Reading

Skills

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Lecture -1

Big Brother by Munshi Prem Chand
My brother was five years elder to me, but only three grades ahead. Not that his tryst with schooling began
late, it surely must been his keen devotion to learning that dissuaded him from any hasty progress. How
could the great monument of knowledge stand tall without a strong foundation? Hence the motto of
spending more than a year in each division.
My upbringing was solely his responsibility and for me, his was obviously the final word. How could I
ever think of defying him? He was so studious … always engrossed in books. I often found fancy cats,
dogs and birds drawn on few pages of his note books…. could well have been his idea of taking a break
perhaps.
Many a times he wrote a single name several times over, or scribbled few sentences that didn’t make any
sense to me. For instance, once I found the following etched in his notebook:
Special, Ameena, brothers, because, Radheshyam, Mr. Radhe shyam, one hour…
At the end of this trail was the image of a man. I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the
mystery. Nor did I dare to ask him. He was in the ninth standard; I was only in the fifth grade…how could I
attempt to dissect such intricate stuff?
I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground, throwing pebbles in the air; flying paper butterflies.
Climbing up and down the stairs, riding the hostel gate like a motorcar….I had great fun, but back in the
hostel room, an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.
My brother would fling the first question rudely “Where were you?”
My answer was a meek silence, conveying the acceptance of my crime. He would then caution me in a
flurry of kind and rude words.
“Learn English in this fashion, and you had it. This is no child’s play dear. Slog for months and you barely
get to reach the shore, even scholars never take it easy.
And I ask, do you not see me toiling , poring over books, if you fail to see, that’s your fault. There are
umpteen plays, fairs, cricket matches everyday, have you ever seen me taking a break. And despite this
devotion, I spend more than two years in each grade. It takes me two years, you will probably spend a
lifetime. If you want to waste your life thus, better go home and play Gulli danda* to your heart’s content.
Why blow Dada’s** hard –earned money for nothing?”
I would burst into tears after this, guilty that I was. He would hurt me with such choicest words. For a
second, I would be tempted to give up…why not go home... I was happy being a dullard but god save me
from this struggle…
But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve.... to burn the midnight oil, a
new time table sans fun and frolics....

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Get up at 6 sharp, finish breakfast… 6 to 8 English, 8 to 9 Math, 9 to 9.30 History, followed by lunch and
school. Back home at 3.30, half an hour rest, 4 to 5 Geography, 5 to 6 Grammar, stroll round the hostel half
an hour, 6.30 to 7 English composition, followed by dinner, 8 to 9 translations, 9 to 10 Hindi, 10 to 11
revision and then retire to bed. Making a time table is one thing, sticking to it is another. The breach began
from day one. The bouncing football, the fervor of Kabbadi, and the pace of volleyball all pulled me back
to the playground. And gone were all oaths, all resolve …
The annual results were out. I stood first, he failed to clear. Now just two grades separated us. For a
second, I was tempted to confront him right away. “And whatever happened to your penance? What do we
see?”
But his crestfallen face made me think otherwise. Rage made way for compassion. But yes, now I had a
newfound confidence and the guilt was gone for good. Probably, he had guessed it.
Yet, he got his chance one day at the lunch table.
“So you feel you have conquered the world. My dear fellow, this is just the beginning. History is replete
with stories of pride getting the better of the best. Remember what happened to the might of Ravana – the
invincible demon king. What did you learn from his story? "
"Clearing an exam is one thing, knowledge is another. You were lucky this time, but it can’t happen every
time. Don’t judge me by my score, wait till you reach my grade. Algebra and Geometry will drive you
crazy and god save you from the atrocities of British history. Just try remembering emperors by names.
There have been eight Henries alone. Mention Henry the VII as VIII and you lose all marks. And we have
dozens of James and Williams, and countless Charles…where are you dear? And every name troubles you
again with I, II, III, and IV…
Had they asked me for options and I would have thrown up countless names. Why stick to the same name
again and again?
"Geometry is another torture…. write A, B, C as A, C, B and you get a big zero. I just don’t get the point…
Daal, Rice, Chapati or Rice, Daal, Chapati…is it not the same...Then why kill poor students for the
goddamed sequence? But if you want to clear exams, you better suffer this nonsense. Write an essay on
“the value of time” in not less than 400 words. What kind of a joke is that? Common sense has it --- say
what you have to in 3-4 lines and move ahead in life. But no, 400 words please. This is nothing but
anarchy.”
”So you see, my darling brother, you have a long way to go. Don’t float in the air; you will soon land with
a thud. Yes, I have flunked but I am still your elder brother and I know the world better.”
I was getting late for school, waiting for this painful discourse to end. I simply lost my appetite over his
ghastly picture of higher grades.
Somehow, I tugged along, my daily routine intact. Annual exams were round the corner again. I cleared
again, he flunked again…I had no idea how, but I had topped again. And he had miserably failed…This
time, he was in real bad shape…face devoid of color, eyes sunk deep…I felt sorry for him. And then a
wicked thought crossed my mind. One more year and we could end up in the same grade. no no… How
could my mind be so devilish? I crushed the nasty thought.

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I only managed to say. will he call for a doctor. 1000 as salary. who will look after you?’ 4 . You are nowhere near me. I am five years elder to you and will always remain so…This truth will prevail and even God can’t challenge it. only if it fails. but I am helpless.. but Dada in your place.” He then raised his hand consumed by rage “And I will not hesitate to thrash you if need be. do away with that false pride. We were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother. ." he added with a wry smile.But now he was no more the same brother I knew. thanks to the kind of examiners we have these days. . can we plan our monthly budgets? Every rupee that Dada sends us. I set about running after colorful kites. Even I am tempted. he paused for effect to resume again. One pleasant evening. would never react like that. He was probably on his way back home from the bazaar. You feel you have caught up with me and that I have no right to question you. shaking nervously. He earns a handsome Rs. I know you’ll hate me for this” I was speechless and an intense. " "And. I don’t hate you. they may not know. that's indeed possible.. As tears trickled down my cheeks. He would pass off all opportunities to pull my ears and generally kept off me." "Leave health issues" . he realized he had lost the right. but can we ever match their wisdom in worldly matters. May be. And look at yourself? You are intelligent no doubt. "So you see. I was one among the army of 10-12 lads carrying bamboo sticks as weapons. Tomorrow. queer feeling swept over me. "those are grave matters. There goes his degree to the bin. and losing his mind with every word he uttered. collectors. Did our Amma*** and Dada ever go to school? The government in America. I know of several eight-graders of yester years who made name as magistrates. If I take it easy. He will first try some home remedy. have some respect for your grade. But who runs his house? His aged mother. “I am not against flying kites. "I have loads of worldly knowledge that’s way above academic grades. editors. Our mission was to collect as many fallen kites as we could.whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. He caught me by the wrist and asked tersely “Are you out of your mind? Roaming like a vagabond with these hooligans. I could not bear the sight of my poor brother. it’s all my undoing. wives of Henry the VIII. constellations in space. but where's your self-respect?” “I can read your mind all right. Please forgive me” He hugged me instantly. Every word of what you say is true. you will surely panic and send a telegram to Dada. does it not vanish by the 22nd of the month? Are we not left waiting for the next remittance? Did you know that Dada raised a family of nine in less than half of what we blow up?" "Look at our headmaster. that too from Oxford. He has an MA. leaders and scholars. But you are wrong. if I fall sick. His shaky voice was now barely audible. my love. If not anything. “No. This made me even more independent and I roamed about at will all day long.

pacing after him. we saw a kite above us. To be done in reading: WORDS ANTONYMS SYNONYMS Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading Vocabulary Based on Text WORDS GUESSED MEANINGS MEANINGS DICTIONARY 5 IN SENTENCES . on its mournful journey down. hapless but fast.Just then. cut reins hanging in shame. my brother caught the twine and ran towards the hostel. Tall that he was. I followed suit. utterly helpless.

There were no dogs in the streets and she took to feeding sparrows in the courtyard of our city house. My parents left me with her when they went to live in the city and we were constantly together.Lecture – 5 The Portrait of a Lady Khushwant Singh My grandmother. That was a turning-point in our friendship. He wore a big turban and loose-fitting clothes. the thought was almost revolting. His long. we were certain she had always been as we had known her. tie them all in a bundle and hand it to me. No. My grandmother always went to school with me because the school was attached to the temple. but she was always beautiful. Although we shared the same room. My grandfather’s portrait hung above the mantelpiece in the drawing room. He did not look the sort of person who would have a wife or children. She often told us of the games she used to play as a child. My grandmother and I were good friends. so terribly old that she could not have grown older. we would walk back together. 6 . I listened because I loved her voice but never bothered to learn it. When my parents were comfortably settled in the city. Then she would fetch my wooden slate which she had already washed and plastered with yellow chalk. She said her morning prayer in a monotonous sing-song while she bathed and dressed me in the hope that I would listen and get to know it by heart. She hobbled about the house in spotless white with one hand resting on her waist to balance her stoop and the other telling the beads of her rosary. When we had both finished. stale chapatti with a little butter and sugar spread on it. and her lips constantly moved in inaudible prayer. Her silver locks were scattered untidily over her pale. They followed us to our home growling and fighting with each other for the chapattis we threw to them. She had been old and wrinkled for the twenty years that I had known her. That seemed quite absurd and undignified on her part and we treated it like the fables of the Prophets she used to tell us. While the children sat in rows on either side of the verandah singing the alphabet or the prayer in a chorus. they sent for us. I used to go to an English school in a motor bus. she was beautiful. She was like the winter landscape in the mountains. a tiny earthen ink-pot and a red pen. Yes. my grandmother no longer came to school with me. After a breakfast of a thick. As for my grandmother being young and pretty. People said that she had once been young and pretty and had even had a husband. She had always been short and fat and slightly bent. Old. an expanse of pure white serenity breathing peace and contentment. was an old woman. Her face was a criss-cross of wrinkles running from everywhere to everywhere. The priest taught us the alphabet and the morning prayer. She could never have been pretty. and had stayed at the same age for twenty years. This time the village dogs would meet us at the temple door. like everybody’s grandmother. He looked as if he could only have lots and lots of grandchildren. white beard covered the best part of his chest and he looked at least a hundred years old. puckered face. my grandmother sat inside reading the scriptures. but that was hard to believe. She used to wake me up in the morning and get me ready for school. She carried several stale chapattis with her for the village dogs. we went to school.

Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary. laid her on the ground and covered her with a red shroud. got an old drum and started to sing. After a few hours of mourning we left her alone to make arrangements for her funeral. We lifted her off the bed and. She was very disturbed. the law of gravity.As the years rolled by we saw less of each other. One day I announced that we were being given music lessons. her mind was lost in prayer. She told us that her end was near. But my grandmother could. Next morning the sweeper swept the bread crumbs into the dustbin. She said that. We protested. She still had no time for words. The common link of friendship was snapped. her lips stopped moving and the rosary fell from her lifeless fingers. She lay peacefully in bed praying and telling her beads. The sparrows took no notice of the bread. Archimedes’ Principle. hundreds of little birds collected round her creating a veritable bedlam of chirrupings. But that was not so. She rarely talked to me after that. since only a few hours before the close of the last chapter of her life she had omitted to pray. Even on the first day of my arrival. It used to be the happiest half-hour of the day for her. But my grandmother thought differently. We had to persuade her to stop to avoid overstraining. To her music had lewd associations. There was no chirruping. The sun was setting and had lit her room and verandah with a blaze of golden light. as is customary. When I came back she would ask me what the teacher had taught me. We stopped half-way in the courtyard. and when I left I cherished the moist imprint as perhaps the last sign of physical contact between us. I was sure my grandmother would be upset. This made her unhappy. 7 . Only in the afternoon she relaxed for a while to feed the sparrows. For some time she continued to wake me up and get me ready for school. and while she clasped me in her arms I could hear her reciting her prayers. and threw it to them. She said nothing but her silence meant disapproval. In the evening a change came over her. Some came and perched on her legs. But she ignored our protests. She broke it into little crumbs. her happiest moments were with her sparrows that she fed longer and with frivolous rebukes. The next morning she was taken ill. Her lips moved in prayer. and at her age one could never tell. She smiled but never shooed them away. I would tell her English words and little things of western science and learning. she was not going to waste any more time talking to us. the world being round. When we carried my grandmother’s corpse off. I would be away for five years. She could not help me with my lessons. etc. It was the monopoly of harlots and beggars and not meant for gentlefolk. She rarely left her spinning-wheel to talk to anyone. All over the verandah and in her room right up to where she lay dead and stiff wrapped in the red shroud. Silently she kissed my forehead. the way my grandmother used to. Some even sat on her head. they flew away quietly. She did not look a day older. That was the first time since I had known her that she did not pray. She did not pray. When I decided to go abroad for further studies. others on her shoulders. When I went up to University. A peaceful pallor spread on her face and we knew that she was dead. While she sat in the verandah breaking the bread into little bits. thousands of sparrows sat scattered on the floor. I was given a room of my own. It was a mild fever and the doctor told us that it would go. After five years I came back home and was met by her at the station. My grandmother accepted her seclusion with resignation. We felt sorry for the birds and my mother fetched some bread for them. She came to leave me at the railway station but did not talk or show any emotion. In the evening we went to her room with a crude stretcher to take her to be cremated. She was not even sentimental. For several hours she thumped the sagging skins of the dilapidated drum and sang of the home-coming of warriors. She collected the women of the neighbourhood. Even before we could suspect. From sunrise to sunset she sat by her wheel spinning and reciting prayers. She did not believe in the things they taught at the English school and was distressed that there was no teaching about God and the scriptures.

WORDS ANTONYMS SYNONYMS Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson: Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading WORDS GUESSED MEANINGS MEANINGS DICTIONARY 8 IN SENTENCES .

Despite the fact that I will be prosecuted along with other youngmen arrested in Saunders shooting case. Those revolutionaries who have by chance escaped the gallows for the ideal but also bear the worst type o tortures in the dark dingy prison cells. you will have to show to the world that the revolutionaries not only die for their ideals but can face every calamity. In these cells. Punjab Jails. The judgement has been delivered. Punjab [Prelude to a prolonged struggle in jail on the demand of a better treatment. This place is quite isolated. 1929 To The Inspector-General(Jails).] Mianwali Jail 17 June. I am condemned to death. Death should not be a means to escape the worldly difficulties. while living. Lahore Dear sir. the route is troublesome and it is very far from Lahore. there are many others prisoners who are waiting to be hanged.Lecture – 9 Letters Of Bhagat Singh Letter to I. I will condemned to death. but you are sentenced to transportation for life. Yours Bhagat Singh 9 . Yours truly Bhagat Singh Letter to B.1930 Dear Brother. Lahore November.G. I will climb the gallows gladly and show to the world as to how bravely the revolutionaries can sacrifice themselves for the cause. I hope that it will be given the earliest consideration. justice demands that every under trial should be given all those facilities which help him to prepare and contest the case. 1929. I request you that you order my immediate transfer to Lahore Central Jail so that I get an opportunity to prepare my case. How can I appoint any lawyer while I am here? It is difficult to keep on the contact with my father and other relatives. The only prayer of these people is that somehow or other they may escape the moose. I am totally unable to understand the logic behind this kind of shifting. Whatever it be. You will live and. besides myself. Dutt [This letter gives an idea as to what Bhagat Singh expected from those comrades who would escape capital punishment.K.] Central Jail. Perhaps I am the only man amongst them who is anxiously waiting for the day when I will be fortunate enough to embrace the gallows for my ideal. (Prisons). The hearing of the case is to start from 26 June. I have been shifted to Mianwali Jail from Delhi.

that we had actually participated in that war and were therefore war prisoners. and all that were nearest and dearest to them. greater audacity and unflinching determination till the Socialist Republic is established and the present social order is completely replaced by a new social order.Bhagat Singh's Last Petition To The Punjab Governor Sir. All these things make no difference. No matter if the leaders to whom personally we are much indebted for the sympathy and feelings they expressed for us. constituted under the Sp. Nevertheless. Lahore Conspiracy Case Ordinance. the King of England.C. No matter. whom your government has declared to be outlaws. The Viceroy. As regards the first. whether bloody or comparatively peaceful. They may be purely British Capitalist or mixed British and Indian or even purely Indian. Our humble sacrifices shall be only a link in the chain that has very accurately been beautified by the unparalleled sacrifice of Mr. which it should adopt rests with you. No matter. including themselves. With due respect we beg to bring to your kind notice the following: That we were sentenced to death on 7th October 1930 by a British Court. and that the main charge against us was that of having waged war against H. No matter. friendless and penniless of female workers who are alleged to be belonging to the vanguard and whom the leaders consider to be enemies of their utopian non-violent cult which has already become a thing of the past. It is the inevitable consequence of the historic events and the existing environments. But that war shall be incessantly waged without taking into consideration the petty (illegible) and the meaningless ethical ideologies. It may become now open. we are constrained to go into some detail. Das and most tragic but noblest sacrifice of Comrade Bhagawati Charan and the glorious death of our dear warrior Azad. It may assume different shapes at different times. As to the question of our fates. the heroines who had ungrudgingly sacrificed or offered for sacrifice their husbands. brothers. please allow us to say that 10 . In the very near future the final battle shall be fought and final settlement arrived at. The choice of the course. based on social prosperity and thus every sort of exploitation is put an end to and the humanity is ushered into the era of genuine and permanent peace. now fierce life and death struggle. The above-mentioned finding of the Court pre-supposed two things: Firstly. but nevertheless we cannot overlook the fact that they did become so callous as to ignore and not to make a mention in the peace negotiation of even the homeless. L. finds itself deserted in the thick of the war. the Revolutionary Party.C Tribunal. promulgated by the H.E. if once again the vanguard of the Indian movement. Apparently there seems to be no such war as the phrase indicates. now purely agitational. secondly. They may be carrying on their insidious exploitation through mixed or even on purely Indian bureaucratic apparatus. Let us declare that the state of war does exist and shall exist so long as the Indian toiling masses and the natural resources are being exploited by a handful of parasites. now hidden. The war shall continue. King George. Choose whichever you like. but nevertheless it is too tempting to resist the desire of acquiescing in it. The second pre-supposition seems to be a little bit flattering. please allow us to accept the validity of the pre-supposition taking it at its face value. The war neither began with us nor is it going to end with our lives. it your agents stoop so low as to fabricate baseless calumnies against their spotless characters to damage their and their party's reputation. if your Government tries and succeeds in winning over the leaders of the upper strata of the Indian Society through petty concessions and compromises and thereby cause a temporary demoralization in the main body of the forces. It shall be waged ever with new vigour. the Head of the British Government of India.M. that there exists a state of war between the British Nation and the Indian Nation and. The days of capitalist and imperialist exploitation are numbered. But in order to be correctly understood we must explain it further.

We wanted to point out that according to the verdict of your court we had waged war and were therefore war prisoners. You have got the power in your hands and the power is the greatest justification in this world. we claim to be shot dead instead of to be hanged.. We know that the maxim "Might is right" serves as your guiding motto. It rests with you to prove that you really meant what your court has said.e. The whole of our trial was just a proof of that. We request and hope that you will very kindly order the military department to send its detachment to perform our execution. you will certainly do it.when you have decided to put us to death. Yours' BHAGAT SINGH To be done in reading: WORDS ANTONYMS SYNONYMS Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading WORDS GUESSED GUESSED MEANINGS MEANINGS DICTIONARY 11 IN SENTENCES . And we claim to be treated as such. i.

so she let herself be married to a little clerk of the Ministry of Public Instruction. at the shabby chairs. to be charming. since with women there is neither caste nor rank. but she was unhappy as if she had really fallen from a higher station. "Ah. and of two great footmen in knee breeches who sleep in the big armchairs. and often make of women of the people the equals of the very greatest ladies. and Madame Loisel's company at the palace of the Ministry on Monday evening. before the round table covered with a tablecloth in use three days. a former schoolmate at the convent. January 18th. who was rich. "There. She thought of long reception halls hung with ancient silk. The sight of the little Breton peasant who did her humble housework aroused in her despairing regrets and bewildering dreams. no jewels. Instead of being delighted. of the dainty cabinets containing priceless curiosities and of the little coquettish perfumed reception rooms made for chatting at five o'clock with intimate friends.Lecture – 13 The Diamond Necklace” by Guy De Maupassant The girl was one of those pretty and charming young creatures who sometimes are born. for beauty. no way of being known. understood. She felt made for that. All those things." she thought of dainty dinners. nothing. as if by a slip of fate. She was distressed at the poverty of her dwelling. "there is something for you. of tapestry that peopled the walls with ancient personages and with strange birds flying in the midst of a fairy forest. illumined by tall bronze candelabra. muttering: "What do you wish me to do with that?" 12 . She would have liked so much to please. opposite her husband. as her husband had hoped. instinct for what is elegant. to be sought after. to be envied. She had no dowry." She tore the paper quickly and drew out a printed card which bore these words: The Minister of Public Instruction and Madame Georges Ramponneau request the honor of M. with men famous and sought after. But one evening her husband reached home with a triumphant air and holding a large envelope in his hand. She dressed plainly because she could not dress well. tortured her and made her angry. She thought of silent antechambers hung with Oriental tapestry." said he. feeling herself born to enjoy all delicacies and all luxuries. the good soup! I don't know anything better than that. at the bareness of the walls. and whom she did not like to go to see any more because she felt so sad when she came home. She had a friend. grace and charm take the place of family and birth. married by any rich and distinguished man. the ugliness of the curtains. made drowsy by the oppressive heat of the stove. And she loved nothing but that. Natural ingenuity. a supple mind are their sole hierarchy. who uncovered the soup tureen and declared with a delighted air. of which another woman of her rank would never even have been conscious. When she sat down to dinner. Mathilde suffered ceaselessly. whom all women envy and whose attention they all desire. loved. She had no gowns. no expectations. of shining silverware. she threw the invitation on the table crossly. and she thought of delicious dishes served on marvellous plates and of the whispered gallantries to which you listen with a sphinx like smile while you are eating the pink meat of a trout or the wings of a quail. into a family of clerks.

therefore. I can't go to this ball. because he was laying aside just that amount to buy a gun and treat himself to a little shooting next summer on the plain of Nanterre. Her husband said to her one evening: "What is the matter? Come." And she answered: "It annoys me not to have a single piece of jewelry. I thought you would be glad. distracted. anxious." She looked at him with an irritated glance and said impatiently: "And what do you wish me to put on my back?" He had not thought of that. which you could use on other occasions--something very simple?" She reflected several seconds. the gown you go to the theatre in. But he said: "Very well." 13 . He resumed: "Come."Why. let us see. I would almost rather not go at all. making her calculations and wondering also what sum she could ask without drawing on herself an immediate refusal and a frightened exclamation from the economical clerk." He stopped. I shall look poverty-stricken. and this is such a fine opportunity. And try to have a pretty gown. you have seemed very queer these last three days. while she wiped her wet cheeks: "Nothing. Everyone wants to go. Her frock was ready. "What's the matter? What's the matter?" he answered." He grew a little pale. nothing to put on. I will give you four hundred francs. How much would it cost. Finally she replied hesitating: "I don't know exactly." The day of the ball drew near and Madame Loisel seemed sad. Two great tears ran slowly from the corners of her eyes toward the corners of her mouth. I had great trouble to get it." He was in despair. Only I have no gown. it is very select. He stammered: "Why. a suitable gown. Mathilde. and they are not giving many invitations to clerks. and. By a violent effort she conquered her grief and replied in a calm voice. The whole official world will be there. my dear. but I think I could manage it with four hundred francs. Give your card to some colleague whose wife is better equipped than I am. with several friends who went to shoot larks there of a Sunday. It looks very well to me. however. uneasy. not a single ornament. seeing that his wife was weeping. You never go out.

asked her name. She kept asking: "Haven't you anymore?" "Why. certainly. "Go look up your friend. She fastened it round her throat. She was prettier than any other woman present. there's nothing more humiliating than to look poor among other women who are rich." She threw her arms round her friend's neck. Look further." The next day she went to her friend and told her of her distress. admiration. only this?" "Why. in a black satin box. with passion." She was not convinced."You might wear natural flowers. a superb diamond necklace. Her husband had been sleeping since midnight in a little deserted anteroom with three other gentlemen whose wives were enjoying the ball. All the attaches of the Cabinet wished to waltz with her. intoxicated by pleasure. For ten francs you can get two or three magnificent roses. She was remarked by the minister himself." "How stupid you are!" her husband cried." said her husband. and her heart throbbed with an immoderate desire. "No. to give them back. then fled with her treasure. Madame Forestier. forgetting all in the triumph of her beauty. You're intimate enough with her to do that. 14 . sought to be introduced. hesitating. All the men looked at her. She danced with rapture. Madame Forestier went to a wardrobe with a mirror. in the glory of her success." She saw first some bracelets. kissed her passionately. Her hands trembled as she took it. then a pearl necklace. then a Venetian gold cross set with precious stones. hesitated and could not make up her mind to part with them. She left the ball about four o'clock in the morning. Madame Loisel was a great success. elegant. brought it back. yes. took out a large jewel box. outside her highnecked waist. and was lost in ecstasy at her reflection in the mirror." She uttered a cry of joy: "True! I never thought of it. smiling and wild with joy. yes. of admirable workmanship. in a sort of cloud of happiness comprised of all this homage. "They're very stylish at this time of year. my dear. The night of the ball arrived. I don't know what you like. graceful. Then she asked. opened it and said to Madame Loisel: "Choose. these awakened desires and of that sense of triumph which is so sweet to woman's heart. She tried on the ornaments before the mirror. filled with anxious doubt: "Will you lend me this. and ask her to lend you some jewels." Suddenly she discovered.

She felt this and wished to escape so as not to be remarked by the other women. Did you take his number?" "No. "over the whole route. he went to the cab companies-everywhere." "Yes. and sadly they mounted the stairs to their flat. You will catch cold outside. I felt it in the vestibule of the minister's house. He stood up." she cried. Loisel held her back. When they reached the street they could not find a carriage and began to look for one. but did not find it. But suddenly she uttered a cry. All was ended for her. probably.He threw over her shoulders the wraps he had brought. "I shall go back on foot. "You're sure you had it on when you left the ball?" he asked. to the newspaper offices to offer a reward. who were enveloping themselves in costly furs. everywhere. without strength to go to bed. are never seen round Paris until after dark. He had found nothing." said he. in fact. "Yes." He went out. I will call a cab. It took them to their dwelling in the Rue des Martyrs. whither he was urged by the least spark of hope. bewildered. to see whether I can find it. the poverty of which contrasted with the elegance of the ball dress. They went toward the Seine in despair. Her husband returned about seven o'clock. already half undressed. as though they were ashamed to show their shabbiness during the day." But she did not listen to him and rapidly descended the stairs. She sat waiting on a chair in her ball dress. "What!--how? Impossible!" They looked among the folds of her skirt. he reflected that he must be at the ministry at ten o'clock that morning. At last Loisel put on his clothes. And you--didn't you notice it?" "No." "But if you had lost it in the street we should have heard it fall. She removed her wraps before the glass so as to see herself once more in all her glory. As to him. 15 . "I have--I have--I've lost Madame Forestier's necklace. shouting after the cabmen passing at a distance. at each other. without a thought. thunderstruck. It must be in the cab. without any fire. She no longer had the necklace around her neck! "What is the matter with you?" demanded her husband. overwhelmed. saying: "Wait a bit." They looked. At last they found on the quay one of those ancient night cabs which. in her pockets. shivering with cold. of her cloak. She turned distractedly toward him. He went to police headquarters. the modest wraps of common life.

in the same condition of mad fear before this terrible calamity. a string of diamonds that seemed to them exactly like the one they had lost. "that you have broken the clasp of her necklace and that you are having it mended. however. frightened by the trouble yet to come. Loisel. the shirts and the dishcloths. Every month they had to meet some notes. I might have needed it. Loisel possessed eighteen thousand francs which his father had left him." She did not open the case. defending her miserable money. in case they should find the lost necklace before the end of February. I must simply have furnished the case. bargaining. They dismissed their servant. what would she have said? Would she not have taken Madame Loisel for a thief? Thereafter Madame Loisel knew the horrible existence of the needy. which she dried upon a line." She wrote at his dictation. five hundred of another. the grocer. asking a thousand francs of one. 16 . And dressed like a woman of the people. they rented a garret under the roof. declared: "We must consider how to replace that ornament. by the black misery that was about to fall upon him. sou by sou. with sudden heroism. So they begged the jeweler not to sell it for three days yet. That will give us time to turn round. risked signing a note without even knowing whether he could meet it. stopping for breath at every landing. who sold that necklace. He had discovered nothing. searching for a necklace like the other. And they made a bargain that he should buy it back for thirty-four thousand francs. pale face. He would borrow the rest. She washed the dishes. When Madame Loisel took back the necklace Madame Forestier said to her with a chilly manner: "You should have returned it sooner. who had aged five years. At the end of a week they had lost all hope. she went to the fruiterer. They could have it for thirty-six. in a shop at the Palais Royal. It was worth forty thousand francs. dealt with usurers and all the race of lenders." The next day they took the box that had contained it and went to the jeweler whose name was found within. he went to get the new necklace. and. meeting with impertinence. madame. took up ruinous obligations. three louis there." said he. laying upon the jeweler's counter thirty-six thousand francs. She washed the soiled linen. They found. five louis here. using her dainty fingers and rosy nails on greasy pots and pans. by the prospect of all the physical privations and moral tortures that he was to suffer. She would pay it. a basket on her arm. trying to recall it. He compromised all the rest of his life. obtain more time.She waited all day. "You must write to your friend. That dreadful debt must be paid. as her friend had so much feared. they changed their lodgings. the butcher. He did borrow." Then they went from jeweler to jeweler. Loisel returned at night with a hollow. both sick with chagrin and grief. She bore her part. He gave notes. renew others. "It was not I. what would she have thought. She came to know what heavy housework meant and the odious cares of the kitchen. she carried the slops down to the street every morning and carried up the water. If she had detected the substitution. He consulted his books.

still beautiful. I have had a pretty hard life. I lost it. Well?" "Well. It was Madame Forestier. having gone to take a walk in the Champs Elysees to refresh herself after the labors of the week. when her husband was at the office. she would tell her all about it.Her husband worked evenings. and great poverty--and that because of you!" "Of me! How so?" "Do you remember that diamond necklace you lent me to wear at the ministerial ball?" "Yes. I am Mathilde Loisel. But sometimes. What would have happened if she had not lost that necklace? Who knows? who knows? How strange and changeful is life! How small a thing is needed to make or ruin us! But one Sunday. You can understand that it was not easy for us. with the rates of usury and the accumulations of the compound interest. Why not? She went up.You must have mistaken. Jeanne." "I brought you back another exactly like it. astonished to be familiarly addressed by this plain good-wife. still charming. for us who had nothing. Madame Loisel looked old now. She had become the woman of impoverished households--strong and hard and rough. everything. Should she speak to her? Yes. With frowsy hair." Madame Forestier had stopped. This life lasted ten years. making up a tradesman's accounts. And it has taken us ten years to pay for it. she talked loud while washing the floor with great swishes of water. of that ball where she had been so beautiful and so admired. she sat down near the window and she thought of that gay evening of long ago. At last it is ended." The other. did not recognize her at all and stammered: "But--madame!--I do not know---. skirts askew and red hands. my poor Mathilde! How you are changed!" "Yes. still young. Madame Loisel felt moved. At the end of ten years they had paid everything. since I last saw you. "Oh. and I am very glad." Her friend uttered a cry. 17 . and late at night he often copied manuscript for five sous a page." "No. she suddenly perceived a woman who was leading a child. certainly. "Good-day. And now that she had paid." "What do you mean? You brought it back.

Madame Forestier." And she smiled with a joy that was at once proud and ingenuous. my poor Mathilde! Why. WORDS GUESSED GUESSED MEANINGS MEANINGS DICTIONARY 18 IN SENTENCES . then! They were very similar. took her hands. You never noticed it. "Oh."You say that you bought a necklace of diamonds to replace mine?" "Yes. deeply moved. my necklace was paste! It was worth at most only five hundred francs!" To be done in reading: WORDS ANTONYMS SYNONYMS Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading.

Bose. 19 . I may not deny the law or the lawgiver because I know so little about it or him. my denial of god and his law will not liberate me from its operation. I see it as purely benevolent. who am infinitely lesser in respect to god than they to their ruler need not be surprised if I do not realize the presence of god. It is this unseen power which makes itself felt and yet defies all proof because it is so unlike all that I perceive through my senses. or why. he alone is. truth. If the knowledge of these poor people was so limited about their ruler. But. and how he rules. just as my denial or ignorance of the existence of an earthly power will avail me nothing. That informing power of spirit is god. That law then which governs all life is god. There is an unalterable law governing everything and every being that exists or lives. for no blind law can govern the conduct of living beings. and recreates. dissolves. This can only be done through a definite realization more real than the fives senses can ever prove use. if he ever does. In my tour last year in Mysore I met many poor villagers and I found upon inquiry that they did not know who ruled Mysore. I do dimly perceive that whilst everything around me is ever dying. I. He must express himself in ever smallest act of his [goodery?]. I feel it. For. life persists.C. And since nothing else that I see merely through the senses can or will persist. And yet they know that there is a power that certainly rules. that holds all together. light. ever guiding. that creates. Law and the lawgiver are one. And if this power is benevolent or malevolent. In the midst of darkness. In the midst of untruth. But it is possible to reason out the existence of god to an [unintelligible] exchange. Hence I gather that god is life. there is underlying all that change a living power that is changeless. light persists. London [AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio] There is an indefinable mysterious power that pervades everything.Lecture – 23 A Speech By Gandhi Address at Kingsley Hall delivered 17 October 1931. Nevertheless I do feel as the poor villagers felt about Mysore. it can now be proved that even matter is life. humble and mute acceptance of divine authority makes life’s journey easier even as the acceptance of earthly rule makes life under it easier. God to be god must rule the heart and transform it. the king of kings. I can see that in the midst of death. He is love. Even in ordinary affairs we know that people do not know who rules. It is not a blind law. though I do not see it. And thanks to the marvelous researches of Sir J. Even so. that there is orderliness in the universe. He is the supreme good. It transcends the senses. he is no god who merely satisfies the intellect. They simple said some god ruled it. Whereas. truth persists.

it is proved not by extreme extraneous evidence. the law of truth and love. the safest course is to believe in the moral government of the world and therefore in the supremacy of the moral law. but in the transformed conduct and character of those who have felt the real presence of god within. I confess that I have no argument to convince through reason. test the fact of god’s presence can do so by a living faith. Such testimony is to be found in the experiences of an unbroken line of prophets and sages in all countries and climes. Where there is realization outside the senses it is [imperial?]. And since faith itself cannot be proved by extraneous evidence. To reject this evidence is to deny oneself. Faith transcends reason. Exercise of faiths will be the safest where there is the clear determination summarily to reject all that is contrary to truth and love. This realization is preceded by an immovable faith. To be done in reading: WORDS SYNONYMS ANTONYMS Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading WORDS GUESSED GUESSED MEANINGS MEANINGS DICTIONARY 20 IN SENTENCES . All that I can advise is not to attempt the impossible. He who would in his own person.Sense perceptions can be and often are false and deceptive however real they may appear to us.

It was not her time to love. naught beside? No. in the glass. I think: The shutters are shut. Duties enough and little cares. Beginning to die too. fire and dew— And just because I was thrice as old And our paths in the world diverged so wide. 21 . Till God's hand beckoned unawares. indeed! For God above Is great to grant. Is it too late then. Save two long rays thro' the hinge's chink. much. And now was quiet. your soul was pure and true. this her bed. for my own love's sake! Delayed it may be for more lives yet. That is her book-shelf. That body and soul so pure and gay? Why your hair was amber. I shall divine. And creates the love to reward the love: I claim you still. The good stars met in your horoscope. what meant (I shall say) In the lower earth in the years long still. to forget Ere the time be come for taking you. Thro' worlds I shall traverse. Evelyn Hope. She plucked that piece of geranium-flower. Made you of spirit. But the time will come. at last it will. must I be told? We were fellow mortals. Little has yet been changed.-And the sweet white brow is all of her. as mighty to make.Lecture – 27 Evelyn Hope by Robert Browning Beautiful Evelyn Hope is dead! Sit and watch by her side an hour. not a few: Much is to learn. Evelyn Hope? What. beside. Sixteen years old when she died! Perhaps she had scarcely heard my name. no light may pass. now astir. When. Each was naught to each. Her life had many a hope and aim.

Evelyn Hope! What is the issue? let us see! I loved you. all the while! My heart seemed full as it could hold. Naught.--I will give you this leaf to keep: See.And your mouth of your own geranium's red— And what would you do with me. Evelyn. and understand. Diverge. Gained me the gains of various men. Beckon. Stead. Either I missed or itself missed me: And I want and find you. There was place and to spare for the frank young smile. Chink. and remember. spoiled the climes. in fine. In the new life come in the old one's stead. And the red young mouth. Hinge. one. Ransacked ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading WORDS GUESSED GUESSED MEANINGS MEANINGS DICTIONARY 22 IN SENTENCES . So hush. Given up myself so many times. in my soul's full scope. I shut it inside the sweet cold hand! There. Ransacked the ages. Astir. and the hair's young gold. that is our secret: go to sleep! You will wake. I have lived (I shall say) so much since then. Traverse. Vocabulary Exercise Q1: Give the meanings of the following words and use them in sentences. Yet one thing.

That father. 'If I may yet be gone!' And but the booming shots replied. And fast the flames rolled on. Upon his brow he felt their breath. They caught the flag on high. 'My father! must I stay?' While o'er him fast. As born to rule the storm. 23 .Lecture – 31 Casabianca The boy stood on the burning deck Whence all but he had fled. Yet beautiful and bright he stood. A proud. The flame that lit the battle's wreck Shone round him o'er the dead. And in his waving hair. The flames rolled on–he would not go Without his Father's word. Speak. faint in death below. The wreathing fires made way. Father. They wrapt the ship in splendour wild. through sail and shroud. And shouted but once more aloud. His voice no longer heard He called aloud–'say. father!' once again he cried. say If yet my task is done?' He knew not that the chieftain lay Unconscious of his son. And looked from that lone post of death In still yet brave despair. And streamed above the gallant child. though child-like form. A creature of heroic blood.

and helm. To be done in reading: WORDS ANTONYMS SYNONYMS Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading WORDS GUESSED GUESSED MEANINGS MEANINGS DICTIONARY 24 IN SENTENCES . There came a burst of thunder sound– The boy–oh! where was he? Ask of the winds that far around With fragments strewed the sea!– With mast.Like banners in the sky. That well had borne their part– But the noblest thing which perished there Was that young faithful heart. and pennon fair.

Speaking Skills 25 .

Lecture -2

Big Brother
Vocabulary exercises based on text:
1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. Give their three forms Orally and

using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which they will share in the
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2. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.
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Who is your favorite character in the story and why? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 6.What touched you the most in the story? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 29 . distribute them among Students and randomly pick anytwo for role play.4.Write the names of the characters on play cards.

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The narrator and his brother. Discuss the relationship of the narrator with his brother and the change that occurred with the passage of time. Role Play. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2..Questions Based On Text :1. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 31 .

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Lecture – 6 The Portrait Of A Lady Vocabulary exercises based on text: 1. Points for the Story Orally they will share in _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________. 33 . Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. Give their three forms and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which the class.

Summarize the Essay ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ What interested you the most in the essay ? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Tense check based on textGD .Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 34 .

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Describe the friendship between and the author and his grandmother? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Give a pen portrait of Khushwant Singh’s grandmother. How does Khushwant Singh describe the physical looks of his grandmother? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 36 .Questions Based On Text :1.

and your grandchildren much later. 14 Visual based (3 based on famous speeches and 3 based on current events ) Franklin Delano Roosevelt The Great Arsenal of Democracy My friends: This is not a fireside chat on war. but also to enslave the whole of Europe." So said the leader of the Nazis. three powerful nations. out of a last-ditch war for the preservation of American independence. the factories. Never before since Jamestown and Plymouth Rock has our American civilization been in such danger as now. and then to use the resources of Europe to dominate the rest of the world. when the whole banking system of our country had ceased to function. 37 . It was a time when the wheels of American industry were grinding to a full stop.a program aimed at world control -. We met the issue of 1933 with courage and realism. I tried to convey to the great mass of American people what the banking crisis meant to them in their daily lives. and all of the things that American independence means to you and to me and to ours. my mind goes back eight years to a night in the midst of a domestic crisis. joined themselves together in the threat that if the United States of America interfered with or blocked the expansion program of these three nations -. We face this new crisis. in this new crisis which faces America. and your children later. because the nub of the whole purpose of your President is to keep you now. the widows and the old men wondering about their life's savings. I had before my eyes the picture of all those Americans with whom I was talking.''' I can beat any other power in the world. It is a talk on national security. this new threat to the security of our nation. the small shopkeeper. The Nazi masters of Germany have made it clear that they intend not only to dominate all life and thought in their own country. I well remember that while I sat in my study in the White House. preparing to talk with the people of the United States.they would unite in ultimate action against the United States. I want to do the same thing. It was only three weeks ago that their leader stated this: "There are two worlds that stand opposed to each other. I saw the workmen in the mills. the mines.Lecture – 10. the girl behind the counter. 1940 -. For on September 27th. with the same people. Tonight. with the same courage and realism." And then in defiant reply to his opponents he said this: "Others are correct when they say: 'With this world we cannot ever reconcile ourselves.by an agreement signed in Berlin.this year -. Tonight. two in Europe and one in Asia. the farmer doing his spring plowing. in the presence of a world crisis.

The Germans and the Italians are being blocked on the other side of the Atlantic by the British and by the Greeks. There was no treaty. that the United States has no right or reason to encourage talk of peace until the day shall come when there is a clear intention on the part of the aggressor nations to abandon all thought of dominating or conquering the world. our hemisphere included. the Axis not merely admits but the Axis proclaims that there can be no ultimate peace between their philosophy -. And they will be in a position to bring enormous military and naval resources against this hemisphere. Africa. that we as neighbors could settle any disputes in peaceful fashion. In the Pacific Ocean is our fleet. and by thousands of soldiers and sailors who were able to escape from subjugated countries. proven correct by history. economic as well as military. There was no "unwritten agreement. One hundred and seventeen years ago the Monroe Doctrine was conceived by our government as a measure of defense in the face of a threat against this hemisphere by an alliance in Continental Europe. Some of our people like to believe that wars in Europe and in Asia are of no concern to us. But it is a matter of most vital concern to us that European and Asiatic war-makers should not gain control of the oceans which lead to this hemisphere. Asia.their philosophy of government -. It is no exaggeration to say that all of us in all the Americas would be living at the point of a gun -. Austral-Asia. we stood guard in the Atlantic. we would have to convert ourselves permanently into a militaristic power on the basis of war economy. We should enter upon a new and terrible era in which the whole world.a gun loaded with explosive bullets. In view of the nature of this undeniable threat. it can be asserted.and our philosophy of government. Name the axis powers and speak in detail on at least one of them and its role in the world war? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 38 . At this moment the forces of the States that are leagued against all peoples who live in freedom are being held away from our shores." And yet there was the feeling. with the British as neighbors. on the other hand. And the fact is that during the whole of this time the Western Hemisphere has remained free from aggression from Europe or from Asia. and the high seas. the Axis powers will control the Continents of Europe. Thereafter. In Asia the Japanese are being engaged by the Chinese nation in another great defense.In other words. would be run by threats of brute force. Does anyone seriously believe that we need to fear attack anywhere in the Americas while a free Britain remains our most powerful naval neighbor in the Atlantic? And does anyone seriously believe. Questions based on Text Q1. that we could rest easy if the Axis powers were our neighbors there? If Great Britain goes down. And to survive in such a world. properly and categorically.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 39 .Q2. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q3. Comment on this statement in the light of the above speech. Discuss the role of america in preserving the balance of power in the presence of the present scenario. They say that if you want peace be prepared for war.

Negro still is not life of the Negro manacles of discrimination. but a beginning. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation. Negro lives on a midst of a vast hundred years in the corners of himself an exile in here today to today In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note. "I Have a Dream" My friends: I am happy to join with you will go down in history as the demonstration for freedom in nation. black men as well as white men. the Negro is still languished American society and finds his own land. signed the momentous light of hope to been seared in the came as a joyous their captivity. It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. And so we've come dramatize a shameful condition. Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. And so. yes. This note was a promise that all men. in what greatest the history of our American in today. would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life. 40 . When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. This decree came as a great beacon millions of Negro slaves who had flames of withering injustice. a great whose symbolic shadow we stand Emancipation Proclamation. One hundred years later. the free. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. the is still sadly crippled by the segregation and the chains of One hundred years later. Jr. It daybreak to end the long night of But one hundred years later. America has given the Negro people a bad check. Five score years ago. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now.Martin Luther King. we've come to cash this check. a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. One later. insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. the lonely island of poverty in the ocean of material prosperity. they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir.

Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. From every mountainside. And when this happens. let freedom ring. that all men are created equal. sweet land of liberty. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident. let freedom ring! And if America is to be a great nation. Jews and Gentiles. when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet. land of the Pilgrim's pride. my friends. we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow. And as we walk. I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. From every mountainside. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. of thee I sing. I still have a dream. Protestants and Catholics." I have a dream today ! And this will be the day -. will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: 41 . for many of our white brothers. Land where my fathers died. have come to ealize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny.this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country 'tis of thee. black men and white men. this must become true. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. We cannot walk alone. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people. I say to you today. as evidenced by their presence here today. We cannot turn back. when we allow freedom ring. from every state and every city.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q2. we are free at last! Q1. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q3. Summarize the above speech in your own words. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to America but to the entire world. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 42 . Do you find similarity with the dream of Mahatma Gandhi. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about.Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty.

It is a present danger. despite good intentions and bold initiatives. it does not ask whether you are black or white. country . I represent an AIDS community whose members have been reluctantly drafted from every segment of American society. Houston. and congressional hearings. and we have helped it along. I am one with a black infant struggling with tubes in a Philadelphia hospital. gender. But despite science and research. Though I am female and contracted this disease in marriage and enjoy the warm support of my family. We have killed each other with our ignorance. A million more are infected. not your applause. But it won’t be third for long. or listening in the quiet of your home. Two hundred thousand Americans are dead or dying.the epidemic which is winning tonight.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Mary Fisher 1992 Republican National Convention Address Delivered 19 August 1992. but HIV is different. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not limited to one race. not self-congratulation. It does not care whether you are Democrat or Republican. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 43 . male or female. or a hundred million infections will be counted in the coming few years. and hopeful promises. or region but looms large. The rate of infection is increasing fastest among women and children. this one travels. and I stand before you and before the nation gladly. White House meetings. In the context of an election year. Though I am white and a mother. young or old. I would never have asked to be HIV positive. it is -. Worldwide. and our silence. Q1. I am one with the lonely gay man sheltering a flickering candle from the cold wind of his family’s rejection. gay or straight. Largely unknown a decade ago. because unlike other diseases. Adolescents don’t give each other cancer or heart disease because they believe they are in love. I bear a message of challenge. but I believe that in all things there is a purpose. This is not a distant threat. Tonight. our prejudice. I have come tonight to bring our silence to an end. forty million. AIDS is the third leading killer of young adult Americans today.despite it all -. TX Less than three months ago at platform hearings in Salt Lake City. campaign slogans. here in this great hall. I asked the Republican Party to lift the shroud of silence which has been draped over the issue of HIV and AIDS. sixty million. I want your attention. The reality of AIDS is brutally clear. I ask you. to recognize that AIDS virus is not a political creature.

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______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q. Compare this speech with your own views on Aids.Q2. 3 Headlines Students to see the visuals of the news headlines and speak on them ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 45 .

Lecture -11 (1st Evaluation Based On All Speaking Topics) ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 46 .

Lecture -17 Role Play based on social news ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 47 .

Lecture-19 Revision of all modules worksheets to be given for practice ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 48 .

What a person actually does is more important that what they say they will do. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3 All cats are grey in the dark. People are undistinguished until they have made a name. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 49 .Lecture – 24 Oral Presentation on idiomatic and proverbial expressions Teacher to choose idioms / proverbs from the given resources and assign each student one idiom / proverb to speak upon 1 Absence makes the heart grow fonder. Patience brings rewards. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 4 All good things come to those who wait. you love them even more. When you are away from someone you love. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2 Actions speak louder than words.

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 6 An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. A person's character is judged by the type of people with whom they spend their time. Appearances can be deceptive. to prevent it from getting worse. It's better to deal with a problem at an early stage. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 9 A rolling stone gathers no moss.5 All that glitters is not gold. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 8 A man is known by the company he keeps. If a person keeps moving from place to place. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7 A good example is the best sermon. Giving an example is better than giving advice. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 50 . they gain neither friends nor possessions _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 10 A stitch in time saves nine. It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the damage or cure the disease later.

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 17 Don't count your chickens before they're hatched. rather than continue and risk losing everything. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 14 Better be alone than in bad company. Listen carefully before speaking. People of the same sort are usually found together. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 12 A tree is known by its fruit. A man is judged by his actions. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 51 . Correcting a small mistake may help you to avoid making a bigger one. You must not be too confident that something will be successful.11 A stumble may prevent a fall. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 13 Be swift to hear. Be careful in the choice of the people you associate with ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 15 Better lose the saddle than the horse. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 16 Birds of a feather flock together. It's better to stop and accept a small loss. slow to speak.

18

Don't dig your grave with your own knife and fork.
Don't do something yourself which causes your own downfall.
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19

Don't judge a book by its cover.
Don't judge by appearances.
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20

Elbow grease is the best polish.
Hard work gives the best results.
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21

Empty vessels make the most noise.
The least intelligent people are often the most talkative or noisy.
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22

Every cloud has a silver lining.
There is a positive or hopeful side to every unpleasant situation.
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23

Every man is the architect of his own fortune.
Life is what you make it.
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24

Experience is the father of wisdom.
Experience and knowledge result in better judgement.
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52

25

Facts speak louder than words.
People show what they are really like by what they do, rather than by what they say.
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26

Gardens are not made by sitting in the shade.
Nothing is achieved without effort.
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27

Haste makes waste.
If something is done too quickly, it may be done carelessly and need to be redone.
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28

Honey catches more flies than vinegar.
You can obtain more cooperation from others by being nice.
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29

If you chase two rabbits, you will not catch either one.
If you try to do two things at the same time, you won't succeed in doing either of them.
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30

In for a penny, in for a pound.
If you start something, it's better to spend the time or money necessary to complete it.
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31

It never rains but it pours.
Misfortunes usually come in large numbers
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53

32

It's no use crying over spilt milk.
Don't express regret for something that has happened and cannot be remedied
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33

Justice delayed is justice denied.
If the law is applied too late, there is no justice.
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34

Knowledge in youth is wisdom in age.
What you learn when you are young will be invaluable when you grow old.
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35

Kindness begets kindness.
If you are kind to people, they will be kind to you.
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36

Little strokes fell great oaks.
If you divide a task into small parts, it becomes easier to do.
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37

Look before you leap.
Consider possible consequences before taking action.
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38

Man proposes, God disposes.
Our destiny depends on God's will.
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54

What is useless to one person could be valuable to another _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 42 Opportunity seldom knocks twice. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 43 Out of sight. nothing gained. out of mind. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 45 Prevention is better than cure It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the damage or cure the disease later _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 55 . We tend to forget people or things that we do not see. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 40 Nothing ventured. Don't miss opportunities that come along. The need for something forces people to find a way of obtaining it. You cannot expect to achieve anything if you don't take risks. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 44 Practise what you preach Do yourself what you advise others to do. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 41 One man's trash is another man's treasure.39 Necessity is the mother of invention.

46 Rome was not built in a day. Time goes by quickly. It takes a long time to do a job properly. A quiet person can have much knowledge or wisdom. If you don't object to something it can be assumed that you agree with it _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 48 Still waters run deep. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 56 . you should do it as soon as you can _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 51 The pen is mightier than the sword Words and communication have greater effect than war and fighting _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 52 Time has wings. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 47 Silence gives consent. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 49 A stitch in time saves nine It's better to deal with a problem in its early stages. You should not expect to do it quickly. If you want to do something successfully. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 50 The early bird catches the worm. because if you don't. it will get worse.

the mice play. do as the Romans do. and behave in the same way. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 55 Variety is the spice of life. Doing a lot of different things makes life more interesting _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 56 When the cat's away. to forgive divine It is human nature to make mistakes. A group has more force than an individual. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 57 When in Rome. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 57 . People misbehave when their boss. or the person in authority. You should adopt the customs of the people or country you are visiting. therefore one should forgive _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 54 Union is strength. is absent.53 To err is human.

Lecture -28 Role play (based on social news . newsreader. mother. father. real events and stories) Q1: Suppose you want to be a model and you are just on the verge of leaving your family to fulfil your dreams and suddenly on the TV set the news of Viveka’s suicide is flashed and members of your family start reacting otherwise and forbid you from going. Enact the given situation while playing various role viz. sibling etc ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: Enact a court scene depicting Kasab in dock and trying to justify himself. you. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 58 .

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q4: Enact the scene from ‘Big Brother’ while introducing 2-3 more characters(fictitious). ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 59 .______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q3: Create a scene of ‘Apki kacheri’ with any social issue.

movies.Lecture – 32 PPT presentations on the themes emerging from text and speeches Students/ Teacher to choose themes from texts . advertisements etc and prepare PPTs Teacher to provide list of themes Students to write points only for preparation of PPTs ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 60 .

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Lecture – 35 Revision ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 61 .

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Grammar 62 .

To change the reporting verb according to the reported speech.” I am very busy now. To change the pronoun of reported speech accordingly. Basic rules to convert a Direct Speech to Indirect Speech.Lecture -3 Narrations {Direct and Indirect Speeches} The art of reporting the words of a speaker is called Narration.” I shall go to the picture today” Passive . Example: Active . As another changes today is changed with the word that day. Change the adverbs of the Direct Speech.” In the above example the Speaker i. To remove the inverted comma’s from the direct speech and replace them with an appropriate conjunction. Indirect Speech In this form the actual words of the speaker are transformed and said/written in simple manner.e Rama is known as Reporter. 3. Reported speech’s verb shall go is changed into would go.Rama said. said is known as Reporting verb and “I am very busy now. 1. There are five basic things that have to be changed while converting a Direct speech to an Indirect speech. 1. First person changes to subject of Reporting Verb 63 . 4. In the above example. Examples:. Direct Speech 2. Reported speech’s pronoun ‘’I’’ is changed into She. 2.Rajiv said to me.Rajiv told me that he would go to the picture that day.” is known as Reported Speech. Example:. Indirect Speech Direct Speech In this form the actual words of the speaker are put in quotes “ ”. There are two main ways of reporting the words of a speaker.Rama said that he was very busy then. Inverted Commas are replaced by the conjunction “that”. Reporting verb “said to” is changed into told. Rules of change of Pronouns Nominative Possessive Objective Reflexive I My Me Myself We Our Us Ourselves You Yours You Yourself He His Him Himself She Her Her Herself They Their Them Themselves Pronouns are changed according to a rule designated as SON where S stands for Subject O stands for Object N stands for No change.

Direct: The teacher says.Second person changes to Object of Reporting Verb There is no change if it is a Third person. “You have done your work” Indirect: She tells her that she has done her work. 2nd Person pronoun of Reported speech is changed according to Object of Reporting verb. Rule No 2. “Gayatri performs on the stage” Indirect: The teacher is saying that Gayatri performs on the stage. Direct: Everybody says. Direct: The teacher is saying. 2. 3. Rules of change of verb or Tense Rule No.” Indirect: I say that I am an honest man. 3rd Person Pronoun of Reported speech is not changed. “Gayatri performs on the stage” Indirect: The teacher says that Gayatri performs on the stage. Direct: He says. 1. “I am in tenth class.” Indirect: I tell them that they have done their work. 64 . Direct: I say to them. 2. “I am an honest man. “you have done your work” Indirect: She tells me that I have done my work. 2. 2. “you have done your work. 1st Person pronoun of Reported speech is changed according to the Subject of Reporting verb. “They have spoken the truth” Indirect: Everybody says that they have spoken the truth. 1. Rule No 3. Direct: I say. Direct: She says to her. “He does not work hard” Indirect: He says that he does not work hard. Direct: She says. “Gayatri is performing on the stage” Indirect: The teacher will say that Gayatri is performing on the stage.1 If reporting verb is given in Present or Future tense then there will be no change in the verb or tense of Reported speech 1. 1. Direct: She says to me.” Indirect: She says that she is in tenth class. Direct: The teacher will say. 3. Rule No 1.

Simple Past changes to Past Perfect 6.” 65 . Simple present changes to Simple Past 2. Present Continuous changes to Past Continuous 3. “The earth is round” Indirect: Our teacher said that the earth is round. Corresponding Changes to past form in indirect speech from the verb in Reported speech. Direct: Rajiv said to me. 1. “I am suffering from fever. Present Perfect changes to Past Perfect 4. In Future Tense will/Shall changes to would 8.(Habitual fact) Exception 2: If reporting speech has Past Historical Fact then there is no change in the Tense. 2. “Asoka left war after the conquest of Kalinga”. 1. Past Continuous changes to Past Perfect Continuous 7. “I took the breakfast in the morning”.2 If reporting verb is given in Past tense then the tense of the verb of Reported Speech will change into corresponding Past tense. Direct: She said to me. Direct: She said “If I were rich. Direct: She said “My wife was making lunch when I was studying” Indirect: She said that her wife was making lunch when she was studying. 1. May changes to Might Some of the exceptional cases of Rule 2 Exception 1: If Reporting speech has Universal Truth or Habitual fact then there is no change in the Tense. Indirect: Our teacher said that Asoka left war after the conquest of kalinga. Exception 4: If Reporting speech has some Imagined Condition then there is no change in the Tense.Rule No. Indirect: She told me that she had taken the breakfast in the morning. Present Perfect Continuous changes to Past Perfect Continuous 5. Direct: Our teacher said.( Universal Truth) 2. Exception 3: If Reporting speech has two actions to be happened at a time then there is no change in the Tense.” Indirect: The teacher said that she was suffering from fever. Can changes to Could 9. “He plays with right hand” Indirect: Rajiv told me that he plays with right hand. I would help him. Direct: The teacher said. Direct: Our teacher said.

Come is changed to go if there is some word given after come that shows nearness. reported or complained etc. informed. assured. Exception 5: If Reporting speech contains had 3rd form.Indirect: She said that if she were rich she would help her. added. to infinitive and would. might. “You should obey your elders. here and now points to such a thing. Some exception in these changes 1. place or time that is in front of the speaker then no change takes place in Indirect Narration. According to the context said to can be replaced by replied. Some other small changes that used to take place while changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech. could. Here Changes to There Now Changes to Then This Changes to That These Changes to Those Today Changes to That day To-night Changes to That night Yesterday Changes to The previous day Last night Changes to The previous night Last week Changes to The previous week Tomorrow Changes to The next day Next Week Changes to The following week Ago Changes to Before Thus Changes to so Hence Changes to Thence Hither Changes to Thither Come Changes to Go Note:-An in indirect speech we talk about such incidents that are after the time of reporting and had happened away from the place of reporting therefore the words that show nearness has to be replaced by the words that show distance.” Indirect: She told me that I should obey my elders. must. then there is no change in the Tense. 66 . remarked. asserted. 2. reminded. should. says to tells and said to told. Assertive Sentences Rule 1 If there is no object after Reporting verb there it should not be changed. stated. ought to etc. pleaded. Rules for Change in Narration of different type of sentences Type No 1. Direct: She said to me. If this. If there is some object after Reporting verb then say is changed to tell.

” The teacher ordered the boys not to make a noise.Rule 2 Put conjunction that in place of “ ”. In Negative Imperative Sentence “do is replaced with “NOT TO” or “said to” is changed to “forbade” Example: - 1. Direct: He said. Type No 2. If the interrogative sentence is expressing negative feeling then do/does of the Direct speech is changed into did while converting it into Indirect speech. “I shall sleep now” Indirect: She told me that she would play then. command. Imperative Sentences includes the sense of order. was/were etc should be put after the subject. Did or has/have of the interrogative sentence is changed to had. do/does. Rule 4 Pronouns and verbs are changed according to the set rule of Narration. was/were.” Indirect: He said that his brother’s marriage would come off the following month. If the interrogative sentence is expressing positive feeling then do/does of the Direct speech is removed while converting it into indirect speech. The teacher said to the boys. Interrogative Sentences Rule 1 As interrogative sentence is meant to ask questions therefore Reporting verb said/said to is changed to asked. request or advice. “Do not make a noise. Change the pronouns of the Reported speech as enlisted earlier. “Work hard”. requested or advised to. 67 . Helping verb is /are/am. Examples showing some Assertive Sentences Changed into Indirect form Direct: She said to me. “My brother’s marriage comes off next month. will/would etc then “ __” are to be replaced by if or whether If question is formed with the help of words starting with “Wh” like who. what. whom. Said to can also be changed into enquired or demanded Rule 2 If question is formed with the help of any of the helping verbs like is/are/am. has/have. I advised him to work hard. Example: - I said to him. Rule 3 In these sentences question form of the sentence is removed and full-stop is put at the end of the sentence. whose. the reporting verb “said to” is changed to ordered. when etc (also known as W family) or How then to replace “___” no conjunction is used. commanded.

You said to me. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. “You have done your work”. “I shall play now”. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. He said to me. “I teach you English”. Practice exercise. She said to me. ‘Said’ + “Sorry!” is changed to “exclaimed with regret”.” The gardener forbade the boys to pluck the flowers. 1. ‘Said’ + ‘Ah!’ or ‘Alas!’ is changed to “exclaimed with sorrow”. The gardener said to the boys. Rajni said to me. She said to her servant.2. “How Silly and careless you are!” She exclaimed that her servant was very silly and careless. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.” The teacher exclaimed with joy that they had won the match. ‘Said’ + ‘Aha!’ or ‘Ha!’ or ‘Hurrah’ is changed to “exclaimed with joy”. “Your song appealed us” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 68 . ‘Said’ + ‘Oh!’ or ‘What!’ or “How!” is changed to “exclaimed with surprise”. “Do not pluck the flowers. They said to us. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ‘Said’ + ‘Pooh!’ or Pshaw! is changed to “exclaimed with contempt”. In Exclamatory Sentences. ‘Said’ + ‘Bravo’ or ‘Alas!’ is changed to applauded……saying Examples The teacher said. “I have been studying since morning”. “Hurrah! We have won the match.

She said to us. She said to you. “will you accompany me to Chennai? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10. “Is she making a noise”? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Her mother said. She said to me. “Are we wasting your time? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 8. “Why are you disturbing us?” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13. We said to them. “What will you have you for breakfast. “do I sing a song now?” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Anil said to his sister. He said to them. “Does she not serve her mother in-law”? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11. They said to her.6. “How were you returning home”? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 14. He said to them. “How did you fare in the interview?” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 69 . “Who teaches you English?” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Rajni?” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15. He said to me.

“Sorry! I cannot lend you my scooter”. My mother said to me. I said to her. He said. “Alas! I have lost all of my ornaments. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 70 . “Do not go farther” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 20. “Do not tell a lie. She said. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 18. boys” said the teacher. “Kindly give me a lift” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 17. The general said to his soldiers. She said to me.16. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 22.” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 21. “Bravo! You fought bravely.” ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 19. “Sit down.

spelt (A) absence abundance accessible accidentally acclaim accommodate accomplish accordion accumulate achievement acquaintance acquire acquitted across address advertisement advice advise affect alleged amateur analysis analyze annual apartment apparatus apparent appearance arctic argument ascend atheist athletic attendance auxiliary (B) balloon barbecue bargain basically beggar beginning belief believe beneficial benefit biscuit boundaries business (C) calendar camouflage candidate Caribbean category cemetery challenge changeable changing characteristic chief choose chose cigarette climbed clothes clothing cloth collectible colonel column coming commission committee commitment comparative competent completely concede conceivable conceive condemn condescend conscience conscientious conscious consistent continuous controlled controversial controversy convenient correlate correspondence counselor courteous courtesy criticize criticism (D) deceive defendant deferred definitely definition dependent descend describe description desirable despair desperate develop dictionary difference dilemma dining disappearance disappoint disastrous discipline disease dispensable dissatisfied dominant drunkenness (E) easily ecstasy effect efficiency eighth either eligible eliminate embarrass emperor encouragement enemy encouraging entirely environment equipped equivalent especially exaggerate exceed excellence exhaust existence existent expense experience experiment explanation extremely exuberance (F) facsimile fallacious fallacy familiar fascinating feasible February fictitious fiery finally financially fluorescent forcibly foreign forfeit formerly foresee forty fourth fuelling fulfill fundamentally (G) gauge generally genius government governor grammar grievous guarantee guardian guerrilla guidance (H) handkerchief happily harass height heinous humorous hygiene hypocrisy hypocrite hemorrhage heroes hesitancy hindrance hoarse hoping (I) ideally idiosyncrasy ignorance imaginary immediately implement incidentally incredible independence independent indicted indispensable inevitable influential information inoculate insurance intelligence interference interrupt introduce irrelevant irresistible island (J) jealousy judicial (K) knowledge mathematics (M) miscellaneous mischievous mysterious medicine millennium millionaire miniature minuscule minutes missile misspelled mortgage mosquito mosquitoes murmur muscle (N) narrative naturally necessary necessity neighbor neutron ninety ninth noticeable nowadays nuisance (O) obedience obstacle occasion occasionally occurred occurrence official omission omit omitted opinion opponent opportunity oppression optimism optimistic orchestra ordinarily origin outrageous overrun (P) pamphlets parallel particular pavilion peaceable peculiar penetrate perceive performance performance permanent permissible permissible permitted perseverance persistence personal personnel perspiration physical physician piece pilgrimage pitiful planning pleasant portray possess possession possessive potato 71 .Lecture – 7 Words Commonly Mis .

Accidents will happen.potatoes possibility possible practically prairie precede precedence preceding preference preferred prejudice preparation prescription prevalent primitive principal principle privilege probably procedure proceed profession professor prominent pronounce pronunciation propaganda psychology publicly pursue (Q) quantity quarantine questionnaire quizzes (R) realistically realize really recede receipt receive recognize recommend reference referring relevant relieving religious remembrance reminiscence repetition representative resemblance reservoir resistance restaurant rheumatism rhythm rhythmical ridiculous roommate (S) sacrilegious sacrifice safety salary satellite scary scenery schedule secede secretary seize sense sentence separate separation sergeant several severely shepherd shining siege similar simile simply simultaneous sincerely skiing sophomore souvenir specifically specimen sponsor spontaneous statistics stopped strategy strength strenuous stubbornness studying subordinate subtle succeed success succession sufficient supersede suppress surprise surround susceptible suspicious syllable symmetrical synonymous (T) tangible technical technique temperamental temperature tendency themselves theories therefore thorough though through tomorrow tournament towards tragedy transferring tries truly twelfth tyranny (U) unanimous undoubtedly unforgettable unique unnecessary until usable usage usually utilization (V) vacuum valuable vengeance vigilant village villain violence visible vision virtue volume (W) warrant warriors weather Wednesday weird wherever whether which wholly withdrawal woman women worthwhile writing (Y) yacht yield young Proverb Explanation / Meaning 1. _________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _____ 4. A Absence makes the heart grow fonder. It doesn't cost anything to offer advice. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 72 . When you are away from someone you love. Some unfortunate events must be accepted as inevitable. Actions speak louder than words. What a person actually does is more important that what they say they will do. Advice is cheap. you love them even more. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11. All days are short to Industry and long to Idleness. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10. All good things come to those who wait. All that glitters is not gold. Patience brings rewards. What look good on the outside may not be so in reality. 73 . All that glitters is not gold. All is fair in love and war Things that are done in love or war can often be excused. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Advice is least heeded when most needed. Time goes by slowly when you have nothing to do.5. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. All cats are grey in the dark. People are undistinguished until they have made a name. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Appearances can be deceptive. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 12. When a problem is serious. people often do not follow the advice given. All's well that ends well There is a solution to everything even though there are doubts. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 8.

________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______ An empty purse frightens away friends. With practice things become easier. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. friends tend to disappear. All things are difficult before they are easy. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 16. Other interpretation : A small preventive treatment wards off serious problems. An English man's home is a place where he feels safe. As time goes by.* Eating an apple every day can help to keep you healthy. An Englishman's home is his castle. Everybody needs a certain amount of relaxation.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13. enjoys privacy and can do as he wishes. 17. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15. It is not good to work all the time. grief subsides little by little ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 14.except grief. All things grow with time . ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 74 . When one's financial situation deteriorates. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 18.

19. An idle brain is the devil's workshop. A bad parent does not raise good children. A fool and his money are soon (easily) parted. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ A bird in hand is worth two in a bush. 21. Blaming the tools for bad workmanship is an excuse for lack of skill. A bad tree does not yield good apples. A bad experience will make people stay away from certain things. A burnt child dreads the fire. 22. When you work you avoid temptation. It's better to keep what you have than to risk losing it by searching for something better. 3 ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 24. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 23. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 20. A foolish person usually spends money carelessly. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ A bad workman blames his tools. 3 years to stray. 75 . ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 24. 2) Three lives = 3 years to play. 1) Cats can survive many accidents because they land on their feet without injury. A cat has nine lives.

A rolling stone gathers no moss. A rising tide lifts all boats. A fool at forty is a fool forever. 30.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 25. A good example is the best sermon. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 32. there's a better chance that it will be done well. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 28. A real friend will tell you the truth. Giving an example is better than giving advice. Someone who helps you when you are in trouble is a real friend. If a person hasn't matured by the age of 40. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ A friend in need is a friend indeed. one avoids being tied down! ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ A rotten apple spoils the barrel. 76 . by moving often. 33. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ A friend to all is a friend to none. they gain neither friends nor possessions. 27. Another interpretation is that. If a person keeps moving from place to place. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 31. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ A good beginning makes a good end. A friend's eye is a good mirror. Someone who is a friend to everyone makes none of them feel special. 26. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 29. A dishonest or immoral person can have a bad influence on a group. they never will. If a task is carefully planned. Describes something that will be helpful to all.

It's better to avoid disputes with stupid people. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 34. Beauty is only skin deep. Better flatter a fool than fight him. illness etc. Be careful in the choice of the people you associate with. Better be alone than in bad company. Wisdom is the beauty of men. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 36. Beauty is the wisdom of women. Bad news travels fast. A smooth sea never made a skilled mariner. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 77 . A person's character is more important than their appearance. People tend to circulate bad news (accidents. Listen carefully before speaking. It's better to be the leader of a small group than a subordinate in a bigger one. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 41. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 42. slow to speak. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 37. Better be the head of a dog then the tail of a lion. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 39.) very quickly. Overcoming adversity leads to competence ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 35. Be swift to hear. Different people have different tastes. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 38. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 40.

Diamond cuts diamond. Refers to two people equally matched in wit or cunning. Better the devil you know than the devil you don't know It's better to deal with somebody difficult but familiar. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 51. Children and fools tell the truth. Dead men tell no tales A dead person cannot cause difficulties by revealing something that it would be preferable to conceal. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 50. than change and risk dealing with somebody worse. Hard work brings rewards ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 53. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 49. Charity begins at home. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 46.43. Clothes don't make the man. You must not be too confident that something will be successful. Diligence is the mother of good fortune. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 44. A person's first duty is to help and care for his own family. Appearances can be deceiving. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 52. 78 . ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 45. Cleanliness is next to godliness. When you work you avoid temptation. A clean body is just as important as a pure soul. Constant occupation prevents temptation. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 47. Don't count your chickens before they're hatched.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 60. Every cloud has a silver lining There is a positive or hopeful side to every unpleasant situation. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 55. Experience is the father of wisdom. fool me twice. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 58. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 63. One should learn from one's mistakes.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 54. 79 . Fool me once. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 62. People show what they are really like by what they do. Elbow grease is the best polish. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 56. shame on you. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 59. Failure teaches success. shame on me. First come. Facts speak louder than words. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 61. People like to listen to themselves talking. The first person in the line will be attended to first. Every ass likes to hear himself bray. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 57. Hard work gives the best results. rather than by What they say. The least intelligent people are often the most talkative or noisy. first served. Empty vessels make the most noise. Experience and knowledge result in better judgement.

you will not catch either one. If something is done too quickly. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 66. doubts nothing. You should be grateful for something. you won't succeed in doing either of them. Knowledge leads us to make choices. Haste makes waste. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 72. Half a loaf is better than none. Honesty is the best policy. f you chase two rabbits. All food tastes good when you are hungry. 80 . even if it's not as much as you wanted. He who knows nothing. it may be done carelessly and need to be redone. If two ride a horse. It's always better to be honest. Hunger is a good sauce. If you try to do two things at the same time. Hatred is a blind as love. Hard words break no bones. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 71. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread Inexperienced people act in situations that more intelligent people would avoid ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 65. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 67. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 69. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 70. A person who feels hatred does not see any qualities in the person he/she hates.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 64. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 68. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 73. one must ride behind.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 81 . Our destiny depends on God's will. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 74. Love is blind. A person in love does not see the faults of the person he/she loves. If wishes were horses.When two people do something together. Ignorance is bliss. Let bygones be bygones. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 81. Look before you leap. Let's forgive and forget past quarrels. Consider possible consequences before taking action. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 82. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 76. be a friend. Don't rush into doing something until you know how to do it. Learn to walk before you run. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 80. If you want a friend. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 78. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 77. then beggars would ride. Wishing alone is of no use. you must act as well. Little strokes fell great oaks. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 75. Possible interpretation: What you do not know causes no worry or sadness. it becomes easier to do. one will be the leader and the other will be the subordinate. Man proposes. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 79. God disposes. If you divide a task into small parts.

we can assume that all is well. Money is the main cause of wrongdoing and problems. The need for something forces people to find a way of obtaining it.. Out of sight. Money is the root of all evil. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 89. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 85. Many hands make light work. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 91. we would hear of it. out of mind. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 87. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 90. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 86. 82 . Possibly: a person's manners show their origins. no waves. One swallow doesn't make a summer. Necessity is the mother of invention. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 84. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 88. There could be some truth in the rumour. We tend to forget people or things that we do not see.83. Similar to : 'no smoke without fire'. A single satisfactory event does not mean that all the others will be as good. No smoke without fire. No wind. No news is good news.. If the news was bad. Since we have heard nothing. Sharing work makes work easier. Manners make the man.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 96. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 99.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 92Practice makes perfect. The darkest hour is just before dawn. Pride comes before a fall. Put all your eggs in one basket Risk everything by relying on one plan (by putting all one's money in one business). 83 . Prevention is better than cure It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the damage or cure the disease later. Children resemble their parents. The apple doesn't fall far from the tree. The most difficult thing is to begin. you will spoil his character ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 97. Doing something repeatedly is the only way to become good at it. A stitch in time saves nine It's better to deal with a problem in its early stages. it will get worse. Spare the rod and spoil the child If you don't punish a child when he does wrong. The first step is the hardest. because if you don't. Don't be too self-confident or proud. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 95. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 94. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 93. something may happen to make you look foolish. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 98. There is hope even in the worst of times. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 100.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 84 .

Investegate 3. Commitment 3. Famous 4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Dissertation 4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Exhibit 3. Constitute 4. Responsibility 6. Saggest 3.Opportinity 3. Demonstration 2. Transmit 2. Seperation 2. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Sincerely 4. Predicament 85 . Harassment 4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Embarassment 2. Reference 5. Attribute 3.Words over mis-spelt PRACTICE EXERCISES: 1. Intellectual 2. Desertion 3. Period 2. Depresion 4. Efficiency 4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Boundary 2. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1.

Oppression 3. Grieve 3. Barrister 13. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Benefecient 2. Magnificent 3. Ceremony 2. Mileage 4. Supression 4. Lineage 2. Mutiny 3. Tyrany 10. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Borne 4. Begining 2. Besiege 3. Ceremony 3. Recieve 4. Matrimony 4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Previlege 9. Deceive 8. Adolescent 11. Depression 12.7. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Besiege 2. Compression 2. Ancient 4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 86 .

Complementation 17. • Tracy works in the computer _____________________ (b_ _ _ _ess). Ocassion 3. Compass 3. Intemperation 2. Statement 14. • He _____________________ (apolo_ _ _ed) for being late. • I _____________________ (u_ _ _lly) get up at 6 o'clock. Judgement 4. 87 . Answer: There are seven classrooms upstairs. Embarrassment 2. Choose the correct option: 1. • Look! The _____________________ (t_ _ _ _er) is writing on the board. Evasion 15. Choose the correct option 1. Merriment 3. • Do you like going to____________________(b_ _ _ _day) parties? • My grandmother had three sons and four_____________________(d_ _ _ _ters). • Be careful! Skydiving is a _____________________ (dan_ _ _ _ _s) hobby. Sedimentation 4.1. Erosion 2. Impass 2. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. • My friend found an _____________________ (a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ship) as a car mechanic. The word in (brackets) tells you how many letters are missing (number of underscores). Example: There are seven _________ (cla_ _rooms) upstairs. Mistress 16. Write the missing words into the gaps. • William the _____________________ (C_ _ _ _ _ _ _r) won the battle of Hastings. Trespass 4. Ovation 4. • _____________________ (A_ _ _ _bly) starts at 8 o'clock every morning. Determination 3.

88 .

_____________________________________________________________________ 2 Gushasbeen(rec--ving)threateninge-mails. Some of the words in parentheses require the addition of the letter e. 1 Paintthe(c--ling)beforeyoupaintthewalls. _____________________________________________________________________ 4 Merdinewas(sincer-ly)gratefulforthereprieve. 1 Gusis(tru-ly)sorryforkeepingyouawakelastnight. others are correct as they stand. _____________________________________________________________________ 3 A(w--rd)noisecameoutoftheattic. ____________________________________________________________________ 3 Theshedwas(complet-ly)demolished. ____________________________________________________________________ 6 They(argu-d)lastnightforhours. _____________________________________________________________________ 5 TheSimpsonsare(argu-ing)again. _____________________________________________________________________ 19. _____________________________________________________________________ 2 Wewerecriticized(sever-ly)bythesewingcircle. Some of the words require the addition of ie.Whiteis(judg-ing)theessaycontest.Wolfe(com-ing)home. _____________________________________________________________________ 9 Mr. _____________________________________________________________________ 7 WhenisMr.18. others require ei. _____________________________________________________________________ 8 Mayais(writ-ing)herautobiography. _____________________________________________________________________ 10 Be(car-ful)whenyoulightthefurnace. _____________________________________________________________________ 89 .

others require y.4 Ipaidalmostfivedollarsforthat(p--ce)ofpie. Some of the words require the addition of i. _____________________________________________________________________ 3 Wecomparedtwo(theor-es)of evolution. _____________________________________________________________________ 4 Peggyfelt(betra-ed)byher manager. _____________________________________________________________________ 6 Theguestsbrought(th--r)childrentothewedding. _____________________________________________________________________ 7 (N--ther)ofuscanhelpyoutoday. _____________________________________________________________________ 8 The(n--ghbors)complainedaboutourparents. _____________________________________________________________________ 5 Youshouldbe(stud-ing)forFriday's exam. _____________________________________________________________________ 5 Idon't(bel--ve)incoincidence. _____________________________________________________________________ 9 Linda(w--ghs)lessthanhercollie. _____________________________________________________________________ 10 Wewaitedforthe(fr--ght)traintopass. _____________________________________________________________________ 20. 1 Haveyou(tr-ed)thedessert yet? _____________________________________________________________________ 2 Thebaby(cr-ed)throughoutthechurch service. . _____________________________________________________________________ 6 (Lonel-ness)wasneveraproblem for _____________________________________________________________________ 90 Henry.

e. _____________________________________________________________________ 10 ProfessorLegreemadeanother(irrelev-nt) remark _____________________________________________________________________ 91 .Flannerymy (apolog-es). _____________________________________________________________________ 21. _____________________________________________________________________ 7 Henryisan(independ-nt) thinker. _____________________________________________________________________ 3 Thetaxcutswill(ben-fit)the wealthy. _____________________________________________________________________ 5 Hehasaremarkably(unpleas-nt) disposition. _____________________________________________________________________ 9 Shechoseitemsfromdifferent (cat-gories). _____________________________________________________________________ 10 Itwasa(pit-ful) sight. _____________________________________________________________________ 2 Myparakeeteatshuge(quant-ties)ofbird seed.7 She(fl-es)onbroken wings. _____________________________________________________________________ 8 Ihavealways(rel-ed)onmy friends. Complete each word with the letter a. 1 Iborrowedtheseflowersfromthe (cemet-ry). _____________________________________________________________________ 8 Ifoundan(excell-nt)excusetoresignfromthe committee. _____________________________________________________________________ 6 Weplacedthepuppiesin(sep-rate) rooms. ____________________________________________________________________ 4 Itwasa(priv-lege)tomeet you. _____________________________________________________________________ 9 PleasegiveMr. or i.

Doug(pour-ed)sugaroverYoddy's oatmeal. Gus(admit-ed)his mistake. others are correct as they stand. Shekeeps(forget-ing)to call me. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. Some of these words require the addition of one or more letters. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Thesunwas(shin-ing)down like honey. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. _____________________________________________________________________ 3.22. _____________________________________________________________________ 92 . His doctor (refer-ed) him to a dimple specialist. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Thebunnywent(hop-ing)downto the abattoir. Theexperimentwas(control-ed)by a madman.Youare(prob-ly)goingto be late. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. Marriage comes without a (g-arantee).Caley(su-prised) me. Theregionisslowly(begin-ing) to recover. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. others are correct as they stand. Thatideanever(occur-ed) to me. Some of these words require the doubling of a consonant. _____________________________________________________________________ 23. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. 2. Theywere(sweat-ing)in the classroom. 1. 1.

_____________________________________________________________________ 6 AliceWalkerwroteanessay(sim-lar)toyours. _____________________________________________________________________ 3 Wemustworktogethertoimprovethe(envir-ment).Shesupportsastrong(ath-letic) program. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. Some of these words require the addition of one or more letters. _____________________________________________________________________ 4 IwishHanselwouldjust(dis-pear). _____________________________________________________________________ 7. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. _____________________________________________________________________ 5 Mr.Wewaited(until-)themortician arrived.Doesshe(reali-e)thathersocks don't match? _____________________________________________________________________ 5.Summersshouldattendtohis(bus-ness). others are correct as they stand.The(tem-rature)reached109degrees in Yuma.4. _____________________________________________________________________ 24. _____________________________________________________________________ 2 Gusis(basic-ly)lazy. _____________________________________________________________________ 93 .Merdine(recom-ended)a psychiatrist. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Take two (asp-rin) and go to bed.(D-scribe)themanwho hit you. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. 1 She(a-quired)agoodtanandanewboyfriend.

Complete the following. Rectify these: • Prilude ______________________ • Condenemd ______________________ • Torturres ______________________ 94 . _____________________________________________________________________ 8 Iwas(dis-appointed)bythecranberriesindillsauce. _____________________________________________________________________ 9 DocBrownwasworkinginhis(lab-ratory). Do write the correct the spellings given below: Beauty + Full = _________________ Plural of Book-shelf =_________________ Plucked – ed + ing = ______________ Begin + ing = _________________ Scarce + ly = ___________________ Plural of duty = ______________ Diverge + ed =__________________ Plural of itself = __________________ Miss + ed = ________________ Spoil + ing = ____________________ • Pick out the phrasal verbs used in the poem. _____________________________________________________________________ 10 BaronLeibnizworksforthe(gover-ment). Write the meaning and make sentences.7 TheRedSoxhave(fin-ly)wonaballgame. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ LETTERS OF BHAGAT SINGH The following words taken from the text have been misspelled. _____________________________________________________________________ Exercises based on Text :EVELYN HOPE 1.

Each alphabet should be used in the word and no alphabet can be repeated more than two times: • USNTOPI ______________________ • RCBIATUE ______________________ • ESOMCPIR ______________________ • OGNTIAE ______________________ • AGVRDNU ______________________ • AZLMODTIERN ______________________ • EMTNSL ______________________ • SIELDOG ______________________ • NADTHMEC ______________________ • UGENI ______________________ The following words from the text have been misspelled.• Revolutoinaris ______________________ • Acqueiscing • Ungredgingly ______________________ • Unparalelled ______________________ • Exploitasion ______________________ • Anksiously ______________________ • Neverteless ______________________ ______________________ Find the word. Correct the following: • Repeserented • Community • Postiivly • Propsositon • Sensitivety • Consideration 95 .

• Potpuris • Accommodated • Audeinces • Culturel • Portrayed • Rendeing • Popularty • Entertainment • Caricutures ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 96 .

we were just children. We all ran for cover and picked up a number of rocks to use for ammunition against the ship as we got ready to put together our plan of action. Of course. Growing up in the countryside offered lots of advantages for young people. The only problem was that we often got into trouble as we made up stories that we acted out around town. My best friend Tom said that he made out an enemy ship in the distance. We all broke out in nervous laughter at the thought of us driving down the road in this stolen Postal Truck. Luckily for us. but the idea of actually making off with a truck was too much for us to believe. At that point. We we were ready to set off on our attack. so we got into his truck. we really didn't have any idea about what we were going do next. Phrasal Verbs -Make sentences with the following • to make out – • to make off with • to drop off • to set off • to get out of • to get into • to get ready • to be up to • to take off • to grow up • to make up • to set off • to turn down • to get into • to bring up • to break out 97 . the postman came running towards us shouting. we came up with the brilliant idea to make out that we were pirates looking for treasure. "What are you kids up to?!". Brown's house.the postman's truck! The postman was dropping off a package at Mrs.Lecture – 15 Phrasal Verbs:I was brought up in a small town in the countryside. Jack was all for switching on the motor and getting away with the stolen mail! Of course. we slowly went along the path until we were face to face with our enemy . we all got out of that truck as quickly as we could and took off down the road. I can remember one particular adventure in particular: One day as we were coming back from school. The radio was playing so we turned down the volume to discuss what we would do next.

Verb Meaning Example ask around ask many people the same question I asked around but nobody has seen my wallet. Break up end a relationship My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America. machine) Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm. break in interrupt The TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death. break in force entry to a building Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo. Break out escape The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking. Add up to something equal Your purchases add up to $205. back something up reverse You'll have to back up your car so that I can get out. Break down stop functioning (vehicle. bring something up start talking about a subject My mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports.32. Break into something enter forcibly The firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children. call something off cancel Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé. Bring someone down make unhappy This sad music is bringing me down. call around phone many different places/people We called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed. Blow up explode The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence. Call someone back return a phone call I called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend. call on someone ask for an answer or opinion The professor called on me for 98 .

Dress up wear nice clothing It's a fancy restaurant so we have 99 You are still mad. come across something find unexpectedly I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet. Check out leave a hotel You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM. calm down relax after being angry Catch up get to the same point as someone You'll have to run faster than else that if you want to catch up with Marty. Check in arrive and register at a hotel or airport We will get the hotel keys when we check in. Cross something out draw a line through Please cross out your old address and write your new one. come from somewhere originate in The art of origami comes from Asia. clean Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside. cut something off remove with something sharp The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured. You need to calm down before you drive the car. come down with something become sick My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend. cut in pull in too closely in front of another vehicle The bus driver got angry when that car cut in. . cut something off stop providing The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill. clean something up tidy.question 1. Check out someone/something look at (informal) Check out the crazy hair on that guy! Chip in help If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon. come forward volunteer for a task or to give evidence The woman came forward with her husband's finger prints. come apart separate The top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough.

Amer. find the answer I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room.E. get along/on like each other I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on. figure something out understand. address. How can we find out? Get something across/over communicate. drop in/by/over come without an appointment I might drop in/by/over for tea some time this week. fill something up fill to the top I always fill the water jug up when it is empty. find out discover We don't know where he lives. make understandable I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen. end up eventually reach/do/decide We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre. fall down fall to the ground The picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning. fill something out to write information in blanks (N. and phone number.to dress up. get away go on a vacation We worked so hard this year that 100 . drop out quit a class. school etc I dropped out of Science because it was too difficult.) Please fill in the form with your name. Drop someone/something off take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over. Let's eat out. fill something in to write information in blanks (Br.) The form must be filled out in capital letters. get around have mobility My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair. fall apart break into pieces My new dress fell apart in the washing machine. eat out eat at a restaurant I don't feel like cooking tonight. drop back move back in a position/group Andrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike.

give something back return a borrowed item I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game. take revenge My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. go back return to a place I have to go back home and get my lunch. get away with something do without being noticed or punished Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests. get up get out of bed I got up early today to study for my exam. give someone away reveal hidden information about someone His wife gave him away to the police. go against someone compete. go out leave home to go on a social event We're going out for dinner tonight. go over something review Please go over your answers 101 . give something out give to many people (usually at no cost) They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store. go out with someone date Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter. She stole my favourite hat. go ahead start. but he finally gave in. give in reluctantly stop fighting or arguing My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet. get back at someone retaliate. go after someone follow someone My brother tried to go after the thief in his car. get back return We got back from our vacation last week. get together meet (usually for social reasons) Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend.we had to get away for a week. give up stop trying My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up. oppose We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight. proceed Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.

consider inferior Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has 102 . I'm sure you'll find a job very soon. look after someone/something take care of I have to look after my sick grandmother. informal) Hang in there. keep someone/something out stop from entering Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room. let someone down fail to support or help. Hang on wait a short time (informal) Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes! hang out spend time relaxing (informal) Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place. Don't let me down this time.Amer. keep on doing something continue doing Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil. hand something down give something used to someone else I handed my old comic books down to my little cousin. keep something up continue at the same rate If you keep those results up you will get into a great college. hold onto someone/something hold firmly using your hands or arms Hold onto your hat because it's very windy outside. Hang in stay positive (N.before you submit your test. grow apart stop being friends over time My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools. hold on wait a short time Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department. grow back regrow My roses grew back this summer. keep something from someone not tell We kept our relationship from our parents for two years. we went without winter boots. Hang up end a phone call He didn't say goodbye before he hung up. Go without something suffer lack or deprivation When I was young. disappoint I need you to be on time. Grow up become an adult When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman.. look down on someone think less of.

review Let's run over/through these lines one more time before the show. look into something investigate We are going to look into the price of snowboards today. escape The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days. pass away die His uncle passed away last night after a long illness. make someone feel stupid The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short. pay someone back return owed money Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you back on Friday. put something together assemble I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives. run over someone/something drive a vehicle over a person or thing I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway. put someone down insult. put something off postpone We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane. but we made up at breakfast. put something out extinguish The neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived. run away leave unexpectedly. run out have none left We ran out of shampoo so I had 103 . look for someone/something try to find I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding. run over/through something rehearse. pass out faint It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.looked down on me. pass something up decline (usually something good) I passed up the job because I am afraid of change. vigilant. Look forward to something be excited about the future I'm looking forward to the Christmas break. and take notice Look out! That car's going to hit you! Make up forgive each other We were angry last night. look out be careful.

shop around compare prices I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots. 104 . Set someone up trick. We are both impatient. Take something out remove from a place or thing Can you take the garbage out to the street for me? Tear something up rip into pieces I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him. switch on It's too dark in here. limit yourself to one particular thing You will lose weight if you stick to the diet. think something over consider I'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision. switch off Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner. Turn something off stop the energy flow. take off start to fly My plane takes off in five minutes. turn up appear suddenly Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood. think back remember (often + to. throw something away dispose of We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery. sort something out organize. Stick to something continue doing something.to wash my hair with soap. Turn something on start the energy. take after someone resemble a family member I take after my mother. I wish I had studied harder. try something on sample clothing I'm going to try these jeans on. send something back return (usually by mail) My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp. resolve a problem We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month. trap The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera. sometimes + on) When I think back on my youth. sleep over stay somewhere for the night (informal) You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home. Let's turn some lights on.

Wake up stop sleeping We have to wake up early for work on Monday. use something up finish the supply The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more. try something out test I am going to try this new brand of detergent out. guilty that I was. Wear off fade away Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party. __________________________________________________________________________ . throwing pebbles in the air. But all 105 . but back in the hostel room. Exercises based on text :THE BIG BROTHER Pick out the phrasal verbs from the following sentences. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground.but I don't think they will fit. give their meanings and use them in sentences of your own: I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the mystery. an eerie silence invariably unnerved me. flying paper butterflies. _______ . Warm someone/something up increase the temperature You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace. Warm up prepare body for exercise I always warm up by doing situps before I go for a run. work out exercise I work out at the gym three times a week. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ I had great fun. I would burst into tears after this.

_______ . 7. 9 to 9. __________________________________________________ 3. He would pass off all opportunities to pull my ears and generally kept off me. and the pace of volleyball all pulled me back to the playground. " 1. eyes sunk deep…I felt sorry for him. __________________________________________________ 2. The bouncing football. _______ . 6. __________________________________________________ 106 . 8 to 9 Math. Somehow. finish breakfast… 6 to 8 English. _______ . you will soon land with a thud. _______ . I tugged along. I set about running after colorful kites. Get up at 6 sharp. _______ .whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. _______ . _______ .30 to 7 English composition... sticking to it is another. This truth will prevail and even God can’t challenge it. 10 to 11 revision and then retire to bed. he was in real bad shape…face devoid of color. __________________________________________________ 10. One pleasant evening. _______ . Making a time table is one thing. We were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother. followed by dinner.tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve. do away with that false pride. _______ . __________________________________________________ 5. _______ . my daily routine intact. __________________________________________________ 8. This time.30 History. "So you see. Don’t float in the air. __________________________________________________ 9. 8 to 9 translations. the fervor of Kabbadi. _______ . followed by lunch and school. _______ . __________________________________________________ 6.” 4. 9 to 10 Hindi. "Look at our headmaster.

__________________________________________________ 15. __________________________________________________ 13.Empty vessels make more noise Aanko ka tara-Apple of one’s eye. __________________________________________________ 14.Casting pearls before swine Dal mein kaala . literally) Bandar kya jaane adrak ka swad . aagan tedha – A poor worker blames his tools Door ke dhol suhavane lagte hain – The grass seems greener on the other side Aage kuan peeche khaee – Between the devil and the deep sea Garajne wale badal baraste nahin hain – Barking dogs seldom bite Ab pachatae kya jab chidiya chug gayi khet – No use crying over spilt milk Anth bhala to sab bhala – All’s well that ends well (almost.11. __________________________________________________ Idioms / Proverbs Khatte angoor . vaisa bhes – In Rome do as the Romans do Ek myaan mein do talawaren nahi samaati – No man can serve two masters Khotta chana baje ghana .Sour grapes (also. literal) Taali ek haath se nahin bajti – It takes two to quarrel Jahan chaah wahaan raha – Where there’s a will. __________________________________________________ 18. __________________________________________________ 12. 107 . __________________________________________________ 16. __________________________________________________ 17. there’s a way Doodh ka jala chaas bhi phook-phook kar peeta hai – Once bitten twice shy Jaisa desh.More to it than meets the eye Naach na jaane. __________________________________________________ 19. __________________________________________________ 20.

Use the following verbs (believe. It's ready to leave.. throw. Can you _____________the radio a little.. Where can I (see if it fits) _______________ the sweater? 5. Answer: My parents are out. 10) Does your little brother_____________________ ghosts? II. 1. Why don't you (take a seat) _______________ ? 7. _____________ your coat.Add fuel to the fire. 7) This pencil is really old. she really _____________ her mother.. 1) Quick!________________ the bus. 2) I don't know where my book is. Fill in the phrasal verbs: • • • • • • • • • Make sure to _____________ pick-pockets when you go to the market. Complete the phrasal verbs according to their meanings in brackets.. get. take. in. do not wear) _______________ your shoes. (remove. 9) The firemen were able to ______________ the fire in Church Street. 8. 2. turn. Have you ____________ if you won the competition yet? I need to ____________ from work and take a holiday. off. Can you ______________ the light. Could you (do not leave it on) _______________ the radio? 4. try) and the prepositions (away. so shall you reap. She still hasn't __________ the death of her cat. fill. The boy ___________ the man and returned his wallet. I have to _________________ it.. 5) I need some new clothes.As you sow. You can ________________ it___________________. Jalti par tail dalna. My daughter is a great cook... for. I will (enter) _______________ the train now. 3. out) an form meaningful sentences. Could you ___________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office? Extension 28? I'll _______________. look. (be quick) _______________ . Shall I (consult a dictionary) _______________ the word in a dictionary? 9. 6. 3) It's dark inside. please. 108 .kabhi nahin se der bhali-better late than never Jaisa karoge waisa bharoge. Khayali pulao banana-To build the castle in the air Practice Exercises : I. put.. So I have to _________ my baby-brother. 8) It's so loud here. switch. down. When do you (rise from bed after sleeping) _______________ in the mornings? III.. please? 4) _________________ the form. Somebody has to (take care of) _______________ the baby. Why don't you _______________ these jeans? 6) It's warm inside. on. Example: My parents are out. So I have to look after my baby-brother. Mary ______________ me at the party last night and introduced herself.

5. We're not ready yet. She promised to _________________ her cigarette smoking to six a day. 7. 11. I'm tired of waiting for Jacek. She still hasn't _________________ the death of her cat. My daughter is a great cook. I was __________ an old t-shirt when I __________ this photograph of my high school class. she really _________________ her mother. 9. I need to _________________ from work and take a holiday. 4. It just doesn't __________________. Can we _________________ our work? 15. we are going to have to _______________ the meeting until next week. Do you know it? 13. Given below are few sentences along with the preposition.(down) 3 Have you __________ any other interesting product features that we could emphasize in the ads? (across) 4 We've decided to __________ billboards and use more double-page spreads instead. Can you explain to me what dancing chickens __________ sport shoes? (with) 9 My new assistant needs to be __________ before I trust her to run an ad campaign like this one. you need to __________eating desserts. 8.(off) 8 This commercial doesn't seem to promote the product.(on) 5 This poster is horrible and can't be used. and focus on its quality as a selling point. Let's __________the grammar one more time before the test. 14. He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ____________ a brilliant idea. I'm afraid your story is not believable. Donata_______________ my cats while I was away on holiday. 16. It just doesn't______________. 3. I'm afraid your story is not believable. which is relatively high. If you really want to lose weight. He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ______________ a brilliant idea.(off) Pick out the phrasal verbs from the list given below and complete the sentences: 1.(out) 7 We're going to __________ the advertising campaign if we can't get any TV or radio time. 109 .• • • She promised to ____________ her cigarette smoking to six a day. Could you _________________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office? 6. Extension 28? I'll _________________ . but I think we should __________ advertising in it until its circulation has increased. (in) 2 We need to ________ the price of the product. I'm _________________ Simon's address. Mary _________________ twenty minutes late for the party.(in) 10 I like that magazine. We will have to __________. 17. (do) 6 We had to reorder the printed advertisements because the printer completely forgot and _________ the free sample coupons. Add an appropriate ion or verb to make a phrasal verb: 1 Has the advertising agency __________ the new promotional material yet? I need it by this afternoon. 10. Have you _________________ if you won the competition yet? 2. 12. The colors and images are all wrong.

break up. run out. I've __________your bad behaviour long enough! 19. put up with. look for. but that's the second time that company has let us _______________ recently. If you carry _____________________ as you've been doing. come up with. take up. but. tell off. They just weren't happy together. Jacek and Gosia __________last week. We __________at six in the morning on our drive to the coast. take after. Some of you slipped _______________ in a few places. Look Magda. I want you to __________ every bad word you've said about my brother. put through. When the father saw what had happened he __________ and shouted at his son. I tried to have more run ________________ but the photocopier had broken________________ and the repairman didn't turn _____________________ when he was supposed to. you should do fine!" Exercise based on Text :BOLLYWOOD AND THE MUSLIM MOVIES Write the meanings of the phrasal verbs and use these in sentences of your own: • Pick up • Focus at • Reduced to • Fallen in • Move to • Pushed towards • Stand out • Married off • Make up • Spread over 110 . hold on. 20. we'll __________of gas. look after. on the whole. take on. 25. there's nothing else for it: you're just going to have to look ____________ with your neighbour. 24. The salary on offer was just not good enough. take back. blow up. the results were good. make up. 21. Well. Find out. We'd better stop soon. We'll have to __________some new employees. There is just too much work to be done. turn down. put off. turn up. Complete each gap with a suitable word: "I'm afraid I haven't got enough copies of this exercise. While you're doing that. I had to __________ her offer of a job. I'll just ___________________ the test you did last week.18. cut down. 22. He did ring_________________ to say he'd been held ________________ unexpectedly. add up. give up. get on with. go over. get away. come across 1. set off. get over. 23. Otherwise.

• Set in • Eloping with • Dressed in • Bursting at • Brought in • Made with • Break away • Churning out ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 111 .

Lecture -21 Revision Of Idioms And Proverbs :____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ __ 112 .

Try to locate the meaning of each proverb: The first step is the hardest _____________________________________________ . ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Quiz based on idioms. Some of them. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Relate the above given idioms with the movie names for example-Ladla. until I met a man who had no feet _______________________. Better an open enemy. I had no shoes and complained. Never say die _____________________________________________ . 113 .Apple of one’s eye. Pain is so close to pleasure _____________________________________________ . Absence makes the heart grow fonder _____________________________________________ . ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 Match idioms with the pictures[ to be given by the teacher]. Practice Exercises : PROVERBS I. Given below are some commonly used proverbs. Make hay while the sun shines _____________________________________________ . Better bend than break _______________________________________ . than a false friend _______________________________________. A bad workman blames his tools _____________________________________________. They Brag Most That Can Do the Least _____________________________________________ . you may have studied and some of them may be new to you.Activity 1 Pick 2-3 idioms and build a short story or a paragraph on it.

II. Find the correct endings to the proverbs:
a.

You can't teach an old dog
___________________________________________________________________

b.

Once bitten
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c.

In for a penny
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d.

it never rains
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e.

too many cooks
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f.

a friend in need
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g.

a stitch in time
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h.

never put off until tomorrow
___________________________________________________________________

i.

what the eye does not see
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j.

like father
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k.

one swallow
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l.

promises
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m.

better safe
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n.

out of sight,
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o.

listeners
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114

III. Which of the proverbs mean the same as these sentences.
1

It is not a good idea to decide if a thing is good or bad just by how it appears at first or by its
outward appearance.
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______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

2
When a bad thing happens there is always a positive aspect to it.
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3
If you don't see someone for a long time you like them better.
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4
When you are in a strange place (temporarily) it is better to follow the local customs.
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5
You should be happy with what you have got even if it is less than what you want.
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6

In many areas in life if you do not confront a problem when it starts it can deteriorate rapidly
therefore it is much better to act soon.
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7

This proverb was probably written by someone who owns his own house and doesn't stay up all
night dancing.
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8
Don't become very upset by trivialities.
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115

9
Don't take risks.
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10

Those who cast threats are seldom man enough to carry them out.

IV.
use the proverbs given below in sentences of your own:
Spare the rod and spoil the child.
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One today is worth two tomorrow
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Need teaches a plan
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Put all your eggs in one basket
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The end justifies the means
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Wonders will never cease!
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Better lose the saddle than the horse
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A watched pot never boils
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Every path has its puddle
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Hatred is as blind as love
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116

117 .

118 .

Find pictures that describe the following proverbs. hungry man is an angry man 3. the devil and the deep sea Between 1. Empty vessels make the most noise 119 . burnt child dreads fire 2.

A penny saved is a penny gained 7. Faint heart never won the fair lady 6. an idle brain is the devil’s workshop 5. as you sow.4. A rolling stone gathers no moss 8. so shall you reap 120 .

9. barking dogs seldom bite 121 .

charity begins at home 14.10. call a spade a spade 13. all that glitters is not gold 122 . birds of a feather flock together 12. a bird in hand is worth two in the bush 11.

123 .

there’s a way discretion is the best part of valor any time means no time dead men tell no lies better late then never an ounce of discretion is worth a pound of wit a friend in need is a friend indeed first come. first served a man is as old as he feels great talkers are little doers ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 124 .Use the following proverbs in sentences of your own where there’s a will.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 125 .

And the cow (only / give) ______________________ me milk if I get her some hay.” 4 The mouse.” said the mouse. Anita ____________ (clean) the toilet.Lecture – 25 Conditionals Practice Exercises :I. 8 Frank _______________(play) the DJ if the others__________ (bring) along their CDs. 2 If Sue _____________ (cut) the onions for the salad. however. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give)_________________ me some milk.” 2 The mouse. 10 If they all (do) their best. So everybody comes up with a few conditions. just to make sure that the others will also do something. 4 If Bob _______________ (tidy) up the kitchen. Mary and Conor ____________ (make) the sandwiches. Everybody wants to party. however. went to the farmer. 6 If Alan and Rebecca ______________ (organize) the food. went to the cow.” 126 . Some friends are planning a party. 1 If Caroline and Sue_______________( prepare) the salad. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. 5 Elaine ______________ (buy) the drinks if somebody _________ (help) her carry the bottles. “Well. II. 7 If Bob _________ (looks) after the barbecue. I (give)_______________ you back your tail if you fetched me some milk. 9 Alan ___________ (mix) the drinks if Jane ____________ (give) him some of her cocktail recipes.” 3 And the cow said. Complete the story “The Cat and the Mouse” using conditional sentences: 1 Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse's tail off. “Well. “The cat (give / only) ______________ me back my tail if I fetch her some milk. I would give you milk if you (get)_____________ me some hay. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. Sue ______________ (let) the guests in. And the cat said. Phil____________ (decorate) the house. “Give me back my tail. the party (be) success. but nobody's really keen on preparing and organising the party. Caroline______________ (peel) the mushrooms. 3 Jane ______________ (hoover) the sitting room if Aaron and Tim ____________ (move) the furniture. Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.

The farmer gave the mouse hay. And the farmer will only give me hay if the butcher (have)__________________ some meat for him. 16 If the mouse (not/receive) _________________ milk from the cow. the mouse (not/receive) _________________milk from the cow. however. 13 If the baker (not / give) _______________ the mouse bread.5 And the farmer said. But if she (hate / not)______________ boat trips. “Well. and so the baker gave the mouse bread. The butcher gave the mouse meat. 14 If the butcher (refuse) _____________her any meat. the mouse gave the butcher bread.” 8 The mouse. I (give) __________ you bread if you promise never to steal my corn or meal. And the cow will only give me milk if she (get) __________ some hay. the mouse gave the cow hay. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.” 6 The mouse. 15 If the farmer (not/be)______________willing to give the mouse hay. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give) _____________________ me milk. she (enjoy) __________ a riverboat cruise on the Mississippi. 1 Do you like jazz music? Because if you (like)_______ jazz. the mouse gave the farmer meat. the baker (not/give)____________the mouse bread. But unfortunately I don't have time. however. And the farmer (only / give) _____________ me hay if I get him some meat. the butcher (refuse) ______________ to give her meat for the farmer.” 9 And the baker said. “The cat (give / only)____________________ me back my tail if I fetch her some milk. And the butcher will not give me meat if you (bake / not) _______________ him a bread. they (call /not)__________ the place Nouvelle-Orléans in honor of him. the farmer (not/be) __________willing to give the mouse hay. And the cow (give / not) ___________ me milk if I don't get her hay. And the cat gave the mouse her tail back. 127 . went to the baker. “Well. 11 But imagine what would have happened otherwise: 12 If the mouse (promised/not) _______________ never to steal corn or meal. 2 Vanessa hates boat trips. you (love) __________ New Orleans. she (not/get) __________back her tail III. I would give you meat if you (make) ________________ the baker bake me a bread.” 7 And the butcher said. the mouse gave the cat milk. The cow gave the mouse milk. I would give you hay if you (bring) _____________ me some meat. went to the butcher.” 10 The mouse promised not to steal. 3 I (do) _________a course in jazz dancing if I (have)________more time. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. Complete the sentences according to the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. 4 If the founders of the city (hate) ___________the King of France. “Well.

we (miss) ________the bus. we would have gone sailing. 20 She (come)_________to our party if she (be / not) ____________on holiday. I'd help you carry the piano. I (watch) ___________the football match on TV. 16 I (earn) __________a lot of money if I (get)_________ that job.5 It (be) _____________ silly if we tried to walk there. 21 I (buy) ________these shoes if they (fit) _______________ 22 It (surprise / not) ____________me if he (know / not) ____________the answer. a wet-suit. we (hear) ___________the news. . 30 I (travel) __________to London if I don't get a cheap flight. 9 If it (rains) ____________. 24 If I (be) _______________ stronger. 25 If we'd seen you. 7 She'd have taken me to the station if her car (break) ____________ down. he won't help you. it (break) ________________. 10 (Look) ______________after their dog again if they go on holiday this year? 11 Would you mind if I (use) _____________ your mobile? 12 I (open) ________________ the mail if it had contained a virus. 18 If she (hurry / not)__________. 28 If you drop the vase. we (stop) _________________. yesterday. 19 If we (listen) __________to the radio. 8 If you (ask) ____________. he (reach) __________his goals. him tomorrow. 6 I (watch) __________ the film only if the reviews are good. we'll say hello. 26 If we (meet) __________. I wouldn't go scuba-diving. 17 If he (try) ________harder. 23 If you (switch) __________on the lights. 14 (be) _____________ that strict if you'd known the truth? 15 If you (go) __________out with your friends tonight. 13 Even if I (have) _____________. 128 . you (fall / not) ____________over the chair. 29 I wouldn't go to school by bus if I (has) ___________a driving licence. 27 He would have repaired the car himself if he (has) _____________ the tools.

Lecture–33 TEST BASED ON ALL GRAMMAR TOPICS _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 129 .

g. Decide whether the following Conditional Sentences are Type I or Type II. i. h. If they go to Australia. b. If you move here. they will go whale-watching. she will see a doctor. he would have a solution for our problem. I'd lend you money if I had any. a. e. I wouldn't buy that computer if I didn't need it.Lecture – 36 Revision :______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Conditionals :- Type I or Type II 1. f. You'll live longer if you stop smoking. I will only dance if they play my favorite song. If Sarah didn't go with John. If she doesn't feel better tomorrow. If she had a mobile. 130 . c. j. If Bob were here. Anna would try to become his girlfriend. d. I would call her. we will see each other more often.

you'll be seriously ill. Choose the correct option: 1. If I were you. • wouldn't do • wouldn’t have done • won’t have done • won’t do 131 . • ____________ she pays up. 3. • I don't want to go out ____________ it's raining. I'll call the police. he'll go to jail. • ____________ he gets caught. • shall tell • will tell • would tell • should tell 2. • I won't be able to do it ____________ you help me. • ____________ we get the cheque today. If I were you. I'll leave without you. • We'll be in trouble ____________ it goes wrong. I'll be furious.2. • ____________ you stop making that noise. I ____________ her straightaway. Fill in the blanks with ‘if’ or ‘unless’: • ____________ you are caught drinking and driving. • ____________ he gets caught. we're going to be in real trouble. • ____________ you stop smoking. • ____________ you're late.I hate getting wet. he'll make a fortune. • She'll never agree to that ____________ you accept her suggestions. you will lose your licence. I'm not doing it alone. we must bank it. • ____________ they're late again. • I won't do it ____________ you agree to help me. I____________ that.

3. • would be • would have been • will be • will have been 4. If you did that. If I'd known. ____________you buy it? • will • would • shall • should 132 . it ____________ cause trouble • will • would • shall • should 8. If I'd been there. If you did that. things ____________different now. If you liked it. ____________her to call me? • will you tell • would you have told • would you tell • will you have told 6. • will help • would help • would have helped • will have helped 5. Should you see her. I ____________. it ____________cause trouble • would probably • might probably • will probably • shall probably 7.

what ____________ ? • will you do • would you do • would you have done • will you have done 11. If I'd known. ____________ you want to do it? • will • would • shall • should 10. Were you to fail. If you'd been. I would ____________ there. • go • have gone • went • have to go 12. If it took all day. ____________ you do me a favour? • will • would • could • should 13. how would you feel? • get • to get • getting • will be getting 133 . Were you ____________ the job.9. If you are there. there ____________ you have helped? • will • could • would • should 14.

3. 2. I'd never have got it done on time • Jane helped the speaker • Jane didn't help the speaker It might not have been Sally • The speaker thinks that it probably was Sally • The speaker is fairly sure it wasn't Sally John.. • This is about something that is unlikely to happen • This is about something that has a good chance of happening If they win. could you ask Helen to give me a quick ring? • John is likely to see Helen • John might possibly see Helen 134 . I'll play a round of golf tomorrow. 6. 4. If you'd arrived on time. I'd get in touch with a solicitor • This is about something that is likely to happen in the near future • This is about something now If I won the lottery. 9. they'll be top of the Premier Division.. 5. Choose the correct answer.4. • This could well happen • This is unlikely to happen But for Jane's help. 1. 8. • This is as likely to happen as if the speaker had said 'If you see him.. 7. I'd go on a cruise • This is about the present • This is about the future If you should see him.' If the weather stays good. none of this would have happened • This sentence is about something that happened in the past • This sentence is about something that is very unlikely to happen If I were you. should you see her. tell him I've got the video he was looking for • This is less likely to happen than if the speaker had said 'If you see him.

• The person should stop working late • It's alright to work late If you see him. would you keep it to yourself • The speaker is definitely going to tell the person what happened • The speaker might tell the person what happened As long as you do what the doctor told you. If I drink tea in the morning. 14. will you tell him that I need to talk to him • There's a reasonable chance of seeing him • There's a reasonable chance of seeing him. If I told you what happened. you should be better in a few days • The person will probably get bette • It is unlikely that the person will get better If I were in your shoes. I'd be celebrating • This is unlikely to happen except in the distant future • This is describing an imaginary present situation If I were in your shoes.10. 15. you'll never stop being so tired. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional 135 . 12. 2. I'd make sure that it is paid on time • The speaker is giving an order • The speaker is giving an order Unless you stop working so late. it makes me feel sick. 13. Identify The Conditionals 1. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional I'll tell her if she comes. 11. 5.

could you tell him that I really need to speak to him. 6.3. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If he's there. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If I had the time. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional 136 . 7. 4. I'd have helped had I been there. I'd buy it as soon as possible. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If I were you. I'd help you. 5. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional I would have handled things differently if I'd been in charge.

8. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If she'd tried harder. 11. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional 137 . • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If you work hard enough. 12. who will be held responsible? • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If she went. 10. she could report back to us all. you may well pass. Water boils if you heat it to a hundred degrees celsius. 9. she might have succeeded. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If we fail.

• Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If you ever need help. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional 138 . we deal with it immediately. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional If anyone complains. just ask me.13. 15. If he'd studied at a good college. he might have got a better grade. 14.

Writing Skills 139 .

Lecture – 4 Big Brother Text based Questions :1 Write in your own words the summary of the story. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Keeping in mind the relationship of the brothers in the lesson relate any story based on the relationship shared by two siblings 2 ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 Relate / Comment on the relationship you share with your brother / sister ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 140 .

Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. Points for the Story ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 141 . Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which they will share in the class.Vocabulary exercises based on text: 1.

1. Who is your favorite character in the story and why? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 142 . ? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What would you change if you have to rewrite the story. Summarize the story ? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.

The narrator and his brother. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Discuss the relationship of the narrator with his brother and the change that occurred with the passage of time. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Discuss-Wisdom comes with age not with education ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 143 .Questions Based On Text :1. Role Play.

Discuss-Degree is not important to be successful. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5.4. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 144 . Discuss-Elders should allow the youngsters to learn from their own experience.

Lecture – 8 The Portrait of a Lady Text Based Questions :1. What details given in ‘The portrait of a Lady give that impression. How does Khushwant Singh describe the daily routine of his grandmother while she lived in the village. Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Grandmother is portrayed as a kind and religious woman. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. How does Khushwant Singh describe the death of his grandmother? 1. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. Points for the Story ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 145 . ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3.

____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ 146 .______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.

Lecture -12 (FD Roosevelt) Questions based on Text Q1. Name the axis powers and speak in detail on at least one of them and its role in the world war? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Summarizing speech visuals :______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Teacher to tell students to come prepared with at least one speech and students to summarize it (Home work) ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 147 .

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ (Martin Luther – I have a Dream) Q1. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to America but to the entire world. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 148 . Discuss the role of America in preserving the balance of power in the presence of the present scenario. Comment on this statement in the light of the above speech. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q3.Q2. They say that if you want peace be prepared for war.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q3. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 149 . What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q2. Summarize the above speech in your own words. Do you find similarity with the dream of Mahatma Gandhi.

gender. country . Compare this speech with your own views on Aids. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not limited to one race . ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 150 . ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q2. or region but looms large.(Mary Fisher) Q1.

) Write three examples: Example one: ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. *NOTE: Dialogue is a conversation between 2 or more characters. ___________________________________________________ Example three: ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. Write some dialogue which advances the action by relating to a conflict? (Include ___________ vs _____________ in the explanation.) Write two examples.Lecture – 16 Dialogue writing based on movie clippings and speech visuals The following dialogue sheet can be used to teach students to include the basic characteristics of good dialogue in their own writing. Write some dialogue which contains conversational give and take? (Where the speakers talk back and forth. Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's occupation. Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's nationality? Explain your choice. Explain your choice. ______________________________________ B. ___________________________________________________ E. Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's social position or social class? Explain your choice. Example one: ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. The form may be modified to include whatever characteristics the instructor desires. _______________________________________ D. A. ___________________________________________________ 151 . ___________________________________________________ Example two: ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. ______________________________________ C. ___________________________________________________ Example two: ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice.

___________________________________________________ Q1. Example one: ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________ Example two: ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. Students to see the clippings of movie scenes and write the dialogues for the characters ? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: Write down the fictitious conversation between the characters you have seen in the video clipping. Write some dialogue which reveals something about the character and personality of the speaker? Write two examples.F. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 152 . At least 25 dialogues.

Lecture -18 ( 2nd EVALUATION) BASED ON ALL WRITING TOPICS :_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 153 .

20 REVISION _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 154 .Lecture .

Lecture -22 Comparative analysis of themes of texts and speeches :_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 155 .

. I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the mystery. Give the meanings of the underlined words. that’s your fault. poring over books. better go home and play Gulli danda* to your heart’s content. to burn the midnight oil. riding the hostel gate like a motorcar…. cricket matches every day. Why blow Dada’s** hard –earned money for nothing?” I would burst into tears after this. I would be tempted to give up…why not go home. I was only in the fifth grade…how could I attempt to dissect such intricate stuff ? I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground. What was the speaker fond of? 2. a new time table sans fun and frolics. My brother would fling the first question rudely “Where were you?” My answer was a meek silence. guilty that I was. conveying the acceptance of my crime. do you not see me toiling. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 156 . I spend more than two years in each grade. It takes me two years. Climbing up and down the stairs. throwing pebbles in the air.. He would then caution me in a flurry of kind and rude words. have you ever seen me taking a break. and you had it.Lecture – 26 Comprehension passages from essays and text in reading module Comprehension Passage – Big Brother Q1: Read the following passage and answer the questions asked below: At the end of this trail was the image of a man.. For a second.. even scholars never take it easy. flying paper butterflies.I had great fun. I was happy being a dullard but god save me from this struggle… But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve. ‘I broke my head’ means ___________________________________. Nor did I dare to ask him. 1. if you fail to see. This is no child’s play dear. There are umpteen plays. He was in the ninth standard. He would hurt me with such choicest words. Slog for months and you barely get to reach the shore. ‘to burn the midnight oil’ means ______________________________. but back in the hostel room.. And I ask.. you will probably spend a lifetime. And despite this devotion. fairs.. If you want to waste your life thus. “Learn English in this fashion. What kind of relations were the two brothers sharing? Explain in 25-30 words.. an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.

that's indeed possible. only if it fails.whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. but Dada in your place. But you are wrong.12 lads carrying bamboo sticks as weapons. editors. . thanks to the kind of examiners we have these days.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. you will surely panic and send a telegram to Dada. but where's your self-respect?” “I can read your mind all right. have some respect for your grade. " "And." 157 .. You feel you have caught up with me and that I have no right to question you. Tomorrow. He caught me by the wrist and asked tersely “Are you out of your mind? Roaming like a vagabond with these hooligans. I am five years elder to you and will always remain so…This truth will prevail and even God can’t challenge it. What did the speaker used to do after being scolded by his elder brother? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Passage 2 One pleasant evening. if I fall sick. will he call for a doctor. constellations in space. I know of several eight-graders of yester years who made name as magistrates. wives of Henry the VIII." he added with a wry smile. leaders and scholars. Did our Amma*** and Dada ever go to school? The government in America. He will first try some home remedy. they may not know. collectors. would never react like that. Our mission was to collect as many fallen kites as we could. . but can we ever match their wisdom in worldly matters. He was probably on his way back home from the bazaar. I set about running after colorful kites. I was one among the army of 10. And look at yourself? You are intelligent no doubt. "I have loads of worldly knowledge that’s way above academic grades.. We were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother. If not anything.

What happened when the narrator was playing with his friends? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Why can’t the big brother ever lose the right of scolding the narrator? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 158 . ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ‘you have caught up with me’ means_______________________.Give the meanings of the underlined words. ‘Are you out of your mind?’ means ________________________.

What is more important for the big brother: bookish knowledge or worldly knowledge and why? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Vocabulary Exercise from Big Brother Match the following synonyms: • Grade • Dissuade • Motto • Defy • Flunk • Etched • Dissect • Intricate • Eerie • Flurry Match the following: • Toil • Umpteen • Dullard • Breach • Penance • Crestfallen • Rage • Replete • Anarchy • Thud 159 .

stroke. of the dainty cabinets containing priceless curiosities and of the little coquettish perfumed reception rooms made for chatting at five o'clock with intimate friends. pleasing Terse. skip Remittance. but she was unhappy as if she had really fallen from a higher station. at the shabby chairs. feeling herself born to enjoy all delicacies and all luxuries. coil. with men famous and sought after. dribble. ooze Twine. whom all women envy and whose attention they all desire. debt. allowance. into a family of clerks. horrible. flog. bounce. jerk. loved. sober. since with women there is neither caste nor rank. staff. bizarre. and often make of women of the people the equals of the very greatest ladies. illumined by tall bronze candelabra. miserably. All those things. fortunately. and of two great footmen in knee breeches who sleep in the big armchairs. large. grace and charm take the place of family and birth. pithy Queer. at the bareness of the walls. married by any rich and distinguished man. eradicate. for beauty.Pick the odd one out of the following: ? Ghastly. no expectations. wretchedly Comprehension Passage— The Necklace Read the given passage and answer the questions asked below: The girl was one of those pretty and charming young creatures who sometimes are born. the ugliness of the curtains. She thought of silent antechambers hung with Oriental tapestry. She had no dowry. of which another woman of her rank would never even have been conscious. a supple mind are their sole hierarchy. rope Scribble. She was distressed at the poverty of her dwelling. Natural ingenuity. She dressed plainly because she could not dress well. frightful. 160 . Mathilde suffered ceaselessly. as if by a slip of fate. eccentric Trickle.. understood. no way of being known. so she let herself be married to a little clerk of the Ministry of Public Instruction. made drowsy by the oppressive heat of the stove. lash Hapless. scrawl. concise. doodle Tug. instinct for what is elegant. She thought of long reception halls hung with ancient silk. haul. The sight of the little Breton peasant who did her humble housework aroused in her despairing regrets and bewildering dreams. tortured her and made her angry. payment Thrash.

1. Describe in detail the kind of life Mathilde dreamed of and what she had on the real surface of life.
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2. What does make Mathilde distressed?
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3. Elaborate the character-sketch of Mathilde.
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4. Give the meanings of the underlined words.
Distinguished, ingenuity, hierarchy, shabby, bewildering
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161

5. Use the word ‘grace’ as noun and as verb.
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Lecture – 30
Formal Letter/Business Letter and E-mails
1. Explain various parts of Letter as follows:
Address of the sender
Date Line
Address of the recipient
Subject:
Salutation
Body_1Paragraph
Body_2 Paragraph
Body_3 Closing line
Complementary Close
Signature Name

2: Arrange the following in order.
Name
Saluation

Date Line

Address of
Recipient

Address of
Sender

Complementary Close

Body of letter

Signature Subject

163

P.G. Join together Join 12. issue of the Times of India contained an advertisement for the Post of Project manager in your esteemed organisation. The March 15. Current Status Status 7. in Manufacturing Engineering. Period 15. City of Renton Renton 5. First and foremost first 9. After reading the required qualifications I believe I can meet your Firm’s needs as I have led various similar projects. words and phrases Avoid using words with similar meanings. agreement 11. Postpone until later Postpone 16. XYZ Street Delawar Road Karnal 1122990 Om Parkash April 6. during the course of my B. Month of November November 13. Filled to capacity full. filled 8. Rearrange the jumbled format of the given letter Subject: To apply for the post of Project Manager. Close Proximity Close.E.____________________________________164 . Since I could maintain my high C. I hope to meet you soon. Added bonus bonus 3. my university awarded me merit scholarship. Future Plans ` Plans 10.A. Yours Faithfully Campbell Companies Cannaught Palace New Delhi 110005 As my enclosed resume indicates. Past History.E. 10 Dear Mr John Amen I shall be pleased to provide any further information you may need and hope I may be given the opportunity of meeting you. 12 noon noon 2. Total number Total 1. Advance notice notice 4. near 6. experience 14. For example: 1. Drop one and see if your sentence still makes sense.3: Cut redundant ideas. I have an M. Refer back refer 17.. General Consensus Consensus. Past experience history. Period of time time. 2010.

Break into 2 groups to brainstorm and write a list of possible problems Have each group choose what they feel is an important and or regularly occurring problem Ask groups to write a quick outline of the problem II. then correcting and finally. responding to the letter. and you will have the opportunity to work in excellent laboratories __________________ Formal Letter Letter Writing Instructions :. S for syntax. Salary is negotiable.e.m.Letter of Complaints I. • If you are a recent post-graduate in science and interested in research. Ask groups to compose a letter of complaint about the problem they have previously outline Have groups exchange finished letters. apply for the post of Junior Research Associate in our R&D Division.p.) While correcting the letter have groups mix and discuss their responses to the problem Redistribute corrected letters to original groups and have students try to correct their letters using the cues given by the correction \ 165 . ask the other group generate vocabulary used when responding to complaints Have two groups write their generated vocabulary on the board Ask for further vocabulary and/or structures that the opposing group may have missed III. Have one group generate vocabulary and structures used when complaining. UP. Collect student letters and correct reply by pointing out which types of mistakes have been made (i. You should hold a post-graduate degree in mathematics/physics/chemistry or Biology. IV. If selected you will be given a Research Assistantship of Rs 8000/. PR for preposition etc. Apply with particulars within 15 days. draft Job Application Letters in response to the following advertisement: • Wanted a Plant Manager at our new factory in Gaziabad.Worksheet no 2 for letter writing Assuming that you have the requisite credentials. Engineering Graduates with minimum 5 years experience in manufacturing industries as Plant Managers can apply. Each group should proceed by first reading.

and how important it is to follow the formal business letter format. no slang or casual chat. address. and cell phones. with more than one paragraph. you may say “Dear Sally”. • Neatness counts – no errors in spelling or grammar. Company. • All parts in the letter are “left justified”. title. or “best regards”. • Salutation – If the person is not a friend. city. A thank you can be expressed with the simple click of a button. Go over each part in detail. Should be clear and concise. • Organized in a very specific way following exact format. texting. 166 . Hand out the example business letter to students. Smith”. “yours truly”. city. Business Letter Parts (Block Style Format): In order from top to bottoms: • Return address – address of letter writer. state and zip code. • Body of Letter – this is the purpose of the letter. state and zip code. write “Dear Mr. First and last name. • Closing – “sincerely”. or lined up on the left. however too often it is a simple thank you. Here are some topics to discuss: • Business Letters are a formal way to communicate with a business or companies. address. etc… • Space for a handwritten signature • Typed name of writer Thank You Letters Letter writing is not as common with the new technology of email. • The date • Inside address – of recipient (who you are writing the letter to) First and last name.BUSINESS LETTER WRITING LESSON PLAN Procedure: Teachers: discuss with your students the importance of proper. If the person is a friend. clear communication to a business. • “Formal English”.

Signature Lines: Everyone should sign their letter. Writing a thank you letter requires a little more effort and reflection. Folding: After you have written an excellent letter. Best regards is suitable for this type of letter writing. distribute the thank you letters to the students before commencing the letter writing lesson. teacher. policeman or other person in the community a thank you letter. write each student a thank you letter over the course of the year. After the child reads their letter they will personally feel the value of the thank you letter. Often younger children are very willing to write to their doctor or dentist to thank them for an enjoyable experience. Greeting and Salutation: For a thank you letter it is best to address it Dear Mr. The letter is sent with good intent but it should show that you have put effort into writing the letter. A conversational tone but refrain from slang. postal code. province. If the letter is informal you may wish to write their full name. Thank you Letter Template 167 . the time required to write the letter is outweighed by other activities. However. Near the end of the year. Be sure to fold the letter with care. Students are to write a friend. and country if being sent internationally. Proofread: It is imperative to proofread your letter to ensure it is free of grammatical and spelling errors. Letter Writing Lesson Plan Teach students the art of writing letters and the impact they create.A simple thank you is polite and appreciated but a thank you letter is a little more personal and thoughtful. the letter is being sent. city. If the letter has spelling errors it suggests it was rushed and written carelessly. As well. Letter Writing Etiquette Date: List the date. do not crumple the letter into the envelope. The date should be written in full with no abbreviations. If a student feels the impact of the letter they may be more willing to write a letter. Teach students the basics of letter writing and give them a sample of a thank you letter. Choose paper size to match your envelope. If a teacher is able to input the time. doctor. all the information is written in full with no abbreviations. Address: Includes street number. Closing: Write an informal closing as you are writing a thank you letter. as we age. Body Text: Write your letter as if you are speaking to them in person. The letter is to express the students’ sincere gratitude for their service. The sender must think about why they are thankful and what the person did to make their day a little more enjoyable. Smith. name.

Children can make a similar planner for their own work. On. 2007 Johnny Gage Paramedic 123 Sunshine Lane Toronto. M9M 1C5 Dear Mr. How can we fix the problem? 168 . Why are changes needed? The play equipment is dangerous. Who gets our letter? The mayo. Gage: Body Paragraph: 3-4 paragraphs thanking the recipient for their service to you. What is the problem? The park needs fixing up.May 30. Questions to Answer in the Body What service they provided and why you appreciated it? How their service made you feel? Why you want to thank them? Best Regards Theodore Rainbow A Persuasive Letter Idea Web What is the problem? Who gets our letter? Why are changes needed? How can we fix the problem? Writing a Persuasive Letter Idea Web You can use this graphic organizer to model how to begin organizing ideas.

highway • I interstate 169 . boulevard • Rd. Circle • XING crossing • Hwy. east • W. Sign your name at the end of the letter under a closing word such as Sincerely followed by a comma. This is where you write your message. avenue • Blvd. Here are some common abbreviations that you may need when you have small spaces to write a word. west • St. road • Dr. lane • Cr. street • Ave. south • E. Write for your reader! The closing is the ending of your letter. • N. north • S. drive • Ln. Remember to keep your writing clear and easy to read.A Persuasive Letter Revising Checklist The Parts of a Letter A letter usually includes the following parts: The heading of the letter usually includes the address and date at the top of the letter. The greeting is the opening like Dear Mom followed by a comma for a friendly letter or a colon for a business letter. The body is the heart of the letter.

Lecture -34 REVISION General writing Practice based on the speeches and text given in the reading module Q1: Compare and contrast the theme and mood/style of the poems ‘Casabianca’ and ‘Evelyn Hope.’ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: Bring out the chief traits of the personality of Shaheed Bhagat Singh after reading his letters. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q3: Summarize the ideas of Gandhi about the existence of God ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 170 .

4 Bring out the elements of irony and pathos in the story.______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Q. ‘The Necklace’ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ 171 .

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