyx dw ivroD krky aunHW Awpxw AsqIPw dy
id`qw sI Aqy kmytI qoN juAwb mMigAw sI ik kmytI ny Aijhw krky is`KW dI sRv -au`c
Adwlq Akwl q^q swihb ƒ klMkq ikauN kIqw hY ?
imqI 30/31meI,1936 eI: ƒ hoeI “pMjwb rwjnIqk kwnPrMs” bwry imqI 4 meI
1936 eI: dI A^bwr “ikrqI” iv`c aunHW bwry ies qrHW drj hY:“bwbw jI dI AgvweI iv`c byimswl jlUs T`TIAW qoN ipMf srhwlI q`k “ienklwb
izMdwbwd Aqy SihnSwhIAq murdwbwd” dy nwhry lwauNdw hoieAw pu`jw sI[ikrswnW ny

Awpxy moiFAW qy Awpxy rvwieqI sMd qMglIAW, slMGW, khIAW Awid r`Ky hoey sn[ieh
iqMn mIl lMmw jlUs sI ijs dI igxqI ie`k l`K ƒ vI pwr kr geI sI[ bwbw vswKw
isMG, bwbw gurid`q isMG, kwmryf mohn lwl, gMgw isMG kOmI, pRIqm isMG srgoDw Awid ny
ies kwnPrMs iv`c BwSn kIqy sn[ies kwnPrMs iv`c pMifq jvwhr lwl nihrU ^ws iK`c
dw kyNdr bxy hoey sn[”
bwbw jI ie`k isrVI dyS Bgq Aqy mnu`Kqw dI BlweI dy AlMbrdwr hox dy nwl
nwl aunHW dI ivcwrDwrw sWJIvwlqw vwlI sI[“sBy sWJIvwl sdwien koie nw id`sy bwhrw
jIE[” iesy krky smiJAw jWdw sI ik auh sWJIvwlqw bwry rUsI ivcwr Dwrw dy DwrnI
sn[ ies dy au`qr iv`c auh ikhw krdy sn-“ jo aus ƒ kimaUinst kihMdy hn jW rUsI sWJIvwlqw vwlw inSwnw r`Kx vwlw
kihMdy hn auh myry bwry Swied jwxdy hI nhIN[myrw inSwnw sRI dSmyS jI dI krnI
Aqy sWJIvwlqw vwlw hY[sMn 1906-07 iv`c ‘srb`q dw Blw’ myry ivcwrW Aqy krm
dw Atu`t AMg hY[is`KI bhuq v`fI cIj hY[kimaUinzm is`KI dw ie`k AMg hY,jo is`KI
iv`c smw qW skdw hY pr is`KI ies iv`c nhIN smw skdI[“gurU kw lMgr” “qyrw
Gr myrw Gr” dw pRcwr sYNkVy swl pihlW gurU swihbwn ny kr ky sWJIvwlqw qy
brwbrqw dw rwh d`isAw sI[”
QW QW jw ky dyS syvw dy kMm kridAW srkwr v`loN bwbw jI ƒ Awpxy ivru`D
pRcwrk smJ ky kYd vI r`iKAw [ ishq ivgV jwx krky jylH AiDkwrIAW ny aunHW ƒ pUrw
Awrwm dyx leI jylH qoN bwhr r`iKAw Aqy iPr ipMf vI Byj id`qw sI[sMn 1940 dy meIjUn dy mhIny iv`c ‘ikrqI ikswn’ pwrtI dIAW sUbweI coxW SurU ho geIAW sn ijs qy
hkUmq ny swry ienklwbIAW ƒ muV igRPqwr krky jylHW iv`c f`k id`qw sI[bwbw jI ƒ vI
26jUn, 1940 eI: ƒ igRPqwr kr ilAw Aqy lwhOr dI jylH iv`c Byj id`qw sI[ rylvy
stySn lwhOr pu`jx qy auQoN dy mzdUr, ikrswn Aqy skUlW kwljW dy ividAwrQI muMfykuVIAW ny hkUmq dy ivru`D muzwhrw kIqw ijs qy pulIs ƒ lwTI cwrj krnw ipAw sI[
ieh hzUm Aqy lokW dw joS vyK ky bwbw jI ny ikhw sI, “hkUmq dy hux idn pu`gx vwly
hn[”
Bwrq Awzwd hox ip`CoN lokW dIAW h`kI mMgW leI j`doN jihd kridAW kwmryf
sohx isMG jI ‘joS’ bwbw sohn isMG jI ‘Bknw’ Awid dyS BgqW ƒ kYd kr ky “Xol kYNp
jylH” iv`c bMd kr id`qw sI ij`Qy aunHW ny Bu`K hVqwl r`K id`qI sI[bwbw jI ny pMifq
jvwhr lwl nihrU ƒ inDVk ho ky ikhw sI, “pMifq jI!ijnHW ny dyS dI ^wiqr Awpxw
sB kuJ vwr id`qw hY, ijnHW dIAW kurbwnIAW dy isr qy A`j qusIN rwj kr rhy ho, auh
AwzwdI ip`CoN vI jylHW iv`c rul rhy hn[ kI ieho AwzwdI sI ijs leI aunHW ny kurbwnIAW
kIqIAW sn ?” pMifq jI kol ies dw koeI au`qr nhIN sI Aqy auh lwjvwb sn[
bwbw jI dy pYr qy zKm ho igAw sI jo ivgV ky aunHW dI mOq dw kwrn bx
igAw[ieh dyS Bgq 5 nvMbr, 1957 eI: ƒ qrn qwrn ivKy pRlok isDwr igAw[
ieiqhws dy pMinAW iv`c ieh lokW leI jIaUx Aqy mrn vwlw mJYl A`j vI ijMdw hY[

***

BweI nrwiex isMG jI ‘ShId’
(KUnI swkw SRI nnkwxw swihb, pwiksqwn)

ipMf kYroN qoN koeI ie`k iklo mItr ipCWh qrn qwrn v`l sVk qy ie`k ipMf
‘lhuky’ hY[ ies ipMf iv`c ie`k gurU Gr ƒ mMnx vwlw rwmgVHIAw pRvwr rihMdw sI[ ies
pRvwr dy muKI sR:jvwhr isMG jI dy Gr pYdw hox vwlI AOlwd iv`c ie`k Aijhw pu`qr pYdw
hoieAw ijs ny ies pRvwr dw hI nhIN sgoN ies ielwky dw nwm is`K ieiqhws iv`c rOSn
kIqw[ aus joDy dw nwm sR: nrwiex isMG jI sI ijhnW dw jnm sMn 1870 dy nyVy -qyVy
hoieAw[jdoN nvIN nvIN sWdl bwr v`sI sI qW aunHW dy v`fy-vfyry ieQoN au~T ky pwiksqwn
iv`c ipMf ‘lhuky’ c`k nM: 75 iv`c jw v`sy sn[
AMgryz srkwr dw bolbwlw sI Aqy auh hr qrIkw vrq ky vI AwpxI pkV
bxweI r`Kxw cwhuMdy sn[ pihly smyN iv`c jdoN muglW dw jor sI Aqy is`KW ƒ Awpxy
piv`qr gurDwmW dy KulHy drSn dIdwr krny nsIb nhIN sn huMdy[ is`K jMglW iv`c ivcrdy
hoey kdI kdweI l`uk iC`p rwq-brwqy Aw ky AMimRqsr ivKy drSn ieSnwn krdy sn[
gurdvwirAW dy pRbMD v`l iDAwn dyx dw qW suAwl dUr dI g`l sI[ iPr is`K imslW dw
smW AwieAw Aqy auh Awps iv`c hI lV ky AwpxI SkqI nSt krdIAW rhIAW sn[
AwpxIAW h`dW vDwaux dI lwlsw ny iehnW dy bwhU-bl ƒ ^orw lw CifAw sI[mhwrwjw
rxjIqisMG dy rwj kwl dOrwn vI gurduAwirAW dw pRbMD Aqy sWB sMBwl dw koeI izAwdw
qs`lIbKS kMm nhIN sI ho sikAw, bySk mhwrwjy v`loN iehnW AsQwnW dy nW qy jgIrW lw
id`qIAW sn ijhnW dI kmweI nwl aus smyN gurdvwirAW dI sWB sMBwl krn vwly mhMqW
ƒ AYS dI ijMdgI bqIq krn dw Avsr iml igAw sI[ies kmweI nwl pRbMDkW AMdr
keI qrHW dIAW kurIqIAW pYdw ho geIAW sn[mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dw smW vI bhuqI dyr
nw c`l sikAw Aqy aus dy vwirs ies rwj ƒ izAwdw icr nw sMBwl sky[kmzor vwirsW
qo ieh pMjwb hOlI hOlI Ku`s igAw Aqy ieh AMgryz dI gulwmI dw iSkwr ho igAw[
AMgrz dI kutl nIqI ‘pwVo qy rwj kro’ ny jwx ilAw sI ik jy kr ies bhwdr
kOm ƒy kwbU krnw hY qW iehnW dy gurduAwirAw qy AwpxI pkV r`KxI AqI zrUrI hY[
AMgryz is`Dy qOr qy A`gy Aw ky ieh ibpqw nhI sI shyVnw cwhuMdw [ies kMm leI aus ny
gurduAwirAW qy kwbj mhMqW dI ip`T QwpVnI SurU kr id`qI sI[ AMdr Kwqy mhMqW dI hr
qrHW nwl mdd vI krdy sn[sMn 1881 iv`c pMjwb dy lYPtInYNt gvrnr ‘iejrtn’ ny
lwrf irpn ƒ ic`TI ilKI ijs iv`c aus ny crcw kIqw sI, “is`K gurduAwirAW dy pRbMD
ƒ AijhI kmytI dy h`QW iv`c id`qy jwx dI AwigAw dyxw, ijhVI gOrimMt kMtrol qoN
Azwd ho cu`kI hovy,rwjsI qOr qy ^qrnwk hovygw[”
nnkwxw swihb dw gurdvwrw jnm AsQwn sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI dw pRbMD aus smyN
mhMq nrwiex dws dy h`QW iv`c sI[ AMdr Kwqy auh AMgryz srkwr dw ip`TU sI Aqy
srkwr dw h`Q pUry qOr qy aus dI ip`T qy sI[gurdvwry cVHn vwlw cVHwvw Aqy jgIr dy

qOr qy gurduAwry dI zmIn qoN hox vwlI Awmdn ny aus dw isr Pyr id`qw sI[auh rihq
mirXwdw Bu`l ky gurduAwry AMdr kukrm krn l`g ipAw sI[ aus ny AwpxI ihPwzq leI
guMfy vI pwl r`Ky sn[SrDwlU AOrqW dI p`q qy vI aus dy guMifAW v`loN hmly hoey sn[
iehnW duKdweI GtnwvW ny is`K jgq dw ihrdw vlUMDr ky r`K id`qw sI[ies iv`c koeI
dUsrI rwie nhIN ik is`K Aqy gurduAwry dw sbMD ausy qrHW hY ijvyN rUUh Aqy srIr dw[
mhMq nrwiex dws qoN nnkwxw swihb dy gurduAwry ƒ Azwd krvwaux leI v`Kv`K ielwikAW qoN jQy iqAwr hoey sn[BweI lCmx isMG jI DwrovwlI dw jQw imqI 19
PrvrI,1921eI: ƒ nnkwxw swihb v`l qur ipAw sI[ ies jQy iv`c sR: lCmx isMG dI
isMGxI bIbI ieMdr kOr vI Swml sI[BweI lCmx isMG jI dy jQy iv`c BweI nrwiex
isMG jI ‘lhuky’ vI Swml sn[lhuikAw dy hI BweI krm isMG jI Aqy BweI mihMgw isMG
jI vI aunHW nwl sn[ie`k jQw BweI krqwr isMG jI J`br dI AgvweI hyTW nnkwxy v`l
kUc kr cu`kw sI[
mhMq ƒ ies dI sUh pihlW hI iml geI sI[ aus ny vI isMGW dw twkrw krn
leI qlvwrW, gMfwsy,qyl dy pIpy Aqy loVINdy Asly dw pRbMD kr ilAw sI[ sR: krqwr
isMG J`br dw jQw qW rsqy iv`c hI rok ilAw igAw sI pr sR: lCmx isMG jI dw jQw
drbwr swihb AMdr krIb Cy vjy svyry dwKl ho igAw[ mhMq dy guMfy pihlW hI iqAwr
bYTy sn[ AMdr pu`jdy swr hI sR: lCmx isMG horW ny sRI gurU gRMQ swihb ƒ m`Qw tyikAw
Aqy gurU gRMQ swihb dI qwibAw bYT gey[imQy hoey pRogrwm Anuswr mhMq dy guMifAW ny
iehnW isMGW qy golIAW dw mINh vrsw id`qw[ P`tV hoey isMGW qy guMfy ikRpwnW gMfwisAW
nwl tu`t ky pY gey Aqy auhnW dy tukVy kr auhnW qy im`tI dw qyl pw ky swVn l`gy [ BweI
lCmx isMG jI ƒ ijMdw hI nyVy dy jMf dy ru`K nwl bMnH ky im`tI dw qyl pw ky swV id`qw
igAw sI[ies KuUnI swky nnkwxw swihb iv`c hI sR: nrwiex isMG jI vI ShId hoey
sn[lyKk ƒ mwx hwsl hY ik auh, aus dy dwdw jI sn[iehnW lhuikAW dy hI sR: krm
isMG Aqy mihMgw isMG jI vI ShId ho geyy sn, ijhnW qy mwJy Aqy is`K kOm ƒ mwx hY[

***

ShId mdn lwl FINgrw
(AMimRqsr)

mdn lwl FINgrw dw jnm sMn 1883 iv`c AMimRqsr Sihr dy mMny-pRmMny AMgryz
pRsq rwey swihb fwktr swihb id`qw m`l dy Gr hoieAw [fw: id`qw m`l ielwky iv`c tofI
vjoN jwixAw jWdw sI[AMgryzW dI cwplUsI krn krky mdn lwl dy v`fy Brw v`fy -v`fy
AhuidAW qy l`gy hoey sn[aunHW iv`coN ie`k ibhwrI lwl FINgrw ƒ ‘sr’ dw i^qwb vI hwsl
sI,ijhVw jINd irAwsq iv`c cI& minstr vjoN au`c AiDkwrI sI[
mdn lwl dy jnm bwry jy kr kih ilAw jwvy ik ic`kV iv`c kMvl Pu`l iKVn
vwlI g`l sI qW koeI AiqkQnI nhIN hovygI[ AMgryzW dy ivr`uD Bwrq vwsIAW iv`c nPrq
dI jvwlw aus smyN pUry jorW qy sI Aqy auh ienHW qoN Awzwd hox leI jdo -jihd kr rhy
sn[Aijhy pRIvwr iv`c pYdw hoey b`cy qy pRIvwrk vwqwvrx dw Asr hoxw zrUrI sI pr
pqw nhI ieh bwlk iks im`tI dw bixAw hoieAw sI ik ies dy su BwA iv`c tofIpuxy vwlI
koeI g`l nzr nhI sI AwauNdI[mdn lwl jdoN vI boldw AMgryzW dy ivru`D hI boldw sI[
ies g`l ƒ bwkI pRIvwr dy mYNbr cMgw nhIN sn smJdy Aqy hmySW hI aus ƒ nsIhq krdy
rihMdy sn ik auh Aijhw nw kry[skUl dI pVHweI pUrI krn auprMq mdn lwl ƒ au`c
iv`idAw vwsqy lwhOr kwlj iv`c dwKl krvwieAw igAw[ hux auh jvwn ho cu`kw sI Aqy
AMgryzW dy zulm ƒ mihsUs kr skdw sI[aus dI g`lbwq iv`c vI AMgryzW ivru`D ivdroh
dy l`Cx swP idKweI dyx l`g pey sn[ies g`l dw hux ipqw ƒ iPkr l`g igAw sI ik
ies dw ieh vqIrw ikqy aus dy ^wndwn leI ^qrw nw bx jwvy[nObq ie`QoN q`k Aw geI
sI ik ie`k idn gu`sy iv`c Aw ky ipau ny mdn lwl ƒ GroN bwhr k`F id`qw sI[
ienHIN idnI mdn lwl dw ipqw gurdwspur ijlHy iv`c bqOr isvl srjn l`gw
hoieAw sI [ mdn lwl GroN inkl ky kwlkw clw igAw ij`Qy auh kwlkw dIAW tu`tIAWB`jIAW sVkW qy tWgw vwhuMdw irhw[FINgrw ny kwr^wny iv`c mzdUr dw kMm vI kIqw Aqy
kuJ icr leI bMbeI iv`c eIst ieMfIAw kMpnI kol nOkrI vI kIqI[ Pyr auh muV
AMimRqsr prq AwieAw, ij`QoN auh sMgrUr Awpxy v`fy Brw ibhwrI lwl FINgrw kol clw
igAw[ ipau vWg v`fy Brw ny vI mdn lwl ƒ AMgryzW dw ivroD krn qoN vrijAw pr
mdn lwl qy iQMDy GVy vWg koeI Asr nw hoieAw[ hwlwq ivgVdy vyK ky swirAW dI
slwh nwl mdn lwl ƒ auu~c iv`idAw pRwpq krn leI ieMglYNf Byj id`qw igAw[
ieMglYNf iv`c mdn lwl ny XUnIvristI kwlj lMfn iv`c ieMjInIirMg dI pVHweI
leI dwKlw lY ilAw[ ihMdusqwnIAW nwl ie`Qy ho rhy slUk dI qsvIr jo aus ny vyKI, ik
iks qrHW ienHW ƒ gory lok durkwrdy hn,mdn lwl dy mn iv`c AMgryzW leI bldI qy qyl
dw kMm kIqw [ie`Qy rihMidAW hI aus dI mulwkwq mShUr dyS Bgq ‘vIr swvrkr’ nwl
hoeI [aus dI ilKI pusqk ‘mukqI sMgrwm’ pVHn nwl mdn lwl dy mn iv`c ie`k nvW
joS Br igAw[ auh “AiBnv Bwrq suswietI” iv`c Swml igAw pr ies iv`c Swml hox
qoN pihlW aus ƒ ie`k iemiqhwn ‘coN guzrnw ipAw sI[ FINgrw p`ky ierwdy Aqy mzbUq

mnobl dw mwlk sI[aus dI hQylI iv`c Awr pwr ie`k lohy dw ik`l Tok id`qw igAw ijs
dI drd ƒ auh sih igAw sI[ ieh mJYl nOjvwn ies pRIiKAw iv`coN pws ho igAw sI[
ieMnHIN idnI ie`k lYPtInYNt krnl ‘sr krzn vweIlI’ ijhVw pihlW Bwrq iv`c
auc AiDkwrI dy qOr qy SwSk vI rih cu`kw sI hux sYktrI AwP styt Pwr ieMfIAw dw
pulItIkl ey.fI.sI. sI[ auh Awm krky BwrqIAW ƒ gwlHW k`Fx Aqy burw Blw kihx
leI bdnwm sI[ies nwl mdn lwl FINgrw dw vwh Aksr pYNdw rihMdw sI[ Asl iv`c
ieh AMgryz APsr ieMglYNf iv`c v`sdy ihMdusqwnI dyS Bgq ieMnklwbIAW dI sUh lYx qy
l`gw hoieAw sI[ies kMm qy prdw pwaux leI aus ny “ieMfIAn nYSnl AYsosIeySn nW dI
ie`k sMsQw bxweI hoeI sI[ieh gorw APsr AxKIly BwrqI ieMnklwbIAW dIAW nzrW
iv`c rVkdw sI[ kRWqIkwrI ies ƒ pwr blwaux leI smyN dI qwV iv`c qRl o m`CI ho rhy
sn[
ies kMm ƒ isry lwaux leI mdn lwl FINgry ny pihlI julweI, 1909 eI: ƒ ie`k
BrI sBw iv`c aus ƒ golIAW mwr ky nrk Byj id`qw sI[mdn lwl ƒ igRPqwr krky aus
qy mukdmw clwieAw igAw Aqy ies vrqwry qo kyvl 23 idn bwAd hI 23 julweI 1909
eI: ƒ mdn lwl ƒ PWsI dI sjw suxw id`qI geI sI[ies Ax^Ily Aqy Awpxy dyS ƒ
ipAwr krn vwly sUrmy mJYl ƒ 17 Agsq,1909 eI: ƒ Pwhy lw id`qw igAw sI jo h`sdw
h`sdw PWsI dy r`sy qy JUl igAw sI[
“ kd frdy ny mOq qoN sUry, ijnHW mOq ivAwhuxI ey[
lw jWdy ny jwn dI bwjI,AwzwdI dulhx pwauxI ey[”

***

kwmryf qyjw isMG jI suqMqr
(ipMf Akwl gVH AlUxw, izlHw gurdwspur)

dyS kOm qoN kurbwn hox dw jzbw bhuq hI G`t lokW iv`c huMdw hY[ hr koeI Awpxy
q`k hI sImq rih ky ies zhwn qoN au~T jWdw hY[Awm AwdmI dI soc Awpxy pRIvwr dy
duAwly hI GuMmdI rihMdI hY[Awpy qoN pr q`k au~pr auu~Tx vwly Awpxy dyS ,kOm Aqy dIn
du`KI leI Awpw vwrn dI ibrqI r`Kdy hn[ ieh soc aus ienswn ƒ Amr bxw idMdI
hY[AijhI hI soc dy DwrnI s: qyjw isMG jI suqMqr, dw jnm gurdwspur dy ipMf Akwl
gVH AlUxw iv`c sMn 1901 ƒ s:ikRpwl isMG jI dy Gr hoieAw [ieh ikrswn pIRvwr
hY[qyjw isMG jI dy ipqw jI vI kRWqIkwrI ivcwrW dy sn[
suqMqr ny AwpxI mu`FlI ividAw ^wlsw kwlj AMimRqsr qoN pRwpq kIqI[sMn 1919
dI ivswKI qy jilHAWvwlw bwZ iv`c AMgryz srkwr dI KyfI hoeI ^Un dI holI dw aus dy
mn qy fUMGw Asr hoieAw sI[srIr iv`c dOVdw hoieAw kRWqIkwrI ipqw dw ^Un Aqy mn
iv`c AMgrzW dy zulm dw ivroD bldI qy qyl dw kMm kr igAw sI[qyjw isMG ny Awpxy
jIvn kwl iv`c AnykW hI AMgryzW iv`ruD kRWqIkwrI muihmW clweIAW Aqy keI nvIAW
jQybMdIAW hoNd iv`c ilAWdIAW[ suqMqr jI dw smu`cw pRIvwr hI AgWh vDU iKAwlW dw sI
iesy leI swry pRIvwr v`loN hI svqMqrqw sMgRwm dIAW lihrW,ijvyN nwmDwrI lihr, gdr
lihr, AkwlI lihr iv`c vD cVH ky Xogdwn pwieAw sI[
qyjw isMG ny mhMqW, musMdW Aqy iBRStwcwrI lokW ivru`D vI ft ky j`do jihd kIqI
Aqy ies dy ^wqmy leI bulMd Awvwz auTweI [AkwlI jQy BrqI krn iv`c vI aunHW dw
v`fw Xogdwn irhw hY[ividAk ^yqr iv`c suqMqr jI dw k`d vI bhuq v`fw hY[ auh keI
BwSwvW dw jwxkwr sI[ qyjw isMG ny lyKk, Alock Aqy ie`k cMgy sMpwdk hox dy nwl
nwl ivdySI XUnIvistIAW qoN keI ifgrIAW hwsl kIqIAW sn[suqMqr AwpxI ilAwkq dy
blbUqy qy hI pMjwb AYsMblI dy mYNbr vjoN ibnW mukwblw hI cuixAw igAw sI[
s: qyjw isMG jI srv-p`KI igAwn dy mwlk sn[gurduAwrw “qyjw vIhlw” ƒ
iklHy dw rUp dyxw Aqy ETIAW dy gurduAwry ƒ POjI FMg dI ivauNqbMdI krky, mhMqW dy kbzy
iv`coN Cufvwaux dw kMm aus dy hI idmwg dw hI ikRSmW sI[gurU ky bwg dy morcy dI
sm`isAw ltkdI vyK ky qyjw isMG dI AkwlI lIfriSp ƒ id`qI rwey sdkw hI ieh morcw
sr kIqw jw sikAw sI, ijs iv`c aunHW dw ShIdI jQw moFI bixAw sI[suqMqr jI dy
roSn idmwg, ivauNqbMdI, mOky qy vrqI jwx vwlI nYiqk Aqy rwjsI sUJ bUJ sdkw hI auh
moFI kqwrW iv`c Aw Kloqw sI[
SromxI AkwlI dl v`loN is`K Drm dy pRcwr leI aunHW ƒ A&gwinsqwn ByijAw
igAw ij`Qy suqMqr jI dw myl ihMdusqwn dI AwzwdI leI lV rhy gurmu`K isMG Awid BgOVy

gdrIAW nwl hoieAw[ A&gwinsqwn Aqy qurkI srkwrW aus smyN dI AMgryzI srkwr dy
ivru`D sn[ienHW hkUmqW dI pRyrnw qy hI suqMqr jI qurkI POj dI tRyinMg lYx leI qurkI vI
gey,ij`Qy aunHW ny “kuusqunqUnIAW POjI kwlj” iv`c ieh tRyinMg leI [
1929 eI: dw smW gdr pwrtI leI mwrU smW sI ikauNik AMgryzW dy KrIdy hoey
gdwrW dI mdd nwl BweI Bwg isMG vrgy moFI gdrI mrvw id`qy gey sn[ qyjw isMG jI
vI ies vwA vroly ‘coN kuJ smy leI inkl AmrIkw cly gey sn ij`Qy jw ky aunHW ny
‘gdr’ nW dw ie`k A^bwr k`iFAw sI, ijs rwhIN lokW ƒ dyS dI AwjwdI leI lwmbMd
kIqw sI[suqMqr jI ny gurIlw Xu`D leI jQw iqAwr kIqw ijs ny lgpg 30 gdwr ijnHW
ny gdr pwrtI ƒ Fwh lweI sI, ies jhwnoN qor id`qw sI[ies Gtnw ny AmrIkw iv`c
AMgryzW dI nINd hrwm kr id`qI sI Aqy AMgryzW ny AmrIkw srkwr ƒ ies g`l leI
mjbUr kIqw ik auh s: qyjw isMG suqMqr ƒ AmrIkw iv`coN bwhr k`F dyvy[
Bwrq dI ikrswnI ƒ jQybMd krn leI suqMqr jI dw bhuq v`fw rol irhw hY[auh
‘srb Bwrq ikswn sBw’ dy pRDwn vI rhy[ ie`Qy hI bs nhIN aunHW ny pYpsU Kyqr iv`c
jmInW dy muzwirAW dI ‘muzwrw lihr’ ƒ lwmbMd kIqw Aqy 17 l`K eykV jmIn byzmIinAW dI JolI pweI sI[ies lihr dI kwmXwbI ny aunHW ƒ ienHW lokW dw msIhw bxw
id`qw sI[qyjw isMG suqMqr jI dI inSkwm syvw, lokW leI mr imtx dw zzbw,swdgI
BirAw jIvn, dyS kOm leI isrV BirAw jIvn A`j vI cwnx munwry vWg cmkdw hY[
pRxwm hY ies vIr svqMqrqw sMgRwmI mJYl ƒ[

***

dyS Bgq Aqy mhwn kRWqIkwrI

kwmryf A`Cr isMG jI ‘CInw’

ie`k mhwn kRWqIkwrI dw kQn hY “iksy kOm dI isrjnw Aijhy l`KW hI mrdW qy
iesqrIAW dI mMg krdI hY ijnHW ƒ Awpxy in`jI lwB, su`K Aqy Awpxy nzdIkIAW nwloN
dyS ikqy v`D ipAwrw hovy[” Aijhw hI ie`k ienswn sI kwmryf A`Cr isMG jI “CInw”
ijs dw jnm 2 AkqUbr, 1899 eI: ƒ p`qI Swhbwzpur ipMf hrsw CInw qihsIl
Ajnwlw izlw AMimRqsr iv`c ie`k r`jy-pu`jy ikrswn Grwxy iv`c sR: sMqw isMG nMbrdwr dy
Gr mwqw ikSn kOr dI ku`KoN hoieAw [
CInw jI ny AwpxI mu`FlI iv`idAw ipMf dy skUl qoN pRwpq kIqI Aqy iPr AglyrI
iv`idAw leI auh ^wlsw kwlj AMimRqsr dy hweI skUl iv`c dwKl ho gey sn, ij`QoN aunHW
ny dsvIN jmwq pws kIqI[ dsvI jmwq pws krn auprMq CInw jI ny ^wlsw kwlz
AMimRqsr iv`c (1918- 1920 eI:) pVHweI ArMBI Aqy eyQoN AYP.AYs. sI. pws kIqI[aunHW
dy mn dw pMCI hmySW hI socdw rihMdw sI ik aucyrI iv`idAw iksy Awzwd mulk iv`c pRwpq
kIqI jwvy qy vyiKAw jwvy ik Awzwd mulkW dy lok ikho ijhI i&zw iv`c jIaUNdy hn Aqy
auQoN dw mhOl ikho ijhw hY[CInw jI dI ies Aws dy pMCI ƒ ipMjry pwaux dI koiSS aus
smyN ^wlsw kwlz AMimRqsr dy AMgryz ipRsIpl imstr vwdn ny aunHW ƒ nOkrI dw JWsw dy
rokx dw jwl su~itAw pr A`Cr isMG ny ies ƒ Tukrw id`qw sI[ ies ip`CoN CInw jI Aqy
s: pRqwp isMG “kYroN” 1921eI: iv`c au~cyrI ividAw leI AmrIkw qur gey sn[
CInw jI dy AmrIkw qur jwx ipCoN pRvwr qy qW mwnoN musIbqW dy phwV hI tu`t pey
sn[CInw jI dy ivCoVy iv`c aunHW dy ipqw s: sMqw isMG jI dw ie`k mhIny ip`CoN hI dyhwq ho
igAw[iPr v`fy Brw s: myhr isMG dI ibmwrI kwrn mOq ho geI[ ies sB dy bwvjUd vI
A`Cr isMG Awpxy inSwny qoN nw iQVky[ kYlyPornIAW XUnIvristI qoN bI.ey. pws kIqI Aqy
pVHweI dy nwl nwl CInw jI ny ‘Porf’ kMpnI iv`c 1923eI: -1930 eI: q`k nOkrI vI
kIqI[ iPr swn&rWissko ivKy gdr iv`c pwrtI iv`c Swml ho gey Aqy 1927 eI: iv`c
gdr pwrtI dI swK ‘fItrwiet’ iv`c kwiem kIqI ijs dy auh 1931 eI: q`k pRDwn
rhy[swnPWiss iv`c hI ienHW ny ArQ Swsqr Aqy rwjnIqI ivigAwn iv`c grYjUeySn
kIqI[eyQy hI CInw jI gdr pwrtI dI pRIzIfIAm leI cuxy gey Aqy 1932 eI: q`k rhy[
sMn 1932 iv`c A`Cr isMG jI CInw rUs cly gey sn ij`Qy aunHW ny pUrbI
XUnIvrstI iv`c lwrkIn dy PrjI nW hyTW dwKlw ilAw Aqy pulItIkl ividAw pRwpq
kIqI[1934 eI: dy AKIr iv`c Bwrq Aw ky dyS dI AwzwdI lihr iv`c auh ih`sw lYx
l`g pey sn[ 1934-36 eI: q`k gupqvws iv`c rhy Aqy kimaUinst pwrtI dy sk`qr
bxy[srkwr ivroDI gqI ivDIAW kwrn CInw jI ƒ lwhOr dy iklHy iv`c do mhIny leI
nzrbMd r`iKAw igAw Aqy sMn 1937 iv`c srkwr ivroDI gqIivDIAW dy doS ADIn muV

aunHW ƒ aunHW dy ipMf dI hdUd AMdr nzrbMd kr id`qw igAw sI[CInw jI dI ies
nzrbMdI dI imAwd sMn 1937 iv`c jw ky Kqm hoeI sI[
Pyr CInw jI ieMfIAn nYSnl kWgrs iv`c Swml ho gey sn[mwrc 1938 eI: ƒ
CInw jI ipMf P`qyvwl iv`c kWgrs dI ie`k ivSwl kwnPrMs krvweI ijs dy PlsrUp aus
smyN dy mShUr ‘Pqyvwl’ kql kys iv`c sR: joigMdr isG jI ‘CInw’, Pqih isMG jI
P`qyvwl Aqy sUrq isMG jI P`qyvwl Awid nwl aunHW qy vI kql dw kys pw id`qw igAw sI[
ienHW hlwqW iv`c auh gupq vws iv`c cly gey sn[ieh kys pwaux iv`c ie`k mkwr
AMgryz ifptI kimSnr dw h`Q sI[ ies Gtnw auprMq A`Cr isMG CInw ny twtw ngr
iv`c vws kr ilAw[ iesy gupqvws dy smyN iv`c hI aunHW dI mulwkwq ipMf ‘idaukwlI’ dy
ie`k v`fy izmIdwr bwbU bdrI nwl hoeI jo Bwrq dy svrgvwsI rwStrpqI bwbU rwijMdr
pRSwid jI dy guAWFI sn[eyQy CInw jI ‘rwjn bwbU’ jI ƒ vI imly[P`qyvwlkys dI pYrvweI
leI kWgrs AwgU sYPauldIn ikclU jI inXukq hoey sn[ies kys iv`c srkwrI guAwh
vjoN ie`k puils krmcwrI sRI dys rwj ijhVw jlsy iv`c fIaUtI qy hwjr sI,ny CInw jI
dy h`k iv`c guAwhI id`qI bySk aus ƒ AwpxI nOkrI qoN h`Q Doxy pey sn[
twtw ngr iv`c A`Cr isMG jI dI mulwkwq igAwnI gurmu`K isMG ‘muswPr’ jI nwl
hoeI[Pyr CInw jI klkqy cly gey sn ij`Qy auh inrMjn isMG jI ‘qwilb’ ƒ imly
sn[ieMnHIN idnIN sR: inrMjx isMG ‘qwilb’ kWgrs pRDwn sn ijnHW rwhI Awp dI mulwkwq
SRI suBwS cMdr bos jI nwl hoeI sI[bos jI ny rUs jwx dI ie`Cw pRgt kIqI sI qW CInw
jI ny ieh kMm nyqw jI leI krnw pRvwn kr ilAw sI[ sPr qy jwx smyN nyqw jI ny
A`Cr isMG ƒ 200 rupey rsqy dy Krcy Aqy au~Qy rihx dw pRbMD krn leI id`qy sn[nyqw
jI dy sPr dw pRbMD krn leI CInw jI ‘ipMglwFyr’ (srh`dI sUbw) v`l cl qur geyy sn
ij`Qy aunHW dI mulwkwq SRI Bgq rwm ‘qlvwV’ nwl hoeI sI Aqy au~Qy nyqw jI leI ie`k
mkwn ikrwey qy ilAw sI[ieh swrw pRbMD krky CInw jI vwps muV Awey Aqy swry hwlwqW
qoN ivsQwr puUrvk qwilb jI Aqy bos jI ƒ jwxU krvwieAw[
aus smyN nyqw jI ny AMgryz srkwr ƒ “hOlvYl” Xwdgwr htwaux dw AltImytm
id`qw hoieAw sI ies leI nyqw jI leI rUs jwxw muSkl sI[ies j`do jihd iv`c nyqw jI
igRPqwr ho gey sn, ijs leI CInw jI ny iek`ilAW hI rUs vwps jwx dw pRogrwm bxw
ilAw sI[ikrqI pwrtI dy rwm ikSn ƒ kwbl ByijAw igAw sI qW ju auh rUs dy
sPwrq^wny nwl rUs jwx bwry spMrk pYdw kry pr auh Aijhw nhIN sI kr sikAw[ hux
ie`k hI rsqw sI pYdl jwx dw[ieh dovyN pTwxI Bys iv`c pYdl hI qurdy hoey ‘Sgnwn’
(APgwinsqwn dw ie`k sUbw) jw phuMcy sn[rUs dI srh`d qy “AwmU” nW dw ie`k dirAw
vgdw hY, ijs ƒ qr ky pwr krn nwl hI rUs phuMicAw jw skdw sI[ dirAw iv`c
pihlW rwm ikSn ny Cwl mwrI pr auh idl dw mrIj hox krky pwr nw l`g sikAw qy
dirAw dy qyj pwxI dy vhwA iv`c ruVH igAw[
CInw jI ny vI dirAw iv`c Cwl mwr id`qI Aqy lihrW dy QpyVy KWdy hoey pwr qW
l`g gey pr dUsry kMFy qy rUs dI srh`dI POj dy ispwhIAW ny igRPqwr kr ky ‘stwlnw
Awbwd’ lY gey[rUusIAW ƒ CInw jI dI BwSw dy smJx iv`c AOkV pyS Aw rhI sI ies
leI auQoN dy AiDkwrIAW ny mwsko g`l kIqI ‘qy do-BwSIey dI mMg kIqI qW ju pu`C-ig`C
kIqI jw sky[kwmntrn ny kozlov ƒ ies kMm leI stwlnw Awbwd ByijAw[kwmryf
kozlov ny CInw jI ƒ AwauNidAW hI pihcwx ilAw ikauNik auh pUrbI XUunivristI iv`c
aus dy pRoPYsr rhy sn[swrI g`l d`s ky CInw jI ƒ mwsko iljwieAw igAw ij`Qy auh iek
swl q`k rhy[
sMn 1941 iv`c jrmnI ny rUs qy hmlw kr id`qw sI[ A`Cr isMG CInw auQy
kwmntrn dy sk`qr kwmryf idimqrov ƒ imly ijs ny CInw jI h`QIN Bwrq ivclI
kimaUinst pwrtI ƒ sunyhw ByijAw ik auh ies nwzk GVI iv`c ieiqhwdIAW dI mdd
kry[ ieh sunyhw lYY ky 1941 eI: iv`c CInw jI iglig`q dy rsqy pYdl hI Aw rhy sn ik
rsqy iv`c igRPqwr kr ley gey sn[ cwr mhIny q`k bu`cV puils h`QoN qsIhy J`ldy
rhy[iPr kYNblpur jylH Byj id`qy gey[ pwrtI ny AwvwmI jMg dw nwhrw id`qw[ meI 1942

eI: iv`c kuJ kimaUinst AwgU irhw kIqy gey sn ijnHW iv`c Awp ƒ vI irhw kr id`qw
igAw sI[
1942 eI: iv`c CInw jI pMjwb ikswn sBw dy pRDwn cuxy gey Aqy ieiqhwdIAW dI
mdd leI pRcwr krdy rhy ijs iv`c ieiqhwdI jMg ij`q gey[ies Ahudy qy auh sMn 1947
q`k bxy rhy[1946 eI: iv`c “moGy dw morcw” l`gw,ijs iv`c A`Cr isMG CInw pihlw jQw
lY ky gey, nwlW pu`tIAW Aqy igRPqwrI id`qI[morcy iv`c ih`sw lYx krky aunHW ƒ pMj mhIny
leI lwhOr jylH dI hvw KwxI peI sI[ 1948 eI: iv`c kimaUinst pwrtI kwƒn ivroDI
krwr id`qI geI sI ies leI Awp vI dUsry lIfrW nwl gupqvws iv`c cly gey sn pr
1950 eI: dy A^Ir iv`c auh AwpxI ByYx dy GroN ‘pUnIAW’ ipMf iv`c PVHy gey sn[
sMn 1952 iv`c mulk dIAW jdoN pihlIAW Awm coxW hoeIAW qW aus smyN CInw jI
AMbwlw jylH iv`c kYd sn[Ajnwlw ivDwn sBw hlky qoN aunHW ƒ kimaUinst pwrtI dI
itkt qy cox mYdwn iv`c auqwirAw igAw[ auh jylH AMdroN hI bhu igxqI votW nwl ij`q
gey sn[1957 eI: iv`c SSpwl isMG ƒ hrwieAw Aqy ivDwn sBw iv`c ivroDI iDr dy
mYNbr bxy[ 1962 eI: iv`c lok sBw leI qrn qwrn hlky qoN s: surjIq isMG jI
‘mjITIAw’ aup r`iKAw mMqrI qoN kyvl 1500 votW dy Prk CInw jI hwr gey sn[ 1964
eI: iv`c kimaUinst pwrtI AwpsI mqBydW kwrn do-PwV ho geI sI ijs krky A`Cr
isMG jI CInw inrwS ho gey sn[ ies leI aunHW ny srgrm rwjnIqI qoN iknwrw kr ilAw
sI[ kuJ swlW qoN Awp Joly (Parkinson) dI ibmwrI nwl pIVq rih ky inDVk XoDw A`Cr
isMG CInw 11 mwrc,1981 eI: ƒ AwpxI bytI fw:gurSrn kOr dyy Gr ies PwnI zhwn qoN
aufwrI mwr igAw[

***

( ieh vyrvy DMnvwd sihq sR: sqnwm isMG jI CInw, izlHw lok sMprk ivBwg, qrn
qwrn rwhIN pRwpq hoey hn[)

AkwlI Aqy gurduAwrw suDwr lihr dw jrnYl

jQydwr qyjw isMG jI ‘Bu`cr’
(ipMf Bu`cr, izlHw qrn qwrn)

mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy smyN qoN gurduAwirAW dy nW l`gIAW jgIrW,jwiedwdW Aqy
SrDwlUAw v`loN m`Qw tykx nwl hoeI iek`qr mwieAw ny mhMqW-pujwrIAW dy Awcrx iv`c
igrwvt lY AWdI sI[auh hI ienHW gurDwmW dI sWB sMBwl krdy sn[ ie`k qrHW nwl
gurduAwirAW iv`c aunHW dw hI rwj c`ldw sI[sOKI imlI mwieAw Aqy ip`T qy AMgryz
srkwr dw h`Q hox nwl auh iksy dI vI pRvwh nhIN sn krdy sgoN aunHW ny AwpxI ih&wjq
leI gurduAwirAW iv`c guMfy pwl r`Ky sn[ gurduAwirAW iv`c Awaux vwlIAW SrDwlU
bIbIAW dI bypqI dIAW GtnwvW idn-b-idn vDdIAW jw rhIAW sn[ienHW GtnwvW ny
is`K jgq dy ihrdy vlUMDr ky r`K id`qy sn[is`K AwgUAW ny loV AnuBv kIqI sI ies
v`DdI hoeI h`ulVbwjI ƒ n`Q pwaux dI[
iesy AwSy nwl hI AkwlI lihr Aqy gurduAwrw suDwr lihr hoNd iv`c AweIAW
sI[ienHIN idnIN hI “nnkwxw sihb dw KUnI swkw” vwpr igAw sI, ijs iv`c nnkwxw
swihb dy mhMq nrwiex dws dy guMifAW ny SwqmeI jQy ƒ golIAW nwl BuMn su`itAw sI Aqy
lCmx isMG DwrovwlI ƒ ijMdw jMf nwl bMnH ky swV id`qw igAw sI[AijhI hI dUsrI
Gtnw “gurU ky bwZ” dI vwprI ijs leI ies lihr ƒ “gurU ky bwZ” dw morcw lwauxw
ipAw sI[ienHW GtnwvW ny is`K AwgUAW ƒ gurduAwirAW dy suDwr leI socx vwsqy mjbUr
kr id`qw sI[ies lihr iv`c ie`k suDwrk mwJy dI DrqI qoN vI pYdw hoieAw ijs ny
Awpxw swrw jIvn hI AkwlI lihr Aqy gurduAwrw suDwr dy lyKy lw id`qw sI, aus dw nW
sI qyjw isMG jI ‘Bu`cr’[ qyjw isMG dw jnm 28 AkqUbr, 1887 eI: ƒ Awpxy nwnky
ipMf PyrU izlHw lwhOr iv`c hoieAw[aunHW dy ipqw Swh mwieAw isMG jI hkIm, ipMf ‘in`kw
Bu`cr’ izlHw qrn qwrn dy vsnIk sn[qyjw isMG dI mwqw mihqwb kOr au~cy Awcrn vwlI
guris`K bIbI sI[
12 AkqUbr,1920 eI: ƒ jdoN hirmMdr swihb AMimRqsr dw kbzw mhMqW koloN
ilAw igAw qW aus iv`c Bu`cr jI dI mu`K BUimkw sI[ pujwrIvwd ijs dI ip`T AMgryz
hkUmq QwpV rhI sI dy Kwqmy leI aunHW dy pwey Xogdwn dI kdr krdy hoey is`K jgq ny
aunHW ƒ sRI Akwl qKq swihb dw jQydwr hox dw mwx bKiSAw sI[ Bu`cr jI dI srpRsqI
hyTW gurduAwirAW ‘coN ihMdU rhu-rIqW dw Kwqmw krn leI kIqIAW koiSSW nwl nvMbr,
1920 eI: iv`c gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI Aqy dsMbr, 1920 eI: iv`c SRomxI AkwlI dl
hoNd iv`c Awey[ Awpxy jQy dI AgvweI kridAW hoieAw Bu`cr jI ny bhuq swry gurduAwry
mhMqW dy kbjy iv`coN Awzwd krvw ky gurduAwrw pRbMDk kmytI dy hvwly kIqy sn[

nwnkwxw swihb dy swky ny qyjw isMG Bu`cr dy mn qy fMUGw Asr kIqw sI ijs dy
PlsrUp aus ny swrI aumr kwly k`pVy pwaux dw pRx ilAw Aqy aus ny ies ƒ AwKrI dm
q`k inBwieAw vI [mhMqW Aqy pujwrIAW dy smyN AMgryz APsr GMtw Gr vwly pwsy
kursIAW qy bYT ky dIvwlI dw jSn vyiKAw krdy sn[ieh g`l Bu`cr jI ƒ cu`BdI sI[ies
rIq dw qyjw isMG ny ft ky ivroD kIqw Aqy aunHW dIAW kursIAW Tu`fy mwr ky su`t id`qIAW
sn[AMgryzW ƒ drIAW qy bYTx leI mjbUr kr id`qw sI[AMgryz srkwr ny ies ƒ
AwpxI byie`jqI smJ ky Bu`cr qy keI kys bxw id`qy, qS`dd kIqw Aqy jylH iv`c f`k id`qw
sI[ aus ny ieh sB sih ilAw sI pr Awpxy krm qoN nhIN sI foilAw[
AprYl, 1921 eI: iv`c qyjw isMG ny “gVg`j AkwlI dIvwn” kwiem kIqw Aqy
1922 eI: iv`c “gVg`j AkwlI” nW dw A^bwr vI jwrI kIqw, ijs rwhIN srkwr dIAW
mwrU nIqIAW dw ic`Tw KoilHAw jWdw sI[ie`k hor A^bwr “b`br Syr” cwlU kr ky Bu`cr
swihb ny lokW ƒ AMgryz srkwr ivru`D sucyq krn dw Xqn kIqw sI[A^bwr iv`c Cpx
vwlw mswlw eynw grm Aqy srkwr ivroDI huMdw sI ik srkwr ny ies A^bwr dy sMpwdkW
ƒ igRPqwr kr ilAw, sKq sjwvW id`qIAW sn Aqy dPqr vI sIl kr id`qw igAw sI[
is`KI iv`c Awp dI XkIn, pMj kkwrW iv`c inscw Aqy iehnW ƒ svwsW nwl
inBwaux bwry svrgvwsI isMG swihb igAwnI ikrpwl isMG jI AwpxI ric`q pusqk
“jQydwr swihbwn” iv`c qyjw isMG jI Bu`cr bwry ilKdy hn:“jQydwr qyjw isMG duiphr vyly Awpxy ipMf qoN ggobUhy v`l Aw rhy sn ik aunHW dy
ivroDIAW ny Acwnk aus qy hmlw kr id`qw ijs nwl aunHW dI l`q qy v`fI s`t l`g geI[
fwktr ny ikhw ik zKm Krwb ho cu`kw hY ies leI l`q k`tx bgYr koeI cwrw nhIN[ pr
jQydwr Bu`cr ny ikhw ik myrI l`q qy AnykW rom (vwl) hn[ l`q k`tx nwl ieMnHW dI
byAdbI hovygI jo mYN nhIN sih skdw[ mYƒ jwn dI koeI pRvwh nhI[”
is`KI kysW suAwsW nwl inBwaux dI ieh vI iek imswl sI[ A^Ir 3
AkqUbr,1939 eI: ƒ ieh jrnYl, gVg`j, b`br Syr, hTIly suBwA dw mwlk ,sUrmw Aqy
pRBwvSwlI mJYl nyqw Akwl clwxw kr igAw [

***

AwzwdI GulwtIAw

sR: Arjn isMG “gVg`j”
( qrn qwrn )

“do pYr G`t qurnw, pr qurnw mtk dy nwl”
ies mtk nwl qurn vwly nOjvwn sR: Arjn isMG jI ‘gVg`j’ dw jnm sMn
1905 iv`c sR: suMdr isMG jI dy Gr mwqw ibSn dyeI dI ku`KoN mShUr ksbw qrn qwrn
(hux izlHw bx igAw hY) iv`c hoieAw [ sR: gMfw isMG jI gVg`j dy dwdw jI sn ijnHW dy
iqMn spu`qr suMdr isMG, dUlw isMG Aqy lwl isMG jI sn[ieh pRIvwr rwmgVHIAw brwdrI
hY[ Arjn isMG dy v`fy-vfyry inkwSI Aqy iemwrqI kwrwgrI dy ielwky iv`c mMny hoey
imsqrI sn[Arjn isMG dy jnm qoN kuJ icr pihlW aus dy dwdw jI dIAW dovyN A`KW bMd
ho geIAW sn pr Arjn isMG dI pYdwieS qoN ip`CoN aunHW dI ie`k A`K iv`c Awpy hI rOSnI
Aw jwx kwrn ies bwlk ƒ Gr iv`c krmW vwlw smiJAw jwx l`gw sI[ iesy kr ky
Arjn isMG dw pihlw nW vI ‘krm isMG’ r`iKAw igAw sI[
gVg`j dy dwdw jI dw Awpxy poqry nwl bhuq hI ipAwr sI[aunHW ny gVg`j ƒ jdoN
aus dI aumr pMj swl dI hI sI,Gr iv`c gurmuKI pVHw id`qI sI ijs krky Arjn isMG
sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dw pwT krnXog ho igAw sI[ies qoN ielwvw Awp dy dwdw jI ny aus
ƒ swrikqwvlI, BwvswimRq, dsm gRMQI, hƒmwn nwtk Awid gRMQW dw AiDAYn CotI aumr
iv`c hI krvw id`qw sI[suBwA dy p`KoN Arjn isMG bhuq hI sMgwaU qbIAq dw sI pr auh
ies g`l iv`c vI XkIn r`Kdw sI ik iksy qy vwDw krnw nhIN qy iksy dw vwDw sihxw vI
nhIN[iehI kwrn sI ik pihlI jmwq dy pihly hI idn Awpxy nwl bYTy jmwqI ijhVw aus
ƒ cUMFIAW v`F ky qMg kr irhw sI, ƒ kutwpw cwVH id`qw sI[pVHn iv`c auh bhuq huiSAwr
sI ijs krky CyvIN jmwq q`k auh jmwq dw mnItr irhw sI[ pihlw aus dy dwdw jI Aqy
iPr ipqw dI mOq ho jwx krky aus ƒ AwpxI pVHweI CyvIN jmwq iv`coN hI C`fxI peI[
pVHweI C`fx dw ie`k kwrn hor vI sI[ skUl iv`c AMgryzW v`loN jMg ( 191418eI: vwlw ) ij`qx dI KuSI iv`c jlsw kIqw igAw sI Aqy iv`idAwrQIAW ƒ hdwieq sI
ik auh vwrI vwrI A`gy Awaux, jUnIAn jYk (AMgryzW dw JMfw) ƒ slwm krn Aqy l`fU lY
ky GrW ƒ cly jwx[ jdoN aus dI vwrI AweI sI qW aus ny nw hI JMfy ƒ slwm kIqw sI
Aqy nw hI l`fU ley sn[sgoN auh Gr ƒ clw igAw sI[ie`k mwstr jo Arjn isMG ƒ
CyvIN jmwq iv`c pVHwauNdw sI bhuq hI muq`sbI qbIAq dw ienswn sI[auh muMifAW ƒ
ku`tdw vI bhuq sI[ aus ny gVg`j dI Skwieq hYfmwstr kol kr id`qI ijs krky aus ƒ
bYNq mwrn dI krVI sjw imlI sI[ iesy g`l dy ros vjoN Arjn isMG ny skUl jwxw C`f
id`qw sI[
sMn 1919 iv`c jnrl aufvwier h`QoN jilHAWvwlw bwZ iv`c inh`Qy lokW qy c`lIAW
golIAW nwl vgy hoey KUun ny vI Arjn isMG dy mn qy fUMGw Asr kIqw sI[sMn 1920-21
iv`c “sYNtrl ^wlsw dIvwn mwJw” dy nyqwvW sR: qyjw isMG jI ‘Bu`cr’ ( ipMf Bu`cr vI
mwJy dw hI ie`k ipMf hY jo Jbwl dy nyVy pYNdw hY) Aqy krqwr isMG ‘J`br’ koloN pySwvr

iv`cly jogw isMG dy gurduAwry qy kIqy kbzy Aqy nnkwxw swihb dy ShIdI swky dIAW ^brW
sux ky gVg`j dw KUn KOl auTdw sI[ joS ie`QoN q`k v`D igAw sI ik jdoN AkwlIAW ny
qrn qwrn dy gurduAwry qy kbzw kIqw qW auh AkwlI lihr iv`c ih`sw lYx l`g ipAw
Aqy Gr bwr vI iqAwg ky gurduAwry ‘c bxy dPqr iv`c hI rih ky dPqr dw kMm kwj
krn l`g ipAw sI[ie`k idn bwbw At`l dy buMgy qrn qwrn iv`c AMimRq sMcwr kIqw
igAw sI ij`Qy aus ny vI Awpxy dUsry swQIAW nwl AMimRq Ck ilAw sI[sRI gurU gRMQ
swihb ‘coN A`Kr “A” inkilAw sI ijs qy aus dw nW “Arjn isMG” r`K id`qw igAw
sI[ies qrHW auh krm isMG qoN Arjn isMG bx igAw sI[
ieMnHIN idnI hI Arjn isMG ƒ kivqwvW ilKx dw SONk vI pY igAw [aus ny
AwpxIAW kivqwvW ilK ky Cpx leI pMjwbI dy “sMswr” A^bwr ƒ ijhVw “AkwlI”
AKbwr lwhOr dy bMd ho jwx krky AMimRqsr qoN Cpdw sI, ByjxIAW SurU kr id`qIAW
sn[kivqwvW iv`c auh Awpxy nW nwl “gVg`j AkwlI dIvwn” iliKAw krdw sI[ ie`k
vyrW aus dI kivqw nwl aupnwm vjoN kyvl ‘gVg`j’ hI Cp igAw[ ies qrHW Arjn isMG
dI A`l ‘gVg`j’ pY geI Aqy auh Arjn isMG ‘gVg`j’ vjoN jwixAw jwx l`gw[ Awpxy
swQIAW nwl rl ky aus ny sMn 1921 iv`c ‘c`krvrqI’ nW dw jQw bxwieAw ijs dw kMm
sI ipMfW iv`c AKMf pwT krny,dIvwn lwauxy,AMimRq sMcwr krnw Aqy srkwr dy ivru`D
pRcwr krnw[ sMn 1922 dI ie`k Swm jdoN gVg`j qrn qwrn AwieAw hoieAw sI qW aus
ƒ ^br imlI ik ipMf mrwhxy qoN kuJ AwdmIN PVH ky Qwxy ilAWdy hn ijnHW iv`c bwbw
eIsr isMG jI mrwhxw, BweI soBw isMG jI,BweI ibSn isMG, BweI bIsw isMG, BweI myhr
isMG (swry ipMf mrwhxw) Awid sn[ aunHW nwl c`krvrqI jQy dy b`cy vI sn[ gVg`j
rotIAW dyx dy bhwny hvwlq iv`c gey Aqy bwhr nw Awaux leI biz`d ho igAw sI[aus ƒ
zbrdsqI hvwlq ‘coN bwhr k`iFAw igAw sI[
iesy swl (1922eI:) pihlI AprYl ƒ Arjn isMG ƒ srkwr ivru`D pRcwr krn
dy jurm qihq igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw Aqy qrn qwrn dI hvwlq iv`c bMd kr id`qw
igAw sI, ij`Qy BweI swihb BweI mohn isMG jI vYd jI aus ƒ imlx Awey Aqy sIKW rwhIN
aus dy gl iv`c ishrw pw ky boly , “kwkw jI hvwlwq dIAW sIKW vwihgurU dy
ipAwirAW dI rwKI leI vwihgurU v`loN suinhrI vwV hY[” ie`QoN gVg`j ƒ AMimRqsr lY
gey ij`Qy pihlW hI bwbw gurid`q isMG jI kwmwgwtw mwrU zhwj vwly, s: jsvMq isMG jI
Jbwl,s: Amr isMG jI Jbwl, mOlvI iesmwiel, pMfq dInw nwQ ibjlI, im: Abdul
rhIm Awid igRPqwr krky ilAWdy hoey sn[mukdmy dIAW qwrIKW pYNdIAW rhIAW[ AwiKr
6 jUn, 1922 eI: ƒ dUsirAW nwl Arjn isMG ƒ vI 6 mhIny dI s^q szw Aqy 50/rupey jrmwnw kr ky imMtgumrI jylH Byj id`qw igAw sI[ aus smyN Arjn isMG gVg`j dI
aumr kyvl 17 swl dI sI[
kivqw ilKx dw SONk bySk gVg`j ƒ aus dyy dwdw jI ny pwieAw sI pr ieh SONk
kYNp jylH imMtgumrI iv`c hI pRvwn ciVHAw sI[auh jylH iv`c hI kvI drbwr lw ilAw
krdw sI ijs dI pRDwngI s: sohn isMG jI ‘joS’ kirAw krdy sn[ihMdI ilKxI-pVHxIN
vI Arjn isMG ny jylH iv`c hI is`KI[ pihlw jylH suprfYNt bdl jwx qy nvW bMgwlI
suprfYNt imstr GoS AwieAw sI ijhVw bVw hI bd idmwg sI[ auh kYdIAW ƒ byloVy
qsIhy dy ky Awpxw dbdbw bxwauxw cwhuMdw sI[ aus ny sohx isMG ‘joS’, bwbw sMqw isMG
borIAW vwlw,inrMjn isMG kotlw ƒ ibnHW kwrn hI fMfw byVI dI szw lw id`qI sI[ ies
nwl kYdI ƒ au~Tx bYTx iv`c qklIP huMdI hY[ies jylH iv`coN gVg`j ƒ mulqwn Byj id`qw
igAw sI ij`QoN 13 jnvrI, 1923 eI: ƒ auh irhw hoieAw sI[
jylH iv`c kwPI ivhlw smW imlx krky aus ny AwpxIAW swihqk socW ƒ Ku`lH ky
aufwrI mwrn id`qI sI[jylH qoN irhweI ip`CoN gVg`j ny AwpxIAW kivqwvW dw ie`k sMgRih
“gVg`j FMforw” pRkwSq krvwieAw [ bwhr dI rotI Swied Ajy krmW iv`c nhIN sI
ies leI dubwrw aus dy vrMt dPw 124 qihq zwrI hox qy aus ƒy igRPqwr krky mukdmw
clwieAw igAw [dsMbr 5, 1923 eI:ƒ PYslw suxwieAw igAw ijs Anuswr do swl dI
s^q kYd Aqy 50 rupey jurmwnw kIqw igAw[ Agly hI idn hQkVI lw ky qy pYrW iv`c

byVI pw ky aus ƒ lwhOr sYNtrl jylH iv`c Byj id`qw igAw sI[jylH iv`c pyS Awaux vwlIAW
qklIPW Aqy hox vwly qS`dd dw vyrvw Arjn isMG ny AwpxI pusqk ‘myrw Awpxw
Awp’ iv`c bw^Ub kIqw hY[aus iv`c jylH iv`c imlx vwly mwVy Kwxy Aqy byvjwh kIqy jwx
vwly qS`dd bwry pVH ky id`l dihl jWdw hY[
jylH qoN irhweI auprMq qrn qwrn phuMcx qy Arjn isMG dw in`Gw suAwgq kIqw
igAw[ BweI swihb BweI mohn isMG jI vYd qoN imly auqSwh sdkw gVg`j ny ie`k ‘pMjwbI
sBw’ bxw leI ijs iv`c ielwky dy nOjvwn Swml sn[ 3 PrvrI, 1928 eI:ƒ ieMglYNf qoN
sweImn kimSn Bwrq Aw irhw sI ijs dw ivroD krn leI Arjn isMG ny vI Awpxy
Sihr iv`c ieSiqhwr lwey ijs dI Skwieq kuJ lokW ny aus dy GridAW ƒ kIqI[ iesy
g`loN gu`sy iv`c Aw kyy GridAW ny aus ƒ GroN k`F id`qw sI[
mwrc 1928 eI: iv`c Arjn isMG ny ‘ikrqI’ A^bwr dy dPqr AMimRqsr iv`c
nOkrI kr leI sI[ies A^bwr dy bwnI AYfItr BweI sMqoK isMG jI ShId sn[ Arjn
isMG gVg`j qoN pihly AYfItr BweI hrnwm isMG jI BOrw dy AsqIPw dy dyx qy Awp ƒ
julweI, 1928 eI: iv`c ies dw AYfItr bxw id`qw igAw sI[sR: Bgq isMG jI ShId ny
vI iqMn cwr mhIny ie`Qy kMm kIqw sI[ieMnHIN idnIN “bbr Syr” hPqwvwrI ie`k rswlw
inkldw sI ijs dy vI gVg`j jI hI AYfItr sn[ 11 PrvrI, 1929 eI: ƒ dPqr iv`coN
Awp ƒ igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw[ aus smyN dPqr iv`c BgvqI crn jI (ieh auhI
BgvqI crn jI sn ijnHW dy nW qy lwhOr iv`c mkwn ikrwey qy ilAw hoieAw sI ijs iv`coN
bMb PYktrI PVHI geI sI Aqy bwAd iv`c aus dI lwS lwhOr dI ie`k r`K iv`coN imlI sI )
Aqy kwmryf i&rozdIn hwzr sn[ igRPqwr krky Arjn isMG ƒ is`Dw fI.sI. dI koTI
ilAWdw igAw ij`Qy aus koloN Bgq isMG bwry pu`C pVqwl kIqI geI pr gVg`j koeI
k`cIAW golIAW nhIN sI KyifAw jo aunHW dIAW ig`dV BbkIAW qoN fr jWdw [ gVg`j ƒ
AMimRqsr dI jylH iv`c Byj id`qw igAw ij`Qy koeI vI rwjsI kYdI nhIN sI[
Arjn isMG qy mukdmy c`ldy rhy Aqy auh ‘ikrqI’ A^bwr dy dPqr iv`c kMm
krdw irhw[auh rozwnw qrn qwrn qoN AMimRqsr qy Swm ƒ vwps qrn qwrn AwauNdw hMudw
sI[ aus dw rYx bsyrw qrn qwrn dI pRkrmw iv`c sI ij`Qy rwq smyN q`qIAW ie`tW dy PrS
qy rwq gujwrdw[ ienHW hwlwqW dw ijkr gVg`j jI ny AwpxI ie`k nzm iv`c ies qrHW
kIqw sI:“GroN k`iFAw Gr idAW mwr D`ky,kyvl dyS dw drd rKwx Kwqr[
lwgU nhIN bixAw koeI Xwr dosq,ApxI jwn ƒ suKI bnwx Kwqr[
ijDr jWvdW hW auQoN pYx D`ky, pwgl AwK ky lok bulOx mYƒ[
it`cr bwjIAW nwl ny iT`T krdy,cotW vMn svMnIAW lOx mYƒ[
iesy qrHW jylHW k`tdw, qwrIKW Bugqdw, GroN byGr hoieAw,dyS ipAwr dy gIq
gwauNdw irhw ieh Albylw ienswn[ lokW ƒ hux smJ pYx l`g peI sI ik ieh Awpxy
leI nhIN sgoN sB leI rul irhw hY[ qrn qwrn Sihr dy pqvMqy s`jx ijnHW iv`c BweI
swihb BweI mohn isMG jI vYd, hYfmwstr mihqwb isMG jI,sR: cMcl isG jI vkIl,BweI
sMq isMG jI sk`qr,gurU isMG sBw,igAwnI syvw isMG jI ‘syvk’ mYnyjr ^wlsw
pRcwrk ividAwlw,mOlvI jI,bwbU goibMd rwm srw&,sR: jIvn isMG jI mskIn, bwbU cUnI
lwl, sR: qwrw isMG mOjI, rwgI KVk isMG jI, hkIm hrid`q isMG jI Aqy hor muKIey
Swml sn ijnHW ny Arjn isMG ƒ Swndwr pwrtI id`qI Aqy mwn p`qr vI Byt kIqw [
Arjn isMG gVg`j v`loN kIqy gey hor vI AnykW kwrnwmy qrn qwrn iv`c lUx
bxwauxW, isvl nwPurmwnI dw pRcwr, TrU dw morcw, mOjI kl`b bxwauxw Aqy gWDI iervn
smJOqy ivru`D muzwhrw krnw vrnxXog hn[ gVg`j dy mn iv`c ros sI ik jy kr gWDI
jI cwhuMdy qW ‘gWDI-iervn’ smJOqy smyN sR: Bgq isMG jI Aqy aus dy swQIAW dI PWsI
dI szw muAwP krvweI jw skdI sI[gWDI jI dy lwhOr rylvy stySn qy au~qrn smyN
Arjn isMG ny Awpxy swQIAW nwl gWDI jI ivru`D muzwhrw krky “Bgq isMG ko PWsI
iks ny idlweI? gWDI-iervn smJOqy ny[” dy nwhry lwey sn Aqy pRotYst vjoN sB
v`loN gWDI jI ƒ im: kRWqI kumwr rwhIN K`dr dy bxy hoey kwly Pu`l Byt kIqy sn[

dUsry A^bwrW Aqy rswilAW qoN ielwvw gVg`j ny “AkwlI” A^bwr dI sb
AYfItrI, “kuMdn” Aqy “zMgy AwzwdI” dI AYfItrI dy Prj vI inBwey[auh Awl ieMfIAw
kWgrs leI ibnW mukwblw fYlIgyt cuxy gey [ikauNik gVg`j ny CyvIN jmwq iv`c hI skUlI
pVHweI C`f id`qI sI ies leI sMn 1938 iv`c aus ny dsvIN dw iemiqhwn pws kIqw Aqy
XUnIvristI dy ErIAYNtl kwlj iv`c gupq rUp iv`c dw^lw ilAw [sMn 1947 iv`c dyS qW
Awzwd ho igAw sI pr Ajy Awpxy hI dyS iv`c jylHW, igRPqwrIAW Aqy szwvW ny ip`Cw
nhIN sI C`ifAw[31mwrc, 1948 eI: ƒ iPr Arjn isMG ƒ igRPqwr krky nzrbMd kr
id`qw igAw Aqy kYNp jylH Xol qoN AMbwlw sYNtrl jylH iv`c Byj id`qw igAw sI[Awi^r 25
jnvrI, 1952 eI: ƒ suprIm kort dy AwdySW qy irhweI dy hukm jwrI hoey sn[irhweI
auprMq Arjn isMG ny pMjwbI hPqwvwrI A^bwr “pRvwnw” dy AYfItorIAl stwP iv`c kMm
krnw SurU kr id`qw [ iPr auh hPqwvwrI A^bwr “lok jug” dw AYfItr bx igAw
sI[iesy smyN durwn aus dI pusqk “do pYr G`t qurnw” pRkwSq hoeI [v`K v`K
ielwikAW dy lok gIq “ pRIqm” iv`c, “myrIAW A`KW dw ksUr” qy kuJ kivqwvW bwl
sMdyS iv`c, “jYNtlmYn” qy kuJ khwxIAW “AwrsI” iv`c,“phwVI prI”, “auh idn vI
sn” Aqy inbMD Cpvw ky Arjn isMG gVg`j ny swihqk ^jwnw mwlo-mwl kIqw sI[ auh
hwlwqW nwl jUJdy rhy pr hwr kdy nhIN mMnI, dyS ipAwr qoN Gr bwr vwr id`qw, swihq
jgq ƒ ipAwr kIqw, jylHW dy zulmo-isqm Awpx ipMfy qy shwry Aqy dyS ƒ Awzwd
vyiKAw[gVg`j lokW leI jIivAw Aqy lokW leI hI mirAw[ 10 mwrc, 1963 eI: ƒ auh
idl jo lokW leI qVpdw sI,lokW leI grzdw sI, lokW leI roNdw sI qy lokW leI h`sdw
sI sdw leI cu`p kr igAw[ gVg`j jI dw smu`cw jIvn hI “lok lihr” sI jo ie`k
ABu`l, Amu`l Aqy Aqu`l khwxI bx ky rih igAw hY[
“svwDInqw dI ^wqr mrWgw hux, koeI Aw^sI nhIN nmrd mYƒ[
r`sw gly dy iv`c qy laUN JUty, qW vI khWgw dyS dw drd mYƒ[
-gVg`j-

***

( DMnvwd sihq sR: sudwgr isMG jI AYs.AYs, ieMfstrI AMimRqsr vwilAW nwl hoeI
crcw Aqy aunHW koloN imly vyrivAW “myrw Awpxw Awp” qy AwDwirq hY)


BweI AmrIk isMG jI ‘^wlsw’
( ipMf BUrw konw , izlwH qrn qwrn )

pMjwb qy AnykW hI hvwvW Ju`lIAW hn ijnHW ƒ ie`QoN dy isrVI mJYlW ny Awpxy
isr qy J`ilAw hY[bwhr qoN Awey hmlwvrW ny r`j ky ies ielwky dI lu`t-Ksu`t kIqI, is`KW
dy isrW dy mu`l pey,kwhƒvwn dy CMB dw Cotw GlUGwrw vwpirAw, jilHAWvwlw bwZ dw swkw
vwpirAw pr ies sB qy koeI iglw nhIN sI ikauNik ieh sB kuJ krn vwly bwhrly
sn,bygwny sn[ aunHW ƒ swfy nwl kwhdI hmdrdI sI[ pr id`l audoN vlMUDirAw igAw sI
jdoN AwpixAW ny hI AwpixAW qy vwr kIqw[ auh vI aus QW qy ijs ƒ is`K kOm Awpxw
m`kw mMndI hY[‘swkw nIlw qwrw’ vwpirAw [iesy swky iv`c ieh is`KI nwl ipAwr krn
vwlw pRvwnw ShId ho igAw sI[
BweI AmrIk isMG jI ‘Kwlsw’ dw jnm dmdmI tkswl dy 13vyN mu`KI sMq krqwr
isMG jI ‘Kwlsw’ dy Gr mwqw inrMjn kOr dI ku`KoN ipMf BUrw konw ivKy jo ik Kymkrn
(izlHw qrn qwrn) dy nyVy hY 1954 eI: iv`c hoieAw [ipqw purKI KUn dy Asr krky BweI
AmrIk isMG bcpn qoN hI Dwrimk ibrqI dw sI[ mu`FlI ividAw ipMf dy hweI skUl qoN
pRwpq krn auprMq aucyrI ividAw leI aus ny ^wlsw kwlj AMimRqsr iv`c dwKlw ilAw
ij`Qy BweI AmrIk isMG dy joSIly suBwA sdkw aus ƒ Awl ieMfIAW is`K stUfYNt PYfrySn
dw mYNbr cux ilAw igAw sI,ij`QoN aus ny pihly gurmiq trying kYNp AnMdpur swihb iv`c
ih`sw ilAw [ies smyN q`k auh is`K stUfYNt PYfrySn dw sk`qr bx cu`kw sI[ 2 julweI,
sMn 1978 dy iejlws iv`c BweI AmrIk isMG ƒ pRDwn cux ilAw igAw sI[
dmdmI tkswl dy 14vyN mu`KI sMq jrnYl isMG jI iBMfrW vwilAW nwl BweI jI dI
ie`ksurqw ny aus ƒ nOjvwnW iv`c bVw hI hrmn ipAwrw bxw id`qw sI Aqy aunHW iv`c
BweI AmrIk isMG jI ny ie`k qrHW dI jwgRqI pYdw pYdw kr id`qI sI[ BweI swihb dI
rihnumweI hyTW jQybMdI ny is`K hlikAW iv`c Aihm kwrzW dI DWk jmw id`qI sI[ BweI
AmrIk isMG ƒ nOjvwnW dy mukdimAW dI pYrvweI kridAW hoieAW AMimRqsr dIAW
kichrIAW iv`coN 19 julweI 1982 eI: ƒ igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw [BweI swihb nwl hoey
ies D`ky ivru`D sMq jrnYl isMG jI iBMfrW vwilAW ny morcw AwrMB id`qw sI Aqy igRPqwrI
leI 51 isMGW dw jQw ByijAw sI[ies ip`CoN ieh morcw ‘Drm Xu`D morcy’ iv`c vt igAw
igAw sI[
4 jUn 1984 eI: ƒ drbwr swihb AMimRqsr qy aus smyN dI kyNdr srkwr v`loN
hmlw kr id`qw igAw sI[aus smyN kyNdr iv`c pRDwn mMqrI sRImqI ieMdrw gWDI sI[ieh
ie`k v`KrI iksm dw hI hmlw sI jo AwpxI srkwr v`loN Awpxy hI lokW qy kIqw igAw
sI[ AijhI imswl hor ikDry nhIN imldI[ieh ie`k iGnwauxw kMm sI ijs nwl is`K
jgq dI rUh qVp au~TI sI[

ies AwpxI qrHW dy hI GlUGwry iv`c sMq jrnYl isMG jI iBMfrW vwly, jnrl
SubyZ isMG Aqy BweI AmrIk isMG jI hirmMdr swihb Aqy Akwl q^q swihb dI
r`iKAw leI POjW nwl tkrw gey sn[Akwl q^q swihb dI iemwrq tYNkW dI golwbwrI
nwl pUrI qrHW qihs-nihs ho geI sI[Awpxy ies Drm AsQwn dI rwKI kridAW
hoieAW BweI AmrIk isMG jI ‘Kwlsw’ 8 jUn, 1984 eI: ƒ ShIdI dw zwm pI gey sn[

***

AzwdI GulwtIAw
bwbw ieMdr isMG jI vyrkw

bwbw ieMdr isMG jI vyrkw dw jnm 1877 eI: iv`c sR:sMq isMG jI dy gRih ivKy
mwJy dy pRis`D ipMf vyrkw izlHw AMimRqsr iv`c hoieAw[cVHdI jvwnI iv`c hI ieMdr isMG
rswly iv`c BrqI ho igAw sI pr nnkwxw swihb Aqy jilHAWvwlw bwg dy swky ny aunHW dy
mn qy bhuq fUMGw Asr kIqw ijs krky aus ny POj dI nOkrI C`f id`qI Aqy pYnSn lY Gr
Aw igAw[ieMnHIN idnI gurduAwrw suDwr lihr pUry jorW qy sI[ bwbw ieMdr isMG vI ies
lihr iv`c Swml ho igAw[nnkwxw swihb dy swky dy ivroD iv`c bwbw ieMdr isMG ƒ
AMgryz srkwr ny igRPqwr kr ilAw Aqy szw vjoN aunHW ny 19 idnW dI zylH Xwqrw kIqI[
Pyr pYnSnrIAw vwly dUsry jQy iv`c bwbw jI ny ‘gurU kw bwg’ dy morcy iv`c AwpxI
igRPqwrI id`qI ijs iv`cy aus ƒ ie`k swl dI kYd Aqy ie`k sO rupey jurmwnw Brnw ipAw[
ieh szw ieMdr isMG ny rwvl ipMfI dI jylH iv`c k`tI[
16 AkqUbr,1923 eI: ƒ sulqwnivMf ipMf (izlHw AMimRqsr) iv`c srkwr ivru`D
hoey jlsy iv`c ih`sw lYx krky aunHW ƒ mulqwn sYNtrl jylH iv`c Cy mhIny dI kYd k`txI
peI[gurduAwrw suDwr lihr iv`c ih`sw lYx vwly jiQAW dI tihl syvw krnw vI aunHW dy
ikrdwr dw ie`k ih`sw sI, ijs krky jYqo dy morcy iv`c igRPqwr ho ky jwx vwly ShIdI jQy
dI syvw krn dy doS iv`c ieMdr isMG jI ƒ ie`k sO rupey jurmwnw Aqy fyF mhIny dI sjw
hoeI sI jo aunHW ny mulqwn jylH iv`c k`tI [ sMn 1931 iv`c ‘fskw morcw’ iv`c ih`sw lYx
krky bwbw ieMdr isMG jI ƒ Cy mhIny dI s^q szw Aqy 300 sO rupey jurmwnw hoieAw
sI[jurmwnw Adw nw krn dI sUrq iv`c aunHW ny iqMn mhIny dI hor vwDU szw mulqwn dI
nvIN bxI jylH iv`c k`tI [
gurduAwrw suDwr lihr iv`c kMm kridAW hoieAW bwbw ieMdr isMG dw myl dyS dI
AzwdI leI jUJ rhy kRWqIkwrIAW nwl hoieAw[ies kMm iv`c aunHW dI ifaUtI aunHW dyS
BgqW ƒ sMBwlx qy lweI geI ijhVy gupqvws iv`c ivcr rhy sn[ pMjwb ikswn sBw dI
sQwpnw Aqy ies sBw v`loN iv`FIAW geIAW koiSSW iv`c ieMdr isMG jI dw v`fw Xogdwn
irhw hY[ ikswn moricAW iv`c ih`sw lYNidAW hoieAW aunHW ƒ keI vyrW jylH vI jwxw ipAw
[ikswn lihr iv`c inrMqr ihsw lYx krky bwbw ieMdr isMG jI ƒ ikswn sBw dw pihlw
pRDwn inXukq kIqw igAw [sMn 1938 iv`c AMimRqsr dy bMdobsq ivru`D iv`Fy gey morcy
iv`c bwbw jI ny ih`sw hI nhIN sI ilAw sgoN ies morcy dI kwmXwbI leI AwriQk swDnW
dw vI bMdobsq kIqw[ auh ies kwrz dy ieMncwrj vI rhy sn[AzwdI sMgrwm iv`c qn,
mn dy nwl nwl ieMdr isMG jI ny Dn dyx leI AwpxI j`dI zmIn FotIAW dy SwhUkwr kol
vyc id`qI Aqy ieh swrw Dn kOm dy lyKy lw id`qw [sR: nwhr isMG Aqy sR: rxjIq isMG
‘qwjvr’ bwbw jI dy qnI dosqW ‘coN sn[ dyS syvw leI jUJx Aqy dyS kOm qoN kurbwn hox
dw zjbw r`Kx vwly ies bhwdr mJYl dw 20 AkqUbr, 1957 eI: ƒ dyhWq ho igAw
[bwbw ieMdr isMG jI vyrkw dIAW kurbwnIAW Aqy syvw dy jzby ƒ hmySW Xwd r`iKAw
jwvygw[

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AzwdI dy Gol dw moFI

bwbw jvwlw isMG jI T`TIAW

jvwlw isMG dw jnm ipMf T`TIAw iv`c hoieAw[ ieh ipMf v`fI srhwlI dy nyVy
qrn qwrn-hrIky mwrg qy hY[jvwlw isMG dw ipqw ie`k grIb ikrswn sI[QoVHI jmIn
hox krky Gr dw gujwrw muSikl nwl hI cldw sI, ijs krky jvwlw isMG 1905 eI:
iv`c dUsry pRvwsI BwrqIAW vWg kYlyPornIAw kmweI leI clw igAw[ ie`Qy aus ny dUsry
BwrqIAw nwl iml ky stwktn iv`c ie`k gurduAwrw auswirAw, ijhVw A`gy c`l ky
srgrm ieMnklwbIAW dI Twhr Aqy iek`Ty hox dw AsQwn bixAw[
ijhVw AwzwdI Aqy ^uShwlI dw AnMd AmrIkw dy lok mwx rhy sn, aunHW v`l vyK
jvwlw isMG dy mn qy fUMGw pRBwv ipAw Aqy mn iv`c ieh cIs au~TI ik AsIN BwrqI
Aijhw AnMd ikauN nhIN mwx rhy ?iesy qVp ny aus AMdr ies soc ƒ jnm id`qw ik
ikauN nw hm-vqnIAW ƒ iek`Ty kr ky ie`k Aijhw sMgTn bxwieAw jwvy jo AzwdI leI
hMBlw mwry[ iesy AwSy dI pUrqI leI bwbw jvwlw isMG ny Awpxy Krcy qy dyS qoN cwr
ividAwrQIAW ƒ AmrIkw s`idAw,jo ies g`l dI Koj krn ik ieh kwrj ikvyN isry
cwiVHAw jw skdw hY[jvwlw isMG AMdrly ies dyS-pRym dy jzby ny aus ƒ dUusry swQIAW
iv`c bhuq hI hrmn ipAwrw bxw id`qw,ijs krky kYlyPornIAw dI iekweI iv`c BwrqI
sMgTn dw jvwlw isMG jI ƒ pRDwn cux ilAw igAw sI[
bwbw jvwlw isMG jI dI srpRsqI hyTW pRvwsI BwrqIAW dw ieh pihlw sMgTn sI,
ijs dw mu`K AwSw sI ik Awpxy ihqW dI rwKI ikvyN kIqI jwvy? pihly ivSv Xu`D dw
Pwiedw lYNdy hoey bwbw sohx isMG jI Bknw, bwbw vswKw isMG jI, lwlw hridAwl jI Aqy
jvwlw isMG jI ny rl ky lokW iv`c c`kr lwieAw Aqy ies g`l dw lokW q`k sunyhw
phuMcwieAw ik smyN dI nzwkq ƒ vyKidAW hoieAW loV hY ie`k qkVw isAwsI Gol AwrMBx
dI, qW jo Bwrq iv`c ieMnklwb dw bIj bIijAw jw sky[ies qrHW ieiqhwsk “gdr
pwrtI” hoNd iv`c AweI ijs ny ieMnklwb dw Ku`lH ky pRcwr kIqw[
gdr pwrtI dw mu`K inSwnw Aqy AwSw sI Bwrq iv`c hiQAwrbMd bgwvq
krnw[ies kMm ƒ nypry cwVHn leI kRWqIkwrIAW dy keI jQy Bwrq Byjy gey[ bwbw jvwlw
isMG ny 29 Agsq, 1914 eI: ƒ bqOr mu`K AwgU ie`k v`fy jQy dI AgvweI kridAW
hoieAW snPrWissko qoN ie`k smuMdrI zhwj, ijs dw nW “korIAw” sI ikrwey qy lY ky dyS
phuMcx leI kUc kIqw[ hWgkWg phuMc ky bwbw jvwlw isMG ny ie`k dUsrw smuMdrI zhwj
“qoSwmwrU” ikrwey qy lY ilAw[ jvwlw isMG Aqy aus dy swQIAW ny isMgwpur iv`clI BwrqI
rjmYNt ƒ ieh kih ky ik auh dyS dI AwzwdI dw sMgrwm AMgryzW ivru`D iv`Fx jw rhy
hn, aunHW dI hmwieq lYx dI koiSS kIqI sI pr ies iv`c aunHW ƒ koeI izAwdw sPlqw
nhIN sI imlI[

kRWqIkwrIAW dw ieh kwPlw jdoN klk`qw dI bMdrgwh qy pu`jw qW bhuiqAW ƒ au~Qy
hI igRPqwr kr ilAw igAw[ ies mwrU s`t nwl bwbw jI dIAW swrIAW AwsW qy pwxI
iPr igAw[ sMn 1915 iv`c auh Aqy aunHW dy swQIAW qy “pihlw lwhOr kwnspIrysI kys ”
clwieAw igAw , ijs iv`c jvwlw isMG ƒ aumr kYd dI szw suxweI geI[ auh ATwrW
(18) swl q`k jylH iv`c rihx auprMq 1933 eI: iv`c jylH ‘coN irhw hoieAw[ gdrIAW
dIAW kurbwnIAW dI shI qOr ‘qy Awzwd Bwrq iv`c vI kdr nhIN peI[ iehI kwrn hY
ik AsIN Ajy vI fwvW fol hI hW[ieh swfw duKWq vI hY Aqy qrwsdI vI[

***