Zaporozhye state medical university Urology department

Liberary research work in urology Kidney cancer.

Name: Alero Egodo Course: 4th course grp 3a Medicine Lecturer:

Zaporozhye 2011

though it isn't clear why.Kidney cancer: This cancer originates in the kidneys. In addition to renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. which affects the ureters. Transitional cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma . the most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma. can also begin in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs. which may lead to the discovery of more kidney cancers. less common types of kidney cancer include: . Imaging techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) are being used more often. other. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (reninoma) . Children are more likely to develop a kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. Other less common types of kidney cancer can occur. with one kidney on each side of your spine. In adults. Many kidney cancers are detected during procedures for other diseases or conditions. They're located behind your abdominal organs. each about the size of your fist.

Transitional cell carcinoma . Mixed epithelial stromal tumor . Renal oncocytoma . Carcinosarcoma . Teratoma . Carcinoid tumor of the renal pelvis . Mesoblastic nephroma . Rarely. Renal lymphoma . These include: . Clear-cell sarcoma of the kidney . some other types of cancer and potentially cancerous tumors that more usually originate elsewhere can originate in the kidneys. Inverted papilloma . Clear cell adenocarcinoma . Bellini duct carcinoma . Angiomyolipoma .. Wilms' tumor .

red or cola colored (heamaturia) y Back pain just below the ribs that doesn't go away y Weight loss y Fatigue y Intermittent fever y Side pain y High blood pressure y Heavy sweating y Loss of appetite . Kidney cancer originates in the kidney in two principal locations: the renal tubule and the renal pelvis. the result of metastasis from a primary cancer elsewhere in the body. Most cancers in the renal tubule are renal cell carcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma. which may appear pink.Cancer in the kidney may also be secondary. Symptoms: Kidney cancer rarely causes signs or symptoms in its early stages. In the later stages. kidney cancer signs and symptoms may include: y Blood in your urine. Most cancers in the renal pelvis are transitional cell carcinoma.

The mutations tell the cells to grow and divide rapidly. . Doctors know that kidney cancer begins when some kidney cells acquire mutations in their DNA. Some cells can break off and spread (metastasize) to distant parts of the body. Factors that can increase the risk of kidney cancer include: Older age: Your risk of kidney cancer increases as you age. The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can extend beyond the kidney. Smoking: Smokers have a greater risk of kidney cancer than nonsmokers do. Obesity: People who are obese have a higher risk of kidney cancer than do people who are considered average weight. Being male: Men are more likely to develop kidney cancer. The risk decreases after you quit.y Tiredness Causes and risk factors: It's not clear what causes renal cell carcinoma.

To reduce your risk. try to: Quit smoking. Treatment for kidney failure: People who receive long-term dialysis to treat chronic kidney failure have a greater risk of developing kidney cancer. If you smoke. kidney cancer. but it isn't clear why. Von Hippel-Lindau disease: People with this inherited disorder are likely to develop several kinds of tumors. including. People who work with chemicals such as asbestos and cadmium may have an increased risk of kidney cancer. Prevention: Taking steps to improve your health may help reduce your risk of kidney cancer. Many options for quitting exist. Chemicals in your workplace: Workers who are exposed to certain chemicals on the job may have a higher risk of kidney cancer.High blood pressure (hypertension): High blood pressure increases your risk of kidney cancer. Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma: Having this inherited condition makes it more likely you'll develop one or more kidney cancers. . quit. in some cases. including support programs.

and discuss your options together. Lifestyle measures such as exercise. If your blood pressure is high. If you work with toxic chemicals. Replacing some of your snacks and side dishes with fruits and vegetables may help you lose weight. your employer is required to tell you what chemicals you may be exposed to on the job. Work to maintain a healthy weight. Maintain a healthy weight. If you're overweight or obese. Discuss your options with your doctor. Tell your doctor you want to quit. you can discuss options for lowering your numbers. Ask your doctor about other healthy strategies to help you lose weight.medications and nicotine replacement products. In the United States. . A variety of fruits and vegetables helps ensure that you're getting all the nutrients that your body needs. Control high blood pressure. Add more fruits and vegetables to your diet. weight loss and diet changes can help. Eat more fruits and vegetables. Some people may need to add medications to lower their blood pressure. reduce the number of calories you consume each day and try to exercise most days of the week. Reduce or avoid exposure to environmental toxins. Ask your doctor to check your blood pressure at your next appointment. take special precautions such as wearing a mask and heavy gloves.

Imaging tests. Tests of your blood and your urine may give your doctor clues about what's causing your signs and symptoms." doctors usually forgo kidney biopsy. . Imaging tests allow your doctor to visualize a kidney tumor or abnormality. In very selected cases. Kidney biopsy is typically reserved for cases that are most likely to be noncancerous or for people who can't undergo an operation. Imaging tests might include ultrasound.Follow your employer's safety procedures. computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because surgery is usually the first line treatment for kidney cancer and a kidney biopsy carries the risk of a "false-negative. your doctor may recommend a procedure to remove a small sample of cells (biopsy) from a suspicious area of your kidney. Removing a sample of kidney tissue (biopsy). and ask your doctor if there are other ways to protect yourself from chemical exposure. Test and diagnosis: Tests and procedures used to diagnose kidney cancer include: Blood and urine tests.

Cancer spreads outside the kidney. Staging tests for kidney cancer may include additional CT scans or other imaging tests your doctor feels are appropriate. Kidney cancer stages include: Stage I. Stage II. or stage. brain. liver or lungs Treatment: . but is still confined to the kidney. of the cancer. Stage III. such as the bones. and may also have spread to a nearby lymph node. the next step is to determine the extent. At this stage. to multiple lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body. the tumor extends beyond the kidney to the surrounding tissue or the adrenal glands. At this stage.Kidney cancer staging Once your doctor diagnoses kidney cancer. A stage II kidney cancer is larger than a stage I tumor. The tumor is confined to the kidney. the tumor can be up to 2 3/4 inches (7 centimeters) in diameter. Stage IV.

Or nephrectomy can be done laparoscopically. using several small incisions to insert a video camera and tiny surgical tools. a border of healthy tissue and the adjacent lymph nodes. the surgeon removes the tumor and a small margin of healthy tissue that surrounds it. Nephrectomy can be an open operation. rather than removing the entire kidney.Surgery Surgical procedures used to treat kidney cancer include: Removing the affected kidney (nephrectomy). it's generally preferred over radical nephrectomy. since retaining as much . also called partial nephrectomy. When nephronsparing surgery is possible. Radical nephrectomy involves the removal of the kidney. Removing the tumor from the kidney (nephronsparing surgery). or it may be performed laparoscopically. meaning the surgeon makes one large incision to access your kidney. Nephronsparing surgery can be an open procedure. The surgeon watches a video monitor to perform the nephrectomy. The adrenal gland may also be removed if it appears the tumor has grown into the gland. Nephron-sparing surgery may be an option if you have a small kidney cancer or if you only have one kidney. During this procedure.

as well as your health. In this procedure. It's typically reserved for people who can't undergo other surgical procedures and those who have small kidney . including: Blocking blood flow to the tumor (embolization).kidney tissue as possible may reduce your risk of later complications. Treatments when surgery isn't possible For some people. There are few long-term data about the safety and efficacy of cryoablation. Clogging this vessel deprives the tumor of oxygen and other nutrients. During cryoablation. surgery may be too risky. Gas in the needle is used to cool down or freeze the cancer cells. These people have other options for treating their kidney cancers. a special needle is inserted through your skin and into your kidney tumor using Xray guidance. Arterial embolization also may be used before an operation or to relieve pain and bleeding when an operation isn't possible. The type of surgery your doctor recommends will be based on your cancer and its stage. such as kidney disease. Treatment to freeze cancer cells (cryoablation). a special material is injected into the main blood vessel leading to the kidney. Surgery carries a risk of bleeding and infection.

An electrical current is run through the needle and into the cancer cells. In these situations. During radiofrequency ablation. There are few long-term data about the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation. causing the cells to heat up or burn. a special needle is inserted through your skin and into your kidney tumor using X-ray guidance. Treatments for advanced and recurrent kidney cancer Kidney cancer that recurs and kidney cancer that spreads to other parts of the body may be curable. in some cases it may be helpful to remove as much of the cancer as possible. treatments may include: Surgery to remove as much of the kidney tumor as possible. Radiofrequency ablation may be an option for people who can't undergo other surgical procedures and those with small kidney tumors located in areas that are easily reached with a needle. Even when surgery can't remove all of your cancer.tumors located in areas that can be easily reached with a needle. . Treatment to heat cancer cells (radiofrequency ablation).

The targeted drugs bevacizumab (Avastin). Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Drugs in this category include interferon and aldesleukin (Proleukin). diarrhea and fatigue. Temsirolimus (Torisel) and everolimus (Afinitor) are targeted drugs that block a signal that allows cancer cells to grow and survive. Side effects of these drugs include chills. pazopanib (Votrient). But . vomiting and loss of appetite.Drugs that use your immune system to fight cancer (biological therapy). Chemotherapy isn't commonly used to treat renal cell carcinoma. which are synthetic versions of chemicals made in your body. Targeted therapy drugs can cause side effects. such as a rash that can be severe. sorafenib (Nexavar) and sunitinib (Sutent) block signals that play a role in the growth of blood vessels that provide nutrients to cancer cells and allow cancer cells to spread. These drugs have shown promise in treating kidney cancer that has spread to other areas of the body. Chemotherapy. nausea. fever. Treatment that targets specific aspects of your cancer (targeted therapy). Targeted treatments block specific abnormal signals present in kidney cancer cells that allow them to proliferate. Biological therapy (immunotherapy) uses your body's immune system to fight cancer.

their locations and your general health. Reference : webMd.mayoclinic online. Or chemotherapy may be used to treat cancer cells that have traveled to distant parts of the body.emedicine. . Kidney cancer cells that travel to other parts of the body (metastasize) can sometimes be treated. This depends on the number of distant tumors. Chemotherapy treatments may be used before surgery to shrink a tumor.chemotherapy may be used to treat transitional cell carcinoma a cancer of the ureters that sometimes begins in the kidneys.treatment guidelines. Treatments for distant tumors. Options might include surgery for brain metastasis or radiation for kidney cancer that has spread to bones. Treatment options vary based on where your cancer has spread. making it easier to remove.

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