SANDIA REPORT

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SAND974SW-* UC-406 Unlimited Release Printed December 1996

9445

A Digital Rykalin Function for Welding

L. A. Bertram

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more, California 94551 Approved for public release;

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SF2900Q(8-81)

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CA 94568 ABSTRACT This document outlines the software written to enable a user to evaluate the analytical solutions developed by N. and the elapsed time for which the output temperature rise is desired.UC-406 Unlimited Release Printed December 1996 A DIGITAL RYKALIN FUNCTION FOR WELDING Lee A. in the form of piecewise constant power supply voltage. Bertram Mechanics and Simulation of Manufacturing Processes Sandia National Laboratories Livermore. His solution is extended here so that an arbitrary weld schedule can be prescribed by the user. The inputs are thermophysical properties of the workpiece. and the schedule.N.Rykalin (1947) for the temperature rise created by moving a heat source of a given power over a workpiece. An optional plot file for the temperature along the travel direction is also provided. current and travel speed. . The user also specifies the position of the point.

Units are user-specified in ‘weld. y normal to it on surface. sec time since weld power-on to start of schedule step k “diffusion range” (diffusive penetration distance)*/(at).Y .t cross-sectional area of weld fusion zone specific heat (J/gk) geometric ratio of traveling pool cross section to stationary half space 1 cross section.J(IaVa) enthalpy thermal conductivity (w/cm K) at near-melt temperature thermal conductivity at room temperature dimensionless parameter for convenient calculation of Rosenthal pools heat flux (W/cm2) radial distance. z above workpiece surface.NOMENCLATURE a eff h k kT R P g r r20 t ts thermal diffusivity (cm2/sec) efficiency of heating = (thermal input power)/(I. “two-sigma” distance for Gaussian heat source time since weld power-on. r. is steady pool size (cm) for given P.inp’ file. “unit” W A cP Gr H a ‘ 7’ ’net weld power into workpiece Peclet number based on Gaussian spot size e ’ 5 .dimensionless value chosen 4-16 X.V. distance from weld head at time t = x-V.) = P.Z x in travel direction. Cartesian quasisteady coordinate. -m: 2 workpiece thickness (cm) arc current (A) Cartesian coordinates from point weld starts at t = 0..

Rykalin number. dimensionless time dimensionless time at schedule segment k rls 7 2at / CJ dimensionless time for Gaussian source Kirchhoff thermal variable = k( T)dT heating spot size (cm) for Gaussian source I 0 dimensionless temperature = (temp rise)/(melt-temp rise) ? c . V.rJ(2a) temperature (K) arc voltage (V) travel speed of weld (ipm) rl -4 /.

efficiency.A DIGITAL RYKALIN FUNCTION FOR WELDING INTRODUCTION The ability to conveniently access a thermal model of the welding process can be valuable in weld development and in control of welds in the shop.1946). and the effects of latent heat and variable thennophysical properties are treated in Section 4. The temperature at 10 seconds after the arc is struck is desired. and the data in ‘sched. 1.inp’. e. along with the inputs from ‘weld.dat. which reads the files ‘sched. diffusion range (Wkm-K) (1) (in) (1) coordinates x. at . when these sometimes complicated expressions are evaluated in subroutines which take care of the numerical choices encountered in their computation. Generalization of the basic heat source solution to the case of distributed (Gaussian) heat sources by Rykalin (1947) is covered in section 6. respectively.INP file first line: thickness. diameter. spot size. Such a set of subroutines is provided below. with its use outlined in Section 1. to automatically calculate the melt isotherm and display it on screen.25 inch diameter .g. y . The content of the files is as follows. as well as write its coordinates into a file . The derivation of the computation starts in section 2 with the concentrated heat source solutions for stationary and moving sources.. it may be desired to construct another code. A technique for superposing such solutions to assess the effect of insulated backside boundary conditions appears as Section 3.and unit of length (in) (in) (deg F) (cdunit) second line: hot conductivity. hot diffusivity. the latter due to Rosenthal(l941. This convenience is economically provided by solutions in closed form for the heat conduction problem of a traveling heat source. over a spot size of 1/8 inch diameter.EXE. WELD. solidus temperature (Wkm-K) (cm**Usec) (deg F) (deg F) third line: fourth line: room-T conductivity. The object code. Development of the effects of a time-varying welding schedule comprises section 5 .inp’ to define the input shedule and the position at which the temperature rise is to be calculated.075 inch thickness is to be welded. For instance. For an example.dat’ to define the weld process. USERS REFERENCE FOR ‘ryk‘ CODE The code is the executable RYK.dat’ and ‘weld. suppose a stainless steel tube of 1. room temperature . ‘Ryk. The welder transfers 85% of its electrical power as heat into the workpiece (see. The ‘weldhp’ file also specifies the time (in seconds elapsed since power-on instant). The temperature rise is calculated and written to the file ‘ryk. Fuerschbach & Knorovsky 1991). in a room at 80 deg F. liquidus temperature.obj’ can be linked with other FORTRAN modules to provide the same information to the calling program.0.z (inch) elapsed time t (set> solution point definition The “hot” conductivity and diffusivity are values near melting of the solid. The user provides the data in ‘weldhp’ to define the workpiece.

The schedule is given as ‘sched.1000E+02 0. measured from the power-on time t=O in seconds. namely. the value for “diameter” will be nonzero (as in the example).0000E+OO 0.025 in (z = 0.025). the user enters a zero for diameter to define the case.1000E+02 0. Between times t(k-1) and t(k).25).5 sec stationary heating..4000E+Ol 0. range = ( (diffusion range)*a*t )In . with travel speed Vo(k) along the bead. and then tapering down in three steps to 25 A after 58.2. an end time t(k) is given. Thus.y.3500E+02 0. For the example. which is power-off time..4000E+O1 0.57 10E+02 0.1000E+02 0.4000E+O 1 .1000E+02 0. 10 V for 1. Beyond this distance.Va(k). a ‘sched. and followed by N lines with the four values t(k).4000E+Ol 0.sam’ .z). For each k..6040E+00 0. diffusion range = 4 has been used.a point 1/4 in along the direction of travel (x = 0. For the sample case. on the axis of travel (y=O) at a depth of 0.9 sec of motion.2500E+02 0.dat’ file is N+l rows of data. Then the first line would use unit = inch = 2.3000E+02 0.54 cm. A weld schedule here is a set of values of N steps. the weld power supply provides current Ia(k) amps at Va(k) volts.Vo(k) on each line. starting with N on the first line.1000E+02 0. The ‘diffusion range’ parameter is used to specify how far from a heat source any appreciable heating can reach in the elapsed time t since the heating occurred.5380E+02 0.which contains: 5 0.1500E+01 0. the sources are ignored in computing the heating at (x. while. with each step indexed by k = 1.5050E+02 0. so the input would read: $ as will be found in the sample input file ‘weldsam’ .Ia(k). When a girth weld is desired.N. for a bead-on-plate weld. followed by 40 A at 10 V for 49 seconds with 4 ipm travel speed. values up to 16 are plausible when small temperature differences are of interest far from the weld.4000E+02 0. suppose that this weld is to be carried out consists of a startup at 30 amps.3000E+02 0.

which goes to the fast-travel limit proportional to 1/Ry as Ry gets large. Penetration of Conductive Welds on a Halfspace. / ( 2 a ) Fig. .. 6c) is shown as dashed line. Dimensionless form is changed from Christensen et al. Plot file output from sample problem defined by inputs in files “weld. Time is 10 sec after power-on. For reference. c do a 4 0 000 . and Rykalin number measures travel speed. N *I e L ’ u 4 . The Rykalin solution and Rosenthal solution for the given depth are the two intermediate curves. .r( . Laser weld data correlation of Fuerschbach (Eq.L I - v 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 distance / rZc I Fig. truncated peak) and the backside (depth = 0.sam”. the Rosenthal (concentrated source) solution is given for the plate top surface (depth = 0. 2. at depth 0. 1. lowest curve). 1 10 100 1 0 Ry = Vo r. Penetration parameter Gr is ratio of moving pool transverse area to stationary pool area.075 in. to provide obvious spot weld limit at low travel speed. Temperature rise is shown along a line parallel to travel direction.sam” and “sched.025 inch below the centerline.01 E le-OS c_____ -0.01 01 .

an output file ‘ryk. respectively.g. it reaches the melting point Tm where 10 . The results for the example problem are shown in the plot below.inp’ file). the user responds to the request with an integer and a fraction ( ‘nw’ and ‘ dw ‘ ) to define the number of steps to take in the profile. The radius ? is given by ?= x2+ y2 + z2. the heat equation is linear. in particular. A text output file ‘ryk.2).t) on screen. a = k / (p Cp) in terms of thermal conductivity. To generate the profile. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS.25”unit spacing. Even more detailed information about the code’s workings is given in ‘test. 2. a is the thermal diffusivity of the halfspace. Here.y) axes on the surface. If a concentrated energy deposition of energy SQ is deposited at the origin.inp copy schedsam schedhp prepares the problem for execution. and solutions for each increment of energy dQ can be simply added to obtain the solution for the sources acting together. the temperature rise in the halfspace will be the “fundamental solution” AT = (4 SQ e-r214at see. 1. p.Copying the sample files into the input files with commands: copy weld. Carslaw and Jaeger (1959). PHYSICAL SCALES Initially.log’ is also written. a prompt allows the user to quit (by entering ‘q’ ) or to generate a temperature profile along the direction of motion. the result of holding a steady power P = dQ/dt at this point would be the temperature rise: AT = 2 nkr P K where erfc( ) is the (dimensionless) complementary error function (Abramowitz & Stegun. Rosenthal temperature rise. 41..log’. a set of tick marks at 0. and so erfc(O)=l means that the steady solution has a temperature rise which varies like l/r. When this entry is made (say. There is also an input file ‘numerinp’ which defines the internal numerical method. starting from the point (x. and specific heat. to provide the user with some information about the solution beyond the on-screen results and the plot file. with (x. Thus.y. Cp. then causes the calculation to run.y. e. the workpiece on the surface of which heat is to be applied will be assumed to be a halfspace. These data can then be plotted by any software which plots from the spreadsheet format. the argument goes to 0. and mass density. and z-axis positive above the surface.1964). Rykalin temperature rise. and which the user would rarely modify.z.sam weld. When the thermophysical properties are given as a function of position and time. and the size of the step (as a fraction of the spot size defined in the ‘weld. and reports the temperature rise at (x.z). The command. and quasisteady Rosenthal top and bottom temperature rises for these positons. After that report.0. for example. as Fig.dat’ is written with nw rows of 7 columns: position. After long elapsed times. which the user would rarely consult. k.

is a natural length scale of the problem.I I r=r. (1965) have called the 'operating parameter'.. into the form: with q = d(4at / r-:) as before. When time becomes infinite. (5) can be used to describe the pool cross section for this case. The position x can be replaced by the distance w = x . scaled by r. P (3) in terms of the temperature rise AT. is defined. and the (dimensionless) distance r = w2+ y2 + z2. then superposition of solutions (1) give the solution. and the second dimensionless variable q = solution (2) takes the simpler form d m AT. = Tm . The new parameter appearing here is essentially the quantity which Fuerschbach (1995) has called the 'Rykalin number' Ry = Vo r.. see Fuerschbach and Knorovsky (1991) for typical values. and the dimensionless temperature rise 8 . this has a quasisteady form (usually referred to as the "Rosenthal solution") 1 e=-e rW -R. When the physical distance r is replaced by the dimensionless variable r' = r / r. 1 r . and the travel speed Vo.= 2 nkATn.AT after the primes are dropped on the dimensionless r. the melt pool radius for steady point source heating of the given power applied to the halfspace. or Christensen et al. and Christensen et al.. If the constant-power source is moving at a constant velocity Vo along the x-axis. the e=-. is introduced. The Rosenthal solution (5) defines the temperature history of every point subjected to heating by a concentrated heat source with the constant speed Vo and power Pnet = efPIa*Va in terms of a "heating efficiency" eff and the arc current and voltage Ia.(w+r.Tso.. where Tso is the initial temperature of the medium. This value r.) where the lengths are scaled to r. give parametric expressions connecting the pool cross section A to the Rykalin number in terms of a parameter p: 11 . Thus. the "Fourier number". namely.measuring the fraction of melt temperature rise. This version of the Rykalin number can be considered to be a Peclet number based on the length r.Vo t of the point from the source position.Va. can be introduced to put this transient solution '. / ( 2 a ).

the correlation Gr ( Ry ) provides a reasonable first approximation to the fusion zone size of partial penetration welds. However.and. as Rykalin (1947) noted. when its temperature rise was superposed on the temperature rise of the original source. and (4) inclusion of convective heat transfer in the melt pool. another expression for the geometric ratio Gr = A / (0. (6c) provides a good approximation to (6)in the case of large Ry. Thus. As Christensen et al. Varying the parameter p over a range of 0. would cancel this 12 . a second image source at z = + 2H.5 m. by applying the method of images as outlined below.which physically corresponds to the fast moving weld in which penetration area is simply inversely proportional to speed. The aT / az = 0 requirement is a symmetry condition. it has zero flux through it. where a log-log plot of (6a. t ) = -k- d-r az = 0 (7) * where k is thermal conductivity of the slab. Note also in Figure 2 that the case of small Ry corresponds to welds with such slow travel speed that their penetration is essentially the same as the stationary spot produced by the same power Pnet.*) which scales the cross-sectional area of a moving fusion zone to the cross section of the steady spot on the halfspace: . this would also produce a flux through the top surface at z = 0. showed. Fuerschbach (1995) developed an expression for Gr (Ry) which takes the form: in the dimensionless variables defined here. FINITE THICKNESS WORKPIECES: IMAGES The concentrated source results of the previous section can be improved by introducing the effects of (1) finite workpiece thickness (2) spatial distributions of the heat input (3) inclusion of temperature dependent thermophysical property values.001 to 1000 traces out the curve in Figure 2. including latent heat of fusion. Using experimental data.b) is displayed.2.y. this should probably be used only for Ry > 0. I 3.ZH.z = H . with perhaps a precision o f f 50%. and this (error) flux would have the same distribution as the original source produces in the halfspace at a depth of -2H. If the backside of the slab is thermally insulated. for the pool size. The first of these had already been treated by Rosenthal(1946). Eq. One can in fact define “conduction welds” as those for which this procedure gives an acceptable estimate. and the boundary condition on the temperature gradient is q(x. Suppose the workpiece is a slab of thickness H. and would result automatically if a second source were to be applied at depth z = .

y. and can be continued to build up an infinite series of image sources which satisfy (7) exactly. etc. Note that the full heat conduction equation for a stationary medium is p dt = V (kVT) dh where p is mass density. The first iterate makes use of the diffusivity near melt conditions. and have no error flux on the slab topside z = 0. using the previous iteration to define a function a (x. By defining (9) d@ = k dT or @ = Kirchhoff reduced (9) to the form IT k(u)du TO By considering the thermal diffusivity to be a function of @.z.y.t) which preserves the linearity of (12) and allows the superposition needed for the previous sections. THEXMOPHYSICALPROPERTY VARIATIONS Just as (8) can be used to apply boundary conditions more accurately.a ( @ ) V 2 @ dt and all the variability of the coefficients is now captured in a (@).z. in order to capture the close-in solution as accurately as possible: 13 .. but one much smaller than before. Increasingly accurate solutions to (12) can now be constructed by a Picard-like iterative solution. The process of cancelling this flux by another source is identical to the process described. Then the complete solution which satisfies (7) is given by: This is provided in the code in the subroutine ‘botBC()’.t) to be the solution for the original heat source traveling along z = 0. In doing so.I 1 flux at z = 0. the first image when z is replaced by 2H-z. it would introduce an error flux at z = -H. and h is enthalpy per unit mass. 4. the venerable Kirchhoff transformation may be exploited to introduce the effects of temperature dependent properties. This can include the latent heat of fusion when Cp ( T) is adjusted to account for it. corresponding to a depth -4H. The end result can be written by defining e(x. this can be written a -. the second image for 2H + z in place of z.

(k) and the appropriate w.(k) = lus(k) Vus(k) eff/(2n%ATm) r7k-1 .2/4a(t .X h ( k . A 14 . it is turned off by superposing a negative source which starts at ts(k) with power = Pnet. for ts(k-1) < t When the source reaches the Ry(k)) end of the step at t =. Thus.ts(k . That is. this position becomes the origin for the solution (3) . Efficiency and spot size are taken constant over the whole schedule for the present. after being turned on at t = ts(k-1).W~-~.1)+ Vos(k)(t. voltages or travel speeds are used in real welding situations. (3) is to be evaluated with heat source position at t: X h ( t )= X h ( k .Vos(k)(t. q.ts(k .X h ( t ) r. Furthermore. During the step. the simulation of the effects of the variations can be captured by breaking up the continuous schedule into a finite set of N constant-condition segments.ts(k . the simple discrete segment construction has been chosen here. This solution has ts(k-1) and xh(k-1) replaced by ts(k) and xh(k) . but can be allowed to change if practice requires it.1) This data allows computation of r. with travel speed Vos(k) and with current Ias(k) and voltage Vas(k). WELD SCHEDULE IMPLEMENTATION When time varying currents. Duhamel's Theorem assures that such a representation can be arbitrarily close to the actual schedule. the use of digital control tends to result in a discretized schedule even when continuous variation is the ideal. ts (k).a' = a o V 2 @ .1) . the heat source is at a position xh(k)at the time ts(k-1) at which the previous step ended. the source moves along the x direction on the line y = z = 0. For the k-th step in the discrete schedule. so e.1)) sample point position: w = x . at c 5. and Rykalin number Ry (k) for the step.1)) rm (k9 Ry(k) = Vos(k)r. ( k )4 2 4 and the solution is then 8 ( T\~-!. = o for t < ts(k .1)) = x . The heat source of this k-th step cannot contribute to the heating of the workpiece before it is turned on.

. Eagar and Tsai (1986) 1: .8(qk. The subroutine sources() applies conditions (13) and (14).respectively in the expressions above. by allowing the heat flux boundary condition on the topside z = 0 surface to be spread over a region. and is denoted by . Thus.1 9 wk-l 9 ts(k . DISTRIBUTED HEAT SOURCES A major error built into the approximation (5) is the infinite temperature at the position of the heat source. t )= y O ( k ) k=l (15) This sum (15) is assembled in subroutine addup().1) e w = e ( ~ w ~. and the solution 8 is exponentially small at distances greater than range. In summary.Ry(k)). which penetrates a distance of by time t. z . and is superposed for t > ts(k).g. the solution (3) gets a contribution 0. and the one with ts (kmax-1) < t < ts(kmax) is being carried out. This can be removed. e. 6. if the sample point has coordinates for which holds.w. At the sample time t at which the temperature is to be evaluated.‘ ( V k wk 9 Ry(k))ts(k) < * Each of these functions is the result of a diffusion process. P is the thermal power being retained in the workpiece. y . and the accuracy in the neighborhood improved. the contribution of that source can be neglected. t < ts(k . the Gaussian distribution proves convenient [Rykalin 1947) ] : where r2?is the “two-sigma radius” of the Gaussian function. This means that superposition takes the form: O ( x . The solution to (12a) for boundary condition (16) on the surface of a halfspace is [ Rykalin (1947) and..RY(W ~ -~ ~ O ( V k . not all the sources have been activated--only those with ts(k) < t are completed. For a variety of reasons.1) < t 9 Ry(k)).

and with perfectly tame limit as s --> 0 (which reproduces (6). namely: E = Pe2(u2 -1)+ (w + Pe>2+ y2 z2 +-+2w u2+1 U2 Pe (17a) where 77.q. and was used for that reason as the backbone of the subroutines 'setk'.z.q.4 and 5 above. with coordinates scaled to B. The resulting function has the integral as a function of five parameters: (x. The scale is set by the multiplier r&. 'gee'. Variable thermophysical properties and backside boundary conditions are dealt with here exactly as indicated in Sections 3. All these contribute to making this form the one used. 16 . the concentrated moving heat source transient solution.y.. d-.y. which is not known to the user at the outset. when u is replaced by l/u as the integration dummy). the only appearance of r. scaling in (14) has all variation in its integral.E" = -Ry2(v2 s 2 ) + 4 1 (w++) 2 +y2 22 v2+s2 +-+W V2 Ry in terms of the new dimensionless spot size variable s.Pe). The r. in addition to q and Ry which appeared already in (8). which depends on (w.Ry. even though it becomes singular as the concentrated heat source condition is approached by taking B going to zero.s). This scaling by CT = rZa / gives nice forms to the integrand and particularly the exponent.z. Another form can be given to (17) by change of variables.

but would be available from the same set of modules provided here. Each application would of course require its own output stream. at real time speeds. Among them are the ability to make approximate surveys of the effects of the weld parameters on heat histories for particular points in welds. it is only necessary to write a module which systematically calls the pointwise function and outputs the desired information. when a Gaussian heat source of specified concentration (spot size) is moved along a straight line according to a specified schedule of travel speeds and power settings. To obtain other results. computationally simple evaluation of the conductive solutions are many. at any lateral distance and any depth into the workpiece the user may specify. the ability to estimate. etc. Sample inputs were given in Section 2 above. pool sizes from given sensor response. The particular code “ryk” uses this pointwise ability to trace out instantaneous (at specified time t) temperature profiles along lines parallel to the travel directions. 4 4 1 7 /18 .) can be treated by the use of images in the manner of Rosenthal(l946) and Rykalin (1947) if desired.c SUMMARY The code described above provides the ability to evaluate the temperature at any point n space or time for a slab of finite thickness and known thermophysical properties. the ability to have real time response for model based feedback control of welds. Le. The modules which comprise the “ryk” code can provide other outputs than the temperature profiles. Applications of this capability of fast. the ability to provide interactive advice to designers in the preliminary design phase for a weld joint.. For girth welds on tubes the preheating of the “tie-in” zone is assessed automatically. Other boundary effects (plate edges. a base for “pseudosensors” of penetration. An appealing way in which such modules might be constructed has been given by Nunes (1983). This conductive code cannot simulate the effects of fluid flow on melt pool transport without additional modules. the ability to assess the transient development of weld penetration.

c .

” in Trends in Welding Research. N.N.” Trans. Conduction o Heat in Solids. (1983) Rosenthal. New York. K. Davies.. C.. TMS. 346-s. J. I. W. Oxford University Press. ”A Study of Melting Efficiency in Plasma Arc and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Moscow.W. (1965) Eagar. T. (1994) Nunes... H. 12. and S. “Distribution of Temperatures in Arc Welding. “An Extended Rosenthal Weld Model. Dover. Weld. J. “A Dimensionless Parameter Model for Arc Welding Processes. (1992) Carslaw. G. H.220s. (1941) Rosenthal. (1964) Burgardt.”The Theory of Moving Sources of Heat and its Application to Metal Treatments. (1991) 6 1 Fuerschbach. 71. (1946) Rykalin. D. J.” Weld.” Weld. J. Handbook of Mathematical Functions. J. A.. and Stegun. W.-S. J. (1947) 19 .. and Knorovsky.” Brit. A. Teplovyi Osnovy Svarki-Chast’ Pervaya: Protsessy Rasprostraneniya Tela pri Dugovoy Svarkye (The Thermal Basis o Welding-Part I: Diflusive Processes during f Arc Welding: in Russian). P. p 493.M. ASME.N. (1983) Fuerschbach.849. J. f Oxford. eds. C.” Weld..” Weld. P. R. 70.. Sciences USSR. C..de L. J. 165-s. 20. S. David.54.”Temperature Fields Produced by Traveling Distributed Heat Sources. and Jaeger. Jackson. Jr.” Weld. V. Acad. A. D. A. 62 (6).341-s.* * REFERENCES Abramowitz . Warrenville. ( 1959) Christensen. “Weld Penetration Sensitivity to Welding Variables when near Full Joint Penetration.. N. 68. P.287. and Gjermundsen. and Heiple. PA.”The Mathematical Theory of Welding and Cutting. Smartt. and Tsai.

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