File Handling: 1.

stream(input stream, output stream) input stream - flow of data from RAM to Hard Disk output stream - flow of data from Hard Disk to RAM 2. stream class(ifstream, ofstream, fstream) ifstream - class used for opening a file in input mode ofstream - class used for opening a file in output mode fstream - class used for opening a file in input or in output or in both mode s 3. modes(ios::out vs ios::app vs ios::ate) ios::out - creates a file if does not exist. erases previous contents. ios::app - create a file if does not exist. does not erase previous contents and writes at EOF ios::ate - opens a file & position itself at the EOF. Input/Output can occur anywhere in the file 4. get() vs getline() - get() reads a string from the buffer but leaves the deli miter in the buffer getline() reads a string from the buffer including the d elimiter 5. read() & write() - for reading from & writing to a binary file respectively 6. Types of file - binary file(faster than text file, already in binary form, no t easy to understand text file(slower than binary file, easy to understand) 7. steps delete/modify file - modify(open a file in input as well as in output m ode). Single file required - delete(open original file in input mode & temp. fi le in output mode). delete the original file & rename the temp file. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Array: 1. use of array - for storing a large amount of data using a single name. 2. techniques of sorting bubble sort - consecutive elements are compared and swapped if necessary. select sort - finds the smallest element from the unsorted and put it in th e sorted by swapping. insertion sort - comparing an element from the unsorted array with all the elements before it and put it in appropriate position by shifting. 3. base address(can't be changed) 4. static/dynamic memory allocation static memory allocation - memory allocated during compile time. e.g., memo ry allocated to variable, array. dynamic memory allocation - memory allocated during run time. e.g., memory allocated to pointer. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Linked List 1. use of pointer, size of pointer(base address can change), self referential st ructure, constant pointer use of pointer - for dynamic allocation of memory. optimum utilization of

stack/queue ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Miscellaneous 1. getch() vs getche() 5. TCL) 2. in.memory size of pointer . types of constructor 9. DBMS/levels of database abstraction 7. access specifier 2.a structure which contains a pointer of its t ype. class vs structure 4. copy constructor by reference is always two bytes irrespective of data type self referential structure . 2. between.cin object of istream class. is. PK vs AK vs FK. use of distinct. properties of constructor & destructor. call by value & reference 3. use of new/delete operator new . inline function 10. cout object of ostream class ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SQL 1. function overloading 6. where vs having 4. constant pointer . its base address cannot be changed. DML. when destructor is called. order by. constructors 7. types of SQL(DDL.this operator is used for allocating memory at runtime delete . order of calling. group by 3.pointer always points to same memory location.this operator is used for deallocating memory allocated using new operator 3. unique vs PK . union/union all/minus 6. cartesian product/cross join/degree/cardinality 5.