NETWORKING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1.

What are 10Base2, 10Base5 and 10BaseT Ethernet LANs 10Base2²An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling, with a contiguous cable segment length of 100 meters and a maximum of 2 segments. 10Base5²An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling, with 5 continuous segments not exceeding 100 meters per segment. 10BaseT²An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling and twisted pair cabling. 2. What is the difference between an unspecified passive open and a fully specified passive open An unspecified passive open has the server waiting for a connection request from a client. A fully specified passive open has the server waiting for a connection from a specific client. 3. Explain the function of Transmission Control Block A TCB is a complex data structure that contains a considerable amount of information about each connection. 4. What is a Management Information Base (MIB) A Management Information Base is part of every SNMP-managed device. Each SNMP agent has the MIB database that contains information about the device's status, its performance, connections, and configuration. The MIB is queried by SNMP. 5. What is anonymous FTP and why would you use it Anonymous FTP enables users to connect to a host without using a valid login and password. Usually, anonymous FTP uses a login called anonymous or guest, with the password usually requesting the user's ID for tracking purposes only. Anonymous FTP is used to enable a large number of users to access files on the host without having to go to the trouble of setting up logins for them all. Anonymous FTP systems usually have strict controls over the areas an anonymous user can access. 6. What is a pseudo tty A pseudo tty or false terminal enables external machines to connect through Telnet or rlogin. Without a pseudo tty, no connection can take place. 7. Which layer of the 7 layer model provides services to the Application layer over the Session layer connection? Presentation. 8. What does the Mount protocol do ? The Mount protocol returns a file handle and the name of the file system in which a requested file resides. The message is sent to the client from the server after reception of a client's request. 9. What is External Data Representation External Data Representation is a method of encoding data within an RPC message, used to ensure that the data is not system-dependent. 10. Which OSI Reference Layer controls application to application communication? Session 11. BOOTP helps a diskless workstation boot. How does it get a message to the network looking for its IP address and the location of its operating system boot files ? BOOTP sends a UDP message with a subnetwork broadcast address and waits for a reply from a server that gives it the IP address. The same message might contain the name of the machine that has the boot files on it. If the boot image location is not specified, the workstation sends another

UDP message to query the server. 12. What is a DNS resource record A resource record is an entry in a name server's database. There are several types of resource records used, including name-to-address resolution information. Resource records are maintained as ASCII files. 13. What protocol is used by DNS name servers DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP because of the improved speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course, transmission reliability suffers with UDP. 14. What is the difference between interior and exterior neighbor gateways Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to the outside world. 15. What is the HELLO protocol used for The HELLO protocol uses time instead of distance to determine optimal routing. It is an alternative to the Routing Information Protocol. 16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the three types of routing tables The three types of routing tables are fixed, dynamic, and fixed central. The fixed table must be manually modified every time there is a change. A dynamic table changes its information based on network traffic, reducing the amount of manual maintenance. A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other devices. The fixed central table reduces the need to update each machine's table, as with the fixed table. Usually a dynamic table causes the fewest problems for a network administrator, although the table's contents can change without the administrator being aware of the change . 17. What is a characteristic of Store and Forward switches? They read the entire frame and check CRC before forwarding. 18. What is source route It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header. 19. What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol) It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers. 20. What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol) It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line. 21. What is Proxy ARP It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router. 22. What is OSPF It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internet's topology to make accurate routing decisions. 23. What is Kerberos It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.

24. What is a Multi-homed Host It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is called as a Multi-homed Host. 25. What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal) It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session. 26. What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers. 27. What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol). 28. What is autonomous system It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol. 29. What is EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol) It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached within or via each autonomous system. 30. What is IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system. 31. What is Mail Gateway It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols. 32. What is wide-mouth frog Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol. 33. What are Digrams and Trigrams The most common two letter combinations are called as digrams. e.g. th, in, er, re and an. The most common three letter combinations are called as trigrams. e.g. the, ing, and, and ion. 34. What is silly window syndrome It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a time. 35. What is region When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions. 36. What is multicast routing Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing. 37. What is traffic shaping One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform

rate,congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping. 38. What is packet filter Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped. 39. What is virtual path Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits can be grouped together into what is called path. 40. What is virtual channel Virtual channel is normally a connection from one source to one destination, although multicast connections are also permitted. The other name for virtual channel is virtual circuit. 41. What is logical link control One of two sublayers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This sublayer is responsible for maintaining the link between computers when they are sending data across the physical network connection. 42. Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design. 43. What is the difference between routable and non- routable protocols Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large networks. Non-Routable protocols are designed to work on small, local networks and cannot be used with a router. 44. What is MAU In token Ring , hub is called Multistation Access Unit(MAU). 45. Explain 5-4-3 rule In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated. 46. What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer protocols The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allows a local host to obtain files from a remote host but does not provide reliability or security. It uses the fundamental packet delivery services offered by UDP. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the standard mechanism provided by TCP / IP for copying a file from one host to another. It uses the services offered by TCP and so is reliable and secure. It establishes two connections (virtual circuits) between the hosts, one for data transfer and another for control information. 47. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet addresses Class A 0.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255 Class B 128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255 Class C 192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255 Class D 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255 Class E 240.0.0.0 - 247.255.255.255 48. What is the minimum and maximum length of the header in the TCP segment and IP datagram

Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct modules each carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product being used. The modules are Ethernet LAN (802. 55. What is cladding A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable.The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60 bytes. 49. 54. What is difference between ARP and RARP The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address. It consists of the following: 802. that is remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is non-architecture-specific. used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver. 56. What are the data units at different layers of the TCP / IP protocol suite The data unit created at the application layer is called a message.4). This limited range is called the bandwidth.3). at the transport layer the data unit created is called either a segment or an user datagram. a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique. baud rate = bit rate / N where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift. Token ring LAN (802. What is Bandwidth Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. the data link layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN protocols. The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols. What is Project 802 It is a project started by IEEE to set standards that enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of manufacturers. 802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs.5). at the data link layer the datagram is encapsulated in to a frame and finally transmitted as signals along the transmission media. . It also handles both control and error messages. at the network layer the data unit created is called the datagram. Difference between bit rate and baud rate. 50. What is ICMP ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol. Token bus LAN (802. 51. 57. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It is a way for specifying functions of the physical layer. 52. 53. Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits. What is MAC address The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. What is attenuation The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation. 802.

The stations on the network notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. these three recommendations are often called "triple X" 65. called X.28. It receives the signal in the network before it becomes weak. Together. What is SAP Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack. What are the different type of networking / internetworking devices Repeater: Also called a regenerator. Beaconing is used in Token ring and FDDI networks. in which layer it comes Frame relay is a packet switching technology. What is RAID A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives. . What is Beaconing The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. regenerates the original bit pattern and puts the refreshed copy back in to the link. What is subnet A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router. 66. 60. 61. This comes under presentation layer. They contain logic that allow them to keep the traffic for each segment separate and thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment containing the intended recipent and control congestion. 59. 69. It will operate in the data link layer. What is terminal emulation. 68. 64. The standard protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD. What is frame relay. called X. What do you meant by "triple X" in Networks The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X. What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications. They divide a larger network in to smaller segments.29. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.58. another standard protocol exists between hte PAD and the network. How Gateway is different from Routers A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different network architectures or data formats. in which layer it comes Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. 62.3. 67. It belongs to application layer. it is an electronic device that operates only at physical layer. NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. What is redirector Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. 63. What is Brouter Hybrid devices that combine the features of both bridges and routers. Bridges: These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same type.

They accept a packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol before forwarding it. What are the important topologies for networks BUS topology: In this each computer is directly connected to primary network cable in a single line. The control field specifies whether the PDU frame is a information frame (I frame) or a supervisory frame (S .frame). Advantages: Can be inexpensive. they are referred to as passive because they don¶t amplify the signal in any way. Gateways: They relay packets among networks that have different protocols (e. easy to install. easy to install and reconfigure and easy to trouble shoot physical problems. 75. and signal does not degrade as much as in other topologies because each computer regenerates it. They operate in the physical. installation can be simple. the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. between a LAN and a WAN). LANs of different type). a control field and an information field. 70. What is passive topology When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal. They operate in all seven layers of the OSI model. What are major types of networks and explain Server-based network Peer-to-peer network Peer-to-peer network. What is Protocol Data Unit The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU).Routers: They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i. easy to extend.e. a source service access point (SSAP). computers can act as both servers sharing resources and as clients using the resources. The PDU contains of four fields a destination service access point (DSAP). data link and network layers.frame) or a unnumbered frame (U .linear bus. What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission In a baseband transmission. RING topology: In this all computers are connected in loop. 71. . 72. Example for passive topology . DSAP. They contain software that enable them to determine which of the several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission.g. STAR topology: In this all computers are connected using a central hub. Advantages: All computers have equal access to network media. What is mesh network A network in which there are multiple network links between computers to provide multiple paths for data to travel. Server-based networks provide centralized control of network resources and rely on server computers to provide security and network administration 74. simple to understand. In broadband transmission. 73. SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the protocol stacks on the receiving and sending machines that are generating and using the data. Advantages: Inexpensive.

coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable.What does 'P' mean when running a Trace? Protocol unreachable 86.What is the protocol number for UDP? 17 83. satellite communication and cellular telephony.UDP works at which layer of the DOD model? Host to Host 87.Which protocol resolves an IP address to a MAC address? ARP 81. clock etc. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light. Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity.Ping uses which Internet layer protocol? .MIDI and MPEG are examples of what layer of the OSI seven layer model? Presentation 82. synchronization. Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication media. Twistedpair and coaxial cable use metallic that accept and transport signals in the form of electrical current. allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. Unguided Media: This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. This is done through radio communication.2 88. Guided Media: These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twisted-pair. Signals are broadcast either through air.signals are sent on multiple frequencies.Which layer is responsible for putting 1s and 0s into a logical group? Physical 85. 79. What are the possible ways of data exchange (i) Simplex (ii) Half-duplex (iii) Full-duplex.The Internet Control Message Protocol occurs at what layer of the seven layer model? Network 80.12? 802. Difference between the communication and transmission.What is the default encapsulation of Netware 3. 78. 76. A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and is contained by the physical limits of the medium. 77. What are the types of Transmission media Signals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to two categories.Which protocol is used for booting diskless workstations? RARP 84.

WAN stands for which of the following? Wide Area Network 95.ICMP 89. 100. A router must know the following to route a packet: a. Routing is performed by the router and each router maintains a routing table. A routing table contains the information of the best possible paths from source router to the destination router.What is the protocol number for TCP? 6 92.What does the acronym ARP stand for? Address Resolution Protocol 99. procedural for activating. Address of the destination b.DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 98. and services? I 96. electrical. Neighbor routers c.What is the first step in data encapsulation? User information is converted into data. 91.LAN stands for which of the following? Local Are Network 97. terminology. Routes to all remote networks .Which OSI layer provides mechanical.Which layer is responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of the intended communication partner? Application.Which switching technology can reduce the size of a broadcast domain? VLAN 90.Repeaters work at which layer of the OSI model? Physical 94.What do you use the Aux port for? Modem 93. maintaining physical link? Physical What do you mean by the term µrouting¶? What a router must know to route a packet? µRouting¶ is used to deliver a packet from one device to another device through communication network.What ISDN protocol specifies concepts.

Example: RIP and IGRP Link State: A router send updates containing the state of their own link to the other routers. including Cisco. Split Horizon: According to this rule. Holddown timer: Holddown timer says that if a route advertised as down. A route is automatically updated as a topology change occurs. The vector points to the direction of remote network. Link State and Hybrid Distance Vector: This routing protocol discover the best path to a remote network by judging distance. To route a packet over the communication network. It helps to avoid loops between adjacent routers. Route Poisoning: When a network goes down than the router associated to that network initiates route poisoning. Default Routing: Default routing is used only for the network that has only a single connection to router. do not listen to routing updates from that route for a specified period of time. one of directly attached neighbors and one for the topology of entire internetwork. Dynamic routing is easier than static and default routing. This type of protocols counts the hop. Example: OSPF Hybrid: Hybrid protocols contain the features of both Distance vector and link state protocols. a network administrator has to configure a router. Three different tables are maintained by the router using this protocol. Link state enables a router to know about internetwork. The best route to each remote network e. How many classes of routing protocols are there. ii.d. Example: EIGRP Why do Routing Loops occur and how to overcome them? a) Routing loop is common problem of various types of networks. Default Routing and Dynamic Routing. One is routing table. Define OSPF and what features are provided by OSPF? OSPF is abbreviated as Open Shortest Path First. hops are the number of the routers from which a packet goes. Dynamic Routing: Dynamic routing used various routing protocols to route packets. These configurations are of three types: Static Routing: A network administrator manually configures the routes for a router. Way to maintain and verify routing information Comment on Static Routing. This shows an unreachable network. A static route has higher priority than a dynamic route. The main reason to occur routing loops is that each router is not updated at the same time and the fake information of a router¶s link broadcasted. Static routes are also manually configured. Three rules for distance vector routing protocol are developed to overcome routing loops: i. This works okay but if a network outage happens then routing loops occurs in the network. OSPF is an open standard and supported by a large variety of network vendors. Describe each? There are three classes of routing protocols: Distance vector. OSPF works on the concept of Dijkstra algorithm in which a shortest path is maintained and routing table is . This is also called shortest path first protocol. Distance vector routing protocol keeps track of any change to the internetwork by broadcasting periodic updates. iii. never broadcast a route out of the interface through which it received.

populated on that path. Unlimited hop count iv. IGRP is abbreviated as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. Following are some reasons for creating OSPF in hierarchical design: i. RIP can be used only for small network because it uses maximum 15 hop-counts while IGRP can be used for bigger networks because it uses 255 hop-counts. IGRP has administrative distance of 100 while RIP has 120. What is IGRP? Differentiate between IGRP and RIP. EIGRP is a proprietary Cisco protocol that runs only on Cisco routers. they have to establish a neighborhood relationship. Some features of OSPF are: i. What is EIGRP and what conditions are needed to neighbourship establishment in context to EIGRP? EIGRP is abbreviated as Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. Autonomous System Numbers must match ii. Define Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and what is the difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2? RIP is a distance vector routing protocol which uses hop count to find the best way to a remote network. Routing update traffic is lesser than any other routing protocol. This is created by Cisco and all the routers must be of Cisco to run this protocol. enhanced distance routing protocol. iv. Before EIGRP routers wants to exchange routes. IGRP uses autonomous system number and supplies this number to all routers while in RIP there is no autonomous number. IGRP is developed to overcome the problem with RIP. To establish this neighbourship three conditions must meet: i. Minimizes routing update traffic ii. IGRP uses maximum 255 hop-counts while RIP uses 15 maximum hop-counts. EIGRP is a popular routing protocol now days. To break a bigger internetwork into smaller internetworks caller areas . ii. what are the reasons for creating OSPF in a hierarchical fashion? OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is supposed to be design in hierarchical fashion so that a large internetwork could be break into smaller network. IGRP updates its Routing table every 90 seconds and RIP updates its routing table in every 30 seconds. Open standard routing protocol iii. RIP sends its complete routing table to neighbor router in every 30 seconds. EIGRP is a classless. These smaller networks are called areas. RIP uses maximum 15 hop count and is suitable only for small networks. Hello packet must received iii. While RIPv2 uses classless routing and subnet mask information is sent with routing update. To reduce the routing overhead ii. iii. Metrics value must identical OSPF is supposed to be design in a hierarchical fashion. RIPv1 uses classful routing that means all the devices in the network must use the same subnet mask and do not send subnet mask information with routing updates. i.

Bridge ID: Bridge ID is an identifier of a Switch. Define Spanning-Tree port states. each interface of a switch learns the source hardware address (MAC address) and save this into its MAC database table. Address Learning: In Layer 2 switching. ii. Forward/filter decisions: Forward/filter decision is taken by the switch to forward a frame to a specific destination port. Some STP terms are: Root Bridge: To select a root bridge an election is done by all switches in a switching network.e. Cost is low What is Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and define some STP terms? The main function of STP is to prevent the network loops occurring in switching network. The main purpose for STP is to prevent the network loops. switch sees its MAC address table and forward this frame to a specific destination port. This table is also known as forward filter table. . loop avoidance.iii. How STP works and what is the purpose for STP? Firstly STP elects a Root Bridge and forward to all ports and this root bridge acts as a point of reference for all other devices in STP domain.Listening: Listening port only listen to BPDUs and preparing to forward frames. . TO prevent network loops STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is used and redundancy is also maintained. For this STP uses Spanning tree algorithm. The port of switches running STP can has five different port state: . forward/filter decision. BPDU: BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Unit) are sending from one switch to another to elect a root bridge. Three switch functions are address learning. Switches use Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) to make and maintain their filter table. Loop Avoidance: Network loops can arise if multiple connections are formed between switches for redundancy purposes.which port is to be blocked and which port is forwarding are made from the viewpoint of Root Bridge. Define these functions. All the decisions like. Switching is a process which uses the hardware address or MAC address of a device to switch a packet from one device to another.Blocking: A blocking port only listens to BPDUs while cannot forward frames. The frame which comes on an interface. Time required to transfer a packet is low i. To accelerate convergence What do you mean by µSwitching¶? What are the services provided by Switching? Generally switching refers to the layer 2 switching. low latency iii. . When all switches agreed on root bridge. Services provided by switching are: i. every switch must find its one and only allotted root port. Each and every link between switches must have one and only one designated port in such a way that it must provide the highest bandwidth to link.Learning: The switch listen to BPDUs and learns all the paths in the LAN network. STP monitors the network to find all links and shut down the redundant links.

switch port can forward and receive the frames. ii. the router first checks the administrative distance (AD) value and always choose the route with the lowest administrative distance value. iii. It has own IP address and can be easily configured. or in RIP¶s case. Advantages of manageable over unmanageable are: i. What will be the result when a router receives a routing update that contains a higher-cost path to network already in its routing table? When a routing update is received by a router. Unmanageable Switch: Unmanageable switches are layer 2 switches and learn only hardware address (MAC address). port blocking and VLANs configuration. VLANs greatly enhance network security which also improves the switched network performance. By creating and implementing VLANs in our switched network. we can break up broadcast domain and limit the size of broadcast domain.Forwarding: In this port state. Static route will be used to route packets. However. by default which route will be used to route packets? Administrative distance rates the trustworthiness of the any routing protocol. More secure than unmanageable because any port can be block at any time. Hence if a router receives a routing update that contains a higher-cost path but have lower hops than the packet will be transferred through that path. If a switch receives a frame and the source MAC address is not in the MAC address table but the destination address is. (ii) Switches or (iii) Switches configured with VLANs? Switches configured with VLANs will improves the network performance. If two connected routers are configured with RIP routing. It learns the MAC address of all the connected devices and when a frame came from some source it broadcast it to all ports and throws frame to destination (by using its MAC table). Managed switch can manage the bandwidth of link. then the router will choose the one route with the lowest metrics. IP address can be assigned to manageable switch and can it can be access through µtelnet¶ command. Which of the following options will achieve this goal²(i) Bridges. If you want to improve switched network performance by increasing the bandwidth available to hosts and limit the size of broadcast domains. Static routes have an administrative distance of 1 by default. iv. Managed switch has router like capabilities. by default. and an IGRP route to the same network. hop count. RIP allows a maximum hop-count of 15. IGRP has an administrative distance of 100. a RIP.. If your routing table has a static. AD value is an integer from 0 to 255 and trustworthiness increases with the increasing order of the AD value. What are Manageable and unmanageable switches? What is the advantage of manageable over unmanageable? Manageable Switch: Managed switches allows the layer 3 functionality and can be used as a router. so anything that requires 16 hops is consider as unreachable. . firstly the switch will add the source MAC address and the port it is connected to into its MAC address table and then forward the frame to the outgoing port and frame reached to the right destination address. if two routes are received and they both have same administrative distance value. and RIP has an administrative distance of 120. It also has ability to traffic control.Disabled: In disabled state a switch port is administratively down and that port do not participate frame forwarding. what will switch do with the frame? Since the source MAC address is not in the MAC address table. .

255) RIPV1 does not VLSM. It uses metric as hop count (max hop count is 15) It sends periodic update for every 30 sec.255.9 RIP (Routing Information Protocol) it is open standard for any vendor use and it is a widely used protocol for managing router information within a network such as a corporate local area network (LAN).Supports networks with same Subnet Mask RIPV1 uses Broadcast Address RIPV1 Universal Broadcast (255. a set of interfaces. RIP is classified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as one of several internal gateway protocols (Interior Gateway Protocol). The passive-interface command has the following syntax: passive-interface [default] {interface type/number} .0.0. Classful Protocol: .9). Difference between Rip V1 & Rip V2 Rip V1 y y y y y It is a Class full Protocol.Supports subnetted networks.ROUTING RIP RIP Stand for Routing Information Protocol Type AD Value Hello Timer Update Timer Dead Timer Transport Multicast Add :Distance Vector Routing Protocol :120 :None :30 sec :180 sec :520 (UDP) :224.255.0. Classless Protocol: . RIPV2 supports VLSM y y y RIP ± Passive Interface The passive-interface command prevents a RIP-enabled router from sending broadcast and multicast RIP updates out of a specific interface. It carries the information of subnet mask RIP V2 uses Multicast Address RIPV2 uses Multicast (224. or all router¶s interfaces. It is mostly used for small business network.0. y y Rip V2 It is a Classless Protocol.

/24 and 140.0.When this command is used with the default keyword.20. the router will disable all kinds of RIP updates except unicast RIP updates out of all the interfaces.20. Unicast RIP updates are configured using the neighbor command in router configuration mode. then R1 will not advertise the subnets 20.0. When split horizon is enabled on a specific interface.3. R1(config-router)#router rip R1(config-router)#version 2 R1(config-router)#network 10. the router does not re-advertise RIP routes received on that interface.20. respectively.20. respectively to R1. .3. let¶s analyze the following network. Now. then the router will send broadcast or multicast RIP updates (depending on the configured RIP versions) out the interface(s) specified in the passiveinterface statement. Because split horizon is enabled on R1 s serial 1/0./24 and 140.0.0/24 to R3 and R2.1. If the default keyword is not used.0.3. R2 and R3 will send routing information about the subnets 20. R1 will send the subnets 20.20.0 R1(config-router)#network 140. Therefore.1.0/24.0. respectively.1.1 sub-interface. we should disable split horizon on the interface serial 1/0. The following example configures the router R1 to disable RIPv2 updates out of the interfaces f0/0 and f0/1 according to the network diagram below.0 R1(config-router)#passive-interface fastethernet 0/0 R1(config-router)#passive-interface fastethernet 0/1 R1(config-router)#end R1# Split horizon Split horizon is a technique used to avoid RIP routing loops. We assume that RIP auto summarization is disabled on the network.1 (frame relay multipoint interface). To avoid this.20.1. R1 will receive this information over the interface Serial1/0./24 and 140.0/24 to R3 and R2.0.1.

0. R1(config)#router rip R1(config-router)#version 2 R1(config-router)#network 10.0.1. By default.0 R1(config-router)#no auto-summary R1(config-router)#exit R1(config)#! R1(config)#! R1(config)#interface serial 1/0.0. except on main frame-relay interfaces and SDMS interfaces.1 R1(config-subif)# no ip split-horizon R1(config-subif)#^Z R1# ROUTING EIGRP EIGRP Stand for Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Type AD Value Hello Timer Update Timer Dead Timer Transport Multicast Add :Advanced Distance Vector Routing Protocol :90 :60 sec :None :3 Hellos :88 (IP) :224. In the following example. this command is enabled on all types of interfaces.1. and it was introduced in Cisco IOS Software Release 10.0.0.0. we¶ll configure R1 in order to enable IP connectivity between R2 and R3 by disabling split horizon on the interface serial1/0.The ip split-horizon command has no parameters or keywords.10 .0 R1(config-router)#network 140.

it is also called balanced hybrid routing protocol or advanced distance vector routing protocol. Feasible distance: The distance advertised by a neighbour plus the cost to get to that neighbour. F.e. Routing ± best path (successor) DUAL: Diffusion update algorithm 1.EIGRP stands for Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. Successor is available in routing table 2. Topology ± all path reach to destination (feasible successor) 3. A. It maintain three type of tables i. EIGRP Packet Types: EIGRP uses five types of packet : .D = Feasible distance Reported Distance: The metric for a route advertised by a neighbour.D = Advertised distance (Reported Distance) 2. If successor failed means it will take the feasible successor DUAL Parameter 1.. It support for variable length subnet mask (VLSM). Neighbour ± directly connected neighbour (feasible successor) 2. topology table & routing table 1. neighbour table.

Unequal-cost load balancing with the variance command.5-6 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a dynamic routing protocol for use in Internet Protocol (IP) networks. equal-cost load balancing. Query packets are always multicast. By default. OSPF is designated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Reply packets provide a feasible successor to the sender of the query. OSPF OSPF Stand for Open Shortest Path First Type AD Value Hello Timer Update Timer Dead Timer Transport Multicast Add : Link state Routing Protocol :110 :10 sec :None :4 Hellos :89 (IP) :224. You can factor load and reliability into the metric. it is a link-state routing protocol and falls into the group of interior gateway . By default. Reply²EIGRP sends reply packets to respond to query packets. Potential routing protocol for the core of a network. Classless protocol (supports VLSMs). it multicasts update packets to 224. 170 for EIGRP external routes.0. Acknowledgment²an acknowledgment packet acknowledges the reception of an update packet. Support for authentication. Update packets are acknowledged to ensure reliable transmission.0. It is a hello packet with no data. Hybrid routing protocol (distance vector that has link-state protocol characteristics). Update²Update packets contain routing information for destinations.10. Administrative distance is 90 for EIGRP internal routes.0. They are multicast to 224. EIGRP unicasts update packets to newly discovered neighbours. Uses DUAL for loop prevention. otherwise.10 when a link or metric changes. EIGRP Summary The characteristics of EIGRP follow: y y y y y y y y y y y Uses IP protocol 88. Default composite metric uses bandwidth and delay.0.0. Reply packets are unicast to the sender of the query packet. Specifically.y y y y y Hello²EIGRP uses hello packets in the discovery of neighbours. and 5 for EIGRP summary routes. used in large networks. EIGRP sends hello packets every 5 seconds (60 seconds on WAN links with 1544 Mbps speeds or less). EIGRP sends acknowledgment packets to the unicast address of the sender of the update packet. Sends partial route updates only when there are changes.0. Query²EIGRP sends query packets to find feasible successors to a destination.

A totally stubby area. d. which is also referred to as Area 0. routers. A router within a stub area can only see outside the autonomous system if a default route has been configuration for it. a. This type of area is useful for remote sites that have few networks and limited connectivity with the rest of the network and is a Cisco proprietary solution. Does have DR/BDR election. An ordinary or standard area. this area is obligatory. y y The backbone area. All routers in a standard area have the same topological database. PPP and Frame-relay Point-to-Point b. a. f. e. b. operating within an autonomous system (AS). Hello Interval 10 seconds . which is a stub area that can receive external routes but will not propagate those external routes into the backbone area. y y y OSPF Network Type: If you are working on OSPF then you need to know the different network types y Non broadcast .0. to reduce the CPU Usage using area. and links that have the same area identification. In this area. the default route must be configured as 0. Hence.0. d. c.0. An OSPF network can be divided into sub-domains called areas. Default on Ethernet Hello interval 10 seconds Dead Interval 40 seconds DR/BDR election Updates are sent as multicast Next hop is not changed and remains the IP address of the originating router y Point-to-point ± No DR/BDR election. g. CPU usage will be high. All other areas must connect to the backbone area. A stub area. Kindly find the area details as below. which is similar to a stub area. c. y Default on Multipoint interface like Frame-relay Hello interval 30 seconds Dead Interval 120 seconds DR/BDR election Updates are sent as unicast Neighbor command required on hub router Next hop is not changed and remains the IP address of the originating router Broadcast . An area is a logical collection of OSPF networks. b. A not so stubby area (NSSA). This one is pretty self explanatory. but their routing tables will be based on the routers position in the standard area and will thus be unique to the router. which is an area that connects to the backbone (Area 0) and is treated as a separate entity. Default on HDLC.This is the default on Ethernet/broadcast networks. a. e. which is an area that does not accept external summary routes. Unlimited router can be used.protocols.This is the default on frame relay networks. f.

0. When BGP is used between autonomous systems (AS).5 Next hop address is that of the advertising router Point-to-multipoint a. c. If a service provider is using BGP to exchange routes within an AS. b. d. the protocol is referred to as External BGP (EBGP). f.c. then the protocol is referred to as Interior BGP (IBGP). AS_path . Cisco proprietary Hello Interval 30 seconds Dead Interval 120 seconds Frame-relay Partial Mesh No DR/BDR Election Unicast updates BGP BGP Stand for Border Gateway Protocol Type AD Value Transport Multicast Add :Path Vector :20 :179 (TCP) :N/A The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an inter autonomous system routing protocol. Customers connect to ISPs.0. Weight 5.0. e. f. g. BGP Attributes are 1. An autonomous system is a network or group of networks under a common administration and with common routing policies. Cisco proprietary Host routes are added in the routing table Hello Interval 30 seconds Dead Interval 40 seconds No DR/BDR Election Multicast updates to 224. e. d. e. such as universities and corporations. b. c. y Dead Interval 40 seconds No DR/BDR Election Multicast updates to 224. h. f. d. Customer networks. usually employ an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) such as RIP or OSPF for the exchange of routing information within their networks.0.5 Next hop address is that of the advertising router Frame-relay partial mesh y Point-to-multipoint non broadcast a. BGP is used to exchange routing information for the Internet and is the protocol used between Internet service providers (ISP). and ISPs use BGP to exchange customer and ISP routes.

The origin attribute can have one of three possible values: IGP . the next-hop address is the IP address of the connection between the peers. The term suggestion is used because the external AS that is receiving the MEDs may be using other BGP attributes for route selection. We will cover the rules regarding route selection in the next section. the local preference attribute is used to select the exit point for a specific route y Multi-Exit Discriminator Attribute The multi-exit discriminator (MED) or metric attribute is used as a suggestion to an external AS regarding the preferred route into the AS that is advertising the metric. the local preference attribute is propagated throughout the local AS. the route with the highest weight will be preferred. . Next hop 7. Incomplete . the AS number is added to an ordered list of AS numbers that the route advertisement has traversed. the EBGP next-hop address is carried into the local AS. y Next-Hop Attribute The EBGP next-hop attribute is the IP address that is used to reach the advertising router. y Local Preference Attribute The local preference attribute is used to prefer an exit point from the local autonomous system (AS). y Origin Attribute The origin attribute indicates how BGP learned about a particular route. Community Weight is a Cisco-defined attribute that is local to a router.2. y AS_path Attribute When a route advertisement passes through an autonomous system. Unlike the weight attribute. An origin of incomplete occurs when a route is redistributed into BGP. Local preference 3. For IBGP. EGP .Origin y Weight Attribute 6. Multi-exit discriminator 4.The origin of the route is unknown or learned in some other way.The route is interior to the originating AS. The weight attribute is not advertised to neighboring routers.The route is learned via the Exterior Border Gateway Protocol (EBGP). If there are multiple exit points from the AS. For EBGP peers. If the router learns about more than one route to the same destination. This value is set when the network router configuration command is used to inject the route into BGP.

10. 802. Reduction in the broadcasting of traffic on the network.1p. Increase in security because information is encapsulated in an additional level and possibly analyzed. Route maps are used to set the community attribute. called communities. . Advantage of VLAN y y y More flexibility in administration and changes to the network because all the structure can be changed by simple parameter of the switches. all routers in the network belong to it. 802.y Community Attribute The community attribute provides a way of grouping destinations.1Q and 802. Predefined community attributes are listed here: No-export .Do not advertise this route to any peer. VLANs are defined by the standards IEEE 802. Internet . No-advertise . and redistribution) can be applied. SWITCHING VLAN Virtual LAN (VLAN) refers to a group of logically network devices on one or more LANs that are configured so that they can communicate as if they were attached to the same cable.1D. to which routing decisions (such as acceptance.Do not advertise this route to EBGP peers. preference.Advertise this route to the Internet community.

). Protocol Based VLAN makes it possible to create a virtual network by protocol type (for example TCP/IP. AppleTalk. y y By default VLAN details in CISCO switch. to view the details give ³show vlan´ in CISCO switch . IPX. A MAC Address-Based VLAN comprises of defining a virtual network according to the MAC addresses of the stations. This type of VLAN is much more flexible than the port based VLAN because the network is independent from the location of the station. etc. Network Address Based VLAN links subnets according to the source IP address of the datagram. On the other hand there may be slight degradation in performance since the information contained in the packets must be analyzed more closely. This type of solution provides great flexibility insofar as the configuration of the switches changes automatically when a station is moved.Types of VLAN y y A Port Based VLAN defines a virtual network according to the connection ports on the switch. therefore grouping together all the machines using the same protocol on the same network.

VTP VTP stands for Vlan Trunk Protocol.the client mode have not permit to delete. It only forwards the information to its next switch. deletion and renaming of Vlan. create and alter.it only receive information form server but not update accordingly server. Client Mode: . Three types of VTP modes: Server Mode: . . create and rename the vlans. When configure a new VLAN on one VTP server.the server mode has full permission to delete. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN everywhere. it only receive information from the server and update accordingly it pass the same information to its clients switch. it is a Layer2 messaging protocol is used to maintain the Vlan configuration consistency by managing addition. VTP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst series products. Transparent Mode: . the VLAN is distributed through all switches in the domain.

It sends immediately after a configuration change has been made. Advertisement request: Solicits both a summary advertisement and a subset advertisement from the server in the management domain. Request Summary Advertisement: Send every five minutes by a server or client to inform neighbouring switches of what it believes is the current VTP configuration revision number for its management domain. Subset and 3. Summary. Subset Advertisement: This is sent if any change in the VLAN configuration has been made or in response to an advertisement request. 2.Three types of Advertisement 1. .

Forwarding 5. BPDU data is still received in blocking state. Disabled Blocking . then search out and destroy redundant links. Learning 4. STP uses the spanning-tree algorithm (STA) to first create a topology database.A port that would cause a switching loop. The main purpose of STP is to ensure that you do not create loops when you have redundant paths in your network. Blocking 2.1D.STP Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol that runs on bridges and switches. Loops are deadly to a network. no user data is sent or received but it may go into forwarding mode if the other links in use were to fail and the spanning tree algorithm determines the port may transition to the forwarding state. Listening 3. Each port on a switch using Spanning-Tree Protocol exists in one of the following five states: 1. Spanning-Tree Protocol is a link management protocol that provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops in the network. The specification for STP is IEEE 802. .

RSTP is typically able to respond to changes within 3*Hello times (default: 6 seconds). and servers. Rapid Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (R-PVST): It is Cisco's proprietary protocol that combines the functionalities of RSTP and PVST. It is based on a per VLAN instance that creates a tree for each VLAN.The switch processes BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) and awaits possible new information that would cause it to return to the blocking state. which are the default protocol used by Cisco switches.While the port does not yet forward packets it does learn source addresses from packet received and adds them to the Switching database (filtering database) Forwarding . Disabled . While STP can take 30 to 50 seconds to respond to a topology change.Listening . Both PVST and PVST+ protocols are Cisco proprietary protocol. its default value is 2 seconds Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP): MSTP allows formation of MST regions that can run multiple MST instances (MSTI). MSTP was inspired by Cisco system Multiple Instances Spanning Tree Protocol (MISTP). It allows grouping several physical Ethernet links to create one logical Ethernet link for the purpose of providing fault-tolerance and high-speed links between switches. Learning . . routers. and is an evolution of the STP and the RSTP. a network administrator can manually disable a port Types of STP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP): Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP). ETHER CHANNELS EtherChannel is a port trunking (aggregation in Cisco's term) technology primarily used on Cisco switches. which provides for faster spanning tree convergence after a topology change. The so-called Hello time is an important and configurable time interval that is used by RSTP for several purposes. STP still monitors incoming BPDUs that would indicate it should return to the blocking state to prevent a loop. PVST works only with Inter Switch Link (ISL). Multiple regions and other STP bridges are interconnected using one single common spanning tree (CST).A port receiving and sending data. Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST): PVST and PVST+. normal operation.Not strictly part of STP.

and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. EtherChannel combines multiple Fast Ethernet up to 800Mbps. Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet.An EtherChannel can be created from between two and eight Fast Ethernet. or 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports. but can also be used to connect UNIX and PC. EtherChannel provides incremental trunk speeds between Fast Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet up to 8Gbps . PORT SECURITY Port security is a layer two traffic control feature on Cisco switches. If it is enabled an administrator configure individual switch ports to allow only a specified number of source MAC addresses in the port. Configuring the Port Security feature is relatively easy. port security requires going to an already enabled switch port and entering the port-security Interface Mode command Techiebird-Sw# config ter Techiebird-Sw(config)# int fa0/13 Techiebird-Sw(config-if)# switchport port-security ? Aging Port-security aging commands Mac-address Secure Mac address . and 10 Gigabit Ethernet up to 80Gbps. EtherChannel is primarily used in the backbone network. In its simplest form.

you need to be very careful with this option if you enter this command on an uplink port that goes to more than one device.Maximum Max secure addresses Violation Security violation mode Techiebird-Sw (config-if)# switchport port-security Techiebird-Sw(config-if)#^Z By entering the most basic command to configure port security. But you don¶t have to accept the defaults. It is set of rules or conditions that permit or deny the IP packets. determining that MAC address from the first device that communicates on this switch port. You can also configure port security on a range of ports. which filters the IP packets based on source and destination address. Techiebird-Sw# config ter Techiebird-Sw(config)# int range fastEth 0/1 ± 8 Techiebird-Sw(config-if)# switchport port-security However. Techiebird-Sw# config ter Techiebird-Sw(config-if)# no switchport port-security Techiebird-Sw(config-if)# end ACL ACL stands of Access Control List. the entire port will shut down. and shutting down that switch port if another MAC address attempts to communicate via the port. Status of port security Once you¶ve configured port security and the Ethernet device on that port has sent traffic. the switch will record the MAC address and secure the port using that address. we accepted the default settings of only allowing one MAC address. . Techiebird-Sw# show port-security address Disabling Port Security To disable port security we have configured fa0/13 for port security now if you want to disable port security follow the below steps. it is packet filtering method. As soon as the second device sends a packet.

source port number and destination port number. Standard ACL & 2. Extended ACL.133.168.0.0 0.255 Note that when configuring access lists on a router.255 This list allows traffic from all addresses in the range 192.0. you must identify each access list uniquely by assigning either a name or a number to the protocol's access list.3. Extended ACL example: Access-list 130 .0.168. The value of 0.Applied to traffic leaving the office (outgoing) Access-list 130 permit tcp 192.Standard IP Access Lists ranging in number from 1 to 99.0.3. Access-list access-list-number {permit|deny} {host|source source-wildcard|any} Standard ACL example: Access-list 10 permit 192.0 to 192. Extended ACL control the traffic based on the source IP address.255.3.0.255 any eq 23 ACL 130 permits traffic originating from any address on the 192. There is an implicit deny added to every access list.0 0. The 'any' statement means that the traffic is allowed to have any destination address with the limitation of going to port 23. and given for general understanding only.168.0 0. 1.0/255.255 can be specified as 'any'.255 Access-list 10 deny any Syntax for IP Extended ACL: Access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} protocol source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard [precedence precedence] Note that the above syntax is simplified.Extended IP Access Lists ranging in number from 100 to 199. destination IP address. .2.0.3.255.168.0. Standard ACL . If you entered the command: show access-list 10 The output looks like: Access-list 10 permit 192.0 network.Cisco ACLs are divided into types. Extended ACL .0.133. Standard ACL control the traffic based on the source IP address only.3. Syntax for IP standard ACL.

or the keys may be derived from the phase 1 shared secret. The receiver then sends back a single transform set. but leaves the header untouched. IPsec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). Two subsets widely in use are: 1.IP Sec Short for IP Security. The sender offers one or more transform sets that are used to specify an allowed combination of transforms with their respective settings. The Diffie-Hellman key agreement is always performed in this phase. secure channel between the two IKE peers. which indicates the mutually agreed-upon transforms and algorithms for this particular IPSec session. switched and nonswitched protocol. Transport mode encrypts only the data portion (payload) of each packet. The sender must offer at least one transform set. and switched or non-switched channels. The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload. IKE creates an authenticated. HDLC have three stations. point to point(peer to peer) and multi-point networks. The three stations are : . IKE negotiates the IPSec security associations and generates the required key material for IPSec. called the IKE security association. It has been so widely implemented because it supports both half duplex and full duplex communication lines. a set of protocols developed by the Internet engineering Task Force(IETF) to support secure exchange of packets at the IP layer. It is a bit oriented. the sending and receiving devices must share a public key. IPSec VPN connection in general involves two phases. For IPsec to work. WAN Technology HDLC HDLC stands for High-Level Data Link Control. It is a data link layer protocol and falls within layer 2. which allows the receiver to obtain a public key and authenticate the sender using digital certificate. The sender also indicates the data flow to which the transform set is to be applied. A new Diffie-Hellman agreement may be done in phase 2. Synchronous Data Link Control(SDLC) and 2. HDLC is a protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization(ISO). y y Phase I Phase II In phase 1 of this process. IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel. In phase 2. Link Access Procedure-Balanced(LAP-B). This is accomplished through a protocol known as Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol/Oakley (ISAKMP/Oakley).

Primary station: y y y Has the responsibility of controlling the operation of data flow the link. The primary station maintains a separate logical link with each secondary station. a single byte control field. In this case. Combined station: y y Acts as both as primary and secondary station. Frames issued by a secondary station are called responses. Secondary station: y y y Operates under the control of the primary station. . Handles error recovery Frames issued by the primary station are called commands.      Flag Address Control Information Field Frame Check Sequence The three modes of data transfer operations are: Normal Response Mode (NRM) y Mainly used in terminal-mainframe networks. The control field is then followed by a variable length information field and a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) that is two bytes (16 bits) long. Does not rely on other for sending data HDLC Frame Structure The HDLC frame contains a beginning flag. a single byte address field.

Less secure 3. Two way handshake method y y Auth. one is the Password Authentication that uses a password to authenticate or the Challenge Handshake Authentication which uses the handshake of the server with the dial up as an authentication and Mainly used in point-to-point links. Establishing The connection between two points is called Point to Point Protocol. for communication between combined stations Difference between PAP and CHAP PAP 1. The name PPP comes from the fact that when you are connected to your ISP. the ISP and you make up two points on the network hence the protocol that is used to get things `happening' between the two of you is the Point to Point protocol or the PPP. used mostly in point-to-pointlinks Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM) y PPP PPP stands for Point to Point Protocol . Clear text 2. PPP comes into play when you establish a connection to your ISP (Internet Service Provider) via a modem. No periodic Check up 4. good for multi-point links Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM) y y y Same as NRM except that the secondaries can initiate transmissions without direct polling from the primary station Reduces overhead as no frames need to be sent to allow secondary nodes to transmit Transmission proceeds when channel is detected idle .y y Secondaries (terminals) can only transmit when specifically instructed by the primary station in response to a polling Unbalanced configuration. Periodical Check up Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is most commonly used for authentication on wireless networks . High secure 3. Three way handshake method Challenge Response Success 4. provides three methods of authentication. Acknowledgment y y y 1. The PPP The PPP Protocol Protocol EAP allows different types of protocols to function on its platform and on the same link. Request Auth. Encrypted CHAP 2.

Deleted .contains the binary sequence 00000011. Information . Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) are similar to Telephone line switched connection. SVCs is setup on a Call ± by ± Call basis Three states for PVCs Active .It means everything is UP. contain the datagram for the protocol specified in the protocol field. Frame relay is a high performance WAN protocol that operate at the physical and Data Link Layers of the OSI Models. The Point to Point Protocol also has a varied version called the PPP multilink protocol. the standard broadcast address.identify the protocol encapsulated in the information field of the frame. Address .) Control . consenting PPP implementations can use a 32-bit FCS for improved error detection. .Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field.It means there is problem with the far end. Protocol .32 bits FCS y y y y y y Flag .Zero or more octet(s).Permanent Virtual Circuits (ii) SVCs .Switched Virtual Circuits Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) are similar to Leased Line. Two Types of Circuits are there: (i) PVCs . and other authentication protocols like PAP and CHAP.contains the binary sequence 11111111. y y y y y y y y Frame Relay Frame relay is packet switching technology.PPP Frames There are many protocols that are included in the PPP frame that work in send and receive data on a network. By prior agreement. PVCs is setup for a dedicated Point ± to ± Point connections. Inactive . The packages of data that are being sent and received on the network is called frame. (Note: PPP does not assign individual station addresses. consists of the binary sequence 01111110.indicates the beginning or end of a frame. All these protocols are used to transport the small bits of data over the link.It means problem with Router and Frame Relay provider Equipment. The Point to Point Protocol usually follows a general and a standard format for all the frames that it sends or receives. FCS . which calls for transmission of user data in an unsequenced frame. The Point to Point Protocol follows specified set of formats for different purposes on the network. 8 Flag 16 Address 24 Control 40bits Protocol Variable Information 16 . The formats that are commonly used by the Point to Point Protocol are Link Control Protocol. normally 16 bits.

This economical solution can be integrated seamlessly over any existing infrastructure. it enables Enterprises and Service Providers to build next-generation intelligent networks that deliver variety of advanced. which is essential for both Service Provider and Enterprise networks. end-to-end IP services with simple configuration. such as Frame Relay.y y y y y y LMI ± Local Management Interface The main function of Local Management Interface (LMI) is to allow the frame relay DTE and DCE to exchange the status information about the Virtual Circuits (VCs) LMI Standard Types: Cisco Ansi q933a MPLS MPLS stands for Multiprotocol Label Switching. MPLS delivers highly scalable. A wide range of platforms support this solution. including y y y y y y Layer 3 VPNs Layer 2 VPNs Traffic Engineering QoS GMPLS and IPV6 It enables the development of highly efficient. and provisioning for providers and subscribers. ATM. value-added services over a single infrastructure. management. MPLS is independent of access technologies.Integration of MPLS application components. . With differing access links can be aggregated on an MPLS edge without changing their current environments. or Ethernet. and secure networks that guarantee Service Level Agreements. scalable.

Internet and Extranet (Eg. This limited range is called the bandwidth. The maximum amount of data that can be transferred in a single line is called Bandwidth. LAN. WAN & MAN) Q:What is Bandwidth? Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. Using three types of network are Intranet. Every line has a capacity of transmission of data. Q:What is VLAN? .CCNA INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERWS Q:What is Networking? Inter connection between the two or more computers is called the networking.

So this CIDR helps to prevent the waste of IP address. (i. Q:What is CIDR? CIDR Stands for classless inter domain routing. when try to separate a major subnet into minor ones. 3.e Source to Destination). Q:What is VLSM? VLSM stands for Variable length subnet mask. .4-/28 Q:What is unicast? Unicast is one type of transmission in which information is sent from one host to another host (i. 2.1. It is securied connection. It is packet filtering method. It is a logical grouping of network users and resources connected to administratively defined ports on a switch.VLAN Stand for Virtual Local Area Network. It creates separate broadcast domain. then that process is called VLSM. Unicast transmission is between one-toone nodes Unicast ---> A transmission to a single interface card.1.1. We can subnet in various lengths. It helps in preventing the wasting of IP address and nowadays we are facing the shortage of the IP address.Shortly IPV6 will come into exist. Q:What is ACL? ACL stands of Access Control List.e one source to all destination) Broadcast ---> A transmission to all interface cards on the network. It is another type of transmission or communication in which there may be more than host and the information sent is meant for a set of host. Uses of VLAN are as follows:1. Q:What is Broadcast? Broadcast is one type of transmission in which information is transfer from just one host but is received by all the host connected to the network.e one source to group of destination Multicast ---> A transmission to a group of interface cards on the network.(i. It is set of rules or condition that permit or deny the ip packets. In another words.1.1.0-/30 and 1.1. Eg: 1. which filter the IP packets based on source and destination address.0-/24 can be separated into 1. Q:What is Multicast? Multicast is such differ from Unicast. It increases flexibility.

. Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds and Hold time is 180 seconds. 5. Extended ACL . Q:What is CEF? Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) is an advanced layer 3 switching technology used mainly in large core networks or the Internet to enhance the overall network performance. It can give you all the details of the neighbours. Standard ACL & 2. source port number and destination port number. Extended ACL. avoiding the need for an ARP request for each table lookup.Standard IP Access Lists ranging in number from 1 to 99.Extended IP Access Lists ranging in number from 100 to 199. Q:What is CDP? CDP Stand for Cisco Discovery Protocol. Standard ACL control the traffic based on the source IP address only. destination IP address. Discard adjacency. Punt adjacency. Null adjacency. The adjacency maintains layer 2 or switching information linked to a particular FIB entry. Drop adjacency. CEF consists of two key components: The Forwarding Information Base (FIB) and adjacencies. 3. Standard ACL . 2. maintaining only the next-hop address for a particular IP-route. Extended ACL control the traffic based on the source IP address. CDP Version-2 (CDPv2) is the most recent release of the protocol and provides more intelligent device tracking features. CEF is mainly used to increase packet switching speed by reducing the overhead and delays introduced by other routing techniques. 4. CDP provides network device inventory. and IP next hop information. It's a Layer 2 protocol and used to check the availability of neighbouring Cisco devices. connectivity information. The FIB is similar to the routing table generated by multiple routing protocols. 1. There are five types of adjacencies: 1.Cisco ACLs are divided into types. Glean adjacency.

255.RIP V2 uses Multicast Address 4.Q:What is SNMP? The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol (Layer 1) that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices.Classful Protocol: .RIPV1 Universal Broadcast (255. It is part of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite.0. It uses metric as hop count (max hop count 15) AD 120. 2. It is open standard for any vendor use.RIPV1 uses Broadcast Address 4.0.0.Classless Protocol: . the multicast address is 224.255. Topology ± all path reach to destination (feasible successor) 3. It maintain neighbour table. it is also called balanced hybrid routing protocol or advanced distance vector routing protocol. Rip V2 1.D = Feasible distance Reported Distance: The metric for a route advertised by a neighbour Feasible distance: The distance advertised by a neighbour plus the cost to get to that . find and solve network problems. F. It is a Classless Protocol. RIPV1 does not VLSM. hold time 15 sec. Rip V1 1. Successor is available in routing table 2. SNMP enables network administrators to manage network performance.255) 5. It support for VLSM. It is used for small network. It sends periodic update for every 30 sec. Hello packets for every 5 sec. A.9).10. 5. RIPV2 uses Multicast (224.0.Supports subnette carries the information of subnet mask 3.D = Advertised distance (Reported Distance) 2. topology table & routing table 1. Routing ± best path (successor) DUAL: Diffusion update algorithm 1. What is RIP and difference between Rip V1 & Rip V2? RIP Stands for Routing information protocol. If successor failed means it will take the feasible successor DUAL Parameter 1. 2. It is also called distance vector routing protocol.RIPV2 supports VLSM What is EIGRP? EIGRP stands for Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. Neighbour ± directly connected neighbour (feasible successor) 2.Supports networks with same Subnet Mask 3. It is a Class full Protocol. and plan for network growth.

This is the default on Ethernet/broadcast networks. this area is obligatory. This one is pretty self explanatory. Non broadcast . A router within a stub area can only see outside the autonomous system if a default route has been configuration for it. What are the areas in OSPF? ‡ The backbone area.0. Neighbor command needed to establish adjacency. which is an area that connects to the backbone (Area 0) and is treated as a separate entity. Unlimited router can be used. Treats as a collection of P2P links. it is a link-state routing protocol and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols. operating within an autonomous system (AS). to reduce the CPU Usage using area. Does have DR/BDR election. which is an area that does not accept external summary routes.0. All other areas must connect to the backbone area.This is the default on frame relay networks has a DR/BDR election. Hence. Solves some design issues with the next hop processing for NONBROADCAST. ‡ A totally stubby area. 4. OSPF is designated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Specifically. All routers in a standard area have the same topological database. Point-to-point . which is a stub area that can receive external routes but will not propagate those external routes into the backbone area. Broadcast .No DR/BDR election. What are the network types in OSPF? 1. Point-to-multipoint . This type of area is useful for remote sites that have few networks and limited connectivity with the rest of the network and is a Cisco proprietary solution. ‡ A stub area.0. which is similar to a stub area.Does not have a DR/BDR election. ‡ An ordinary or standard area. 2. the default route must be configured as 0. . ‡ A not so stubby area (NSSA). CPU usage will be high. which is also referred to as Area 0. In this area. 3.neighbor What is OSPF? Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a dynamic routing protocol for use in Internet Protocol (IP) networks. but their routing tables will be based on the routers position in the standard area and will thus be unique to the router.

No periodic Check up CHAP 1. Must statically define neighbors. CHAP 3. 6. If a service provider is using BGP to exchange routes within an AS. (/32) What are BGP and their attributes? The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an inter autonomous system routing protocol. An autonomous system is a network or group of networks under a common administration and with common routing policies. Encrypted 2. PAP 2. Clear text 2. Weight 2. AS_path 6.OSPF treats these as stub hosts.Origin What is PPPoE? Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is network protocols that allow data communication between two network entities or points. which supports network layer protocols including IPv4 and IPv6. Customer networks. Acknowledgment 4. Request Auth. EAP 5. usually employ an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) such as RIP or OSPF for the exchange of routing information within their networks. such as universities and corporations. When BGP is used between autonomous systems (AS).Same as P2M but does not use pseudo broadcast.5. 1. Periodical Check up Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is most commonly used for authentication on . High secure 3. Point-to-multipoint non broadcast . BGP Attributes are 1. Loopback . Two way handshake method Auth. Multi-exit discriminator 4. BGP is used to exchange routing information for the Internet and is the protocol used between Internet service providers (ISP). Three way handshake method Challenge Response Success 4. Next hop 7. and ISPs use BGP to exchange customer and ISP routes. Local preference 3. Less secure 3. the protocol is referred to as External BGP (EBGP). Customers connect to ISPs. Community PAP 1. PPP supports three types of user authentication protocols that provide varying levels of security. then the protocol is referred to as Interior BGP (IBGP).

wireless networks What are the timers for dynamic routing protocol? Rip None 30 sec 180 sec IGRP None 90 sec 3*hello EIGRP 60 sec 3*hello OSPF 10 sec 4*hello Hello Update timers Dead timers What is the AD Value for Dynamic routing protocols? Rip 120 IGRP 100 EIGRP 90 OSPF 110 BGP 20 AD .