Urinary tract obstruction: Pressure flow studies are done in a case of diabetic neurogenic bladder Dynamic scintigraphy is used

to assess renal blood flow and in such a case it's u sed to establish the extent of renal perfusion post-transplantation Diagnosis of renal failure Wegener's granulomatosis : generalized vasculitis that involved upper resp tract "rhinitis" , lungs and kidneys Hemolytic uremic syndrome: multi-disorder of thrombosis of microvasculature with acute G.N. , it's the most common cause of acute renal failure in childhood Amyloidosis: is disorder of protein metabolism. Patients present s with heart fai lure , nephrotic syndrome or bleeding. "Congo red" stains the amyloid into pink. Biopsies are taken from gums or rectum Acute interstitial nephritis: usually occurs as hypersensitivity to some drugs as Allopurinol, penicillamine and NSAIDS "analgesic nephopathy Chronic joint pain The most common cause of post operative arthritis is gout Pyrophosphate arthropathy: aspiration of synovial fluid reveals positively birefr ingent crystals Systemic sclerosis is associated with increase of anti-nuclear antibodies Anti-centomere antibodies :CREST syndrome (calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esopha geal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia) , a variant from systemic s clerosis Anti-Ro antibodies : Sjogrens's and systemic lupus Anti-Jo-1 : Polymyositis and dermatomyositis ANCA : Wegener's granulomatosis and Henoch Schonline purpura Anti-mitochondreal : primary biliary cirrosis ANA and anti -smooth muscle antibodies (ASM): type I autoimmune hepatitis Anti- microsomal liver kidney antibodies: type II autoimmune hepatitis