830

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 3, No. 3, August 1988

DESIGN OF RELIABLN Kl3ASuRBMENT SYSTEM FOR STATE ESTIMATION
YoungMOon Park

Member, IEEE
Seoul

YoungEyuu Moon Member, IEEE Dept. of Electrical Engineering Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

Jin Boo Choo, TaeWon Kwon Student -er, IEBE Research 8, Development Center Korea Electric Power Corporation

Dept. of Electrical Engineering National University, Seoul, Korea

Abstract - This paper presents a new algorithm of optimal meter placement for the state estimation, which minimizes the total investment cost subject to a constraint of state estimation accuracy. The solution procedure is developed on the basis of sequential meter addition/elimination method by reflecting the cost of individual meter installation and its contribution to the state estimation accuracy in the probabilistic sense. The sensitivity of the perforrance index to each meter installation is efficiently calculated with the use of a recursive formula. Selection ranking in the addition-elimination process is set up in terms of the performance index sensitivities. Keywords. Optimal meter placerent ; state estimation ; measurement sensitivity ; measurement failure ; inter esting quantity ; addition algorithm ; elimination algorithm. I . INTRODUCTION

With the increase of power system carplexity, collection of proper data has become significant for ensuring good perforrance of various controls more than ever before. This paper deals with the collection of proper measurement data required for state estimation. State estimation is performed by processing a set of measurement data which consists of real and reactive bus injections, real and reactive line flaws and bus voltage measurements. These measurements are collected by RTU’s (Remote Terrinals Units) and transmitted to the control conputer system through telaetering lines. The measurements data are usually contaminated by measuring device errors and teleretering noise. An Occurrence of some failure on a meter or a RTU may make the system state unobservable. Thus, the measurement system must be designed to be observable for any failure with considerable occurrence probability. Consequently the optimal meter placaent should be performed under the following considerations. (a) (b) (c) Securing the sufficient -accuracy of state estimation. Enhancing the reliability of state estimator in case of failures on meters, RTU’s etc. Reducing the investment cost.

be established to linimize the performance criterion. However, rany authors in the earlier papers proposed various practical perforrence criterion because of the corplicacy of the problem rather than a unified perfoxlance criterion. Koglin [l] adopted a criterion for estimation accuracy with respect to interesting quantities, end proposed the so-called Koglin algorithm on the basis of the measurerent eliminating procedure by measurement sensitivities of the performance criterion. Fetzer [2] proposed a loss function with special regard to the orthogonal property of good measurements and developed an algorithm to determine the best measurement. Phua and Dillon [3] presented a sequential minimization algorithm based on the mutual information between the measurement set and the state vector, and attempted to take account of the state estimation accuracy and the investment cost shultaneously. A significant contribution to the enhancement of reliability has been made by Clements [ ] with the consideration of observability 4 degree of measurement system. Recently Arm et al. [5] attwted to extend Koglin’s method in order to take into account both the estimation accuracy and the bad data detection. Earlier papers in the literature[l,3,5] considered the redundancy rate of measurement as an important factor. However, the redundancy is merely a factor with little significance relating to the state estimation and the investment cost once conditions (a) and (b) are satisfied. The redundancy rate can be considered as a function of the accuracy requirent in the state estimation. In this study, the state estimation accuracy is rigorously analyzed, and the perforrance index of ma-t esn system is established by calculating the expected state estimation accuracy with the probabilistic consideration of measurement failures. The measurement sensitivities are introduced in order to determine the best measurement to add to or eliminate f r a the measurement system. With the use of the sensitivities, the addition, the elimination and the cabination algorithm are developed for the measurement system design. The colbination algorithm, which is colposed of combination of addition and elimination processes, is proved to be the best of ther since the interaction between measurements cau be taken into account. The proposed algorithm are tested for the &bus and 14-bus IEBE samplesysteaLs, and the results are discussed. 11. THEORETICAL AFTFLOACH The optimal meter placement problem cau be formulated by an optimization approach to minhize an appropriate perfoxlance index subject to certain system constraints. In this section , a performance index is established in probabilistic consideration of measurement failures. In the analysis of performance index of state estimator, it is assumed that the system adopts the least square error estimator in coMll use.

The opthal meter placement problem requires a unified performance criterion which reflects all the above considerations, and the solution algorithm should

A p a a e r recommended a n d a p p r o v e d 8 7 SM 491-4 by t h e I E E E Power S y s t e m E n g i n e e r i n g Committee of t h e I E E E Power E n g i n e e r i n g S o c i e t y € o r p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e I E E E / P E S 1987 Summer M e e t i n g , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y 1 2 - 17, 1987. Y a n u s c r i p t s u b m i t t e d .January 26, 1986; made a v a i l a b l e f o r p r i n t i n , ? May 29, 1987.

0885-8950/88/0800-0830$01 .WO 1988 IEEE

If the measurement system is observable.. zm 1 (8) The perforrmnce of state estimator is evaluated by this state estimation error.~ H ) . occure H B * Jacobian matrix of measurement equations ' and maest error covariance retrix correspooding to the reaaurerents available when fault E.. } z. The measurement vector can be expressed by state vector and measurement error vector y as follows : 3 = h(X) + ! ! occurrence of failures in the measurement/teleretry system make scme measurements unavailable for state estimation. occuree where H = ahJax evaluatedat an operating point If we keep the expectation value J mall emough. Instead. After sase ranipulatiomr. the estimation errors of the interesting quantities will be taken as the perforranex index of the state estimator rather than the estimation errors of state variables. the optimal meter pat lprobla can be formulated as Y= Then the perforrance index of state estimator can be evaluated as follows : (4) where W : weighting matrix for the interesting quantities y The weighting matrix W is diagonal.)... such quantities as tie line flows are very important as well as the system state values for the parer systa operation.. the solution proceduree of the optimization problem will not be investigated explicitly because of its too high degree of ccaplexity due to its dinatoriel nature.~2. it is assumed that every maest error is indepedent. The expectation value of tbe perforrance index is more significant than the deterministic 5. With the use of the B-t data given in (l).. In the practical sense of parer system operation. Harever.. A different choice of measurement set M yields different p e r f o m c e index and different investment cost...83 1 Measurement data for the power system state estimation consist of meter readings of real/reactive bus injections. The investment cast is thus given try a function of m e a s u r e ment set M. the Jacobian matrix H being calculated directly... performance index in ( ) (1) with P = [(Q. a statistical approach is introduced since In the minimization proadures. 111 .)'@H I-' 2:reasuraent3t3emetry faults fault system : the entire set of all (7) ! [ E with ] E [ ! = g y t ] = R : diagonal matrix In the above measurement equation. This requires the introduction of intereating quantities and it is desired that the measurement systeu is designed in order to minimize the estimation errors of interesting quantities. M = {~1. both the state estimation eccuracy and the reliability of the measurement systa can be secured.. and its diagonal elements should be detemined by the operational experiences. With the use of the perforrance index in (6). the perfomauce index can be rewritten as J = T wk F ( J I ~ R .~ t ( w ' ' 2 )t = Trace GFGt where F = a_f/ax G = W W F For the consideration of the state estimator reliability. The measurement set should be a subset of the measurerent candidate set (M C M. Thus there exists a solution of the minimization problem (10). the matrix H R-1 H is nonsingular a d thus all elements of the SEB covariance matrix are finite. Let the measurement candidate set be denoted by Mc and the measurement set by M.-. m C(M) = Ci i=l (9) For the general discussion.. it is desirable to pursue the highest effectiveness of the investment cost incurred in each step when the investment plan is divided into rany steps..--. real/reactive line flows and bus voltage magnitudes. M = c S Z C ~.... a suboptimal mae8t selection algorithm is developed an the basis of sequential addition and elimination of measurerents in the next section. and thus it is one possible method for the measurement placement to select a measurement set which minimizes the state estimation error. the three following algorith can be developed for measurement system designing. With the use of this beet investrent strategy. the least square estimator yields the following SEB(State Estimation Error) covariauce retrix.. The state estimation error can be directly calculated by using the SEE covariance retrix P . .) : probability that fault E. MEEASUBBMENT SELECTION AIGOlZIlZI (5) In the general investrent problem. where n : number of candidate measurements m : number of measurements telemetered to the state estimator The investment cost for the measurerent system can be calculated if the measurerent set M is determined. an appropriate measurement candidate set can be chosen by the prekMmledge of the measurement system design. the maest equation z = h(x) is determined by raest set M.. (One rsy take any of state variables as an interesting quantity. Hawever.-. (3) -. Rob@.) Let the interesting quantity vector y be expressed as where C i : the installation coat for measurement i .

: The changes in the perforraoce index denoted by J and the investment cost are given respectively as P = P . . Otherwise. Consider a failure event E which makes measurerents {ql . it is impractical to consider all possible failures since there are too many combination failure cases. (ii) Succxssive elimination aldoritM : Assume that the measurement system is designed with all the candidate measuraents. F r m the fact that every multiple measurment/telemetry failure has very low occurrence probability.P : R H(f - HfPHf)-' HfP ( 16) where €If Jacobian matrix for the unavailable : Deasuraents. the following recursive forrula can be derived in a similar way. The three algorithms above will be described in detail with practical considerations of measuraent system designing. . eliminate a measurement by applying the elirination algorithm. the SEE covariance matrix P for event E can be updated by k PEr = P .. (11) ha(x) + a ! (U Er y&] = R : [a a x U) diagonal matrix The change in the performance index due to addition or elimination of meters is analyzed. good approximation of performance index cau be taken by considering single reasurerent/teleetry failures only. the measurement sensitivity is given by P = P ' - P( HR !e . In this recursive formula. Failures in a measurement systes can be classified into simple reading failures of meters. theoretically be calculated by using ( ) Jiowever. Add one reasureKnt by applying the addition algorithm if the performance index is greater than a specified value. The algorithm continues until the performance of state estimator can not be improved by replacing any measurerent of the measurement systcs with one of the candidate measur-ts. where Ci: the investment coat for the installation of meter z i The measurement sensitivity for meter zi i s defined as 6 . and its inverse can be directly calculated due to its low dimensionality.)-~ H = (H'R-~ + H&R. the approximate performance index in (6) can be calculated by taking suaaation for all single failures. (Ra+HaP HA) is a (U x U) matrix. The algorithm continues until the performance index reaches a prespecified value.za2 . This failure can be considered to be just sare as the case of eliminating b measurements. the new SEE covariance matrix P can be easily calculated from the ' covariance matrix P for the original measurerent system. (iii) &tction and elimination algorith : To begin with.. The Deasurement sensitivity represents the . . and a performance index sensitivity is introduced in this section. Recursive Formula of State Covariance Matrix {Zal .832 i) Successive addition algorithm : Add measurements successively by selecting one of the M a t effec tive m a u & s esrt aaong all the candidates.M. BTU failures. As a result.z . Measurement Sensitivity Consider adding the following I . Consequently. and the performance 1) index for the new measurement set can be evaluated by 1) The new performance index will be using (6) and ( 6 . Rf = E [ ~ f ~ f t l With the use of the above equation. } . q 2 . . z a 2 These two recursive formulae will be used for the calculation of performance index expectation and sensitivities.~H. the sensitivity for the measurerent elimination can be defined in a similar way. For the procedure of eliminating measurements + ye). . and telemetering line failures. The algorithm stops when the performance index gets less than a prespecified value.. Za = U measurements spt.)-~ H with Ev] [: (13) where "= [H j = [&&tl wax R O ' '[ I '( the following (14) By applying the matrix inversion 1 .j)/ci C (19) (se= _he(%) In the case of addition of a measurement group {z. establish an observable measurement system by inspection. = A ~ A= (9... A Consider the change in the performance index J when adding a new meter to measurement systa M.-Zau } to the Easw-nt . and let the measurement equation for the new meter be zj = Then the new measurement set M' can be described as follows : (12) The new SEE covariance ratrix P' can be given by p = ' = ("1 hi(x) + v i = ri (17) RI-1 1-1 (P-1 + HAR~H. z f b ] unavailable for the state estimation. Calculation of Performance Index with Consideration of Measurerent Failures The perforrance index of state estimator can 6..H F H ) l HeP e'k- (15) On the other hand. Then the SEE covariance matrix P' for the new measurerent set can be calculated by ( 4 .. RTU or teleretering failures may cause losing a rass of measurement data. and then eliminate measurerent one by one by selecting one of the least effective measurements rwng the already installed measurements.. The selection method for most effective measure rents is developed on the basis of perforrance index sensitivities to candidate measurements.PHA(Ra+ ' HP . recursive formula can be derived.

(i) Establish an observable mae8t system by an intuitive method. Thus. It is also . throt@ the cabinationprocedure of the addition and elimination processes. three algoriths are investigated on the besis of performance index. (iv) Eliminate a meter or a group of meters to the meamurerent system by applying the elhination algorith. the algoritbs encounter the problem of "the curse of large dimensionality". It %=E+! B =E [ ! y'] = [ a2 0 o*-.Thus." Optimal Measurement Selection Alsforith For the optimal meter selection. If cycling occurs in the process. (iv) Calculate the perforreace index for the new leesurerent systa. If the performnce index is greater thau the critical value. almost all the elaents of matrix P are non-zeros. go to step (iii). while the elimination of a meter with aeller sensitivity resulting in less increase in performance index for the m i t coet saving in the m u r e r e n t system design procedure. and take an appropriate procedure of ddingor eliminatingfor the selected meter or (p'oup of meters. Comrequently. go to step (iv). for exaople =lo5. In this algorithm. othenri e s. This is because the p e r f o m in&x evaluated by (6) is infinite for a measummemt systa whichcanbeunobservable in the case of acme single failure. (ii) With the increase of systa size.s est. assued Tbe addition end the elimination a l g o r i k are simple and require lesa ccqutational efforts. Cambination alaoritlm : This algoritlm is established by the cabination of addition end elimination processes.u2] with very large a The large standard deviation of measurerent noise means that the maest system has almmt no infomation The deviation is set to an of the systa state. This can afford us to have a finite perforrance index even though very large.tbam a specified n-. It is noted that sensitivities in the addition procedure are always negative while those in the elimination procedure are always positive. the fictitious m a . In the tedmical point of view. Otherwise. even though not complete. (iv) Calculate the perforrmce index for the new . Tbe 1 t cabination algorith yields better solutions than two other algoritim because the effect of m u r e r a n t interactions can be considerably taken into accormt.s est are to be fault-free.e kd that the addition of a meter or a group of meters with smaller (greater in absolute) sensitivity ensurea greater decrease of perfomauce index for the unit cost investment. Then. (iii) Construct a new maest system by rercnring the meter(s) selected in step(ii). a pair of real aud reactive power meters will be considered as a group of mur€meJlts measurement system by using the recursive forrula. the probabilistic calculation of the perforrence index in (6) requires excessive caputation time in spite of the use of the recursive f o d a of SKE covariance matrix P . AIV. . go to step(ii). (iii) Construct a neu reasuraent systa by adding the meter(s) selected in stepcii). If the perforremce index is greater than the critical value. for any kind of failures on the measurerent s y s h . By considering the best investment policy. Successive addition alaoritlm : This algorithm starts with the following fictitious observable maest system : E d of the three algoriths above yields a suboptiral maest systa with the specified performmce is noted here that this resulting system guarantees the observability against any kind of single measurerentlteleretering failure. Otherwise. (v) Add the meter(s) removed in the last step to the finel measurement systa and terninate the algoritha. the following algorith canbeeatablishedby using the recursive forrula. (i) Calculate sensitivities to all candidate volt meters aud candidate pairs of parer meters. or by applying either addition or elimination algorith. (ii) Calculate the expectation of perfomance index for the reesurerent syeta. PBILCTICAL COIVSUIHBbTIONS OF W S SYSTM DESIGN In a practical w-t system design of large power systsrr. M. go to step (v). arbitrary large n d r . (ii) Select a meter or a group of meters which bee the least sensitivity. go to step(i). the resultant maest syster will beregarded as an optimal system. approxiration In order to overcole the above probl-. If cycling occurs or the d e r of iteratiorm ia great. it is more efficient to take a pair of reaeur-ts for real and reactive bus injections or line flows rather than individual m a . If the performauce index is less thau the critical value. (v) Check the cycling of the algorith aud the Mder of iterations. then terrinete the algorith. (iii) Add a meter or a group of metere to the m z a a m a m t mystem by applying the addition algwith. the best imresiaent policy can be stated as : "In each step of the designing p . However. Thus. (ii) Select a volt meter or a pair of parer meters which hes/have the least (greatest in absolute value) sensitivity.833 effectiveness for unit cost invested to a meter or a group of measurements under consideration. the above algorithms have the follming probl: (i) Thwe are too many cases of measurement failure~. go to step (i). the algorithm stops. (i) Calculate sensitivities to all volt metera and pairs of parer meters which rerain in the measurerent systa. t h e two algoritim hardly yield sufficiently optimized solutions because the interectirrm between meamurements are not considered. Moreover. The forrer is specially parerfnl for the case where a great n d x x of amdidate measurerents are preselected. select an individual meter. the direct use of matrix P requires excessive memory capacity and greatly increases the amputation time. rust be taken into account in the evaluation of the Successive elimination alaoritba : This algorith starts with a maest systa of which the measure ment set consists of all candidate measurements.or a group of metem which has the smllest sensitivity.

a good approximation for calculating the expectation value of performance index can be made by taking into account single faults on " U ' s . Methods (ii) and (iii) are under study for applications to relatively large power systems. real and reactive pawer measurements.. A branch telemetering line transmits only the data fram a RTU. Hv = ahv/av The SEE covariance matrix P can also be given by P = r 'e p I0' i. This meam that a single failure on a RTU or on a telemetering line considerably affects the performauce index. Figure 1 shows the scheme of the approximated SEE covariance . This study adopted the decoupled method since the decoupled method is generally considered to be acceptable with negligible approximation errors. The hierarchical algorithm will be camposed of two levels: Level 1 Design a measurerent systa for each : subsystm.. causes little change in performmce index. The SEE covariance matrix P is calculated for each subsystem.. in matrix P Then.. phase angles Bi and ej at buses i. HQ = awax . Then.834 performance index J and the SEE covariance matrix P in the practical point of via. we can expect that element (1 PU is nearly zero ii the state variable xi and x are j weakly related..-?. that is P. the measureaent system is safely designed with high degree measurement redundancy. no loss of data results frcm any single line fault on the bulk data tranerission lines. This reduces the dimensionality of matrix P. (i) Decoupled method - \ \ Fig.. The same relation cau be found for bus voltages. and the analysis of calculation errors due to the approximation has rerained for further research. This guarantees that a single meter outage except outages on specially important measurerents such as tie line flows.1 (iii) m i t i o n of the syss xxxxxx xxxx xxx '' denotes the locations of nonzero elements x Scheme of the approximated SEE covariance matrix P The measurement meters can be classified into three groups. A fault on a RTU ruins all data collected by the BTU. and voltage measurements.! E . the Jacobian matrix H can be approximated by using the decoupled method._ (22) where Hp = . However. In the practical power systems. Approximated calculation of performance index. a RTU is installed and transmits the data to the central caeputer system by converting all measurements into digital data. Level 2 Modify the measurement placerent of each : subsystem iteratively by considering measurement set in other subsysters. real and reactive injection power meters and volt meters are installed at a bus.. matrix P B. [: . and a fault on a telemetering line will lose all data transmitted through the line. The proposed algoritb has been tested for relatively . In a pmer system. Savings in memory req uiremenen For practical applications to large power system. 4) I . and line power meters are optionally placed at the end of lines branching frcm that bus. Several methods can be suggested to reduce the memory requirements. In general. adjacent buses i and j are nlnbered successively in order to keep the locations of Bi and ej closer .. H + .AQIRV : measurement error covariance matrices corresponding to each measurement group Storing Pe rqit eu-s and Pv instead of P d u c e s remarkably. Consequently. of matrix P represents the covariance between state variables xi and xj . angle and bus voltage estlration errors respectively Rp. . For telemetering these measurements. For example. 7 ] = [HbR. As a result.1 1 systems with leas than 100 buses.-&. the m r y % .?Hpl-l ] (23) where P = E[@-$)(e-i)' e P = E[(&(&)t v = [€&RQ~F~Q+€I~R~'H:]-' . The reasurent systemdesign can be perforred with the use of an hierarchical method by partitioning the system into subsystems. In order to use these properties. Hvl alxp& . .Pv : covariance matrices of phase of neglecting small elements e (ii) -M of the SEE covariance mar& An element P i . A.j are weakly related if bus i and bus j are located far f r a each other in the sense of the network topology. the memory requirements due to the SEE covariance matrix should be reduced with particular attention. The partitioned state estimation theory can be applied for the calculation of matrix P for each subsystem. and thus a fault on a branch telemztering line are virtually equivalent to the corresponding RTU fault. we r e arrauge the order of state variables so that the state variables of adjacent buses cau be located closer. ! !.and meter outages on specially important measumsents such as tie line flaws and bus injection powers fraa generators with huge capacity. the bulk telemetering system usually has redundancy loops for the prevention of losing a mass of data due to a single fault on a telemetering line. The probability that a double fault occurs is small enough to be neglected.. elements of P which are located far from the diagonal pivot cao be neglected. = E[(x~-~~) x .

44. 43.72 21. The measurement failure. that is. -y & c Rate 4. The elimination algoritlm starts with a measurement set umsisting of all the caudidate Bus injection (1 21). 42. (6 26) measurements has an average estimation error covarilmce of 3. Failure probability for each measur-t meter is as s& to be 5% a year. Measurement candidate mmbers areshown in Figure 2 Memuring .system indeed guarantees observability against any dures with state estimation accuracy at each step.75 5.73 1.18 40 .68 3. The figure in the left square is the d e r for a real parer ma-. the elimination process will bus parer measurement set is utilized for the initial continue measurement set.13 65 .09 2. given in TABLE 3 .27 3. reaeurcrents. A pair of real and reactive parer meters are denoted by a pair of squares. points are represented by dots. real and reactive flaw measurements at both enda of all lines and bus voltage measurement at all buses are selectedasmeasurement candidates.68 x 10-4.0 1. the pair measurements of (18. After the cabination algoritlm final maest set is listed in TABLE 2 . 45 i l i Fig. Power measurements are added or eliminated by pair of real and reactive pawer m e a s m t s . 41.9 06 Total Cost 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 2 0 19 17 16 15 14 The proposed algoritb have been tested for saaple spetcms. Since this accuracy is better than the When conducting the addition algorith. Bus voltage measurements are denoted by triangles. buses. I I I I . (4 24).45 3.2 Configuration of 6-bus sfmple system The sensitivity values are renewed after every addition or elkination process. 45 ) is selected.82 3. 42. The optimnl measuraent system design for the IBEB 14-bus system is performed by using the cabination algoritlm and the reaults are listed.81 15. assued to be an identiti mfrix (W = I . It is has been conducted in order to modify the result of the noted here that the final measurement set is indeed addition algoritim. The installation cost for each measurement meter is assured to be the s .18 The 6-bus system configuration is sham in Figure 1 Ekal and reactive parer measurements at all . it yields a suboptimal maest set and it is confirmed that the resulting measurement TABLE 1 sham3 the measurement elimination proce.4 4.33 94 . RTU’s are installed at all buses and each RTU processes all data which are collected arouud the bus. . we also have the eae result as observable for any single measurement failure. where the specified accumcy.50 x 10-4 since this measurement system has (13 33) Line flar sufficient acculgcy in state estimation. 44. The require) ment of state estimation accuracy is that the average of estimation error covariances for all state variables ruet be less than or equal to 1 3 x .73 2.44 8.Reactive) hverage Error Covariance (x10-4) 3. est and the other is for a reactive pawer measur-t. a measuraent measurement with the least sensitivity will be elbinated.835 v. After elimination of the pair measuremeasurement ments.4 11.82 3.38 Voltage 41. evaluation of the state estimation a c c u ~ g c ~ ~ results in an average of estimation error covariance of 3. The measurement system with all candidate Dealsurerent (5 251.45 1-36 1.27 TABLE 2 Final Measurement Set by Elimination Algorithm Line flow measurement Voltage Beasure-ent (10 3 ) (13 33) 0.55 23 .82 1.8 7. the coneidemtion of which is lmder study.33 12. (2 22). For the first elimination step.91 2.09 17. are not taken into accolmt in this result. 43. 20 . detailed proceduree of optimal meter placement are described for a 6-bus clyster.50 3. BTU failures. and only state variables are considered am interesting quantities. (3 23). SAMPLE STUDIES TABLE 1 Measurement Elimination Procedure Eliminated Measurement Rea1.6 66 .55 1.6 2.0 3. For an illustrative example.90 4. Measurerent noise for every m?asure rent k is a s a d to have same variance of of= .15 44 .6 60 . y = x The weighting latrix is .64 3.

PAS-101.997-1004. PAS-94. . "State Estktor Measurerent System Reliability Evaluation . E Phua. "Observability i . Measurements for State Estimation".An Efficient Algorithm Based on Topological Observability Theory". . N0. (c) The optimal meter placerent algorithm produces an optimal measurement system design. . No. CONCLUSION I In this study. . Vol. t 17 2 # I 0 : Bus injection (Real Reactive) : Bus voltage H J. E E Fetzer. By utilizing the expectation value of the state estimation accuracy as the perforrmnce index.1975. PP. Then the critical redundancy rate and the critical investrent cost can be determined by rCrlt and C crit respectively frcm the graph in Figure 3. (b) Measurement failures are reflected to the performance index of measurerent system. . RL?FERENCES NO. be reduced slightly by performing the cabination algorithm. P W. Eoglin. which enhances the reliability of state estimator. the state estimation accuracy has been rigorously analyzed with consideration of measure rent failures. IEEE Transactions on PAS. PAS-102. Vol. The optimal meter placerent algorithm has been developed with the successive addition and elimination processes based on the measurement sensitivities. L Eolten. . however. 1975. pp.4. R : Line flow (Real Reactive) &. A Clements./Dec. Cambridge. .4 Optimal meter placement of the 14-bus system . IEBE Transactions on PAS. pp. P M Anderson. a probabilistic approach to the measurerent system design has been introduced."Optimal Measuring System for State . h n * can obtain a graph for the estimation accuracy ( a ) J v . (e) For the measurerent system design of large systems.836 Determination of the redundancy rate can naw be considered. V . A Fig. April. G. paper 2-3/12. . E. Gjerde. n the State Estimation of Power Syster". "Design of the .3 : Redundancy Rate : Total Investment Cost of Measurement System Performance change of -urement system with measurement elimination processing. PICA Confer= 1977. PSCC Conference. The proposed algorithm is applicable up to 1OO-bus systers. which guarantees the observability for any single meter outage. 0.IEEg Transactions on PAS. 1983.Proc.1982. of elimination p r o c e s s jaVAverage Error Covariance : r C t Fig. (d) The interactions between measurements is taken into account by adopting the combinational procedure of the addition and elimination processes in the optimization procedure. investment c s ( t ) as shown in Figure 3 Suppose that otC the DK? urement system reaches the critical perforrance index T c r b t ) after taking N. further researches are required such as a design technique by partitioning the system into appropriate subsystems.3769-3777. S Aam. Estimation".iterations of elimination process. R Knmpholz. Nov. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT : The authors wish to express their appreciation to the gBPc0 (Korea Electric Power Corporation) for their financial support. The t critical redundancy rate and the investrent cost may. The optimal measurement set is shown in Figure 4 . Measurerent System for State Estimation in the Norwegian High-Voltage Transmission Network". Davis. T S Dillon.12. . The results of this study can be sunarized as follows : (a) A recursive formula is presented for the measurement sensitivity calculation. Measurement system designing for the IEEE 14-bus system has been carried out by using the dination algorithm. . redundancy rate (r) and total . Vol.1981-1988. " Optimal Choice of . If we perform the eliminating process successively until the measuraent system becames unobservable. Sept. t e .