TECHNICAL TEXTILE OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW
•  What are technical textiles? •  Uses of technical textiles •  Materials & properties •  PPE •  Innovations in PPE

Technical textiles
•  A technical textile is a textile product manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes, where function is the primary criterion (source Wikipedia) –  Not fashion –  Not home textiles –  Not uphostery

Technical textiles
•  Most important sector in the EU textile industry •  Use –  In contact with human body
•  Medical textiles •  Protective clothing

–  Not in contact with human body / industrial use
•  •  •  •  Construction Automotive Filtration Insulation

Classification

Classification

Distribution of Technical Textiles

Materials
•  Classical textile fibres –  Cotton –  Viscose –  Polyester •  New materials –  Nomex/Kevlar –  PBI –  PP –  HDPE (Dyneema)

Properties
•  General properties –  Very strong –  Durable / abrasion resistant –  Chemically inert –  Flame retardant •  Special properties –  Anti static –  Anti microbial –  Insect repellent –  Anti soiling –  Water repellent –  Waterproof

Technical fabrics

Non wovens

Grow areas Technical Textiles

Grow areas

PPE Functionality
•  PPE is much more than textile materials •  PPE has added functionality •  Functionalites are multiple: –  protection –  identification –  commercial –  communication –  discrimination –  ‘fashion‘

PPE – Personal Protective Equipment
•  Major grow market for technical textiles •  Many application areas –  Company wear –  Medical uniforms –  Police uniform –  Fire brigade –  Military clothing •  Europe leading in PPE •  PPE development stimulated by EU leadmarket initiative –  Research and development –  Public procurement as launching market

Fire brigade
•  Functionality most important •  Properties –  Flame retardant –  Insulation –  Mechanical protection –  Water proof

Company wear
•  Where fashion meets functionality •  Main functions –  Recognisable –  Representative –  Comfort –  Easy to clean –  Durable

Medical uniforms
•  Focus on functionality –  Easy to clean –  Anti microbial properties –  Comfort, mechanical –  Thermo physiological properties
•  Heat and moisture transfer

–  Hydrophobic –  Chemical resistance
•  Alcohol, disinfectants

Police uniforms
•  Functionality and protection •  Main features –  Recognizable –  Representative –  Protection – weather –  Comfort –  Good thermo physiological properties –  Easy to clean

Soldiers
•  Main functionality: protection –  Mechanical protection (bullet proof, anti stabbing) –  Foul weather proof –  Chemical resistant –  Camouflage

Main problems in PPE
•  •  •  •  Comfort and heat stress Freedom of movement Weight Tactile precision

Heat balance
•  Humans function best at a core temperature of 36-39 °C (homeotherm) •  At elevated temperatures risk of heat stroke –  Can be lethal •  At low temperature risk of under cooling

Koud

Warm

–  Can be lethal as well

Factors influencing heat balance

Individual Properties & Regulation

Environment

Heat balance

Activity

Clothing

Work, individual and regulation
• Heat production at rest:
• 50 W - 200 W (50 W/m2 - 100 W/m2)

Heat production when working:
• 750 - 2000 W (375 - 1000 W/m2)

• Thermo regulation:
• Physiology - acclimatization • Behavior – rest, ventilation, cooling

• Production sweat: 1-3 l/h
• (→ max. 675 W tot 2025 W cooling), but: • Clothing reduces sweating efficiency

• Impermeable Clothing: Efficiency ≈ 0% • PPE might need to be impermeable!

Insulation by clothing
• Directly related to thickness • Depending on air flow under and through cloting • Depending on the total area covered by clothing • Depending on total effective surface

What clothing is needed?

Modeling en Simulation

User-oriented (functional) development of PPE
COMFORT: - Freedom of movement - Ventilation - Sizing and Fit PHYSICAL STRAIN: - Heat insulation - Moisture regulation TASK: - Bush fire / House - Working posture - Working time PROTECTION: - Fire - Ballistic - Climate

CHOICE

PRE-SELECTION

STANDARDS,
(Occupational Laws)

PROTO-TYPES

MATERIALS

Aspects in the development of PPE
Individual Working conditions Task

Training & Education

PPE Development
Information

New Materials & Technology

Safety

Testing and evaluating with human subjects at TNO
•  Climatic chambers
•  Warm, Hot, Humidity, Cold, Rain, Radiation •  Toxic – Whole system CB protection

•  Ergometers
•  Treadmill, bicycles, arm work, rowing

•  Metabolism and Physiology
•  Breathing Analysis, Heart Rate, Temperature, Sweat Rate, Blood Flow, Etcetera

•  Ergonomics Test series – Quantify Performance Loss •  Thermal Physiology Modelling

Example: Fire brigades

Eisen brandweerkleding: EN 469
•  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Flame spread test (materiaal) Warmtetransport - flame (materiaal) Warmtetransport - radiation (materiaal) Isolatie stof (materiaal) Trek- en scheursterktes (materiaal) Water- en vloeistof-dichtheid (materiaal) Zichtbaarheid (pak) Dampdoorlatend (materiaal) Voldoen deze eisen voor het maken van functionele brandweerkleding ?
Warmteisolatie Dampweerstand Vochtregulatie Bescherming Opvallendheid Bewegingsbeperking

Good design fire fighters clothing ?

Functies van Kleding
• Mode & Commercie • Bescherming • Communicatie, Identiteit & Differentiatie • Reductie weerstand • Sterkte & duurzaamheid • Platform voor middelen • Thermische balans

Influence of protective clothing
•  Hinderance of movement •  Increased work load •  Less efficient communication •  Decrease of comfort •  Reduces work capability

Man in protective clothing
Protection Thick clothing Many layers Less movement Equipment Standing still Static
Protection

Performance Less (no) clothing Few layers Movement and work No equipment Movement, speed Dynamic, Flexible
Performance