BEST METHOD OF ACETONE PRODUCTION

A feasibility study is being carried out here to select the best method to produce acetone . A feasibility study is an evaluation of a proposal designed to determine the difficulty in carrying out a designated task. The worldwide production capacity of acetone in 2010 was estimated at about 6.7 million tons per year . united states has the highest production capacity of 1.56 million tons per year . more than 90% of the U.S acetone is produced as a result of hydrolysis of cumene hydroperoxide . although 0.62 pound of acetone is produced per pound of phenol but the acetone is not a major and required product here in cumene process , so consideration will be done on this aspect .

WORN OUT METHODS
Older methods includes the production of acetone by the dry distillation of the acetates mainly calcium acetate resulting in low yields too . The another method used during world war 1 was acetone production using acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with Clostridium acetobutylicum bacteria which was developed by the first president of Israel to help British war effort . This process is also abandoned due to smaller yields . The current major processes today employing acetone production are : y y y y Cumene method Wacker-Hoechst process Oxidation of 2-propanol Acetic acid method

1. CUMENE METHOD
83% of the acetone is approximately produced by this method but it is tied to phenol production . In the cumene process, benzene is alkylated with propylene to produce cumene, which is oxidized by air to produce phenol and acetone .

The overall yield of the process is 97.7%, it is close to the best theoretically attainable performance. Researchers are working on it to increase the process yield. New improvements to the overall design include a high efficiency energy integration system and a large number of environmental hazards control systems. The production of acetone with the help of cumene is

1 OXIDATION OF SECONDARY ALCOHOL USING YEAST This process is not suitable for acetone production because to produce yeast. considering all this .not a normal process as compared to other acetone production processes. Basically this is a phenol production plant and acetone is the major by-product here. The cost estimation also tell us that the production of acetone using yeast from methane is not a suitable and economical process. is a very time taken process and in addition to that a lot amount of yeast is required to produce small amount of acetone. this process gives a good acetone yield but as a by-product along with phenol .The conversion of propylene is more than 99% .As in the acetaldehyde process. There is no need to build any separate plant in the country like Pakistan where electricity is the major issue to operate the plants. WACKER-HOECHST PROCESS The invention of Wacker process is a great success in a common sense . Still operating at a higher costs . 3 .20 % of the substance to be catalyzed. 2 . So a person who have budget to operate a single plant. OXIDATION OF 2-PROPANOL There are two ways to produce acetone from isopropyl alcohol : 2 . Here the oxidation technique is used for the propylene in the presence of palladium chloride and copper chloride . 2 . 2 CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SECONDARY ALCOHOL USING PLATINUM OR PALLADIUM As compare to the above process this process can be adopted for industrial production but this process costs a little more than the CUMENE process as : y y y Catalyst used in this process are expensive Catalyst is of very small life. Ratio is 10. he must try to develop a phenol plant from cumene process because in phenol plant he may get the two major products. In Japan the second most important process for acetone production is the direct oxidation of propylene with a 12% share. And a huge amount of catalyst is required for acetone production. this can be carried out commercially in either a single-step or a two-step . this process moves head to head with cumene process . The market demands of phenol are very high and acetone as major by-product can be used to meet the market requirement from this process. used for this process is.

5 1 1.2 .The latter is economically more favorable because a propylene/propane mixture (made by petroleum cracking) can be directly used as the feedstock.5 4 3. One of the advantages of the process of direct oxidation using palladium chloride as a homogeneous liquid phase catalyst is that the feed stocks used can be a mixture of olefins and 5 4. ACETIC ACID PROCESS As acetic acid is the major raw material so its availability is an important factor to be considered. The PH of the catalyst solution is kept between 1 and 2 and it contains palladium chloride 100 times more by weight as compared to cupric chloride . United States 19% Western Europe 6%. and at low pressure 0. Also the life of the palladium chloride / cupric chloride catalyst solution is virtually unlimited because the deactivation due to poisoning is not functioned in homogeneous catalysis .5 2 2. 4 .5 0 0 0.9 and 1. . In these conditions the single pass conversion reaches to 98 to 99 % and the yield is 92 to 94 mole % .5 2 1.5 1 0. y y y y China has largest capacity of acetic acid production which is 44%.process . 106 Pa absolute . Asia has 21%.5 3 2.5 Series 1 Series 2 saturated hydrocarbons without prior separation and also high purity products are obtained . The propylene oxidation and the catalyst regeneration takes place at same conditions i-e between 900 and 1200C .5 3 3.

y y y y y Heat transfer inside tubes may cause difficulty. Based on above facts . These regions totaled over 90% of global acetic acid consumption. . When Catalyst has to be renewed. High temperature of 485° C has to be maintained which requires consumption of heat energy. the manufacture of acetone from acetic acid process is far from being feasible and commercial as compared to the iso-propyl and cumene method .In consumption y y y y China consumes 30% of total demand. Large scale production may not be feasible because of tube size and iron balls. Another setup has to be installed to remove water from acetone which is a by-product of this process. Difficulties may arise in this process due to following reasons. United States 20%. whole process has to be stopped. Western Europe 14%. The average efficiency of this process is 85% and the quality of acetone meets the commercial specifications. Asia 27%.

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