Deep veins Femoral vein Popliteal vein Venae commitantes of anterior tibial artery Venae commitantes of posterior tibial artery Venae commitantes of peroneal artery 

 



Veins of the lower limbs Perforating veins Connect superficial to deep veins Blood flow is one way ± VALVES INSIDE ALLOW FLOW of BLOOD, superficial to deep (ONE WAY ONLY) Great saphenous vein has 5 perforators Small saphenous vein has 1 perforator

Superficial veins  Great saphenous vein  Small saphenous vein  Dorsal venous arch

Veins Dorsal venous arch

Explanation  Found in dorsum for foot  Origin : lateral end of the dorsal venous arch Ends : popliteal vein ( through popliteal roof)  Important relations: sural nerve  Origin : Medial end of the dorsal venous arch in front of the medial malleolus End : femoral vein ( joins via saphenous opening)  Largest and longest superficial vein in the body  Used as graft for coronary vessel bypass  VARICOSE VEINS- COMMON IN women  Origins : lower border of popliteus Ends : by passing behind of adductor hiatus  Upward continuation of the venae commitantes of anterior and posterior tibial veins  Continues as the femoral vein

Tributaries  Dorsal digital veins  Dorsal metatarsal veins (4) 

Small saphenous

Great saphenous 

Popliteal 

Short saphenous vein  Venae Commitantes of the ant & post tibial and peroneal arteries

Femoral 

Origin : lower end of adductor canal End : become external iliac vein by passing behind the inguinal ligament  Upward continuation of the popliteal vein  Continues as the external iliac vein  Major relations: y Femoral canal (medially) y Femoral artery & nerve (laterally) 

Great saphenous vein  Muscular veins  Medial and lateral circumflex femoral veins

Factors for venous drainage of lower limbs  Superficial Veins (Great Saphenous) have multiple valves which hold blood column  MOST IMPORTANT VALVE--at SAPHENO-FEMORAL JUNCTION--INCOMPETENT IN VARICOSITY 

VALVES IN PERFORATING VEINS & OBLIQUITY IN PIERCING DEEP FASCIA BY PERFORATING--ALLOW UNI-DIRECTIONAL BLOOD flow Superficial Veins to Deep Veins  MUSCULO-VENOUS PUMP--CALF MUSCLES (SOLEUS) COMPRESS DEEP VEINS -MILKING THE BLOOD UP TOWARDS THE HEART  PRESENCE OF COMPETENT VALVES PREVENT REFLUX (DEEP TO SUPERFICIAL) SUPPLEMENTED BY MUSCLES WHICH HELP PUMPING TOWARDS HEART  INCOMPETENT VALVES (both SUPERFICIAL VEINS & PERORATORS)-DILATED & TORTUOUS SUPERFICIAL VEINS (VARICOSE VEINS)  Increased Venous Pressure Damage Cells, Also Blood Exudes Into Soft Tissue-VARICOSE ULCERS