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Paper ID 1061

**On Line Simulation Models of Electric Drives
**

Shlomi Eitan and Raul Rabinovici, IEEE Senior Member

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of The Negev Beer-Sheva, Israel Tel: 972-8-6461582, Fax: 972-8-6472949 rr@ee.bgu.ac.il

Abstract- The paper presents an online simulation model of a dc drive supplied by a single phase full wave thyristor controlled rectifier and by a single phase cycloconverter. The model was created in Matlab to shorten the simulation running time. It is intended for real-time and rapid prototyping of dc power electronics and electrical drives. The first simulated hardware consists of a two quadrant dc controlled rectifier while the second consists of a four quadrant operation. The online simulation was compared to a conventional simulation in Simulink using Simpowersystem Blockset.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The need for extensive simulations is more and more actual with the ever evolving use and complexity of power electronic systems, and with increased pressure for reduced time-to-market and costs. Real-time simulation of electric systems and drives, including hardware-in-the-loop testing, becomes an increasingly important requirement for the rapid prototyping and testing new circuit topologies and control [15]. Power systems are constantly evolving to include new technologies for controlling the flow of power using power electronics and for improving the reliability of networks using advanced protection strategies. Real-time simulation provides a solid framework to test the new control/protection concepts so as to detect, analyze, and correct any potential problems before commissioning [6]. Furthermore, the real-time simulations could be of worth with virtual laboratories, teleexperiments, and quasi-authentic learning environment [7]. Real-time simulations are performed generally by software means. However, FPGA technologies could also be used to get very short simulation steps [8-10]. The first part of the paper presents an implementation of online simulation of a single phase full wave thyristor controlled converter that supplies a separately excited dc motor drive and the second part presents an implementation of single phase cycloconverter operating without circulating current using online model based on the previous one. It is possible to operate the cycloconverter only one converter at any instant, where switching from one converter to the other would be carried out after a small delay. It is a step down frequency conventional cycloconverter that supplies separately excited dc motor drive in a four quadrant operation.

The present model was validated by numerical simulations on Simulink. Matlab is a high-level technical computing language and interactive environment for algorithmic development, data analysis and numerical computation. Simulink is a software package for modeling and simulating dynamic systems. It provides a graphical design environment that allows designers to build models as block diagrams. It also provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries that let you accurately design, simulate, implement, and test control of time varying systems. Section II describes the online simulation algorithm. Section III presents simulation results and Section IV conclusions. II. ALGORITHM DESCRIPTION The online simulation algorithm consists of three main parts: • Main program - contains the menu list of all dc drive circuits for which the user will have to launch. • Offline simulation program - which deals with solving differential equations, calculating coefficients values, and is responsible for delivering them to the online simulation program. • Online simulation program – contains the model of the controlled drive systems. Processing time is based on this model. The paper presents simulation results of a single phase full wave thyristor controlled rectifier, in the continuous and discontinuous modes and single phase cycloconverter with a step down frequency [11, 12]. The online models of the controlled drive systems were developed within Matlab environment. They were validated on Simulink Simpowersystems Blockset. The differential equations describing the drive behavior in its different modes of operations are integrated successively until a steady-state solution over the control period is obtained. During integration the final conditions for a certain mode of operation are considered as the initial conditions for the next mode. In order to save processing time, the coefficients of the differential equations were computed in the offline program model using 'dsolve' command from Matlab. They were then transferred together with circuit parameters to

978-1-4244-1736-0/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE

1

Fig. the resistance R1 the friction torque. Therefore. has several forms for every half cycle. The electromechanical torque developed by the dc machine is proportional to the armature current. and the capacitor C the inertia. 4a. The motor performances deteriorate and the dynamic response will be sluggish. The equivalent 2 . Under these circumstances each rectifier presents effectively infinite impedance to the output of the other and only one rectifier acts as an energy source or sinks at any one time. The armature current would be discontinuous for these operating conditions while the speed regulation will be significantly poor in the region of discontinuous current armature. the armature inductance and the armature resistance. while the capacitor voltage is proportional to the dc motor speed. 3. The design of online model enables to integrate this model with any offline model representing different dc drive circuit via its appropriate differential equations. Fig. 3 describes the flow chart used to simulate the discontinuous current mode of operation. Control of the gating signals is such that those of rectifier n are blanked out whenever the armature current is positive. 4 consist of two controlled rectifiers that can provide a four-quadrant source for the armature circuit of a separately excited motor. as soon as it starts. It is very doubtful if the armature current will be continuous at high values of the firing angle. Electrical model of the dc motor. The armature current is proportional to the motor torque. The state equations describing the dc motor are the conventional ones. it would be better to operate the motor. The back emf voltage is proportional to the machine speed. from control points of view. Single phase full wave thyristor controlled rectifier with separately excited dc motor drive simulated by Simulink and Simpowersystems Blockset.Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines the online program. Pulse Generator g A + TL A+ F+ m + v - armature voltage ia Ea Ia Vin B Universal Bridge dc AF- Te Te w Ke Eg DC Machine Load Step Vf Continuous powergui Fig. 2. The online algorithmic model accepts the coefficients and the parameters of the circuits and is responsible for computing both continuous and discontinuous (if necessary) current mode of operation. The current source represents the load torque. 4b. The cycloconverter of Fig. The discontinuous current. high speed. The cycloconverter of Fig. 2 shows the electrical model of the dc motor used in the simulations. Each current shape has its own algorithmic implementation as is shown in Fig. while those of rectifier p are blanked out whenever the armature current is negative. The dc drive model used in the simulations is shown in fig 1. ia Ra La Varmature iLOAD R1 c eg Fig. Detecting and computing discontinuous current in online model is much more complicated than computing continuous current mode. 1. in the continuous conduction mode. The state equations describing the dc motor are used in the offline part of the algorithmic by using the “dsolve” command. The equivalent circuits for such an arrangement are shown in Fig. The armature circuit of a dc motor is represented by the back emf voltage. 4 consist of two controlled rectifiers that can provide a four-quadrant source for the armature circuit of a separately excited motor. and light loads. and 4c.

3.Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines circuits for such an arrangement are shown in Fig. the delay angle at which each thyristor in the rectifiers is turned on is controlled with reference to an ideal voltage wave. 4a. and 4c. Flow chart of discontinuous current mode simulation of Single phase full wave thyristor controlled rectifier The online model of the cycloconverter is basically the same as with the full wave thyristor controlled converter such that the calculation of the variable states are computed between two gating pulses and as soon as the current changes direction for example from positive to negative. 4b. rectifier p is disabled and rectifier n starts working. Under these circumstances each rectifier presents effectively infinite impedance to the output of the other and only one rectifier acts as an energy source or sink at any one time. while those of rectifier p are blanked out whenever the armature current is negative. The reducing factor of 3 . The differential equations are the same as the Single phase full wave thyristor controlled rectifier when working with dc motor. Control of the gating signals is such that those of rectifier n are blanked out whenever the armature current is positive. Fig. Since it is desired that the waveform of the actual output voltage shall be such as to produce as nearly as possible the effect of a sinusoidal output voltage.

Single phase cycloconverter with separately excited dc motor drive simulated by Simulink and Simpowersystems Blockset.pi<alpha<2*pi Q_TAG 1 Q_TAG Q_TAG Q J CLK OR <= 0. 4 . Subsystem3 that generates pulses for the p rectifier and Subsystem 2 that generates pulses for the n rectifier.0<alpha<pi >= 2/pi*V Scope8 2/pi*V*cos(ws*t) 0<alpha<pi In1 Out1 alpha1 Enable1 . Continuous g a pow ergui k k g Th1 g a g Th2 a Th5 k Th6 k ZERO DETECT OR OUT1 CURRENT DC Machine subsysyem1 100Vp-p 50Hz Step TL A+ F+ k m EMF LOAD CURRENT u1 if (u1 == 0) elseif (u1 == 1) else alpha 1 & 3 dc AF- a 100Vp-p 50Hz If g a g Vfield g a Th7 k T h8 k g alpha 2 & 4 a a T h3 k T h4 Scope2 alpha1 In1 Vin alpha3 VOLTAGES alpha_1 alpha_3 In1 In2 if { } Out1 Out2 alpha1 alpha3 Vin=V*sin(Wo*t) Subsystem3 alpha4 In1 alpha2 VOLTAGES alpha_4 alpha_2 In1 elseif {Out1 } In2 Out2 alpha2 alpha4 scope1 LOAD CURRENT Subsystem2 Fig. 4c.001 s Monostable2 Enable2 . Subsystem1 which detects Load zero current Fig.001 s Monostable1 Enable1 .pi<alpha<2*pi -2/pi*V 2 Out1 pi<alpha<2*pi In1 alpha3 3 VOLT AGES alpha1 alpha3 Scope4 Fig. 4b.002 CURRENT 1 !Q K >= -0.002 -2*V/pi * cos(Ws*t) alpha3 Enable2 .0<alpha<pi Constant J-K Flip-Flop Set bit 1 1 1 alpha1 -2/pi*cos(ws*t) Enabled Subsystem >= T 0. Subsystems 1 and 2 used to generate pulses for rectifier p and n respectively while subsystem3 is used to detect the load zero current and invoke the desired rectifier.Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines processing time is much bigger in cycloconverter circuit than in the single phase with one controlled rectifier as we shall see later. 4a. vin (wanted) V*sin(wo*t) 1 In1 2*V/pi * cos(Ws*t) T 0.

5 1.14 0. Simulation results of the discontinuous conduction mode (up-Simulink.91 1.18 0.29 sec. iLOAD= 10U(t)-U(t-1).2 0. 5: the back emf voltage (equivalent to the dc motor speed) and motor armature current (equivalent to the dc motor electromechanical torque) both in Matlab (present online simulation) and in Simulink (conventional simulation) environment.2 time Fig.85 10 8 c u rre n t 6 4 2 0 c u rre n t -2 0 1.16 0.1H.16 0.2 1.8 2 100 time V o lta g e & c u rre n t 50 EMF VOLTAGE OF SINGLE-PHASE-CONVERTER 4-THYRISTOR MATLAB CIRCUIT 80 EMF VOLTAGE 60 0 40 -50 v o lta g e 20 -100 0 0 0.1 0. The results in processing time are: Simulink conventional model.1 sec. the processing time is 0.18 0.02F.4 1. Other parameters are as follows: Ra=10Ω. 7.6 1.04 0. V o lta g e 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0 0.88 1. R1=50Ω.08 0.06 0. -20 -40 -60 Vout* & Vin & Iout* Fin = 50Hz and Fout = 5.12 0. SIMULATION RESULTS For the full wave thyristor controlled converter circuit.8 2 time 1.6 1. down-Matlab).1 0. 40 v o lta g e 20 0 Figs. obtained by the conventional Matlab and Simulink Tool Box and by the present model.04 0.08 0.06 0. The online model was configured to use 200 samples per cycle of the 50 Hz ac voltage. 6 shows simulation results in the discontinuous conduction mode. Fig.4 0.4 1. The current shown in dash line in the fig. c=0.89 0.12 0.5 1.92 1. C u rr e n t Output Load Current 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 0 0. Simulation results for 0.2 0.6 1.2 time Output Load Voltage 150 100 0 0.6 0. (b) dc motor back emf voltage.2 time III.02 0.85 1.4 0.5 10 8 c u rre n t 6 4 c u rre n t 1 0. as a response due to a step change in the load: (a) dc motor output current.91 1.95 (a) EMF VOLTAGE OF SINGLE-PHASE-CONVERTER 4-THYRISTOR SIMULINK CIRCUIT 80 EMF VOLTAGE 60 Fig.7Hz 0 0.16 0.18 0. f=50Hz.8 1 1.6 0.06 0.04 0.86 1. 7 and 8 show simulation results on the single phase cycloconverter circuit of Fig. 4a. 7 was multiplied by a gain factor of 17 to illustrate the transition between positive in negative current.93 1.8 2 -0. firing angle α=400.5 1 0.02 0.8 1 1.14 0.2 0. 5. amplitude of the ac input voltage Vin=100V.8 1 1. the processing time is 6.2 0.86 1.02 0.08 0. Simulation results in Matlab (present online approach) and Simulink (conventional simulation).92 1.2 1.1 0. In order to avoid short-circuit of the source.6 1.94 1.9 time 1. the interval between the instant at which the current from rectifier n becomes zero and the instant of application of signal p must exceed the turn-off time of the thyristors in 5 .87 1.2 1. the response to a step change in load is shown in Fig. Matlab present online model.4 1.94 1.89 time 1.88 1.8 2 -20 -40 -60 time (b) Fig.12 0.4 0. 6.2 1.9 time 1.4 0.4 1.Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines CURRENT OF SINGLE-PHASE-CONVERTER 4-THYRISTOR SIMULINK CIRCUIT 12 DISCONTINUOUS CURRENT OF SIMULINK 2 1. La=0.6 0.87 1.93 1.6 0.5 0 2 0 -2 0 0.95 CURRENT OF SINGLE-PHASE-CONVERTER 4-THYRISTOR MATLAB CIRCUIT 12 DISCONTINUOUS CURRENT OF MATLAB 2 1.8 1 1.2 sec running time in cycloconverter circuit.14 0.5 0 -0.

and A. 54. Figueroa. Dinavahi . pp.6 0.2 1.02 F . Proc. issue 2.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2. f in = 5. Parle.5 sec. L. V. Christian Dufour . G. vol. 2. vol.5 0 -0. Prentice Hall.2 0. Belanger. Web Site www.5 0 0. H.real operation time in our example).7 Hz (parameters of desired voltage and frequency in the load circuit).8 H . The present approach would be able to reduce engineering efforts and costs. REFERENCES CURRENT GRAPH OF MATLAB 2. 54. Le-Huy. IEEE Trans. vol. Wu Xin. 15481553 [9] J. 3rd Edition 2003 [12] Thomas H.5 0 0. Matlab present online model. Cycloconverter simulation results for 2 sec running time in Maltab (up. R.org/TechPapers/2003/IPST03Paper13-3. R1 = 50Ω .8 2 time Fig. International Conference on Power Systems Transients – IPST 2003 in New Orleans. A low-cost real-time hardware-in-the-loop testing approach of power electronics controls. USA.5 0 -0. The parameters of the cycloconverter circuit are as follows: Ra = 10Ω . Hardware emulation for real-time power system simulation. 3. A converse rule governs the application of the gating signal to rectifier n. pp. These models are implemented in a PC-cluster of Pentium IV 2. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics. Cycloconverters. and Le-Huy Hoang. on Industrial Electronics. Iravani and R. April 2005.5 -1 -1.6 0. 2. [4] G. 1st Edition 1994 6 . conventional simulation) IV. the processing time is 14. f s = 50 Hz . IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics. vol. 51. April 2007. The processing time in both circuits illustrate the rapid prototyping in designing online models for power electronics circuit with two quadrant and four quadrant DC variable speed drives under real-time environment. the processing time is 0. Ind. Calarendon Press. Simunek. pp. and V. Vin = 50v .125sec . [1] J.ipst. The results in the processing time are: Simulink conventional model. * * c = 0. July 2006. IEEE Trans. R. Operation.5 2 1.2 0. E. Dessaint. Dufour. Huba and M. Dual-step realtime simulation of power electronic converters using an FPGA. Fuerte-Espquivel.4 1.8Ghz processor. 2.2 1. CONCLUSIONS This paper describes an online simulation algorithm of power electronics and electrical drives. pp. pp. 1001. Int. 1560-1565 [10] C. They demonstrate the rapid prototyping of the online model and the differences in processing time between the present simulation model implemented by Matlab and the conventional simulation model implemented by Simulink.” IEEE Trans. 919-931 [6] R. Electron. Guerette. S. and C. vol. 3112-3121 [8] P. "Rectifiers.6 1.4 0. pp. J. 1997. 2571-2578 [5] Lu Bin.4 1. Real-time simulation results have been presented.. A.5 1 c u rre n t 0.8 1 1. 32nd Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics. IEEE Trans. present online approach) and Simulink (down. Abourida. Winder software testing with real-time dynamic simulation.pdf [3] V. “Real-Time digital simulation of electromagnetic transient phenomena in power transmission lines”. Sybille and Le-Huy Hoang. July 2006. The present algorithm was implemented in Matlab on a Pentium-class processor with very short online processing time (100 msec running time for 2 sec in full wave thyristor controlled converter. vol.5 1 c u rre n t 0. issue 2. December 2007. Bettendorf. "Real-Time PC Based Simulator of Electric Systems and Drives". and AC Controllers". V = 100v .Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines rectifier n like shown in Fig. Pimentel and Le-Huy Hoang. La = 0. vol. Acha. Rashid. Monti. A comparative study on real-time simulation methods for PWM power converters. 4581-4586 [11] Muhammad H. and Management. Bonert “Design of a real-time digital simulator for a D-STATCOM system. 7 at t = 0. pp.4 0. November 2006.6 1. 8. the user only needs to integrate the online model with the offline model and to change the appropriate differential equations related to electric drive. pp. IECON 2006.12 sec. on Industrial Electronics. 2006. "Power Electronics".5 2 1. issue 6. on Industrial Electronics. 52.5 -2 -2. C. An important point in the algorithm concept is the calculation of parameters that would accelerate the online simulation itself by an offline program. Conf. vol. pp 563-568 [2] Simon Abourida. Lapointe. 2004. Jun.8 2 time CURRENT GRAPH OF SIMULINK 2.8 1 1. Advances in Power System Control. Modular approach to teaching PID control. Nov. 489-498 [7] M. Real-time simulation of permanent magnet motor drive on FPGA chip for highbandwidth controller tests and validation. and 120 msec in cycloconverter . Barton. In other electrical drive circuits.

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