Problem That We Are Trying To Solve

Ever Wondered whilst you are away from home and worried about who will water your favourite and expensive rose plants? Well this project came to my mind once i was out of town and found all the plants in my garden spoiled. So we had to deal with the following problems: • Watering of the garden should be automatically controlled • Plants should not be spoiled due to scarcity of water. • Nor they should be watered excessively. Therefore we tried to design a circuit that provides just the right amount of water to the plants. So we came up with the idea of Garden automation system. Garden automation system waters the plants automatically. It senses the level of moisture in the soil.When the landsacpe ,where we have plants,is devoid of sufficient moisrure it turns on the water supply.the water seeps down in the soil and the gadget turns off after a while. The main features of this project are:
• •

Automatically waters the plants Avoids wastage of water

Consistent watering maintains our landscape and reduces cost and efforts of plant replacement. Moreover, I need not worry about forgetting to water my precious plants while I am away travelling or too preoccupied with my office work.

• Environment friendly.Key Features: • Easy to use. • Single sensor is used. • Flexible. • Optimum usage of water. • Eliminates the cost and efforts for plant replacement. • Low cost. • Regular and optimum watering maintains your lanscape. . • Maintains your garden while you are away for holidays. • No need to trouble your neighbours for watering garden while you are away. • Works with any kind of soil. • Wired system.

High Level Block Diagram SOIL WATER AC MOISTURE SENSOR TOR SOLENOID REFERENCE SOURCE VALVE SUPPLY SUPPLY Moisture SWITCH RELAY of soil INLET OUTLET PLANT .

• It can also be modified according to the water requirements of different areas and other factors such as soil retentivity. • Multiple sensors can be used around the whole area.Future Scope The difficulty arises when we”ll be gardening a large premises like a well flourished flora of museum.hotels.These sensors will sense the variations in moisture in different areas. This data is then recorded efficiently using a data logger. In this way system is less complex than the wired system. Taking it to the higher level of intelligence will include certain advanced features• System will work for any type of soil. In these cases the sytem can be taken to a higher level where we could incorporate more intelligence to this system.residential buildings. • Configuring these multiple sensors into a wireless network will allow a large area to be automated.monuments etc. The whole idea is that it must be compatible with any type of soil texture. . Signals from all the wireless networks will go to a central processing unit which in turn will control the water system and waters the targeted area. • Using more precise components with smaller tolerance values will increase the reliability of the system.

Thus a transducer is required which senses the soil moisture. material choosen is aluminium. Our main aim is to set Vref.e without spikes. i. Therefore we selected TL431 IC and potentiometer which provides adjustable Vref . TARGET APPLICATIONS . The purpose of using NPN is that it gets ON when comparator output is high and OFF when comparator output is LOW. Two metal probes are buried under soil which act as sensor. To show this action. When the soil is dry. On the contrary. The soil moisture is to be calibrated it in terms of electrical resistance. Basic idea is to hook up one end of sensor to 5 volt and the other end to ground. Another input of this design is the reference voltage. Rod length and spacing are not the most significant varibles. A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve. when the soil is moist. the input to the comparator is low compared to Vref. Vref is set higher than Vin. The problem that arises with inductive load is spikes in the output waveform. More water makes the soil conduct electricity more easily (less resistance). Relay is used to control the AC supply to the solenoid valve and bulk capacitor is provided to remove ripples generated in relay. The output from sensing circuit is fed into comparator IC LM358.PROTOTYPE REALIZATION The idea of automatically watering the plant requires sensing of variation of physical parameter which is soil moisture. A non-polarized capacitor is also used between Vcc and ground near comparator to filter noise present in the power supply line. This capacitor removes noise present if any and sends it to ground. we have used LED which indicates the ON and OFF action of solenoid valve. the solenoid valve is open and vice-versa. while dry soil conducts electricity more poorly (more resistance). When LED glows. First we used a circuit with two value resistance which divided the applied voltage into half but did not work. For switching action we need NPN transistor with emitter tied to ground. To remove spikes. To keep the probes from rusting. The probes should be long enough to reach the moist soil and not so close together that they are likely to touch accidentally keeping them about an inch apart works great. Circuit is based on the probes going from an open when it is dry to some finite resistance when it is moist. reverse action will take place. This transistor controls the Solenoid Valve which is basically an inductive load. Now output waveform appears uniform. we use a free wheeling diode in parallel to solenoid valve. the voltage drop being higher. A resistance is also put between Vcc and ground near comparator to protect the circuit from damage. Vref. so for better accuracy a 47 kilo ohm resistor is taken.

Can be used in irrigation system. 10. 1.• • • • • Can be used in gardens. Can be used in green houses.7kΩ. Completely automated sprinkler system. 4. 2. IN5819 IN 12 Volt DC 230 Volt AC 2N2222A 3296 Type 12 volt DC LM358. 6.1kΩ 10nf. TL431 11. 7. BILL OF MATERIALS Sr No. 5. . 100µf. CD7812. 9. COMPONENTS Resistors Capacitors Free wheeling diode Diodes Relay Solenoid Valve Transistor (metal can package) Potentiometer Transformer Integrated Circuit VALUES 47kΩ. 2. In botanical gardens. 8. 5. CD7805. 3.6kΩ.

PRODUCT VISUALISATION Different modules were thought of while implementing the idea of garden automation system. The system is alerted when there is need for moisture.In between the sensor and switch a valve is incorporated. This signal is used to switch the level of water supply. The bot is to be placed in the denizen of planted area. . This valve provides feedback to the water system because enough moisture level is approached to switch off the valve and hence the water supply. The signal conducts through the sensor plates.

Ions. It can be placed according to your convienence in the garden . Humidity[humidity sensor]. • AVOIDS WATER WASTAGE.tolerance level and quality etc.will neccesitate a waterproof enclosure of whole system so it can be fitted in the soil along with circuit. • ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY.Experimentation over the effect of Temperature[temperature sensor]. System switches off supply of water when required. • Commercially it has large scope in irriagtion systems.it could automate a whole variety of flora like large residential ares. If improvement is made over the intelligence of this system.The product is semi automated but can be made fully automated by • .oxides and electrolytes in soil will be carried out to make it commercially viable. • Any electrical system if working around damp area like this one.Product can be easily carried from one place to the another without any inconvienence and also requires less space for setup.museums etc.Optimum amount of watering is done. • Certain physical parameters which directly affect the ideal working of the system will be taken into consideration. • FEATURES ACHEIVED: EASY TO USE-The design is quite simple to use. This will also require: Use of more precise components in terms of range.Vref can be easily adjusted for the desireable output. • Reliability will be taken into consideration.Does not involve the usage of resorces that cause any kind of harm to the environment.TAKING IT TO COMMERCIALIZATION The idea which is implementd here will become far effective and useful for commercial use if modified accordingly. • PORTABILITY. • Sensor probes can be made precise. • Low cost SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR USED• CAN BE USED FOR LARGE SCALE AND LARGE APPLICATIONS• FULLY AUTOMATED. Now this system is viable at just domestic level like kitchen gardens only.