This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier.

The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit:

doi:10.Author's personal copy Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 Original article Nannoplankton biostratigraphic calibration of the evaporitic events in the Neogene Fortuna Basin (SE Spain)§ Calibration biostratigraphique des événements évaporitiques du bassin néogène de Fortuna fondée sur les nannofossiles calcaires (SE Espagne) Carlos Lancis a. Four evaporitic events are present in the central part of the Fortuna Basin. Jesús-Miguel Soria a. Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente. below the Tale Gypsum Fm. Sur la base § Corresponding editor: Frédéric Quillévéré. Il présente l’enregistrement d’événements de restriction avant la Crise de Salinité Messinienne (CSM). la Formation (Fm) Gypse de Tale. Mb des Marnes de Sanel). Antonio Estévez a.tent@ua.*. a new calibration of the available magnetostratigraphic data is presented: the Chicamo Cycles Fm were formed during the reverse chron C3Ar and the Tortonian-Messinian boundary should be found within the Tale Gypsum Fm or near the top of the Sanel Mb. # 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. La première occurrence d’Amaurolithus primus est enregistrée dans la partie supérieure du Mb Sanel. Chicamo Diatomites and Gypsum Cycles Fm. 0016-6995/$ – see front matter # 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. The present work documents the first biostratigraphic dating based on calcareous nannoplankton of these events. from bottom to top: Los Baños Marls Formation (composed by Fenazar Conglomerate Bed. la transition Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus-Nicklithus amplificus et la première occurrence de Nicklithus cf. Via di Vigna Murata. above the Tale Gypsum Fm. Italy Received 20 October 2008. occur in the lower part of the Chicamo Cycles Fm. bottom of the Los Baños Fm. All rights reserved. Calcareous nannoplankton. All rights reserved. avec de bas en haut. nous datons ces ensembles sur la base d’une analyse biostratigraphique du nannoplancton calcaire. We dedicate it to his memory. * Corresponding author. and not by the Tale Gypsum Fm. Les premières occurrences d’Amaurolithus delicatus et de Reticulofenestra rotaria. Keywords: Betic Cordillera. au-dessus de la Fm Gypse de Tale. as previously considered. amplificus in the upper part of the Chicamo Cycles Fm.1. Messinian. Dans la partie centrale du bassin. on peut reconnaître quatre ensembles évaporitiques. Spain b Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. Fortuna Basin Résumé Le bassin de Fortuna est un exemple de bassin méditerranéen marginal avec sédimentation évaporitique pendant le Tortonien supérieur et le Messinien. The LOs of Amaurolithus delicatus and Reticulofenestra rotaria. pour la première fois. 1 Professor Jesús Caracuel passed away in the course of this work. Alfonso Yébenes a a Universidad de Alicante. qui marquent la base du Messinien. José-Enrique Tent-Manclús a. The onset of the TSC.007 . amplificus sont enregistrées dans la partie supérieure de la Fm Cycles de Chicamo. The lowest occurrence (LO) of Amaurolithus primus is registered at the upper part of the Sanel Mb. Lower Gypsum Member [Mb] and Sanel Mb). ce qui a permis de mettre en évidence une Crise de Salinité Tortonienne (CST) induite par un soulèvement tectonique qui a isolé le bassin. which mark the base of the Messinian. E-mail address: je.09. Apto. 99. Tale Gypsum Formation (Fm).geobios. Ici. la Formation Los Baños (Couche Conglomératique de Fenazar. the first restriction phase of the Fortuna Basin. Jesús-Esteban Caracuel a. la Fm Cycles de Diatomites et Gypse de Chicamo et la Fm Gypse de Rambla Salada. is represented by the Fenazar Conglomerate Bed. and Rambla Salada Gypsum Fm. Jaume Dinarès-Turell (J. Finalement. Tent-Manclús). sont localisées dans la partie inférieure de la Fm Cycles de Chicamo.1016/j. Membre [Mb] du Gypse Inférieur. Alicante. 605. This basin shows an early restriction event before the main Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) that allows the Tortonian Salinity Crisis (TSC) to be proposed as a tectonic uplift event isolating the eastern Betic basins. the Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus-Nicklithus amplificus integrate form and the LO of Nicklithus cf. accepted 14 September 2009 Available online 1 February 2010 Abstract The Fortuna Basin is an example of a marginal Mediterranean basin with evaporitic sedimentation during the Late Tortonian and Messinian. Tortonian Salinity Crisis.2009. 03080 San Vicente del Raspeig.-E. Taking into account these results. 00143 Roma. Hugo Corbí a. au-dessous de la Fm Gypse de Tale.

1995). 1987. continental and restricted marine sedimentation of shale. Santistebán Bové. Methods The central basin sediments of the Fortuna Basin are wellexposed in three sections distributed along the Tale ENE-WSW hill (Fig. Dinarès-Turell et al. Vera Basin (Fortuin et al. 1990.. (2000). 1990. two due to Dinarès-Turell et al. Tous droits réservés. was mainly a marine basin where at least 600 m thick Fortuna Marls accumulated. 1998. and Fortuna Basin (Garcés et al. The evaporites are related to a restriction phase due to tectonics (Garcés et al. Two infill periods can be distinguished in the Fortuna Basin: the first one. marl. 2000.. 2000. Caracuel et al. Three temporal calibration options have been proposed for the palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rio Chicamo section. 2001. 1981. palaeomagnetic studies concluded that the evaporites were older (Garcés et al. Due to the relevance of the TSC in the palaeogeographic evolution of the Betic Cordillera. gypsum.. However. while the second one started when the movement of this fault stopped and a new tectonic stress field. La limite tortonienne/messinienne est localisée près du toit du Mb Sanel ou dans la partie inférieure de la Fm Gypse de Tale. The most striking was the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). 2008). 2000. 2003). 1999. The lower part outcrops at the Chicamo River right margin and the upper part can be followed along the Abanilla-Santomera road (MU-414). many Betic basins as Granada. 1987. Crise de Salinité tortonienne .. 2006. Lorca. Nannofossiles calcaires 1.. Messinien . The other singular event was the recently documented Tortonian Salinity Crisis (TSC) named after Krijgsman et al. 1983. Recently. 2008). L’initiation de la CST. Bajo Segura Basin (Feldmann and McKenzie. Tent-Manclús et al. Lukowski and Poisson. au bas de la Fm Los Baños et non pas par la Fm Gypse de Tale comme préalablement suggéré dans la littérature.. and the calibration of the previously published magnetostratigraphy for the Rio Chicamo section (Dinarès-Turell et al. Krijgsman et al. Dinarès-Turell et al. (2000). 2008.. 1999. 1(B)). 2005). thus affecting only the eastern portion of the cordillera. 2003. 2001. Krijgsman et al. 2004).. Our technique of centrifugation before production of smear slides offers the first calcareous nannoplankton biostratigraphic ages for the Fortuna Basin evaporitic events. 1998. 1981. Guadix-Baza. Dinarès-Turell et al. Mots clés : Cordillère Bétique . the MSC is well-documented in the Nijar Basin (Fortuin and Krijgsman. (1999) and one to Krijgsman et al. 2008). 2001. Montenat et al. The TSC is prior to the MSC and has been defined by evaporite precipitation in the centre of the Lorca and Fortuna basins. Lukowski and Poisson.. Soria et al. 2000. started (Tent-Manclús et al. 1983.. la première phase de restriction du bassin de Fortuna. Introduction During the Late Miocene.. 1999. related to the Trans-Alborán Shear Zone. Santistebán and Taberner. 2000). Santistebán and Taberner.Author's personal copy 202 C. 1987. Fig. These two periods are associated with different tectonic settings. 1988). Soria et al. 2003. 1998. None of these three alternative calibrations were directly supported by the biostratigraphic data obtained from the section. Bassin de Fortuna . 1977. The Fortuna Basin has received much attention due to its evaporitic sediments (Montenat. 2003. Müller and Hsü. as pointed out early by Montenat (1977). Garcés et al. La Fm Cycles de Chicamo s’est déposée durant le Chrone C3Ar. The Sebos section runs along a secondary road to an industrial suet factory. # 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. 2007. 2004). during the Late Miocene. following an access road from the AbanillaAlbatera road to a waterway.. Playà et al.. Sorbas Basin (Martín and Braga. 1999. (2008) related the TSC with the onset of the activity of the Trans-Alboran Shear Zone (De Larouzière et al. the sedimentary basins of the Eastern Betic Cordillera have registered two of the most singular events in the recent evolution of the Mediterranean. manifested by the evaporitic sedimentation in the Mediterranean basins. Initially. 1997. it has been considered important to establish the precise stratigraphy and age of this event in the Fortuna Basin. Tent-Manclús et al. The Fortuna Basin is an intramontane basin developed in the eastern Betic Cordillera (southern Spain. Tent-Manclús. Lancis et al. It is located along the suture zone between the South-Iberian Palaeomargin (External Zone) and the Alboran Block (Internal Zone)... The Canal section is located 3 km to the East of the previous one... Garcés et al. because it marks the closure of the foreland North betic strait (Viseras et al. Riding et al. The TSC was originally proposed as an important event in the evolution of the Betic basins. during the Tortonian. 1999.. Garcés et al. the evaporites were considered to be Messinian (Santistebán Bové. The Rio Chicamo section is located 4 km south of the Abanilla village in the centre of the Fortuna Basin. 2006. 2001. Lukowski. Aguirre and Sánchez-Almazo. Tent-Manclús et al. 1998. Krijgsman et al. Krijgsman et al. 2 km west of the . Flores et al. est représentée par le Conglomérat de Fenazar... thought to be related to the MSC. 1998. 2004)... and Fortuna undergo emergence. consequently this activity would not have an expression in the western basins. Its sedimentary history started in the Early Tortonian as a pullapart basin associated to the Puerto de Barinas strike-slip Fault (Tent-Manclús. 1990). Müller and Hsü.. Lancis.. Likewise. indicating a regional tectonic uplift of the whole cordillera (Viseras et al. nous proposons un nouveau calibrage des données magnétostratigraphiques disponibles. Lukowski. and conglomerate took place. with well-exposed outcrops of the Late Tortonian-Early Messinian sediments. and the second one. during the latest TortonianPliocene. 1994. 2001. In the Betics.. 1998. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 de ces résultats.. 2005...... 1987.. Sierro et al. Fortuin et al. 2008). 2004). 2.. the first one was dominated by the transtensive activity of the right- lateral Puerto de Barinas Fault. Tent-Manclús et al. 1). 2000). Kuiper et al. Krijgsman et al.

2. Geologic sketch of the Eastern Betic Cordillera (modified from De Larouzière et al. 1988) showing the strike-slip faults forming the Trans-Alborán Shear Zone (TASZ). . Geologic map of the Fortuna Basin and nearby area. 1. Lancis et al. Stratigraphic correlation between different sections from the Fortuna Basin (see Fig. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 203 Fig.. 1 for location). Fig. B. Numbers indicate biostratigraphic samples as referred to in the text. A.Author's personal copy C.

The four prepared smear slides of each collected sample were semi-quantitatively analysed under  1000 magnification. 2). The Rio Chicamo and Sebos sections with the rock-unit equivalents used in earlier works and in this work. m5y. Finally. four different smear slides were prepared. 2. 2) that change towards the east to continental red shales with conglomeratic levels (Albatera Red Beds Fm) that also overlie the evaporitic events in the basin centre. Santistebán Bové (1981) and Santistebán and Taberner (1983). Finally. Thirty-two samples were collected (interval around 4–5 m) from the Rio Chicamo. used many alternative lithologic units. as follows. Four evaporitic events can be distinguished (Fig.1 ml of the suspension was directly spread over a 300 mm2 surface on the slide.1. a marly unit including some gypsiferous intercalations in its upper part. For lithological symbols. Sebos. 3. in one case. In all three sections. (2001). the Fortuna Marls. and the new mixture was sonicated for 8 sec. (2000). Krijgsman et al. 3. Lithostratigraphic units Montenat (1977) presented the first lithostratigraphic sketch of the Fortuna Basin. and Garcés et al. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 first section. The first three can be interpreted as marine environ- Fig. counting around 3000 nannoliths. 1975). a gypsiferous unit forming a geomorphologic cuesta (Tale Gypsum.1 g of sediment in distilled water (pH 7) was centrifuged at 1800 rpm (450 g) for 2 min at room temperature. and Canal sections to study nannofossil assemblages (Fig. in the other case. the upper unit assigned to the Messinian and formed mainly by continental facies. Lukowski (1987). 0. Stratigraphy of the Fortuna Basin centre 3.Author's personal copy 204 C. 3. m6. . bedding is tilted 20–258 towards the southeast. (1999). Müller and Hsü (1987). scanning the whole slide to find any rare biostratigraphic markers. and. Lancis et al. Subsequently. in Azéma and Montenat. mean values were calculated using the percentage of those coccoliths found in 10 visual fields. see Fig. Dinarès-Turell et al. 0.1 g of sediment was suspended in 10 ml of distilled water (pH 7). The quality of the smear slides was improved by a second procedure. finally. establishing three units: m5. A 10 ml suspension of 0. For the first two smear slides. This centrifugation-sonication procedure was repeated five times. for which the relations are shown in Fig. using a method increasing the nannofossil-to-silt ratio (Lancis. the direct suspension (without dilution) and spread on a 300 mm2 surface while. After the supernatant was discarded. The darker and light-grey backgrounds refer to the age assignment in the different works (Tortonian deposits are in darker grey than Messinian ones). distilled water was added to the pellet to make 10 ml of suspension. a 1/3 dilution of the suspension with distilled water was used. 1998). whether the percentage of Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus > 7 mm in the samples was higher than 2% was determined after counting 500 nannoliths larger than 3 mm. The discontinuity on top of the Fortuna Marls Fm marks the onset of the second basin infill period. For counting the ‘‘small reticulofenestrids’’ (< 3 mm). For each collected sample. without dilution for the third smear slide and after 1/3 dilution with distilled water (pH 7) for the fourth one.

Tale Gypsum Formation.  The Sanel Marls Mb. the terrigenous sediments disappear and thus the evaporitic levels coalesce to form a marine gypsum bed. The Wichmann Conglomerate Bed is a thin conglomeratic unit limited by two erosive surfaces. According to Playà et al. the Chicamo Diatomites and Gypsum Cycles Fm.. .  The Lower Gypsum Mb. and Cabezos Negros volcano). (2000). (2000) consider this unit to be the result of the TSC. Derramadores. 2–4):  First evaporitic event: Los Baños Marls Fm. The diagenetic study by Santistebán and Taberner (1983) indicates a postdepositional subaerial exposure for this bed. and Wichmann Conglomerate Bed are shown. the Tale Gypsum Formation. Krijgsman et al. 4). showing the top of the Sanel Marls Member. The outcrops of the volcanic Fortuna lamproites (Tale. ments but not the fourth. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 205 Fig. a marly marine unit containing planktonic microfossils that intercalate some centimetrethick gypsum beds:  Second evaporitic event: The Tale Gypsum Fm is a 30-mthick marine gypsum level deposited over a discontinuity that developed on top of the Sanel Mb (Fig. 4. 2). 5. containing metamorphic clasts of Internal Zone provenance and coral-reef clasts originating from the basin margins. Fig. these sediments were deposited in a mainly lacustrine evaporitic environment. Photography of the Rio Chicamo section. a marine unit formed by Lithofaga-bored metamorphic clasts of Internal Zone provenance that erode the Fortuna Fm (Fig. composed by gypsum beds and some sandstone levels having oscillation ripples and hummocky cross-stratification to the eastern margin. Lancis et al.  Third evaporitic event: The Chicamo Diatomites and Gypsum Cycles Fm is formed by five cycles of diatomitic marls and gypsum beds with intercalated stromatolites. This is the first record of evaporitic sedimentation in the Fortuna Basin.Author's personal copy C.  Fourth evaporitic event: The Rambla Salada Gypsum Fm is formed by shales and gypsum beds. composed by:  The Fenazar Conglomerate Bed. In the Sebos section (basin centre). which is mainly a continental one (Figs. the Lower Gypsum Member. Mosaic of aerial photographs of the Cabezos Negros-El Tale area.

. Raffi et al. D. This species is also associated with D. Then the percentage increases to 70% in some samples of the Sanel Fm and. pseudovariabilis. unlike in open ocean facies (Müller.. 5). Calcidiscus macintyrei. 1990. 1984. minuta and Dictyococcites productus). Nannofossil biostratigraphic results and discussion The nannofossil assemblages found in the samples from the successive lithostratigraphic units are shown in Fig. 7(10)) can be observed in the bottom Sanel Mb samples. Mazzei. 1995) but in some . R. 14)) and Nicklithus cf. D.  The presence of two different and successive eruptions of lamproites detached some 1 Ma at Cabezos Negros. Rio et al. same outcrop’’. and despite the scarcity of this species. and also the first rounded reticulofenestrids.. 1985. Geminilithella rotula. Müller. 1992. Perch-Nielsen. the Cabezos Negros volcano is hosted in the marly and carbonatic sediments of the lower part of the Rambla Salada Fm (Fig. (2006) have recently dated samples from the Cabezos Negros by the 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating method. Discoaster quinqueramus have been identified in the first sample of the Fortuna Fm. containing Discoaster calcaris. loeblichii. Bellon et al. 8(12.. and the existence of a volcano-sedimentary level within the lowermost Rambla Salada Fm described by Lukowski (1987). evidencing a wide variety of eruptive mechanisms. and the forms D. Sphenolithus moriformis. Kuiper et al. 1998).1. As previously evidenced (Dinarès-Turell et al. 2006). 1990. Discoaster quinqueramus is absent in the sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean (Theodoridis. The ‘‘small reticulofenestrids’’ (R.2. (1983). 7(1)). 1971. supposedly. A (Fig. The Cabezos Negros outcrop has been interpreted as the neck of an individual domic volcano with minor lava-flow expansions in its north-eastern sector (Fúster et al. Playà and Gimeno. a restricted lapse of time involved in the lamproite genesis. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 3. The bottom of the section. Martín-Pérez. R. Playà et al. pseudoumbilicus >7 mm. 2003). In any case. loeblichii and D. Lancis. D. The detailed study by Playà and Gimeno (2006) shows the complexity of the Cabezos Negros outcrop where several volcanic lithofacies can be differentiated. 7(2. and Syracosphaera pulchra.. cantharellus (Fig. D. 1978. 7(3)). R.16 Æ 0. loeblichii (Fig. 7(12)). 5). rotaria var. D. However. They propose two possible explanations:  A successive arrival of two batches of slightly different magma during the same eruption that would have provided a same age of volcanism. its First Appearance Datum (FAD) is clearly detected in the Neogene Betic basins (Martín-Pérez. neorectus (Fig. rotaria var. amplificus (Fig. Flores and Sierro. The Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus-Nicklithus amplificus integrate forms (Fig. minutula and very abundant ‘‘small reticulofenestrids’’ (R. 13. Flores et al. 1989. finally. 8(6. Some workers observe the FAD of D.. leptoporus. C. These authors attribute the discrepancy between the 40K/40Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages to the intrinsic flaws of the 40K/40Ar method. 1999. pseudovariabilis. Playà and Gimeno (2006) explain the divergent absolute ages. Lancis et al. as R. 1997. and D. 9)). Fortuna volcanic rocks In the central part of the Fortuna Basin. there are three outcrops of volcanic lamproitic rocks: Cabezos Negros. 4. reporting an absolute age of 7. Flores et al. berggrenii (Fig. calcaris. B (Lancis. The first Discoaster surculus (Fig. quinqueramus (Bukry.71 Æ 0. 1992. quinqueramus (Fig.. D. The occurrence of broken specimens and overgrown nannofossils indicate some reworking in the samples. in terms of the genetic differences in the eruptive mechanisms of the Cabezos Negros volcano.30 Ma for the Cabezos Negros outcrop. Kuiper et al. 1967). 1978.. Helico- sphaera carteri. 7(15) and 8(2)) occurs 80 m above the bottom of the Sanel Mb. quinqueramus. Asteroliths The discoasterids are scarce in the Mediterranean during the Messinian. 2003). 4. Coccolithus pelagicus. 1985. The first Amaurolithus primus (Figs.Author's personal copy 206 C. 2006).. R. 1990. 5. brouweri (Fig. Lancis. reduces to 30% in the Chicamo Cycles. The asteroliths are relatively common. lack preserved nannofossils except the first sample (31) above the Wichmann Bed. Müller. Dictyococcites antarcticus. Amaurolithus delicatus has been found in sample 22 above the lowest occurence (LO) of R.11 Ma. abies. 7(8)). The Wichmann Bed and Rambla Salada Fm. and Derramadores (Fig. 6. A (sample 21). berggrenii appear together in our samples. R. Playà and Gimeno. Other indirect criteria to establish the relative age of the volcanic rocks are the lack of lamproite clasts in the Wichmann Conglomerate Bed. minuta and Dictyococcites productus) represent about 40% of the nannoliths in the assemblages of the Fortuna Fm. Discoaster quinqueramus and D. neorectus. Raffi and Flores. 1997. berggrenii before the FAD of D. found an absolute 40K/40Ar age of 6. 8(15)) can be observed in the uppermost part of the Chicamo Cycles Fm (sample 26 and upwards). The presence of Scyphosphaera amphora (Fig. probably related to the Cabezos Negros volcano. 2000. 1976.. the ones of the Fortuna Fm are smaller and the central knob is not as distinctly developed as in those of tropical areas. 7(14)) and D. 7)) appears 10 m above the Tale Gypsum Fm. Raffi et al. ‘‘on the. 1998) should be noted. Pontosphaera multipora. with great size and good preservation. As mentioned by Müller (1978) concerning the Mediterranean D. pseudovariabilis are absent. represented by the Fortuna Fm yields a well-diversified assemblage. haqii. The El Tale and Derramadores outcrops have been considered to be subvertical dikes cutting the upper part of the Fortuna Fm (Fig. Playà and Gimeno (2006) prefer. rotaria var. 7(4)). Scy. 2006. El Tale. pseudoumbilicus 5–7 mm. as transitional or continental sediments. after the geochemical evidence and the associated specific geodynamic requirements. 1998). Sph. but can be recognized in the Western Mediterranean (Rio et al. but its scarce nannofossils do not allow any biostratigraphic interpretations. D.

usually more than 10 specimens occurring per field. 6.Author's personal copy C. . / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 207 Fig. Nannofossil species found in the studied samples. Lancis et al. C: common. R: rare. one to 10 specimens per field. one specimen per more than 10 fields * Percentages calculated as described in the methods section. F: few. one specimen per one to 10 fields. A: abundant.

Scyphosphaera cantharellus. 7. Discoaster intercalaris. Discoaster neorectus. PN. PN. Discoaster calcaris. PN. 5. sample 1. PN. Discoaster loeblichii. Discoaster variabilis. PN. PN. Discoaster neorectus. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 Fig. Syracosphaera pulchra. PN. 14. PN. sample 11. sample 6. sample 6. 1. 4. . PN. 11. 10. 8. Discoaster quinqueramus. sample 6. 2. PN. sample 6. Discoaster berggrenii. Amaurolithus primus. 6. sample 6. Lancis et al.Author's personal copy 208 C. 13. sample 6. 7. sample 6. Scyphosphaera amphora. Discoaster pseudovariabilis. 12. PN. Cross Nicols (XN). Parallel nicols (PN). PN. sample 6. Discoaster surculus. sample 1. 15. PN. sample 12. 3. Discoaster brouweri. sample 6. sample 1. sample 11. 9.

Geminilithella jafarii. A. Helicosphaera carteri. 14. 2. sample 22. PN. PN. XN. Cross nicols (XN). sample 21. tricorniculatus integrate. 12. 3. sample 22. 8. 5. . 6. PN. 8. PN. Calcidiscus macintyrei. sample 21. sample 22. Cross-over Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus – Nicklithus amplificus integrate. Reticulofenestra rotaria var. PN. sample 27. Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus > 7 mm. Lancis et al. sample 20. sample 23. Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus. sample 22. sample 23. 1. Reticulofenestra rotaria var. 1984). PN. 7. Parallel nicols (PN). A (Reticulofenestra rotaria sensu Theodoridis. 11. sample 27. amplificus. 15. PN. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 209 Fig. B. Amaurolithus primus. PN. 9. 10. Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus > 7 mm. PN. Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus – Nicklithus amplificus integrate. Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus – Nicklithus amplificus integrate. 13. sample 23. sample 28. PN.Author's personal copy C. Amaurolithus delicates – A. 4. sample 24. sample 27. Phase Contrast (PC). XN. Nicklithus cf. Reticulofenestra rotaria var.

Morigi et al. rotaria (Negri et al. Negri and Villa. Hilgen et al. B (Fig. 1992.. In the Mediterranean Basin. It coincides with the rapid invasion of planoconvex forms included in the Globorotalia miotumida-G. coincident with the first A. rotaria var. 1992. Lancis. Raffi and Flores. 4. primus has been calibrated in Chron C3Br. observed two morphotypes of R. (2000) used the paracme of R. Flores. 1971). 2000. 1995).6. Negri and Villa. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 biozonation. Paracme of Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus R. Nicklithus cf. Negri et al. Young. Raffi et al. rotaria. 2000... pseudoumbilicus >7 mm in a percentage higher than 2% of the nannoflora assemblage (Fig. 1992). 6) occurs from the bottom of the studied section in the Fortuna Fm to the end of the marine sedimentation. and therefore we use the cf. delicatus slightly above the FAD of A. 1978. Negri and Villa... 8(5–7)). 1999. 4.3 mm. (2004) established an age of 7. 8(5)).76 Ma and the Paracme End (PE) at about 7.) (Fig... easily identified in the open ocean. 2006). The last one is coincident with the FAD of A. (1998) name proposed the new genus. Some authors consider the first event to be the FAD and the second the First Common Occurrence (FCO) of R. (2003) dated the Paracme Beginning (PB) at about 8. Gartner. 2003.s. B is found in sample 12 (Sanel Mb)... minuta and D. likewise. the integrate forms being common (Rio et al.4. 1985). Flores et al. 1998). conoidea group (Sierro. since the R. 1998. Flores and Sierro. 1974. 2000. at different biostratigraphic levels. pseudoumbilicus > 7 mm in the Lorca Basin to calibrate the magnetostratigraphy of the Serrata section and the Chicamo and Chorrito sections of the Fortuna Basin. This increment is probably due to ecological factors. delicatus (sample 22).. named R. 1998. Flores et al. 2000) and has generally been correlated with the Tortonian/Messinian boundary (Lourens et al. First Appearance Datum. Martín-Pérez (1997) and Lancis . 1992.6 Ma) with an absence interval of about 2 Ma around the Late Miocene (Rio et al. has a wide central area with radially bent extinction lines and appears slightly above the A. 1999. 2000. 1992. Flores et al. primus occurs in the Sanel Mb (sample 12). they have been considered as the same taxonomic unit (Müller. 1995.. 1995. The older one. Therefore. Negri et al. minuta and Dictyococcites productus specimens have been observed by many authors (Backman. (1992) found the FAD of A. Nicklithus because they found transition forms between Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus and Amaurolithus spp. primus.2r (Negri et al. Wade and Bown. The FO of A. 2007). delicatus. 6) show that the ‘‘small reticulofenestrids’’ form about 40% of the assemblage. rotaria var... Negri and Villa. The FAD of A. 2005. Raffi et al. 8(6.. primus (Lancis. In the Mediterranean Bajo Segura Basin Lancis (1998). This event. 4. 2000. rotaria has been used for the Mediterranean Late Miocene nannofossil biostratigraphy since Theodoridis (1984) defined the species (Young.17 Ma. primus) represents an evolutionary event which is very useful for biostratigraphic classification worldwide (Raffi et al.. Raffi and Flores. Morigi et al. Morigi et al. 8(15)). The Acme Beginning can be found between the FADs of D. Amaurolithus primus First Appearance Datum The FAD of Amaurolithus spp.. Krijgsman et al. The R. 2007) but they do not separate the two morphotypes. 2000. 1990. delicatus occurs in sample 22 in the Chicamo Cycles Fm. pseudoumbilicus with maximum length between 7 and 12 mm have been found from the Middle Miocene (from about 13. they tend to dominate in the nannoflora assemblages of the continental margins (Haq. instead of an ecological factor. 2000. Amaurolithus delicatus First Appearance Datum Theodoridis (1984) and also Flores et al. 2003). indicating a polyphyletic origin for the ceratoliths. 1999. 2003. This species has a size of 9.6 Ma) to the Middle Pliocene (3. primus and slightly below the FCO of R. 1999. rotaria differing in the distal shield thickness in crossed nicols view (Fig. Takayama.2.. indicating that they are included in the period of the acme. Acme of small reticulofenestrids An increase in the small-sized reticulofenestrids (with the long axis smaller than 3 mm) including R.42 Ma.. delicatus can be calibrated in Chron C3Br. considered able to flourish under nutrient-rich conditions and to tolerate high environmental stress (Aubry. 1989. 2004). s.. The top of this interval cannot be precisely identified.. 2000. 1993. smaller than the original definition between 12 and 20 mm (Bukry and Percival. and range of Reticulofenestra rotaria R.. Negri et al. 1985. 2003. The FAD of A.. 1987. productus are r-strategy species. this is a synchronous event in some Mediterranean and North Atlantic sections. rotaria is quite difficult to identify due to the scarcity of the species in these basins (Negri et al. Raffi et al. Raffi et al.. Negri and Villa.5 mm. the LO of R. 4. 2004). 2007). 1984). while the R.3. For ‘‘Amaurolithus amplificus’’. 2003.. delicatus used to establish the Tortonian/Messinan boundary (Hilgen et al. 1990.. 4. Negri and Villa. possibly indicating the interval above the PE biohorizon. 4. Raffi et al. The samples of the Fortuna Fm and Sanel Mb (Fig. 1990. 7)) has straight extinction lines and its FAD coincides with the FAD of A.. 1995). Morigi et al. The Last Appearance Datum (LAD) of R. The LO of A. term. berggrenii and A. The LO of R. Lancis et al. Raffi et al. 1999. 1980). rotaria var.1r (Hilgen et al. Raffi and Rio (1979) found specimens of 9. amplificus (Fig. morphotypes.5. (1992) demonstrated that. 1984. Theodoridis. 1990. amplificus First Appearance Datum Sample 29 contains Nicklithus cf. A is found in sample 21 (Chicamo Cycles Fm).7. and Lourens et al.Author's personal copy 210 C. Wade and Bown. just before the LO of A. has also been identified in the Mediterranean Sea (Flores et al. rotaria var. 2006). Raffi et al. A (Theodoridis.. Lourens et al. 2007). (A. 1999. Flores et al. primus FAD.

found the FAD of N.. (2008) reported specimens of 13 mm. Rio et al. the Sanel Mb are uppermost Tortonian and the Chicamo Cycles Fm are Messinian because they contain R. 1997) with a distribution slightly below and coincident with N. related to shallow marine environments (Martini. Lancis. The lowest part of the Sanel Mb (sample 6) can be assigned to upper part of the CN9a/NN11a (Fig. 1979.. CN9bB. cf. calcaris. rugosus. 1990. delicatus (Lourens et al. Raffi et al.. due to the co-occurrence of D. rotaria var. rotaria var A from the lowermost sample. (1990). amplificus to the LAD of N. amplificus. 1976. 4. 1990). from the LAD of . in the Indian Ocean.. 1987. 1978. delicatus in the Fortuna Basin. delicatus. 2004). 1990.8. amplificus.Author's personal copy C. amplificus. 1992. Wade and Bown. 1979. D.1.8 Ma. 1965.. Intermediate forms T. Raffi and Flores. the Tortonian/Messinian boundary may be located at the uppermost part of the Sanel Mb or within the Tale Gypsum Fm. Perch-Nielsen (1977) suggested a phylogenetic relationship between the Triquetrorhabdulus and Amaurolithus (Gartner and Bukry. and D. primus and A.0 and 6. Raffi and Flores (1995) have used N. Biostratigraphic calibration of the magnetostratigraphic data 5. 1985. 1990. 1980). Calcareous nannoplankton biozones of the Rio Chicamo/Sebos composite section. amplificus FAD in the upper part of Chron C3Ar (Raffi et al. 1990. Biostratigraphy The uppermost portion of the Fortuna Fm studied in this work can be assigned to the lower portion of the CN9a subzone (Okada and Bukry. 1981. 1995. amplificus after the FAD of A. to be aberrant morphovariants of T. quinqueramus (Proto Decima et al. and Raffi and Flores (1995) and Raffi et al. 1981. and CN9bC. 1986. 1998. neorectus.. 1995). amplificus integrate forms have been also found in the Mediterranean basin (Lancis. 8(12–14)) can be observed. 1975. The Tortonian/Messinian boundary is marked slightly below the FAD of A. The abundance of Scyphosphaera spp. (1995). amplificus distribution patterns to divide the Okada and Bukry (1980) subzone CN9b in three parts: CN9bA. 1985. The Fenazar Conglomerate Bed nannoflora is similar to the Fortuna Fm. just below the N. 9. Young. Gartner and Bukry (1975) located the FAD of N. equivalent to the NN11a of Martini (1971). marked by the A.. Mazzei et al. Haq. Lancis et al. 1998. from the FAD of A. Bukry. 2003) around the interval between 7. Rio et al. Siesser. 1980).. 1995). Backman et al. 1990. rugosus as a species considerably varying in size and morphology. 1999... primus to the FAD of N. pseudovariabilis.. The continuity of the acme of ‘‘small reticulofenestrids’’ in Sanel Mb and the R. extensus-N. 2004). 9) by the presence of D. 2000). 1977. Raffi et al. Bukry. 5. we found that the LO of N. and Mansouri et al. 1998. Raffi and Flores. The small size of Mediterranean specimens have been interpreted as the result of restricted marine conditions during the Messinian (Müller. observed and described by Theodoridis (1984) in the uppermost Miocene. Rio et al. D. Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus-N.. and they considered the species T.. 1980.. amplificus have been reported by different workers in the open ocean (Rio et al. 1973. and Pontosphaera multipora. loeblichii. Negri et al. 1995. rotaria var A and A. but in agreement with others (Rio et al. Accordingly. 1998). finifer. 1998). Flores and Sierro.. (1998) described T. Flores. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 211 (1998) found specimens between 9 and 11 mm. delicatus. Raffi et al. from the FAD of N. characteristic of oligotrophic environments of deeper waters (Hekel. 2006). D. Hilgen et al. Gartner et al. surculus. Lancis.. 1996. Raffi and Flores. Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus-Nicklithus amplificus integrate form First Appearance Datum In the uppermost part of the Chicamo Cycles Fm (sample 26 and upwards). Rio et al. amplificus occurs after the LOs of R. amplificus above the FADs of A. 1978. extensus and T.. Raffi and Flores. The boundary between the CN9a/CN9b (Okada and Bukry. Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus-Nicklithus amplificus integrate specimens (Fig. 2006) indicate an upward increase in the restriction of the depositional environment of the Sanel Mb. Lohmann and Carlson. Backman and Raffi. Aubry. and NN11a/NN11b of Martini (1971) is Fig. and the upward decrease in Discoaster spp. in the Pacific. Parker et al. primus LO occurring in sample 12 (Lourens et al. Contrary to some authors (Benson and Rakic-El Bied. B LO in sample 12 justifies the Sanel Mb biozonation assignation to the upper part of the CN9a and CN9b of the Okada and Bukry (1980) classification or the upper NN11a and NN11b of Martini (1971)..

Despite a general agreement of the retrieved polarity magnetozones.2.2n (7. The first one is the FAD of Fig. Lancis et al.  Tale Gypsum Fm within Chron C3Br.170 Ma.091 Ma. (2000). 5. Finally. A new sampling along this interval confirms the poor quality of the magnetic signal from the marls just below the erosional surface at the bottom of the Wichmann Bed and therefore we prefer to maintain the uncertainty of this portion (grey in Fig. 10. the Rambla Salada samples yield no biostratigraphic elements.135–7. (1999) study. However. Previous and proposed new correlation of the Rio Chicamo/Sebos composite section magnetozones with the Global Polarity Time Scale. both interpretations differ in their correlation to the standard Global Polarity Time Scale (GPTS. 2000).3. or latest Tortonian).Author's personal copy 212 C. marking the base of the CN9bB subzone (Okada and Bukry. None of these correlations were substantiated in the original works by direct biostratigraphic determinations along the Rio Chicamo section. Late Tortonian). 1980 emended by Raffi and Flores. The first one concerns the polarity around the Wichmann Bed as in the Dinarès-Turell et al. Fig. Krijgsman et al. Dinarès-Turell et al. Krijgsman et al. 5. 10). 10). The second difference between the two published studies is the upper extension. (2000) assigned the same normal interval to Chron C4n. Calibration of the magnetostratigraphy with biostratigraphic data The nannofossil data presented here offers different calibration points (Fig. occurs within the Wichmann Bed or above (Fig. Krijgsman et al. suggesting that the reversal boundary between the underlying reverse magnetozone that extents through the Chicamo Cycles Fm and the normal magnetozone at the lower part of the Rambla Salada Gypsum Fm. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 N. a clear reverse polarity is documented from samples immediately below the Wichmann Bed. quinqueramus. Relevant biostratigraphic and radiometric ages are shown. (1999) proposed two alternative correlations (Fig. interpreted the uppermost Chicamo Cycles Fm as normal polarity (three samples) but they had no data for the Wichmann Bed.072 Ma. See text for discussion. 10):  Tale Gypsum Fm within Chron C3Bn (6.650–8. due to new roadcuts. 10). . 10). 1999. (2000). On the other hand. although some unreliable low-quality samples appear normal.1n (7... 10).935–7. Magnetostratigraphy Two magnetostratigraphic studies of the Rio Chicamo section have been published (Dinarès-Turell et al. Nicklithus amplificus appears just below the Wichmann Bed. in which a good-quality reverse sample is documented just below this Bed. of the magnetostratigraphy by Krijgsman et al. In the former study by Dinarès-Turell et al. 1995). instead. (1999). two minor differences in the polarity succession exist between those two magnetostratigraphic studies. amplificus to the LAD of D. which documents an additional reverse chron which has been reproduced in our recent resampling (Fig. or earliest Messinian).

16 Æ 0.. and not the Tale Gypsum Fm as previously considered by Krijgsman et al..2r based on analyses of the stratotypic section (Hilgen et al. Overall. the reverse magnetozone of the Chicamo Cycles Fm can be unambiguously calibrated to Chron C3Ar. respectively (Fig. primus which occurred during Chron C3Br. 10).2n. Chron C3r and/or Chron C3An. it is not possible to precisely locate the Tortonian/Messinian boundary with the available data and thus. If the LO of N. the first restriction phase of the Fortuna Basin. Raffi and Flores. These data also permit the recalibration of the previously published magnetostratigraphic data (Dinarès-Turell et al. which could perhaps represent Chron C3Br. 10). which has no magnetostratigraphic data. placed probably near the bottom of the Tale Gypsum Fm (second evaporitic event).. The age of the Fortuna Basin evaporitic deposits has been a point of discussion for many years (Fig.1n. Tale Gypsum . delicatus could be correlated with the inversion C3Bn/C3Ar (second calibration line from the bottom in Fig.1r. and C3r. 2000. (1999) calibrated their magnetostratigraphic data using the Casa del Acero micromammal fauna. considering a good magnetozone pattern to fit with the GPTS and the Casa del Acero site older than 6. amplificus in the upper part of Chron C3Ar. 2001). Consequently. 1995.1r) could be missing. These important differences were due to the poor quality of the planktonic foraminifera and nannofossils registered in the section.1r was missing in the magnetostratigraphies by Dinarès-Turell et al. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 213 A.. Krijgsman et al. in that case.. rotaria var.2r (Berggren et al. in our preferred correlation of magnetozones. None of the previous works consider specifically the possibility of any missing magnetozone or hiatus associated to the discontinuities. pseudoumbilicus > 7 mm PE occurs in the transition between C3Bn and C3Ar (Raffi et al. 1999. primus is located in the upper part of the Sanel Mb. (2000).8 Ma. Lancis. they considered the numerical dating of the volcanic rocks from the Cabezos Negros lamproites (Fig. However. The upper magnetostratigraphic correlation of the Rio Chicamo section results by considering the Rambla Salada Fm as only Messinian (Garcés et al. 1995. 7.1r. The second one is the FAD of A. 1997). In accordance. assigned to Biozone MN12 (Agustí et al. Considering that the FAD of A. 10). 2000.3 Ma. 1995. and then disappear in the upper middle part of Chron C3An. C3An. Lourens et al.. delicatus (Theodoridis.2n could only be partly registered. 1998.. Flores et al. delicatus from the lowermost part of the Chicamo Cycles Fm. taking into account the stratigraphic data. 2006.341– 7.. the magnetozones on top of the Wichmann Bed can be assigned as C3An. Lourens et al.. Finally. the normal/reverse inversion just below the LO of A. amplificus integrate forms appear slightly before N. whom FAD (sample 21) is close to the FAD of A. primus has been reported in Chron C3Br.2n (Raffi and Flores. The T.567 Ma)..091 Ma). the R. 7. it seems likely that the discontinuities associated with the Wichmann Conglomerate Bed could involve some hiatus. The lower discontinuity separates samples of normal polarity but the other two separate an unclear (grey) sample and a normal interval. A.8 Ma because in levels of other sections of the same Fortuna Basin containing MN13 fauna a younger age was assigned by the palaeomagnetism (Garcés et al. and.. Dinarès-Turell et al. and finally the Chicamo Cycles Fm (third evaporitic event) is included in the Early Messinian. 2000... 1995. The FAD of N. The lowermost normal magnetozone. Krijgsman et al. 6. amplificus is then considered.Author's personal copy C.1n.. 2006). Raffi and Flores. 6. 1998). (2000) assigned the Tale Gypsum Fm to the Late Tortonian. Negri et al. Lancis et al. 3). the Chicamo Cycles Fm/Wichmann Bed upper reverse/normal inversion corresponds to the C3Ar/C3An. (2000). 1984. The first one appears at the base of the Tale Gypsum Fm and the next two at the bottom and top of the Wichmann Conglomerate Bed. we have tentatively located it at the base of the Tale Gypsum Fm in our figures. Then R. the discontinuity at the base of the Tale Gypsum could involve a hiatus and therefore part of a normal magnetozone (or even Chron C3Br. We note that some unreliable reverse samples exist a few meters below the base of the Tale Gypsum (Chicamo Gypsum) in the magnetostratigraphic succession of Dinarès-Turell et al. 1985). Raffi et al.. However. not sampled in the Rio Chicamo section but sampled in the Sebos section. (1999) and Krijgsman et al.170 Ma). 2000) corresponds to Chron C3Bn or encompasses the C3Br. 1999). rugosus-N. Finally. 2000). 1992. Three main discontinuities are found in the Rio Chicamo section. 10). 1999. 1999.. (1999). Consequently. for which the upper limit was established as during Chron C3Ar (6.. and to the recalibration of the mammal Biozone MN12 of the Casa del Acero site with the GTPS (divergence between the Dinarès-Turell et al. 1995. 1995. corresponding to their option B. Thus. Our nannoplankton biostratigraphical data permit a relative dating of the evaporitic events: the age of the first evaporitic event is between the Late Tortonian (on top of the Fortuna Fm) and the Messinian/Tortonian boundary. amplificus in the equatorial Pacific is found close to the reversal between Chrons C3Ar and C3An. (1983) at 6. 2003.. Backman and Raffi. Krijgsman et al. the normal magnetozone of the upper Sanel Mb and the Tale Gypsum Fm corresponds to the C3Bn plus eventually the C3Br. 2004) it could be argued that the normal chron at the base of the Chicamo section (Dinarès-Turell et al. Assuming the presence of A.2n reversal (third calibration line in Fig. The LO of A. as considered by Dinarès-Turell et al. Discussion and conclusions The Fenazar Conglomerate Bed and the Lower Gypsum Mb mark the beginning of the TSC. the short reverse Chron C3Br. (1999) and Krijgsman et al. C3Ar. although its position in the upper part of the thick normal magnetozone would in principle clash with the duration of the involved chrons in the standard GPTS (Fig.2n (Berggren et al.. For option A. 2004) and can be considered coincident. 5) by Bellon et al. including the top of the Sanel Mb. 10). (2000) interpretations). and following a straightforward correlation to the GPTS. Hilgen et al.1n-C3Bn interval (Fig. delicatus assigned to Chron C3Br.135–7.1r (Hilgen et al.

loeblichii Bukry. 1992. Oxford. Late Tortonian). Acknowledgements This work have been supported by the projects CGL200608848. 1877) Kamptner. J. 1967) Gartner and Bukry.. Nuevos datos sobre la bioestratigrafía del Neógeno continental de Murcia. W. CGL2006-10593.. J. Moyà-Solà. 1978 C. D. and the bottom part of the Chicamo Cycles Fm. Agustí. As stated by Playà and Gimeno (2006). 18. This new calibration of the Rio Chicamo magnetostratigraphy is compatible with that of Bellon et al. apsteinii Lohmann. 1998 = Amaurolithus amplificus (Bukry and Percival. 1954 D. and the editor F. 1969) Loeblich and Tappan. This incompatibility needs to be studied in detail. Labrador. pulcherrima Deflandre. M.1n to the middle part of the C3Br. Small reticulofenestrids (nannolith size smaller than 3 mm. O. J. 1967 D. 1967) Haq and Berggren. This recalibration coincides mainly with the option A of Dinarès-Turell et al.. Paleontología i Evolució.22. 1871) Schiller. Chron C3Ar is identified in the rest of the Chicamo Cycles Fm. 1930 Dictyococcites antarcticus Haq.1r. 1898) Loeblich and Tappan.Author's personal copy 214 C. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 Fm. Guillén. 1970 Reticulofenestra gelida (Geitzenauer. 1971 D. minuta Roth. 1927 emend. 1984 Scyphosphaera amphora Deflandre. tricorniculatus (Gartner. moriformis (Brönnimann and Stradner. 1974) Backman. 1902 Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus Bramlette and Wilcoxon. 1954 Nicklithus amplificus Raffi. 83–94. A calibrated mammal scale for the Neogene of Western Europe State of the art. A recent magnetobiostratigraphical mammal scale calibration for the Neogene by Agustí et al. Nevertheless. Aubry. J.2n to C3r. 1942 Scy. The Wichmann Bed. Earth-Science. calcaris Gartner.3 Ma as the absolute dating of the Cabezos Negros lamproite. 1972) Backman. rotula (Kamptner. 1969 Syracosphaera pulchra Lohmann.. W. Agustí..1n and C3Bn lacking the intermediate short reverse Chron C3Br. 1980 G. 1975 Pontosphaera multipora (Kamptner. 1948) Roth. 1998): Amaurolithus amplificus (Bukry and Percival. 1963). independently of central area properties): Dictyococcites productus (Kamptner. 1902 Scy. 1980 plus R. 1969 D. 1955 Scy. Backman and Rio. 1967 Sph. Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. Sedimentary Geology 168. 1948) Backman. which is beyond the scope of the present paper. 1971 D. 1976 D. campanula Deflandre. 1975 Calcidiscus leptoporus (Murray and Blackman.M. neorectus Bukry.. 1971) Gartner and Bukry. Oms. J. 1971 D.A. haqii Backman. Gibert. (Eds.P. all within the Messinian. Cachao. S. 1970 R. I. 1967) Gartner... and GV06/ 093.. occurs during Chron C3Ar. 71–95. M. macintyrei (Bukry and Bramlette. CGL2007-65832/BTE. 1975 = Nicklithus amplificus Raffi.M. marking an important desiccation event in the Fortuna Basin evolution. neoabies Bukry and Bramlette. rotaria Theodoridis. Berggren. (2006). M.. . also appears incompatible with our proposed calibration.).71 Æ 0. 1978 R. who gave 6. 2004. M. Princeton University Press. minuta Roth. Garcés. A new view of the ‘‘Lago-Mare’’ facies. intercalaris Bukry. and the research group GRUPOS03/085 (Generalitat Valenciana). variabilis Martini and Bramlette. 2001. J. but this dating is incompatible with new absolute dating (7. 1963 Geminilithella jafarii (Müller. Krijgsman. L.R. (1999). Backman. In: Prothero. 1985. 1980 Discoaster berggrenii Bukry. (2001). quinqueramus Gartner.16 Æ 0. Appendix A Taxonomic list of the calcareous nannoplankton of the Fortuna Basin considered in this work (Young. I. 1971 D. 1975 A. 1955 Scy. Quillévéré for their valuable suggestions and critical comments of this work. 1955 Sphenolithus abies Deflandre in Deflandre and Fert. 1942 Scy. pseudoumbilicus (Gartner. pseudovariabilis Martini and Worsley. Sánchez-Almazo. Raffi.. Flores. Bramlette and Riedel. lagena Kamptner. minutula (Gartner.. correspond to Chrons C3Br. 1978 R. productus (Kamptner. the resolution of the nannoplankton biochronological scale appears higher than the mammal scale and permits a more reliable calibration. 1980 Helicosphaera carteri (Wallich. The Messinian post-evaporitic deposits of the Gafares area (Almería-Níjar basin SE Spain). (1983). 1967. ‘‘without a more detailed radiometric study of the volcanic rocks of Fortuna it is impossible to confirm or to exclude a second volcanic event at Cabezos Negros’’. Lancis et al. Backman. Backman and Rio.44–7. 1971) Gartner and Bukry.A. surculus Martini and Bramlette. The top of the Wichmann Bed. pp. 1942 Scy. 1954 Sph.. can be calibrated as the reversal from Chron C3An. Cabrera. We are indebted to David Nesbitt for correcting the English version of the paper.. 1978 R. The authors express their thanks to J. 1971 D. It is clear that the mammal and magnetostratigraphic intercalibration along this time interval would deserve a full in-depth consideration. 1969 R. cantharellus Kamptner. 1970) References Aguirre. primus (Bukry and Percival. brouweri Tan Sin Hok. 1960) Bramlette and Wilcoxon. 1998 Amaurolithus delicatus Gartner and Bukry. 1963) emend.. Late Paleogene calcareous nannoplankton evolution: a tale of climatic deterioration. Reviews 52.11 Ma) by Kuiper et al. Parés. 247–260. 1968 Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich. correlating the MN12 unit with the topmost C4n. 1971) Gartner and Bukry. turris Kamptner. 1963 D. 272–309. 1975 A.2r (7.

R. 2006...J... Micropaleontology 38. Lancis et al. T. SE Spain). S..R.A. Biogeographic history of Miocene calcareous nannoplankton and paleoceanography of the Atlantic Ocean. Hilgen. Thesis. 497–511. Basin Research 13. Special Publication 54.. P. Universidad Salamanca (unpublished). Gabriel. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene nannofossil biochronology and biogeography in the Vera Basin SE Spain. Krijgsman.). H. 231–242.J. J. A. Langereis.. Late Neogene history in the American Mediterranean. S. I. Las rocas lamproíticas del SE de España. Krijgsman. 1983. Nannofossil biostratigraphy.. 307–331. Flores. Janecek. Gartner. Sierro. 2000. W.. Hattori. Calcareous nannoflora and planktonic foraminifera in the Tortonian/Messinian boundary interval of East Atlantic DSDP sites and their relation to Spanish and Moroccan sections. F. Filippelli. Haq.. 177–201. J. B.. SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology.. F.. P.J... S.A.... 199–216. Yébenes. C.. et al.. W. 205–217. R.. F. T. depositional environments and paleogeographic evolution. Zimmerman. Deep Sea Drilling Project. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 182. Tulsa.C... Raffi. Sagredo. J. 64–87. Washington.-P. 83–99. In: Heezen.G. Jones. pp. J. K.O. Ott d’Estevou. N. Kaneps.M. El nanoplancton calcáreo de las cuencas neógenas orientales de la Cordillera Bética. C. F. N. Krijgsman...D. J. Bukry... Annales de Géologie des Pays Helléniques 1. W. Central Pacific. 155–170. J. J. Kuiper. (Eds. 167–174. J. 1997.. Kuiper. Sedimentary Geology 140. Scientific Results 138.. Crux...A.. Nanoplancton calcáreo en el Neógeno del borde noroccidental de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir (S.. J.. Sierro. Okada. Stanton. M. A.. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 181. Rakic-El Bied.B.. Raffi. Roep. S.H. 1997. 1975. Chronostratigraphic framework and evolution of the Fortuna basin (Eastern Betics) since the Late Miocene... Ph. W..J.V.. Palaeomagnetic chronology of the evaporitic sedimentation in the Neogene Fortuna Basin (SE Spain): early restriction preceding the ‘Messinian Salinity Crisis’.B. Agustí. Aubry. Bordet. A. W. M.A.E.. Cenozoic calcareous nannofossils from the Pacific Ocean.. site 317.A. MacGregor.. Montenat.. Percival.V.. The Bou Regreg Section Morocco: Proposed Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point of the Pliocene. M. S.J. C. Estudios Geológicos 23. 50–79..-P. Villa. 1987.. 1986. J. Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc 383.C. Agustí. Tulsa. Kent. F. G. J. Sierro. Flores.. 2001.J.. In: Pisias.A. In: Shackleton. M. 493–499.. 1985. Garcés.. Fermosi.G.J. The Betic segment of the lithospheric Trans-Alboran shear zone during the Late Miocene. pp. Montenat. B.. Caracuel. Iaccarino. Tectonic control for evaporite formation in the Eastern Betics (Tortonian. Krijgsman.. College Station. Geological Society Special Publication 21. Kouwenhoven. Palaeogeography. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 25. Fúster. 2003. (Eds. Krasheninnikov.. Sedimentary Geology 133. Bukry. 1971. 1989. Hesse. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 39. L. Sedimentary Geology 169. 129–212. F. Calcareous plankton analysis in the pre-evaporitic sediments of the ODP site 654 (Tyrrhenian Sea Western Mediterranean). Hilgen. Negri.. New Tertiary calcareous nannofossils. Zachariasse. 215 Flores.. J. J. pp.Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 33.D. Special Publication 32.. R. M. J. Dinarès-Turell. J.. PérezFolgado. 123–146. Evolution of the calcareous nannofossil assemblage as a response to the paleoceanographic changes in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean from 4 to 2 Ma (Leg 138 Sites 849 and 852). Curry. 41–52..J.J.000. 2000.. 1995.J.J. S. A. R. A. Bralower. C. Surface water dynamics and phytoplankton communities during deposition of cyclic late Messinian sapropel sequences in the western Mediterranean. 495–510.. 425–437.P.... Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology 8.... D. Jackson. Cenozoic Coccoliths from the Deep Sea Drilling Project..O. Deep Sea Drilling Project. 1995. (Eds. Fortuin. Montenat. 93–114.. 1978. D. 1981. 1973. Early Pliocene transgressive coastal lags (Bajo Segura Basin Spain): a marker of the flooding after the Messinian salinity crisis. W.. Bellon. de España). pp.H.W. 2004. K. Zachariasse. 2005.A. I.S. Krijgsman. D.. 249–266. Sedimentary Geology 188/189. 1995. Hernandez. 35–69. In: Summerhayes. J. Taberner.).. pp.). The Messinian of the Nijar Basin (SE Spain): sedimentation.A.A..D. Rossell. 69–81. (Eds. W..A. Government Printing Office. Santa Pola SE Spain: an analogue for the Palaeozoic? Sedimentology 44. Revised isotopic (40Ar/39Ar) age for the lamproite volcano of Cabezos Negros.. R. Sedimentary Geology 160. W. M. D. Washington. (Eds. C.H. F.R.).. M.J. F. H.. E. Lourens.. F. Leewis. Sierro. Morphology and phylogeny of the Coccolithophycean family Ceratolithaceae. Transactions of the San Diego Society Natural History 16. 2006. F. Flores. M. 1998. J. Flores. College Station. Utrilla.. T. Astrochronology for the Messinian Sorbas Basin (SE Spain) and orbital (precessional) forcing for evaporite cyclicity. Ortí.. T.L. P.M. W. Raffi. I..J.. W.A. 2000. Bukry... J. Sedimentary Geology 97. Hekel. R. In: Van Heck. Garcés. Palaeoclimatology.. 1999. Krijgsman. 163–176. 121–128. Swisher III. F. U.R. van Andel. T. SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology.R. 1976. Krijgsman. Garcés.. (Eds. S. In: Schlanger. Calcareous plankton in the Tortonian-Messinian transition of the Northwestern edge of the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain).J.J.. Journal Research 3.. Stockholm Contributions in Geology 32. L. Bukry. A. C.. Madrid. Earth Planetary Science Letters 163. M. Gastesi.. Gartner.. Messinian stromatolite-thrombolite associations.. Forristal. 1998.handle. Fortuin.E. Fortuin. A.. Extending the astronomical (polarity) time scale into the Miocene. Glaçon. F. Paleoclimatic and Paleogeographic development in the Pliocene North Atlantic: Discoaster accumulation and coarse fraction data. De Larouzière. Leg 20. 1992. D. W. J..P. Backman..J. Palmer-Julson.. M... J. Sierro. 2001..F.. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 Azéma. W. Sierro. P. H. Hilgen. 335–353. D. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 20. A. McKenzie.P.. 1975. Flores. A. Pestiaux. P. Fortuin..D. Santerelli. Bukry.. Backman. Foreman. TX. . http://hdl.. Miocene nannofossil chronology in the North Atlantic DSDP Site 608. 303– 328. J. Sierro. M. Garcés. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 238. Hermelin. Krijgsman. Bissoli. TX... Mapa y memoria explicativa de la hoja de 892 (Fortuna) del Mapa geológico Nacional a escala 1:50.E. D.U. J. 43–60. pp. 1996.. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program.. 53–62.).. 213–242. Fortuna Basin (Eastern Betics. Late Miocene Mediterranean desiccation: topography and significance of the ‘Salinity Crisis’ erosion surface on-land in southeast Spain: Comment. Hardenbol.H. Lancis. Proceeding of the Ocean Drilling Program. Meijer. I.. 279–288. London. Calibration of Miocene nannofossil events to orbitally-tuned cyclostratigraphies from Ceara Rise. Integrated stratigraphy and astrochronology of the Messinian GSSP at Oued Akrech (Atlantic Morocco). In: Berggren. Marine Micropaleontology 18.. C. Wijbrans. H..F... VII International Congress Mediterranean Neogene Athens. C. United States Geological Survey. North Atlantic Paleoceanography. H.J. Ruef.. pp. J.. Shackleton.)... The enigmatic MessinianPliocene section of Cuevas del Almanzora (Vera Basin SE Spain) revisitederosional features and strontium isotope ages. Instituto Geológico y Minero de España. 1980. Garcés. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 136. 1967. M. F. G. F. Feldmann. Scientific Results 154.. Aubry.. O.. Thesis.. Hilgen.J. W. Marine Micropaleontology 56.M. W. Bárcena.. A Revised Cenozoic Geochronology and Chronostratigraphy. Ph.. V. 451–465... 161–178. (Eds.D. 51–150. A.. London. Backman. Sierro. Krijgsman. S. Mayer. Tectonophysics 152.. Agustí. Benson. Soria. Hoskins.. Spain). J. Nannofossils and their applications. Richter. H. 1971.)... 1988. The ‘Tortonian salinity crisis’ of the eastern Betics (Spain). M. Bolze. R. C. 414– 443...J. Gartner.. Hekel. Universidad Alicante.. 1979. 1992. Chen.. Palaeoecology 154. E. Chronologie du magmatisme néogène des Cordillères bétiques (Espagne méridionale). J.Author's personal copy C. M. 237–251. L. Chronology of the late Turolian deposits of the Fortuna Basin (SE Spain): implications for the Messinian evolution of the eastern Betics. 221–247. N.J. M. K. W. 893–914. Kent. E. T.. Playà.J. L. Micropaleontology 26. G.Government Printing Office.. G.. Vázquez. Ellis Horwood.D. Coccolith stratigraphy of Manihiki Plateau. Berggren. Geochronology..M. Bordet. Kelling... time scales and global stratigraphic correlation. Krijgsman. 1995..

Palaeoecology 156. Government Printing Office. Belkebir. F.J. Coppier.. D.B. E. J. 1–345. 1998. Hsü.. Martini.. Ph.. (Ed. Müller. D...A. F. 1977. J. Fornaciari. Beaufort.F. Backman. A. In: Simpson.. D. J. Orsay (unpublished). Lohmann. M. In: Montenat. E. D. A geologic Time Scale. 130 and 138). Saunders. D. 1981. Montenat. Documents du Laboratoire de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon 69. R. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. W. J.. A. Cita. Government Printing Office. Calcareous nannofossils of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 558 and 563. In: Duncan.E. Bessedik.. Nannoplankton biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental interpretations from the Tyrrhenian Sea. In: Bougault. Oceanographic significance of Pacific late Miocene calcareous nannoplankton.. In: Kastens. (Eds... In: Gradstein..J..A. 1990.. Müller. Institut géologique Albert de Lapparent 12/13. Raffi. Raffi.. I. (Eds.W. Negri. Stratigraphie. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 82. 1979.. In: Hsü.R. Aubry. D. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program.. Rio.. (Eds... (Ed.). 1977. W.). Hilgen. R. Kouwenhoven. (Eds.... 1994. Sedimentary Geology 133. (Eds. North Atlantic Ocean: biostratigraphy and the distribution of Oligocene braarudosphaerids. The Neogene period. I.M. Cambridge.. Evaporite deposition and coeval volcanism in the Fortuna Basin. A. Calibration of late Neogene calcareous plankton datum planes with the paleomagnetic record of Site 397 and correlation with Moroccan and Mediterranean sections. 321–325. Les bassins néogènes du levant d’Alicante et de Murcia (Cordillères bétiques orientales Espagne). Initials Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47. Carlson. S. J. 736–785... Le bassin de Fortuna. G. Late Miocene Mediterranean desiccation: topography and significance of the ‘‘Salinity Crisis’’ erosion surface on-land in southeast Spain.). F. Martín.. S. 1971.. G. Pleistocene through Miocene Calcareous nannofossils from eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Leg 138). Les basins néogènes entre Alicante et Cartagena.B. Lourens.M.F. Universidad Granada (unpublished). 699–823. 1974.. Université de Paris Sud. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 40. Backman. 579–633.. southeastern Spain. Rouchy. 1978. 3113–3137. K.. Perch-Nielsen. 59–77. 1–20. Supplementary modification and introduction of code numbers to the low-latitude coccolith biostratigraphic zonation (Bukry. Braga.-M. Paleoceanography 2. 393–411.D. et al.. D. L. Proto Decima. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program.S. Scientific Results 138. E. Clark. D.). Marine Micropaleontology 35... 205–218. F.. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 Negri.C.. 233–285. S. Submarine Geology and Geophysics. Roma. Todesco. A. Fornaciari.M. Calcareous Nannofossils biostratigraphy of DSDP site 132 Leg 13 (Tyrrhenian sea).D. 1965. Lancis et al.. K.. Giunta. 1990. C. pp. Late Oligocene through early Pleistocene calcareous nannofossils from western equatorial Indian Ocean (Leg 115). Washington.P.. 1995. J. C.A. Ph.B. K. I. Documents et Travaux. In: Bolli. 2006. A. R. G. Vai. (Eds.. Initials Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 25. 2007. Villa.A. Perch-Nielsen. et al. Shackleton. 2000. M.F. Palaeogeography.. 1999. (Eds. W. U. C.... Martini. Quaternary Science Reviews 25. Southeastern Atlantic Leg 40 calcareous nannofossils. A. J. Rosell. Contributions biostratigraphiques et paléoenvironnementales de l’étude des nannofossiles calcaires des dépôts tortono-messiniens du bassin du Chélif (Algérie). Martín.. W. Raffi.. J. College Station.. R. Krijgsman. Cambridge University Press.). Washington. (Ed. J. Nanoplancton calcáreo del Mioceno de la Cordillera Bética (Sector Oriental). F. Calcareous nannoplankton. In: von Rad. 2003. Quantitative distribution patterns and biomagnetostratigraphy of middle and late Miocene calcareous nannofossils from equatorial Indian and Pacific Ocean (legs 115. 195–209. E. Sánchez-Almazo.E. Scientific Results 107. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali 92... Backman. Washington.. Plankton Stratigraphy. p. pp. Ryan. 1987. d’Afri. 479–502. Mascle. 1979. Proceedings of second Planktonic conference 2. 1975).C. Playà. Rio.J. 2006..). pp. Sedimentary Geology 123. Raffi.C. pp. Hamilton. T.. R. I. Palaeoclimatology. 1999.. H. Government Printing Office..B. In: Farinacci. K. 553– 579. Janacek. Bukry. N. Mazzei.H. 559–589. 375– 389. J... G. Martín-Pérez. Micropaleontology 49. 1973. Rochetti. Mid-Tertiary calcareous nannoplankton from Pacific deep-sea cores. H. pp. et al. 13–30.M.. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 85... Les Bassins Néogènes du Domaine Bétique Oriental (Espagne).. 2000. Marine Micropaleontology 5. L. C. Raffi. Initials Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 42. L. E. Jr. N. Okada. E. F. Braga. K. C. F. Government Printing Office. Washington.. Mansouri.). pp.. Raffi.).. F. L. western Mediterranean.. R. Mayer.. Negri. 1998. K. Perch-Nielsen. College Station. Rio. J. In: Bolli. et al.). Marine Micropaleontology 36. M. J. Hilgen. P. J... 1990.. In: Pisias. Rio. 165–197. C. (Eds. 679–696. 1997.A. Cambridge University Press.. A review of calcareous nannofossil astrobiochronology encompassing the past 25 million years. DSDP Leg 39. E.. Integrated quantitative biostratigraphy of the latest Tortonian-early Messinian Pissouri section (Cyprus): An evaluation of calcareous plankton bioevents.. BlancValleron.. 303– 311. .-M. Standard Tertiary and Quaternary calcareous nannoplankton zonation. (Eds.. Scientific Results 115.. I. T. Lukowski. Ryan. 1985. P...S. Parker. Rio. Raffi. 1–7. D.. In: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Poisson. 1985. Riding. Leg 25 (Western Indian Ocean). Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the M.. Espagne). Krijgsman. 2000. pp. Cenozoic calcareous nannofossils. 1978. Scientific Results 138.. TX. L. TX.. Montenat. K.. Gimeno. In: Montenat.C.B. L. H.. C. Medizza. 175–235. Ogg. L.R. Rio. pp. 571–634. et al. Braga. 313–368. 2008... M.M.. M. Cambridge. Fornaciari.. Sedimentary Geology 133. L. 17–41. Marine Geology 146. Lukowski. Sedimentary Geology 90. 427–554..G... Braga.G. Mozzato. Albian to Pleistocene calcareous nannofossils from the western South Atlantic. Institut Géologique Albert de Lapparent 12/13. Orszag-Sperber. J. W. 1987. pp. paléogéographie et évolution dynamique. J. Montadert. (Eds. Mediterranean Messinian Salinity Crisis: constraints from a coeval marginal basin Sorbas. 127–172.. Schlich.. U.. Hilgen. 257–268. Hilgen. Raffi. Event stratigraphy and paleoceanography in the Fortuna basin (southeast Spain): a scenario for the Messinian salinity crisis. J... ODP Leg 107 (Western Mediterranean).J.. Bradshaw. S. Martín. 1985.S. Évolution tectono-sédimentaire du bassin néogène de Fortuna (Cordillères bétiques orientales. Mazzei. Government Printing Office.S. U.J. College Station. Marine to non-marine sedimentation in the upper Miocene evaporites of the Eastern Betics SE Spa sedimentological geochemical evidence..M. N. I. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy biochronology and paleoecology at the Tortonian/Messinan boundary of the Faneromeni section (Crete). del Casino section (northern Apennines Italy) and paleoceanographic conditions at times of Late Miocene sapropel formation. Smith..W.). Laskar. 2004..-P. Perch-Nielsen..G. J. Wilson.Author's personal copy 216 C. College Station. R. Tecnoscienza. 1980... Peterson..S. Lourens.. C.).S. Flores. Washington. et al. A. et al. E..). Documents et Travaux. et al. pp. J. Washington.. I. Müller.. I.. Wise. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 39. H. Messinian events in the Sorbas basin of Southeastern Spain and their implications on the recent history the Mediterranean... M. 175– 184. (Eds. U. Martín.. Thesis. H. London. Ph. I. Rio. In: Supko. Les Bassins Néogènes du Domaine Bétique Oriental (Espagne). 409– 440. pp. Mansour. U. 1–26. D. D. Müller.W. R. R. Thesis. pp.. Geodiversitas 30... Pälike.M. Late Miocene Mediterranean desiccation: topography and significance of the ‘‘Salinity Crisis’’ erosion surface on-land in southeast Spa Reply. The Miocene sequence of the Maltese islands: biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic reference based on nannofossils. pp. Fornaciari.). 1995. 727–751. Ott d’Estevou.. Marine Micropaleontology 6. 267–279. Sedimentary Geology 188/189.. pp.. Playà.. 1990. pp. Morigi.M. F. Proceedings of the 17th Symposium Colston Research Society. (Eds. Riding. 495–511. Cande. C.B. U.C. Government Printing Office. 135–166.. Geobios 40. Ortí..S. E. In: Whittard. Riding. Neogene calcareous nannofossils from the Mediterranean – Leg 42A of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. TX.. et al. L. B. U. S. TX. Late Miocene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and astrobiochronology for the Mediterranean region. Evolutionary trends of calcareous nannofossils in the Late Neogene.).). M. Giunta. J..C..

J.).R. Mazzei. Memorie della Societá Geologica Italiana 16.H. A.A. Scientific Results 130.E... Palaeogeography.. Young.A. C. TX. Soria. Krijgsman. 2006. C.A. Palaeoclimatology. 1990. Geo-Temas 8. 231–234. A. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 340. College Station. P.). F.E. L.M.. Tent-Manclús.. 2008. Yébenes.. 1998. In: Vera.. Ph. J... Caracuel. Lancis. J. The replacement of the Globorotalia menardii group by the Globorotalia miotumida group: an aid to recognizing the Tortonian/Messinian boundary in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic. J.. Dinarès-Turell. Lancis et al. Yébenes. Theodoridis.. Hilgen... Estructura y estratigrafía de las sierras de Crevillente. T.S.M. (Ed.. pp.E.D. Flores. Universidad Barcelona (unpublished). 1–271. The stratigraphic position of the Mediterranean Upper Miocene evaporites.E. Lancis. Siesser.. R. C.. a la luz de la crisis de salinidad. J. 71–85.. 2003. J. L.M. Young. J. Soria. Yébenes. Notes on Neogene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Ontong Java Plateau and size variations of Reticulofenestra coccoliths. D.J.. pp. Society South Africa. 219–223.E.. 113–118.W. 525–535. J. W. 474– 481. In: Bown. Yébenes. DinarèsTurell.. Estratigrafía del Messiniense y Plioceno en el margen norte de la Cuenca del Bajo Segura (Cordillera Bética 217 oriental) Cambios paleogeográficos asociados a la crisis de salinidad del Mediterráneo. J. J.. W.. J. Electron Microscopy.J.. W.Author's personal copy C. J.R. 2001.. Caracuel. C. Santistebán. Bown. J. Wade. T. La crisis de salinidad Tortoniense: su registro en la zona de enlace entre las cuencas de Fortuna y del Bajo Segura.E. Calcareous nannofossils as age and paleoenvironmental indicators Electron van. Thesis. F. Soria. Dinarès-Turell. A. Petrología y sedimentología de los materiales del Mioceno superior de la cuenca de Fortuna (Murcia).handle. 1983. J. A. 141–169.. Madrid.. Sierro. J. Soria. Polemi Basin. C.. pp. 1984. Kluwer Academic Publications. Neogene nannofossils. A. 81–82. B... Caracuel. pp. H. 271–286. 1976. Journal the Geological Society of London 140. In: Berger. Sedimentary Geology 203. J. 2003. Primeros datos bioestratigráficos de los grupos evaporíticos de la Cuenca de Fortuna (Cordillera Bética). SGEIGME. A. Santistebán Bové. Lancis.. Cyprus. 1977. J. A. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Mediterranean and global reference section for the Messinian.E.. Viseras. Tent-Manclús. 2007. C. Yébenes.E.R. F.. J. In: Proceedings V7. Cuencas neógenas postorogénicas de la Cordillera Bética.. 401–411.. J.M. Corbí. Estévez.. S.E.D. The Messinian-early Pliocene stratigraphic record in the southern Bajo Segura Basin (Betic Cordillera Spain). Kroenke. A. 1981. Calcareous nannofossils biozonation of the Miocene and revision of the Helicoliths and Discoasters. J. P. Dordrecht.. (Eds.E. / Geobios 43 (2010) 201–217 Rio. C... Mayer. Estévez. Geología de España.. based on nannofossils.). Size variation of Neogene Reticulofenestrid coccoliths from Indian Ocean DSDP Cores. Caracuel.E. Palaeoecology 168.J.M. Estévez..M. J. .. Marine Micropaleontology 9. Tent-Manclús. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. 2008. Ph. Abanilla y Algayat: su relación con la Falla de Crevillente.R.. Soria. Thesis. C. 261–276. J. Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy. Soria. 267–288. Caracuel. Tent-Manclús....//hdl. Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletin 31.. 225–265.. 2005. Viseras. Calcareous nannofossils in extreme environments: The Messinian Salinity Crisis.. Fernández. Journal Micropaleontology 9. Taberner.R... Lancis.. Shallow marine and continental conglomerates derived from coral reef complexes after desiccation of a deep marine basin: the Tortonian-Messinian deposits of the Fortuna Basin SE Spain. Implications for the Mediterranean salinity crisis. Sudelike Afrika. Takayama.. A. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 233. Janecek..G... 179–229. J. 576–581. TentManclús.. Universidad Alicante . Geogaceta 41. Sierro. 2004. J. Tortonian Salinity Crisis and tectonics: A view from the Fortuna Basin (SE Spain). 1985. G. Geo-Temas 5. Palmieri. http. (Ed.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful