:Extraction

enzymes in cells can break down oils in cells some oils highly unsaturated and easily oxidized – heat in air –> rapid oxidation Cold expression [1] Steam treatment + expression [2] Solvent extraction [3]

Cold method [1 ]
Castor beans
roll to break down testa winnow’ to separate seed coat from seed‘

Olives
put into press light pressure applied gives the 1st grade oil used in pharmacy oil washed to remove pigment floats to the top and is skimmed off oil recovered – not economical 30-40%

Steam treatment + expression [2 ]
material left over from [1] undergoes steam treatment repressed to get 2nd fraction of oil

Solvent extraction [3 ] to get 100% of oil out last portion gives a low grade used to industrial paints etc left with high protein+fibre – fed to animals once ricin removed Exampels Cocoa seeds fat is solid so can’t cold express use hot expression with steam treatment oil is a byproduct of the cocoa industry Cod liver and halibut livers heated by steam process in an inert atmosphere mixture separated by centrifugation oil dried in drying towers gives a clear bright highly refined oil cooled to 0oC to remove saturated stearic fats leaves polyunsaturated triglycerides standardised for vitamin content stored in airtight containers in the dark Spermacetin ensure well separated from normal triglycerides washed with alkali .

Wool fat has to be cleaned up acidified to precipitate waxes free fatty acids removed by forming salts wax extracted with acetate product can be bleached to give light yellow colour or left as dark yellow wax .

orange. bergamot rasping process breaks oil sacs in rind pour cold water over and then separate oil and water Enfleurage petals (rose) placed between glass sheets covered in sheep or pig fat oil seeps into fat and can be extracted with methanol Destructive distillation produces a different product from the one started : with pine and juniper heated to exclude air over aqueous part . herb + water heated and oil distilled over Water distillation wood chips in chamber and heated until water distills over crushed sample must be stable Cold expression (citrus fruit oil (lemon.Oil Extraction depends where oils lies and its stability Steam distillation gentle.wood naphtha (ethanol and crude acetic acid) to attract juniper oil non-aqueous part – resin (pine tar) to attract C5-C20 molecules including monoterpenes like a fractional distillation .

Menthol and camphor nearly solid at room temperature can isolate by freezing oils out cheaper to synthesize camphor but generally extracted from plants .

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