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HISTORY
The name Kurukshetra is associated in the Puranas and the Great Epic with the legendary king Kuru although it appears to be more logical to trace it to the tribe of Kurus which was born as a result of merger of the various classes of the Great Bharatas who are described in the Rigveda as kindling sacrificial fires on the banks of the sacred Sarasvati and Drishadvati. The Sarasvati is described in the Rigveda as a perennial river par excellence, flowing from the Himalayas to the ocean most probably it refers to the Ghaggar. The Drishadvati was the river in whose bed the Hansi-Hisar branch of the Western Yamuna Canal now flows. The Kurus also were known to the Rigveda as the mention of a King named Kurushravana indicates. Many geographical names and personalities connected with Kurukshetra occur in the earliest Sanskrit literature and around this region were enacted the opening scenes of the drama of Indian history. Most of the Vedic literature was composed here and most of the social, religious and political traditions of this country arose in this region. It is therefore regarded as the cradle of Indian civilisation and culture. Kurukshetra shot into prominence as the battle field of Mahabharta and as the birth place of the holy Gita. The great 18-day battle of Mahabharta was fought here in the ancient past between Kauravas and Pandavas for upholding the cause of dharma. It was a war between good and evil, in which the Pandavas were victorious. Bhagvad Gita, the Song Celestial, is the divine message which lord Krishna delivered to Arjuna on the eve of the Great War when he saw the latter wavering from his duty. It epitomises all that is the best and noblest in the Hindu philosophy of life. Jyotisar, near Thanesar, is supposed to mark the site where it was delivered. Kurukshetra is mentioned a great deal in ancient literature. A flourishing country of the Kurus, it was the most sacred region of the Dvapara age according to the Matsya Purana and one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas of Jambudvipa. It was the region of lakes and lotus beds which can be seen even now. Manu indirectly praises the prowess of the people of Kurukshetra. Bana describes it as the land of the brave in the eyes of the warriors. The place was visited by Buddha and appears to have been favoured by his masterly discourses. Kurukshetra also finds mention in Panini's Ashtadhyayi. It was also visited by nine out of the ten Sikh Gurus, Guru Angad Dev the Second Guru,

being the only exception. The place where Guru Nanak stayed during his sojourn at Kurukshetra is well known as Gurdwara Sidhbati on a mound near the pumping station across the Kurukshetra Tank. The gurdwara dedicated to Guru Hargobind, the sixth guru, stands near Sannihit tank. Another gurdwara near the Sthaneshwar tank marks the spot sanctified by the visit of the ninth Guru Tegh Bahadur. And on the main bank of the Kurukshetra tank, stands the Gurdwara Rajghat built in the memory of the visit of the tenth Guru Gobind Singh; who also visited Jyotisar. This region saw the rise and fall of many an empire through centuries. Sons of the soil fought invaders in the battlefield of this sacred land from time to time and their exploits fill the pages of history. The period of King Harsha was a golden age.

GENERAL

AREA
The district has an area of 1682.53 Sq.Kms. constituting 3.8% of the total area of the State. Total area under cultivation is 168000 hect. Out of this, 147000 hect. is net irrigated area.

LOCATION
Kurukshetra district lies between latitude 29o-52' to 30o- 12' and longitude 76o-26' to 77o-04' in the North Eastern part of Haryana State. The district headquarter is located at Kurukshetra town and is about 160 Kilometers North of Delhi, 39 Kilometers North of Karnal and 40 Kilometers South of Ambala. It is at a distance of about 6 kilometer from Pipli an important road junction on the National Highway No.1 popularly called the Grand Trunk Road. Kurukshetra Railway Station, also called the Kurukshetra Junction, is located on main Delhi-Ambala Railway line. The other important towns of the district are Pehowa, Shahbad & Ladwa. The district consists of 419 villages.

Distance from Nearby Cities

GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES
On the whole, the district is a plain which slopes from North East to South and South West. The plain is remarkable flat and within it, are the narrow low-lying flood plains, known as either Betre Khadar of Naili. Saraswati, Markanda and Ghaggar are the important rivers of the district. A good network of canals is providing irrigational facilities. Underground water level is not relatively high. Tubewell irrigation is also common in the district. It is one of the prosperous district from agriculture point of view. The soil is generally alluvial, loam and clay does not constitute average texture of the soil.

CLIMATE
The climate of the district is of pronounced character i.e. very hot in Summer and markedly cold in winter. It is as high as 45 degree C in summer and as low as 3 degree C in winter.

HISTORICAL AND RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND


Kurukshetra is a place of great historical and religious importance, revered all over the country for its sacred associations. It was here that the battle of Mahabharta was fought and Lord Krishna preached his Philosophy of "KARMA" as enshrined in the Holy Geeta to Arjuna at Jyotisar. In the very first verse of Bhagwat Gita, Kurukshetra is described as DHARAMKSHETRA i.e. field of righteousness. Mythologically, the name Kurukshetra applied to a circuit of about 48 KOS or about 80 miles (128 Kms) which includes a large number of holy places, temples and tanks connected with the ancient Indian traditions and the Mahabharata War and Kururu, the pious ancestor of Kaurvas and Pandavas.

ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP

Total Area Sub Divisions Tehsils Sub-Tehsils Blocks Towns Villages

Sq.Km. Number Number Number Number Number Number

1682.53 (as per rev. record) 2 3 3 5 4 419 (as per revenue record) 364

Village Panchayats

Number

POPULATION (as per 2001 Census)


Total Population Total Male Population Total Female Population Total No. Of Households Rural Population Percentage of Urban Population Density Growth Rate (19912001) SC Population Sex Ratio Number Number Number Number Number Percentage Number Percentage Number F:M 825454 442328 383126 142950 609943 26.10 490 (per sq. KM) 23.32 169394 866:1000

EDUCATION
Primary Schools Middle Schools High/Higher Secondary Schools Colleges No. Of Teachers Number Number Number Number Number 613 (511-G) 90 (74-G) 157 (91-G) 12 4388 (in schools)

LITERACY
Literate Persons (R) 6 Yr & above Literate Persons (U) 6 Yr & above Total Literate persons Literacy Rate Literacy among Males Literacy among Females Number Number Number Percentage Percentage Percentage 342169 152704 494873 69.88 78.06 60.61

AGRICULTURE & IRRIGATION


Average Annual Rainfall (as per 2003) Culturable Area Net Area Sown (20032004) Net Area Irrigated (2003-2004) Centimeters Hect(000) Hect(000) Hect(000) 44.2 168 150 150

Average size of holding Total Foodgrain (cereal+pulses) (20032004) *Provisional fig. Total Sugarcane Production (2003-2004) * Provisional Fig. Fertilizer Consumption (2004-2005) Pestiside Consumption Tractors Tubewells & Pumpsets Electrified Tubewells Co-operative Societies

Hect(000) Tonns.(000)

N.A. 799.6

Tonns.(000)

102

Tonns. Tonns. Number Number Number Number

74512 1273 13309 32989 32551 572

ELECTRICITY & POWER (2003-2004)


Villages Electrified Electric Connection (Domestic) Other Connections L.T. Lines 11 KV Lines No. Of Transformers Number Number Number Number Number Number 412 118779 56629 7866.154 4265.765 12896

HEALTH (2004-2005)

Hospitals/Dispensaries/Health Ctrs. Medical Officers Ayurvedic Unani Family Welfare Centres No. Of Sterlisation Cases (Vasectomies & Tubectomies) No. Of Eligible Couples as on 31.3.2005

Number Number Number Number Number Number

130 71 16 5 2448 138152

VETERINARY FACILITY (2004-2005)


Vety. Hospitals Vety. Dispensary Regional Artificial Insemination Centre Stockmen Centre. Poultry extention. Centre Vety. Surgeon Animals Treated Number Number Number Number Number Number Number 30 28 3 41 2 34 211000

ROADS (2004-2005)
Metalled Unmetalled Villages Connected Km Km Number 1016.30 .6 419

FISHERIES (2004-2005)

Area Stocked Total Production Total Receipt

Hects. Tonns. Rs in Lac

273 N.A. 371.72

BANKS (2003-2004)
Central Co-operative Banks Commercial Banks Regional Rural Banks P.L.D. Banks Total Deposits Total Credit Credit Deposit Ratio Number Number Number Number Rs. in Lakhs Rs. in Lakhs Ratio 21 47 10 4 105586 60007 56.83

POST OFFICE
Post Office 2004-2005 No. Of PO per Lac of Population 2004-2005 Telegraphic Office 20042005 Block wise Number Number Number 107 13 14

WORKERS
Cultivators Agricultural Labourers Household Inds. Workers Other Workers Total Workers Working Force Number Number Number Number Number Percentage 73083 70111 6407 158791 308392 37.36

MISCELLANEOUS
Police Station/Post Registered Factories Working Factories Income from Municipal Committees (2003-2004) Expenditure (2003-2004) No. Of Electors (2005) No. of Govt. Employees as on 31.3.2004 Gross value of Agriculture output per capita(Rural) at current Number Number Number Rs in Lac Rs in Crore Number Number Rupees 9/9 N.A. N.A. 915.76 924.41 412000 12024 N.A.

prices 1997-98

Administrative Set Up
District Kurukshetra was created out of District Karnal in the year 1973. Later on some area of the erstwhile district were transferred to Kaithal & Yamuna Nagar District when these two districts were created. District Kurukshetra forms a part of Ambala Division. At present Kurukshetra district is divided into 2 Revenue Sub Divisions namely Thanesar & Pehowa. Thanesar Sub Division comprises of Thanesar and Shahabad Tehsils and Ladwa, Babain Sub Tehsils. Pehowa Sub Division includes Pehowa Tehsil and Ismailabad Sub Tehsil. To cater development needs of the rural areas in the district, the district has been divided into 5 Community Development Blocks namely Thanesar, Ladwa, Shahabad, Babain and Pehowa. Three tier Panchayati Raj Institutions structure is in place to look after the development in rural areas with Zila Parishad at district level, Panchayat Samities at each of the 5 Community Development Blocks and Panchayats at village level. 364 Panchayats are working and looking after the development needs of 419 villages of the district. Kurukshetra district has 4 towns namely Thanesar, Shahabad, Ladwa and Pehowa where Municipal Council/Municipal Committees have been installed among other things looked after the development of these towns. District Kurukshetra falls under Kurukshetra Parliamentary Constituency and Deputy Commissioner, Kurukshetra is Returning Officer for this Constituency. The area of district Kurukshetra is spread in Thanesar, Shahabad, Pehowa, Nilokheri & Pundri Assembly Constituencies. The administrative work is carried out by the various departments.

ECONOMY
The economy of the district is primarily agrarian, An overwhelming work force is engaged as cultivators and agriculture labourers. The district enjoys an ideal location benefits being situated adjacent to national highway number 1. It is coming up as an industrial belt and has started throbbing with the wide

spectrum of developmental activities and unfolds immense potential of industrial opportunities. Farming is the main occupation of the people as a sizeable percentage i.e. over 90% of people are engaged in various agricultural pursuits. Wheat and Rice are the main crops of the district. Among the commercial crops sugarcane is an important crop of this district. It covers approximately an area of 12 thousand hectares in the district Kurukshetra. Cultivation of vegetables especially of potato is very popular in Kurukshetra district. The approximate production of potato crop in Kurukshetra district is about 5645 tonns. To supplement the income, dairy farming and cattle rearing is another occupation adopted by the people which is strengthening economy of the district. Most of the agriculturists are engaged in either dairy farming, poultry farming, pig farming etc.as a side business. To support this occupation there is wide network of veterinary facilities which includes about 24 Civil Veterinary Hospital, 26 Dispensaries and 41 Stockmen Centres, as well as Artificial Insemination Centres, Poultry -cum- Piggery Centre. There are 3 milk plants in private sector in Kurukshetra itself, whereas another one is situated just near Kurukshetra i.e. in Karnal. A wide net work of Milk Cooperative Societies is adding to the economic condition of poor rural people. Being agriculture based economy, industrial set up in the district is also agrobased, as there are number of small and big Rice Shellers and Wheat Processing Units. A conscious attempt has been made by the District Industries Centre Kurukshetra to identify the small-large scale industry having scope in the district. For promotion of industrialisation, a special Sector i.e. 3 Sector has been developed as Industrial Area where number of small scale units have been established. The District also boosts of wide network of Commercial Bank branches. There are as many as 76 branches of various banks. The Punjab National Bank is the Lead Bank of the district. Commercial banks, Regional Rural Bank (Ambala Kurukshetra Gramin Bank) and co-operative banks look after the financial needs of the growing economy of the district.