fter 10 years of wheat breeding, Borlaug had plants that resisted rust and other diseases.

Because they were insensitive to the length of daylight, they had the potential to grow in a wide variety of climates. Borlaug had gotten two thirds of the pieces he needed for the science of the green revolution. What was missing was a wheat plant that responded well to fertilizer.

To dramatically increase yields grown on Third World lands, drained of nutrients from centuries of farming, fertilizer was required. But traditional wheat varieties, even Borlaug's disease-resistant strains, tended to collapse under heavy fertilization. The extra grains in the head toppled the long, thin stalks. Borlaug searched for a shorter, stronger stalk; in 1961 he found it in a Japanese semi-dwarf variety called Norin.

Crossing his hybrid wheat with Norin resulted in disease-resistant, widely adaptable wheat that grew like little bushes. Not only did Norin provide a sturdier stalk, it tillered - sending up multiple stalks from its base. This meant more heads of wheat per plant. And with heavy fertilization, those heads grew fat with grain.

By 1963, 95 percent of Mexico's wheat lands grew the new semi-dwarf seeds of the green revolution. The result: a harvest six times the 1944 level, the year Borlaug arrived in Mexico.

Even Borlaug had trouble believing the adaptability of the new seed. Test plots around the world began to show similarly dramatic gains in yield. Climates from Sweden to Argentina would prove acceptable to the new seed. Borlaug had more than accomplished the goal of the Mexican project. Mexico was not only self-sufficient in wheat, it had grain to export. Mexican farmers, who a few years earlier didn't know how to use fertilizer, became international seed dealers, supplying the green revolution in other countries.

Using the semi-dwarf seed, Pakistan became self-sufficient in wheat within three years. National animosity helped the cause in this case. Pakistan ordered its first big shipment of seed less than a year after its archrival, India, became committed to the green revolution.

Between 1965 and 1972 the green revolution more than doubled India's wheat production. leading to its becoming an exporter of wheat by the 1960s. By combining Borlaug's wheat varieties with new mechanized agricultural technologies. The revolution needed trained workers. In the 1940s. wheat breeding." as they were sometimes called. It was common for young agronomists from developing countries to view themselves as an elite. village cooperatives sand 200. In one year.000 wells to tap India's plentiful groundwater. and Borlaug proposed a training program "in the new aggressive approach to modern agronomy. Borlaug would start them with backbending labor 12 hours a day in the fields. significantly increasing the amount of calories produced per acre of agriculture. History and Development of the Green Revolution The beginnings of the Green Revolution are often attributed to Norman Borlaug. Russians learned along with Poles. Because of its success in producing more agricultural products there. Side benefits included new fertilizer plants and tractor factories. The tasks Borlaug set them quickly turned the suits into rags. Mexico was able to produce more wheat than was needed by its own citizens. Borlaug's first young Mexican assistants insisted on wearing suits into the fields. they learned Borlaug's techniques for fertilization." More than 20 nations sent young agronomists to Borlaug's program in Mexico. Green Revolution technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s. had the right stuff. making it the third largest producer in the world. he began conducting research in Mexico and developed new disease resistance high-yield varieties of wheat. the . intro The term Green Revolution refers to the renovation of agricultural practices beginning in Mexico in the 1940s. an American scientist interested in agriculture. Prior to the use of these varieties. Khaki work clothes and baseball caps became the uniform of the green revolutionaries. Politics made no difference in this revolution. To make sure his "wheat apostles. Israelis along with Turks. and soil analysis. They much preferred the idea of writing reports in airconditioned offices to working with sweating peasant farmers. While working like the small farmers they were to help.

imported about half of its wheat in the 1940s but after using Green Revolution technologies. plants that had the largest seeds were selected to create the most production possible. During the Green Revolution.country was importing almost half of its wheat supply. Mexico formed an international research institution called The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. and insensitivity to day length. These larger seeds then created more grain yield and a heavier above ground weight. the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation. Plant Technologies of the Green Revolution The crops developed during the Green Revolution were high yield varieties meaning they were domesticated plants bred specifically to respond to fertilizers and produce an increased amount of grain per acre planted. as well as many government agencies around the world funded increased research. Countries all over the world in turn benefited from the Green Revolution work conducted by Borlaug and this research institution. After selectively breeding these plants. In order to continue using Green Revolution technologies to produce more food for a growing population worldwide. In 1963 with the help of this funding. its technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s. Today. IR8. The United States for instance. The terms often used with these plants that make them successful are harvest index. photosynthate allocation. India for example was on the brink of mass famine in the early 1960s because of its rapidly growing population. India is one of the world's leading rice producers and IR8 rice usage spread throughout Asia in the decades following the rice's development in India. Borlaug and the Ford Foundation then implemented research there and they developed a new variety of rice. it became self-sufficient in the 1950s and became an exporter by the 1960s. they evolved to all have the characteristic of larger seeds. The harvest index refers to the above ground weight of the plant. that produced more grain per plant when grown with irrigation and fertilizers. . Due to the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico.

In order to protect these few varieties then. researchers like Borlaug were able to double a crop’s production because the plants were not limited to certain areas of the globe based solely on the amount of light available to them. the development of high yield varieties meant that only a few species of say. In addition. In India for example there were about 30. Impacts of the Green Revolution Since fertilizers are largely what made the Green Revolution possible. agriculture was severely limited to areas with a significant amount of rainfall. but by using irrigation.thus increasing nationwide crop yields. For instance before the Green Revolution.all the most productive types. By maximizing the seed or food portion of the plant. Places like India and China that once feared famine have not experienced it since implementing the use of IR8 rice and other food varieties. . putting more land into agricultural production . by selectively breeding plants that were not sensitive to day length. the use of Green Revolution technologies exponentially increased the amount of food production worldwide. Finally.000 rice varieties prior to the Green Revolution. rice started being grown. water can be stored and sent to drier areas.This larger above ground weight then led to an increased photosynthate allocation. they forever changed agricultural practices because the high yield varieties developed during this time cannot grow successfully without the help of fertilizers. today there are around ten . it was able to use photosynthesis more efficiently because the energy produced during this process went directly to the food portion of the plant. pesticide use grew as well. By having this increased crop homogeneity though the types were more prone to disease and pests because there were not enough varieties to fight them off. Irrigation also played a large role in the Green Revolution and this forever changed the areas where various crops can be grown. Finally.

The second major criticism is that places like Africa have not significantly benefited from the Green Revolution. The major problems surrounding the use of these technologies here though are a lack of infrastructure. The first is that the increased amount of food production has led to overpopulation worldwide. Despite these criticisms though. there have been several criticisms. benefiting the people of many nations in need of increased food production.Criticism of the Green Revolution Along with the benefits gained from the Green Revolution. . the Green Revolution has forever changed the way agriculture is conducted worldwide. and insecurity in nations. governmental corruption.