WCDMA Radio Network Coverage Planning

ISSUE 1.0

Wireless Curriculum Development Section Wireless Curriculum Development Section

Objects

After completing this course, you should be able to learn :
l l l

Content and flow of network planning Uplink budget and the meaning of its elements Downlink budget and the meaning of its elements

l

Coverage enhancement technology

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文档密级:内部公开

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 WCDMA Network Planning Flow Chapter 2 Uplink Budget Chapter 3 Downlink Budget Chapter 4 Coverage Enhancement Technology Chapter 5 Example of Link Budget
Training.huawei.com

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WCDMA Network Planning Flow l Section 1 Overview of Radio Network Planning l Section 2 Concept of Huawei Radio Network Planning l Section 3 Radio Network Planning Flow 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

and determine the connection mode between NEs based on network establishment.Definition and Category of Network Planning l Definition: Network planning is oriented to select and plan proper network element (NE) equipment. This training focuses on: radio network planning! l Category: è è è Core network (CN) planning Radio network planning Transport network planning 文档密级:内部公开 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 . NE configuration. All of these provided reference for further engineering implementation. demands for network evolution and cost. finally output NEs number.

Importance of Radio Network Planning in 3G Construction l Importance: Equipment investment plays an important and sensitive role in mobile communication network construction. It mainly depends on the number of sites and station type configuration in the network. which are determined in radio network planning. l Existing è problem: How to plan a 3G radio network of high quality. low cost and strong competition? 文档密级:内部公开 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 . 3G network consists of radio access network. transport network and core network. Investment on radio access network accounts for more than 70% of the total investment on the entire mobile communication network.

The WCDMA system supports multiple l In the GSM system.Difference Between WCDMA and GSM Network Planning l The GSM system adopts cellular network structure and frequency planning to guarantee intra/inter-frequency interference and satisfy requirements for conversation quality. They have different coverage capacity. it is required to consider actual demands to bring system efficiency into full play with reasonable planning and radio resource management. The GSM system provides a single speech voice. l The capacity per WCDMA carrier wave is related to environment and neighbor cell interference and it is “soft”. The increase in system load will reduce coverage range. Coverage capability of the WCDMA system is related to system load situation. users supported can be calculated from carriers and timeslots if the interference meets the requirements. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . QoS index is determined and the design aim is relatively single. l services of different rate and QoS. l The WCDMA by system adopting can realize 1×1 frequency reuse and requires no frequency planning spread spectrum technology. In the network planning. l l Coverage capability of the GSM system depends on transmit power of the l transmitter and demodulation performance of the receiver. including speech service.

WCDMA Network Planning Flow l Section 1 Overview of Radio Network Planning l Section 2 Concept of Huawei Radio Network Planning l Section 3 Planning Flow Radio Network 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

it is necessary to determine which service is profitable and its requirements for coverage quality. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . Network resources should be allocated among services. targeting at high speed data service will waste lots of resources (such as too many sites) because there is no enough services. Optimizing profitable service coverage è 3G networks feature multiple service. as well as plan cell radius and coverage schemes.Concept of Huawei Radio Network Planning Minimizing integrated network construction cost è Radio network planning construction runs through the entire lifetime of the network. Therefore. During the early 3G network construction. Early planning must consider demands for the subsequent development to reduce integrated network construction cost.

Besides. Reasonable parameter planning can reduce interference within and between cells. increase cell capacity and utilize limited resources to the greatest extent. optimize the quality of core service coverage in areas where it is available so as to present superiority of 3G radio network in service and performance and improve the operator’s brand.Concept of Huawei Radio Network Planning Maximizing resource capacity è The capacity of 3G radio networks is mainly restricted by interference. Huawei accumulates abundant experience. Optimizing core service quality è Core services have an long-term effect on network development. Although they cannot make a profit in the short term. Huawei realize reliable and efficient power control and radio resource management algorithm with a variety of actual test data and advanced simulation means. which are verified in many customer pilots globally. such as high speed data service. they can attract users and speed up service development. Therefore. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

WCDMA Network Planning Flow l Section 1 Overview of Radio Network Planning l Section 2 Concept of Huawei Radio Network Planning l Section 3 Radio Network Planning Flow 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Output preplanning reports for project communication at the middle stage and cost estimation in the process of signing a contract.Overview of Radio Network Planning Flow l Radio è Network Estimation Perform initial planning for future networks at the early project planning. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . Output the configuration and dimensioning of RAN NEs for early communication of projects and cost estimation in the process of making a contract. l Radio è Network Preplanning In the middle-stage project planning. perform farther detailed planning for future networks based on estimation output to determine more precise network dimensioning and theoretical site location.

Overview of Radio Network Planning Flow l Radio è network cell planning In the later project planning. The output report is the final radio network planning scheme to guide engineering construction. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . it is still required to verify cell parameters setting and planning effects through simulation. If they are greatly different from preplanning results. survey and verify all selected site on the spot to determine cell engineering parameters related to various types of network planning for engineering construction. according to outputs of preplanning.

Overview of Radio Network Planning Flow Radio network cell planning Input information Output information Relationship among various flows Ÿ Coverage objectives Ÿ Search radius Ÿ Site position Ÿ Engineering parameters Radio network preplanning Input information Output information ŸEstimation result Ÿ Spare site Ÿ Theoretical site Ÿ Search radius Radio network estimation : ŸObjectives of network construction Ÿconstruction Cost of network Ÿ BS configuration Ÿ BS numbers : Input information Output information 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . user mobility. è Methods: Select a proper propagation model. and traffic model. cells. l Estimate sites. coverage area and capacity roughly required. è Purposes: l Acquire the network construction dimensioning (including BSs and BS configuration). l Acquire construction cycle. economic cost and human resources cost estimation.Radio Network Estimation l Radio network estimation is a simplified analysis of future networks. distribution behavior.

Radio Network Estimation Input l Output l Coverage related è è System dimensioning è Coverage area Coverage probability l Number of sites System configuration è è Coverage design Sector structure Number carriers of l Capacity related è è è Traffic model Service model User density l Cost on network construction è l Quality related è è è Site cost Equipment cost QoS requirements GoS requirements Demodulation threshold Capacity design è 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Radio Network Estimation Flow Suppose a uplink load Input data Calculate uplink capacity Estimate required sites due to capacity Calculate uplink coverage Estimate required sites due to coverage Balance or not? Yes No Check whether to satisfy downlink coverage/capacity requirements Satisfy or not? Yes End ! 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 No Adjust the number of sites .

network preplanning further determines the following parameters. direction and downtilt. including BS initial layout. antenna type. transmit power and orthogonal factor of common and traffic channels. antenna installation (height).Radio Network Preplanning l Based on network estimation. transmit power. network architecture. as well as cell scramble. BS theoretical location. Coverage range under an unloaded condition BS Coverage range under a lightly-loaded condition Coverage range under a heavily-loaded condition 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . mounted height. BS location .

Radio Network Cell Planning l Cell planning flow Radio network preplanning report Yes Radio network preplanning report Site list Output Search Rings Noise test Site survey 2G site or not Site survey report No New site or not (name prefix) NewSite ) Obtain spare site Yes Confirm site conditions or not No No Noise test report Site selection N Site survey No System simulation Yes Site survey report Meet design objectives or not Noise test Noise test report Meet site requirements or not Radio network planning report Yes 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

How many processes are there in radio network planning? 2. What are output from radio network estimation? 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .Review Questions 1. What is the concept of Huawei radio network planning? 3. What is radio network preplanning oriented to? 4.

Summary This chapter introduces: l l l l l Category of radio network planning Concept of Huawei radio network planning Difference between GSM and WCDMA radio network planning Main flows of radio network planning Input and output requirements for radio network preplanning 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

huawei.com 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .Table of Contents Chapter 1 WCDMA Network Planning Flow Chapter 2 Uplink Budget Chapter 3 Downlink Budget Chapter 4 Coverage enhancement Technology Chapter 5 Example of Link Budget Training.

capacity. è Capacity-coverage Ø When the design load increases. è Capacity-quality Ø Improve 容量 system capacity by decreasing quality requirements for parts of connections. coverage and quality are closely related.Capacity-Coverage-Quality Relationship among WCDAM capacity. 文档密级:内部公开 . è Coverage-quality Ø Improve coverage capability by 质量 覆盖 decreasing quality 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 requirements for parts of connections. coverage and quality è l Since the WCDMA system is self-interference. capacity and interference increase but coverage decrease.

path loss l l l Min. site coverage area l Specify area sites Specify area sites Required sites=Planning area/site coverage area 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .Coverage Estimation Flow l Planning area Create link budget Create link budget Max. cell radius l environment correlation Site capacity Indoor coverage degree Coverage probability Propagation model Equipment performance Obtain cell radius Obtain cell radius Calculate site area Calculate site area Max.

Basic Principle of Uplink Budget NodeB TX Pout_BS Lc_BS Combined duplexer Lf_BS Feeder PL _D PL Ga_BS l Link budget: Estimate to system the loss certain by various affecting and signal coverage capacity acquire maximum propagation the link a under allowed L RX _U L Ga_UE UE TX Pout_UE Shadow fading margin Mf communication quality observing factors Body loss Lb Building penetration loss Lp Combined duplexer forward reverse system. RX propagation of the 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Algorithm Introduction Uplink (Reverse) PL_UL=Pout_UE +Ga_BS+Ga_UE –Lf_BS+Ga_SHO –Mpc– Mf – MI – Lp – Lb – S_BS Ø PL_DL: downlink maximum propagation loss Ø Pout_UE: maximum transmit power of BS traffic channel Ø Lf_BS: feeder loss Ø Ga_BS: BS antenna gain. Ga_UE: UE antenna gain Ø Ga_SHO: soft handoff gain Ø Mpc: fast power control margin Ø Mf: slow fading margin (related to propagation environment) Ø MI: interference margin (related to system design capacity) Ø Lp: penetration loss of building (used when indoor coverage is required) Ø Lb: body loss Ø S_BS: sensitivity of the receiver (related to service and multipath conditions) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Margin for Background Noise SHO Gain over Fast Fading Fast Fading Margin Minimum Required Penetration Loss Std. 8. 16. 11. Max Power of TCH Body Loss Gain of UE Tx Antenna EIRP Gain of BS Rx Antenna Cable Loss Noise Figure (BS) EbvsNo Required (BS) Sensitivity of BS Receiver UL Cell Loading Interference Margin Background Noise Level 17. 10. dev. 9. 2. 5. 7. 6. of Slow Fading Edge coverage Probability Slow Fading Margin SHO Gain over Slow Fading Signal Strength 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . 19. 20.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 1. 12. 3. 4. 21. 13. 14. 15. 18.

1 Power Class Nominal maximum output power 1 2 3 4 +33dBm +27dBm +24dBm +21dBm 文档密级:内部公开 Tolerance +1/-3dB +1/-3dB +1/-3dB +2/-2dB 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 .7. In commercial networks.2.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 1. reasonably set this parameter during link budget.101 v3.0 (2001-06) 6. according to specifications on main commercial UEs on the market and operator’s suggestions Power level of UE (TS 25. Max Power of TCH (dBm) è The maximum transmit power of the UE on each TCH usually refers to the rated total transmit power.

Body loss for data services is 0dB because data services are mainly read and watched and the UE is faraway from the human body. 3. EIRP è (dBm) UE EIRP (dBm) = UE Tx Power (dBm) . Gain of UE Tx Antenna (dBi) è Usually suppose the antenna gain of the UE is 0dBi (receiving and transmitting are the same) 4. Body Loss (dB) è è Body loss for speech services is 3dB.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 2.Body Loss (dB) + Gain of UE Tx Antenna (dBi) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 5. 0○ 1387 mm 5kg +45○. 2○ >14dB >30dB 1302 mm / 155 mm / 69 mm 6. Gain of BS Rx Antenna (dBi) Kathrein 741794 1710~2170MHz Frequency range (dual band for DCS and UMTS) Gain Polarization Gain HPBW (1920~2170MHz) Electrical tilt Side lobe suppression for 1st side lobe above horizon Front-to-back ratio. co-polar Dimension (Height / Width / Depth) Weight 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 Kathrein 741790 Frequency range Polarization 1920~2170MHz Vertical 11dBi Vertical: 7○ Fixed.5○ Fixed.6kg 文档密级:内部公开 . -45○ HPBW Electrical tilt 18.5dBi Horizontal: 63○ Dimension (Height) Weight Vertical:6.

Ø 7/8-inch cable 6. Cable Loss (dB) è Include loss of all feeders and connectors between set top and antenna connector Ø Bottom jumper Ø Connector Ø Cable Ø Top jumper Ø Etc. è Loss except for cable loss is relatively fixed.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 6.8dB cable is about 2GHz.5dB / 100m 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .1dB / 100m Ø 5/4-inch cable 4. Suppose the loss of the 0.

Noise Figure (dB) è Noise figure is an index to evaluate whether noise performance of the amplifier is good. NF = SNRi / SNRo = (Si / Ni) / (So / No) è Floor noise of the receiver (within each bandwidth): Ø PN = K×T×BW×NF = -174 (dBm/Hz) + 10lg(3. It is expressed by NF and defined as the ratio of input Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) and output Signal-toNoise ratio (SNR) of the amplifier.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 7.84MHz) + NF (dB) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .84MHz / 1Hz) + NF(dB) = -108 (dBm/3.

10lg[3.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 8.84MHz/1Hz) + EbvsNo required (dB) . related to the following factors: Ø Receive diversity configuration Ø Multipath channel conditions Ø Bearer type 9. Sensitivity of BS Receiver (dBm) è Sensitivity of Receiver (dBm) = -174 (dBm/Hz) + NF (dB) + 10lg(3.84MHz/Rb(kHz)] = -174 (dBm/Hz) + NF (dB) + 10lg[1000 * Rb (kHz)] + Eb/No (dB) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . EbvsNo Required (dB) è It is obtained through link simulation.

WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 10. Uplink Cell Loading ηUL = (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ L j = (1 + i ) ⋅ ∑ 1 1 N N 1 1+ 1 W 1 ⋅ ⋅ (EbvsNo ) j R j v j è è è Uplink load factor is an index of cell uplink load level. the greater the uplink interference is. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . The higher the load factor is. Uplink interference increases to an infinite value and the corresponding capacity is called limit capacity when uplink load nears 10%.

WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 11. Uplink Interference Margin (dB) NoiseRise = I TOT = PN 1 1− ∑ Lj 1 N = 1 1 − ηUL 50% load — 3dB 60% load— 4dB 75% load ---6dB 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Background Noise Level (dBm) è Source of external electromagnetic interference: Ø Radio transmitter ( GSM.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 12.9dB in 2GHz frequency band. microwave. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . è Estimate interference level of a specific planning area with a noise test. radar and TV station…) Ø Autocar ignition Ø Lightning Ø… è Relevant reports show that average electromagnetic interference is -104dBm and the standard deviation is 2.

Margin for Background Noise (dB) è Suppose the noise floor of equipment (NodeB or UE) is X dBm and external interference power is Y dBm.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 13. external interference margin should be: Ø Margin for Background Noise = 10log (10^(X /10 )+ 10^(Y /10 )) dBm.X dBm 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

SHO Gain over Fast Fading (dB) è SHO gain consists of the following two parts: Ø Gain resulting from decreased demands for slow fading margin due to multiple irrelated SHO branches -multicell gain Ø SHO gain over link demodulation performance-macro diversity combining gain è SHO gain over fast fading refers to macro diversity combining gain.5dB.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 14. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . è Obtain this value through simulation and the typical value is 1.

the required demodulation performance of the receiver is estimated by the link-level simulation with the assumption of perfect power control. It is impossible to guarantee demands for BER/BLER when there is almost no power control performance. Fast Fading Margin (dB) è In the link budget. introduce imperfect factors to closed loop power control since transmit power at the transmitting end is limited. è Effect of power control margin on uplink demodulation performance: Ø The simulation result shows: EbvsNo target value set by outer loop power control nears the estimated value under perfect power control when HeadRoom is large. EbvsNo increases gradually with the decrease in power margin. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . In the actual system. however. Finally.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 15. the corresponding EbvsNo increases by 1dB when power margin decreases by 1dB.

Gain of Antenna (dBi) + Body Loss (dB) + Interference Margin (dB) + Margin for Background Noise (dB) . è Minimum Signal Strength Required = Sensitivity of Receiver (dBm) . Minimum Signal Strength Required (dBm) è Demodulate required signal strength correctly after considering various interference factors and performance deterioration factors -can be understood as the sensitivity of the receiver in the running of actual networks.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 16.SHO Gain over fast fading (dB) + Fast Fading Margin (dB) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

è Penetration loss is related to the specific building type and reference angle of electric wave. adopt average value and standard deviation of penetration loss (logarithmic value). penetration loss margin is uniformly specified by operators to compare planning results of various manufacturers. Penetration Loss (dB) è Indoor penetration loss is the difference of average signal strength outside the exterior wall close to the building and that on the first floor of the building. è Realize better indoor coverage adopting specific indoor coverage solutions instead of outdoor BS. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . è During actual commercial network construction. Suppose penetration loss follows logarithmic normal distribution in the link budget.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 17.

WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 18. of Slow Fading (dB) è Calculating standard deviation of indoor slow fading: Ø Suppose the standard deviation of outdoor path loss and penetration loss is XdB and YdB respectively. Std. dev. the standard deviation of path loss of indoor users is sqrt (X^2 + Y^2 ) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Edge coverage Probability è If the UE transmit power reaches the largest but path loss still cannot be overcome. 文档密级:内部公开 è 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 . this link is disconnected when the lowest received level is realized. è For the UE d away from the BS . its link interruption probability is: Pr_ outage ( d ) = Pr{ P max _ UE − PL ( d ) < S min } = Pr{ P max _ UE − 10 γ lg( d ) − ξ < S min } = Pr{ P max _ UE − S min − 10 γ lg( d ) < ξ } = Pr{ ρ ( d ) < ξ } è ρ(d) = Pmax_UE – S_min – 10γlg(d) , it is physically the difference between the average value of path loss of the UE d away the BS and maximum path loss allowed to remain connection. Its ξ average value takes zero and standard deviation takes σ to obey slow fading margin in logarithmic normal distribution.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 19.

06 SF( x.4 0. dev. σ) := dnorm ( x. 12) 0. σ) 1 0. of Slow Fading (dB) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . 0 .WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 20.7 0.9 0. 12) 0. 10) 0.2 0.8 0.5 SF_M ( x. 0 .04 SF( x.3 0. σ) Core content: logarithmic normal distribution SF_M( x. 8) 0.02 SF_M ( x.1 0 0 30 20 10 0 x 10 20 30 20 16 12 8 4 0 x 4 8 12 16 20 è Slow Fading Margin (dB) = NORMSINV (Edge Coverage Probability)× Std. σ) := pnorm( x. Slow Fading Margin (dB) è SF( x.6 SF_M ( x. 8) SF( x. 10) 0.

SHO Gain over Slow Fading (dB) è As stated in the previous slide. Acquire this value through simulation. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements 21. SHO gain consists of the following two parts: Ø Gain resulting from decreased demands for slow fading margin due to multiple irrelated SHO branches -multicell gain Ø SHO gain over link demodulation performance-macro diversity combining gain è è SHO gain over slow fading refers to multi-cell gain.

è Path Loss (dB) = [ EiRP (dBm) .Penetration Loss (dB) .Slow Fading Margin (dB) + SHO Gain over Slow Fading (dB) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .Minimum Signal Strength Required (dBm) ]. SHO gain and Penetration Loss in the case of indoor coverage required to meet a certain edge/area coverage probability.WCDMA Uplink Budget Elements l Summary: cell edge path loss è Based on maximum path loss the link allows. calculate mid-value of path loss at the cell edge. considering Slow Fading Margin.

com 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .huawei.Table of Contents Chapter 1 WCDMA Network Planning Flow Chapter 2 Uplink Budget Chapter 3 Downlink Budget Chapter 4 Coverage Enhancement Technology Chapter 5 Example of Link Budget Training.

RX propagation of the 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .Basic Principle of Downlink Budget NodeB TX Pout_BS Lc_BS Combined duplexer RX Lf_BS Feeder PL _D PL _U L Ga_BS l Link budget: system the loss certain by various affecting and signal coverage capacity to acquire maximum propagation the link a under allowed Estimate L Ga_UE UE TX Pout_UE Slow fading margin Mf communication quality observing factors Body loss Lb Penetration loss of the buildingLp Combined duplexer forward reverse system.

Algorithm Introduction Downlink (Forward) PL_DL=Pout_BS – Lf_BS+Ga_BS+Ga_UE +Ga_SHO –Mpc– Mf – MI – Lp – Lb – S_UE Ø PL_DL: downlink maximum propagation loss Ø Pout_BS: maximum transmit power of BS traffic channel Ø Lf_BS: feeder loss Ø Ga_BS: BS antenna gain. Ga_UE: UE antenna gain Ø Ga_SHO: soft handover gain Ø Mpc: fast power control margin Ø Mf: slow fading margin (related to propagation environment) Ø MI: interference margin (related to system design capacity) Ø Lp: penetration loss of the building (used when indoor coverage is required) Ø Lb: body loss Ø S_UE: sensitivity of UE receiver (related to service and multipath conditions 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

5. 15. 4. dev. 16. 3.WCDMA Downlink Budget Elements 1. of Slow Fading Edge coverage Probability Slow Fading Margin SHO Gain over Slow Fading EbvsNo Required (UE) 20. Margin for Background Noise SHO Gain over Fast Fading Fast Fading Margin Minimum Signal Strength Required Penetration Loss Std. 9. 6. 12. Sensitivity of UE Receiver DL Cell Loading Interference Margin 21. 10. 14. 8. 2. Background Noise Level 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . 17. 11. Max Power of TCH Cable Loss Gain of BS Tx Antenna EIRP Gain of UE Rx Antenna Body Loss Noise Figure (UE) 13. 7. 18. 19.

the greater cell transmit power is and the higher the interference at the receiving end is. UE receiver performance.WCDMA Downlink Budget Elements l 10. Ø The corresponding capacity is called downlink “limit capacity” when the downlink cell loading reaches 10%. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . è Define downlink cell loading at the transmitting end: ratio between the current cell transmit power and BS maximum transmit power capability In this way. cell size. In addition. such as Ø The higher downlink cell loading is. and BS capability. the greater the cell transmit power is. This definition is adopted for the current link budget tools. downlink cell loading owns the following characteristics: Ø The higher downlink cell loading is. it is related to service type. Downlink Cell Loading Downlink cell loading can be defined in the following two ways: è Define downlink cell loading at the receiving end: η DL = è ∑ 1 N   (1 − α j + i j )⋅ (EbvsNo  )j ⋅  ⋅vj W  Rj It has similar characteristics with uplink cell loading.

j) DL If defining downlink cell load at the transmitting end. j) $ n=1 No CL(0.WCDMA Downlink Budget Elements l 11. select the following typical value for NoiseRise ( j ) = 1 + [α ( j ) + f ( j )] ⋅ η DL ⋅ è parameters in the above formula: Ø Orthonormalized factor at the edge of a cell α(j): obtained through simulation.78 文档密级:内部公开 . the above formula can be simplified as follows: P max N o + CL ( 0 . j ) In link budget tools. Downlink Interference Margin (dB) è Downlink interference increases at the UE receiving end : I TOT(j) No + [ a + f(j) ] $ (0)/CL(0. n) (j) P CCH = 1+ $ + S CIR_Tx(n) $ 1−g CL(0. related to environment type and cell radius 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 Ø Interference factor at the edge of a cell f(j):1. j) (j) P TX = No No NoiseRise(j) = è N [a + f(j) ] CL(0.

huawei.com 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .Table of Contents Chapter 1 WCDMA Network Planning Flow Chapter 2 Uplink Budget Chapter 3 Downlink Budget Chapter 4 Coverage Enhancement Technology Chapter 5 Example of Link Budget Training.

OTSR

Tx BB
l

Rx

Rx

Rx

Capacity of OTSR is close to that of the omni-directional cells. Therefore, OTSR is applicable to areas requiring small capacity but large coverage at the early stage.

l

Cell radius of

OTSR is 1.5 times of that of omni-directional BS, so
文档密级:内部公开

sites can be reduced by 40~50%.
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Tower Mounted Amplifier

l

Adopting Amplifier)

a

TAM

(Low

Noise uplink

can

improve

receiver sensitivity and strength uplink coverage.

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文档密级:内部公开

Four-Antenna Receive Diversity

l

Relative to two-antenna receive diversity, four-antenna receive diversity can realize lower Eb/No .

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Gain effect of four-antenna receive diversity is as follows, compared with two-antenna receive diversity.

Area
Dense urban Urban Suburban Rural

Channel
TU3 TU3 RA120 RA120

Eb/N0 improved
2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5

Capacity gain
1.73 1.73 1.77 1.77

Coverage gain
1.37 1.37 1.39 1.39

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è Add standby times 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .MUD (Multiuser Detection) l Single cell: è Increase capacity by 70 ~ 100% l Multi-cell: è Increase capacity by 40~60% l Decrease UE transmit power è Decrease transmit power by 2 ~ 3 dB averagedly.

37 2.70 1.54 2.35 2x4 3.SA (Smart Antenna) l SA can improve system capacity and coverage uplink/downlink and decrease requirements for transmitted power.42 Uplink 2x2 1.85 1. l Test results of SA gain are as follows: Area 1x4 Capacity gain Coverage gain 1.02 Downlin k 1x4 3.07 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Review Questions 1. What are main technologies to enhance capacity? 3. How much UE transmitted power can be reduced by MUD technology? 4. What are main technologies to enhance coverage? 2. How many times is the OTSR cell radius than that of the omni-directional cell? 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

huawei.Table of Contents Chapter 1 WCDMA Network Planning Flow Chapter 2 Uplink Budget Chapter 3 Downlink Budget Chapter 4 Coverage Enhanced Technology Chapter 5 Example of Link Budget Training.com 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Example of Link Budget Analysis scenario setting Transmitter 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Example of Link Budget Receiver 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

Example of Link Budget Calculating Path Loss Calculating Cell Radius 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

674 km can be obtained . l Path loss is reduced to 131dB considering 20dB of penetration loss and slow fading margin. 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . R=0. l Path loss model is :L=137+35logR dB Therefore.Coverage Estimation-Example Suppose l l Planning target area is 80km^2 Maximum path loss is 151dB in the case of 50% cell load (3dB).

require 90 sites (270 sectors) 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .Coverage Estimation-Example l Coverage area of the three-sector site is: è S=1.88km^2 l The required site numbers are: è N=80/0.95R^2=0.88=90 l Namely.

Review Questions 1. What elements are included in uplink budget? What is the process of coverage estimation? 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 . 2.

Summary This chapter describes l l l l Elements in radio uplink budget Effect of each element on cell radius calculation Basis of value of each element Calculation methods for coverage-based site numbers 华为机密,未经许可不得扩散 文档密级:内部公开 .

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