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- Power Loss Minimization in Distribution System
- PAPER Jaswanti Thakur INDIA
- Fast Power Flow
- optimal placement of dg
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A. Parizad

Iran University of Science & Technology, Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Tehran, Iran Parizad@ieee.org

A. Khazali

Iran University of Science & Technology, Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Tehran, Iran akhazali@ee.iust.ac.ir

M. Kalantar

Iran University of Science & Technology, Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Tehran, Iran Kalantar@iust.ac.ir

Abstract— Loss minimization in distribution networks has considered as great significance recently since the trend to the distribution generation will require the most efficient operating scenario for economic viability variations. Furthermore, voltage instability phenomena can occur in distribution systems and caused a major blackout in the network. The decline of voltage stability level will restrict the increase of load served by distribution companies. To control distribution networks, it can be used from Distributed Generation (DG). DG is increasingly drawing great attention and development of DGs will bring new chances to traditional distribution systems. However, Installation of DG in non-optimal places can result in an increasing in system losses, voltage problems, etc. This paper presents two scenarios for distributed generation placement in a distributions system. In the first scenario only minimizing the total real power losses in the system is considered. Both the optimal size and location are obtained as outputs from the exact loss formula. The next scenario considered the voltage stability index (SI) to find optimum placement. In these scenarios Different DG placements are compared in terms of power loss, loadability and voltage stability index. To improve power transfer capacity, two line stability indices have been introduced. Distribution power flow solution algorithm is based on the equivalent current injection that uses the bus-injection to branchcurrent (BIBC) and branch-current to bus-voltage (BCBV) matrices. These scenarios are executed on typical 33 and 30 bus test system and yields efficiency in improvement of voltage profile and reduction of power losses; it also may permit an increase in power transfer capacity, maximum loading, and voltage stability margin.

Keywords-Distributed generation; radial systems; Distribution load flow; power losses; stability index; Optimal placement.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Distributed generation (DG) is associated with the use of small generation units located close to or in the load centers. DG can be implemented either by end user, by project developer, or by distribution utilities. Final consumers get an alternative supply for peak consumption or a back up option. Project developers have a business opportunity in the energy market. Distribution

Proceedings of ICEE 2010, May 11-13, 2010 978-1-4244-6760-0/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE

utilities see it as an interesting option to reduce losses, to deal with the high cost of not supplied energy, or to avoid or delay network expansion. The problem of DG allocation and sizing is of great importance. Studies have indicated that inappropriate selection of location and size of DG, may lead to greater system losses than the losses without DG. For that reason, the use of an optimization method capable of indicating the best solution for a given distribution network can be very useful for the system planning engineer. Optimum allocation cause to utilities takes advantage of reduction in system losses; improve voltage regulation and improvement in reliability of supply. DG could be considered as one of the viable options to ease some of the problems (e.g. high loss, low reliability, poor power quality, congestion in transmission system) faced by the power systems, apart from meeting the energy demand of ever growing loads[1]-[3]. The optimum DG allocation can be modeled as optimum active power compensation. DG allocation studies are relatively new, unlike capacitor allocation that has been studied for many years. In [4],[5], power flow algorithm is presented to find the optimum DG size at each load bus assuming every load bus can have a DG source. Such methods are, however, inefficient due to a large number of load flow computations. The genetic algorithm (GA) based method to determine size and location is used in [6]–[8]. GA is suitable for multi objective problems like DG allocation and can give near optimal results, but they are being computationally demanding and slow in convergence. In [9], analytical method to place DG in radial as well as meshed systems to minimize power loss of the system is presented. In this method separate expressions for radial and network system are derived and a complex procedure based on phasor current is proposed to solve the location problem. However, this method only optimizes location and considers size of DG as fixed. In this paper, exact loss formula is used to find optimum sizing for DG in each buses. The DG is considered to be located in the primary distribution system and two scenarios have been implemented.

It must be mentioned that 30-bus test has three meshes and it must be considered in load flow program. N . A power system will enter a period of voltage instability prior to a voltage collapse. 2. DGs impact on the voltage stability. its convergence performance is poor for most radial distribution systems due to their high R/X ratios which deteriorate the diagonal dominance of the jacobian matrix. Proposed Method The presented method is based on the equivalent current injection that uses the bus-injection to branch-current (BIBC) and branch-current to bus-voltage (BCBV) matrices which were developed based on the topological structure of the distribution systems and is widely implemented for the load flow analysis of the distribution systems.. It can be seen that the bus voltage can be expressed as a function of branch currents. VOLTAGE STABILITY Si = ( Pi + jQi ) i = 1. The elements of BIBC matrix consist of ‘0’s or ‘1’s: [ B ]nb×1 = [ BIBC ]nb×( n −1) .n (2) Where Vi is the node voltage. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II gives an introduction to load flow in distributed generation.[ I ] i =1 nb 2 2 (6) III. The equivalent-current-injection based model is more practical. the relationship between branch currents and bus voltages can be expressed as: (4) ΔV = [ Z ] . Voltage collapse is the process by which voltage instability leads to a loss of voltage in a significant part of the system. For bus Si. the power system is in grave danger and the system operators have lost control of system voltage and power flow. II. the active power delivered to the load by the system will increase and both power and voltage are controllable.In the first scenario only minimizing of total real power losses in the system is considered. Review Load flow is a very important and fundamental tool for the analysis of any power system and is used in the operational as well as planning stages.3. The details of both matrices can be found in [15]. Finally. In these scenarios Different DG placements are compared in terms of power loss... loadability and voltage stability index. Section VI portrays the 33 and 30 bus distribution systems used in the paper. Similar procedures can be performed on other buses.. therefore. A building algorithm for BIBC and BCBV matrix can be found in [15]. that consist of forward/backward sweeps on a ladder system have been proposed. Pi + jQi is the complex power at each bus i. a voltage collapse may occur. using BCBV and BIBC matrices. Section III describes voltage stability. To improve power transfer capacity. n is the total number of buses. The elements of BCBV matrix consist of the branch impedances.Ri = [ R]T [ BIBC ]. The only input data of this algorithm is the conventional bus-branch oriented data used by most utilities. the system is voltage unstable. POWER FLOW IN DISTRIBUTION NETWORK At each bus i. For these reasons. Section V presents the importance of selection of proper location and size of DG for minimizing distribution losses. several non-Newton types of methods [11]-[14]. Loss sensitivity factor method is presented in Section IV. Definition Voltage stability is the ability of a system to maintain voltage so that when system nominal load is increased. With the help of this approach. The method proposed here requires only one base case load flow to determine the optimum size and location of DG. .[ I ] (5) Where BCBV matrix is responsible for the relations between branch currents and bus voltages. the corresponding equivalent current injection is specified by: Ii = ( Pi + jQi * ) Vi i = 1. two line stability indices. The next scenario considered the voltage stability index (SI) to find optimum placement.[ I ]( n −1)×1 (3) Where nb is the number of the branch.. (1) A. the major contributions and conclusions of the papers are summarized. [I] is the vector of the equivalent current injection for each bus except the reference bus. line parameters. The equivalent current injection of bus i can be separated into real and imaginary parts The branch current B is calculated with the help of BIBC matrix. System reactive power reserve supplies will be exhausted and motors may begin to stall. Even though the Fast decoupled Newton method [10] works well for transmission system. and line stability indices.. where the losses are maximum values. A new algorithm used in this section for calculations of load flow. The BIBC matrix is the result of the relationship between the bus current injections and branch currents. the total power losses can be expressed as a function of the bus current injection: Ploss = ¦ Bi . The sizing and placement of DG is based on single instantaneous demand at peak.[ B] nb×( n −1) ( n −1)×1 A. B. and the substation voltage. If the ability to maintain power transfer and voltage is lost. During voltage instability. If voltages decline any further. the complex load is expressed by: The voltage drop from each bus to the reference bus is obtained with BCBV and BIBC matrices as: [ΔV ]( n −1)×1 = [ BCBV ][ BIBC ]. The Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) and Line Stability Factor (LQP) for voltage stability contingency analysis are compared.

C. The advantage of the index is to require only one power flow calculation. In load flow analysis can be written in general form as: V2 4 + 2V2 2 ( PR + QX ) − V12V2 2 + ( P 2 + Q 2 ) Z = 0 2 (8) From this equation and line receiving end active and reactive power equations. Xline and is the reactance of the line connecting the load to the feeding substation.1 Voltage Stability Index Using Fig. Q1. V1(δ1 V2 (δ 2 Z=R+jX P1. respectively. presented an index with the optimal power flow calculation [19]. After the load flow study.B. Carpentier. proposed an index that employed an angle between a pair of multiple power flow solutions [18]. and it can be used as a bus stability index for a distribution networks as: SI ( r ) = 2V1 V2 − V2 − 2V2 ( PR + QX ) − Z ( P + Q ) 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 (10) In this study the above simple stability criterion. Pload. Fig. [25]. Review of Conventional Voltage Stability Indices Reliable assessment of voltage stability of an electric power system is essential for its operation and control. The index shows that a power system lacks a large amount of reactive power if it is approaches voltage instability. the equation that is mostly used for the calculation of the line sending end voltages in distribution line model [24]. 1 the installation of a DG unit Δ P MW moves the operation point from point A to point B on the associated P-V curve. et al. Afterwards.1 conceptually shows the impact of a synchronous generator on voltage stability of a hypothetical node. [23]. The node. The index evaluates the power system conditions with the hybrid matrix. as the following equation suggests: ( P − PDG )2 + (Qload − QDG ) Qloss = load X line V2 (7) Fig. index L is used due to the computational efficiency. therefore P and Q at the receiving end of each line can easily be calculated and hence using (10) the voltage stability index of each node can easily be calculated. Thomas and Tiranuchit presented a method that used the minimum singular value of the singular value decomposition technique [21]. after some calculations we have: 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 (9) 2V1 V2 − V2 − 2V2 ( PR + QX ) − Z ( P + Q ) ≥ 0 From the last equation. Impact of DG in Voltage Stability In Fig. Some of these features are: relatively inexpensive prices. S2 R P+jQ Fig 2. Tamura. One line diagram of a two-bus distribution system . P-V curves have been traditionally used as graphical tools for studying voltage stability in electric power systems. it is clearly seen that the value of the (16) is decrease with the increase of the transferred power and impedance of the line. Reference [16] presents a criterion that made use of the sensitivity of reactive power with respect to voltage. 1 P-V curves for studying voltage stability in power systems Where. Qload. given in (10). Determinant of the Jacobian matrix of the power flow equation has been presented by Afterwards in [17]. insignificant maintenance requirements. PDG and QDG are the active and reactive power of the load and DG. an asynchronous generator possesses a number of features that make it very suitable for DG. S1 S I P2. Furthermore. is used to find the stability index for each line receiving end bus in radial distribution networks. This is due to the improved voltage profiles as well as decreased reactive power losses. D. In this paper. Mathematical Model for The Developed Stability Index for Distribution Network D. at which the value of the stability index is at minimum. The overall impact of a DG unit on voltage stability is positive. Many voltage stability indices were proposed to measure a margin to the limitation of the power flow solution. Kessel and Glavitsch developed an index called L with the power flow calculation [20]. That is based on the fact that a pair of multiple power flow solutions becomes closer and merges at the saddle bifurcation point as power system conditions get heavy-loaded gradually. Lof. the voltages of all nodes and the branch currents are known. Q2. in addition these motors are robust. et al.2. which results in an increase of the node voltage by the amount and VDG-V0 enhancement in voltage security: the stability margin increases from m0 to mDG . et al. is the most sensitive to the voltage collapse. speeded up the method of Thomas and Tiranuchit with the sparse matrix technique [22].

I= V1(0 − V2 (δ R + jX (11) PL = ¦¦ ªα ij ( PPj + Qi Q j ) + βij ( Qi Pj − PQ j ) º i i ¬ ¼ i =1 j =1 N N (16) Where: After some calculations. . Loss sensitivity factor method has been widely used to solve the capacitor allocation problem [27]. DG SIZING AND SITTING FORMULATION The values of LQP or FVSIij must be less than 1 for the system to be stable.2 Line Stability Index Voltage stability contingency analysis refers to voltage stability study of the failure of one or more system. Sitting and Sizing It is important to have an accurate look to the problem of allocation and sizing of DG. therefore.[31]. the value of SLQP cannot be obtained because power flow solution does not exist. Therefore. However. (14) V. Its application in DG allocation is new in the field and has been reported in [28]. This is popularly referred to as ‘‘exact loss’’ formula [29]. one of the lines is eliminated from the system and the system stability factor SLQP in that contingency is defined as the biggest LQPij value for all the transmission lines. SLQP = max { LQPij } (15) In case the system collapses. increase in costs and. The installation of DG units at non optimal places can result in an increasing in system losses. After some calculations. which helps to reduce the number of solution space. The top-ranked buses in the priority list are the first to be studied alternatives location. we have: The sensitivity factor of real power loss with respect to real power injection from DG is given by: § X ·§ X · 4 ¨ 2 ¸¨ − 2 P 2 + Q2 ¸ ≤ 1 1 © V1 ¹© V1 ¹ The line stability index is therefore defined as: αi = (13) N ∂PL = 2¦ (α ij Pj − βij Q j ) ∂Pi i =1 (19) LQPij = 4 ¨ § X ·§ X 2 · − 2 Pi + Q j ¸ 2 ¸¨ © Vi ¹© Vi ¹ Sensitivity factors are evaluated at each bus. where the voltages of the two buses (terminal and fictitious) should he maintained at the same specified module through reactivate power injection at the buses [30]. The real power loss in a system is given by (1).The line stability index is derived from a 2 bus system as shown in Figure 3. In each case. The line that exhibits FVSI or LQP close to 1 implies that the system is approaching its load limit and is nearly unstable. The buses are ranked in descending order of the values of their sensitivity factors to form a priority list. having an effect opposite to the desired. Comparisons between FVSI and LQP show that FVSI reflects the system stability well in terms of reactive load but not well in terms of active load. The representation of PV buses in radial systems. The time consumed to consider all possible situations is too large and a short contingency list. since the line is lossless. for forward-backward sweep power flow method.D. where only the most serious situations are included. implies in the creation of network breakpoints. firstly using the values obtained from the base case power flow. A way of modeling the DG units is by constant power injection sources connected to voltage controlled buses (PV buses). The line stability factor is also derived from the 2 bus model presented in Figure 3. A. A Fast Voltage Stability Index is proposed in [26]. the evaluation of a as mentioned before. the SLQP of this contingency is assigned to be the upper limit of 1. is always applied to reduce the calculation time. LOSS SENSITIVITY FACTOR Sensitivity factor method is based on the principle of linearization of original nonlinear equation around the initial operating point. the use of a methodology capable of analyzing the influence on some system characteristics of DG allocation and sizing can be very effective for the system planning engineer. the fast voltage stability index is defined as: α ij = βij = rij VV j i rij VV j i cos(δ i − δ j ) sin(δ i − δ j ) (17) FVSI ij = 4 Z 2Q j Vi X 2 ≤1 (12) (18) Where Z is the magnitude of the line impedance. The current flow from bus 1 to bus 2 is could be calculated as: IV. Given a set of possible expansion alternatives. Therefore the line stability factor LQP is used as the stability index in this paper. DG allocation and sizing strategy should be made through a power flow program for distribution networks.

Any size of DG other than PDGi placed at bus i.12 Mvar. It is assumed that all the loads are fed from the substation located at node l. will lead to higher loss. as shown in the Table I. This loss. bus 6 is the best location for minimization of the losses. Fig. Case 1: DG allocation and sizing considering minimization of losses In this case. Fig 4. Optimal DG size and related losses in each bus have been compared and presented in Table I for two case systems. Simulations have been implemented on the 33 and 30 bus distribution systems (Fig.22 21 20 19 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 13 14 15 16 28 29 30 29 30 S 1 25 24 2 23 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Fig 3.6318 kW.40 kW. The loads belonging to one segment are placed at the end of each segment. A. allocation of DGs has been performed using exact loss formula (32). The system has 30 loads totaling 4. 33 Bus Radial System The total real and reactive power loads on this system are 3715Kw and 2300 KVAr. is a function of loss coefficient α and β .32] B. ¦ (α j =1 N ij Pj − β ij Q j ) = 0 (20) PDGi = PDi + 1 α ii [ β ii Qi − j =1. For 33 bus radial test system. 4 Shows Voltage profile when no DG is installed. 30 bus voltage profile without installation of DG . SIMIULATION RESULTS Two scenarios have been considered and in each scenarios losses minimization and stability index have been implemented separately for finding optimal placement and best rate values for DGs. real and reactive power loads respectively [32]. Optimum size of DG for each bus i can be gained from (21). 33 bus voltage profile without installation of DG Voltage [Pu. The initial power loss in this system is 383. Voltage [Pu.9075 which occurs in node 18. j ≠ i ¦ N (α ij Pj − βij Q j )] (21) VI. The initial power loss in this system is 209. B. The lowest bus bar voltage limit is 0. 30 Bus Meshed System It is a balanced three-phase loop system that consists of 30 nodes and 32 segments. PDi: load demand at node i.87 kW. Fig. for the loss to be minimized.3). Bus No. Fig 5. 5 Shows Voltage profile when no DG is installed.] Bus No.] PDGi: real power injection from DG placed at node i. IEEE 33 and 30 bus test distribution systems [28. however. at minimum losses the rate of change of losses with respect to injected power becomes zero [32].43 MW and 2. Placement Due to Losses Minimization According to section III. In this condition optimal DG size is 2.4818 Mw and losses is 110.

4875 0.86522 3.2956 Mw and losses is 77.2123 89.2933 207. In 30-bus meshed test system.5420 1.7157 172.7837 131.61739 2.3203 106.6360 194.0339 102.01 kW. bus 12 is the best location for minimization of the losses.55217 3.9739 130.7432 121.7602 168.2801 2.8326 1.6391 132.3548 144.7675 128.5515 1.6353 112.7270 1.74348 2. allocation and sizing of DGs have been performed using voltage and line stability indices that described in section III. Comparison between SI after installation DG in Bus 6 and 27 .50435 2.7541 188.6506 100.91739 3.5434 - Case 2: DG allocation and sizing considering voltage and line stability indices In this case.5780 77. voltage profile is portrayed in Fig 7. It is observed that after DG allocation in buses there is no overload in system. It must be mention that although losses will increase up to 115.63913 2.6925 175.77826 3.8754 kW.8551 115.7799 124.5352 190.72609 2.7557 2.25652 2.54348 2. Fig 8 Compares SI after installation DG two best candidate buses.3819 1.8216 86.7549 134.0606 145.8338 300. SI Indices Bus No.0743 207.1320 205. Fig 6.4024 1. 33 bus voltage profile with installation of DG in two case study for two different aims Losses [kW.4573 231. Fig.8754 0.3351 2.3236 1.14783 3.9196 159.6820 0.52609 2.5115 3.7030 1. Fig 7. Tables II show that the SI stability index is improved when DG is installed in bus 27.1418 1.14783 2.2541 119.3827 2.8754 211.4333 207.6411 130.6223 1. Losses in two test distribution systems for installing DG in different buses Fig 8.7262 124.6731 133.25217 3. Fig 9.25217 3. For 33 bus radial test system.2872 Losses (kW) Optimum DG size (MW) 4.5653 117.1840 1.3522 143.TABLE I.6578 116.5528 121.2325 123.1351 112.0134 2.3549 129.3207 142.0123 120.0647 155.9309 123.9867 136.41739 Losses (kW) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 199.4818 2. Optimum DG size (MW) 3.3526 1.6842 153. As mentioned in section II the line that exhibits FVSI or SLQP close to 1 implies that the system is approaching its load limit and is nearly unstable.5458 178.5376 177.9123 3.6318 111.] Bus No.8471 1. Table II shows SLPQ and FVSI Indices.26957 3.29565 3. Comparison between SI indices for all buses when optimum DG sizes has been installed in each bus shown in Fig 9.03478 3.9637 0.0718 1.0519 0.56957 3.91304 2.0282 136.0136 109.59565 3.53043 3. however stability in network is increased considerably.3128 1.10000 3.71304 4.5138 0.2654 149.87391 2.3176 146. In this condition optimal DG size is 3.7825 120.4854 110.3510 1.7142 110.4953 122.78696 2.6 depicts losses versus bus numbers that optimum DG size has been installed separately and load flow has been implemented.7490 152. OPTIMAL DG SIZE AND RELATED LOSSES In TWO STUDY CASE 33 Bus 30 Bus Bus No.06087 3.3119 1.

0029 0.0489 Line FVSI 2-3 27-28 2-3 27-28 2-3 27-28 Without DG DG in Bus 6 DG in Bus 27 TABLE III. The results show that optimization through this approach is true.0477 0.0451 0. one is capacity saving and the other one is energy saving. SI indices for all of buses after installing DG in each of 30 bus test system.0075 6-7 0.0817 DG in Bus 26 86.0664 0.21 kW.0047 25-26 0.0656 0. respectively (light Pink color is bus 26) TABLE II. Comparison between SI indices has been shown in Fig 11.0829 DG in Bus 12 77. The correct size of DG is playing an important role in minimizing the losses by decreasing the current drawn from the substation from a long distance. In order to verify the optimal size at the above location.0051 6-7 0. To improve power transfer capacity. In this paper. CONCLUSION Voltage [Pu. the total system losses have increased more than the system losses without DG units.2123 0.2MW of DG size. in real life.0019 0. starting from 0 to 5 MW. Moreover. It must be mention that although losses will increase up to 86. however stability in network is increased considerably. beyond a value of 4. loadability and voltage stability index.0035 25-26 0.0021 0.] Bus No. SI indices for all of buses after installing DG in each of 33 bus test bus. .0647 0. Table III shows SLPQ and FVSI Indices.Bus 26 Bus 27 SI Indices SI Indices Bus No. 30 bus voltage profile with installation of DG in two case study for two different aims This paper presents a method for optimal allocation of Distributed Generation in two study case distribution systems. a number of load flow simulations were carried out with different sizes of DG. The second scenarios considered the voltage stability index (SI) to find optimum placement.0500 0. In these scenarios Different DG placements are compared in terms of power loss.0012 2-3 27-28 2-3 27-28 2-3 27-28 0. Fig 10.0539 0.0063 6-7 0. LINE STABILITY INDICES (33 BUS TEST SYSTEM) Losses SLPQ Line FVSI kW Max LPQ SLPQ max 210 110 128 0.0023 0. DG Installation in different buses DG Installation in different buses Fig 9. two line stability indices. Bus No. voltage profile is portrayed in Fig 10.0031 0.8754 0. It is observed that after DG allocation in buses there is no overload in system. our aim was optimal distributed generation allocation for loss reduction in distribution network in the first scenario. Also. respectively (light green color is bus 27) Fig 11.0895 Without DG 383. Minimizing the losses in the system would bring two types of saving. Figs 11 and Tables III show that the SI stability index is improved when DG is installed in bus 26. it shows that. LINE STABILITY INDICES (30 BUS TEST SYSTEM) Line FVSI Losses SLPQ SLPQ max kW Max LPQ 0.40823 0.0059 25-26 0.0426 Line FVSI 6-7 25-26 6-7 25-26 6-7 25-26 Similarly for 30 bus test system. VII.

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