HOL Blocking analysis

based on: Broadband Integrated Networks by Mischa Schwartz.

April 2000 ,10

1

PGF ± Probability Generating Functions   Let a be a random variable. The PGF is defined by GA ( z ) | A( z ) | § z i Pr[a ! i ] | E[ z a ] i !0  N moment generation g g dA ! § iP[a ! i ] | a (1) ! § iz i 1P[a ! i ] z ! 1 i !1 dz i !1 g d2A ! a2  a (1) ! § i (i  1) z i 2 P[a ! i ] z !1 dz 2 i !1 2 .

. 1 E (n ) ! p q W ! 2 p 2 n pz Gn ( z ) ! 1  qz 3 .... 2 E (n) ! W n ! P Geometric distribution pn ! pq n 1 q ! 1  p n ! 1..2..PGF Examples  Poisson distribution pn ! Pn e  P / n! Gn ( z ) ! e P (1 z )  n ! 0.2...1.

PGF Examples  Bernoulli distribution n ! 0 or 1 only p0 ! q p1 ! 1  q ! p 2 E ( n ) ! p W n ! qp Gn ( z ) ! q  pz  Binomial distribution ¨ N ¸ n N n pn ! © ¹ p q q ! 1 p 0 e n e N ©n¹ ª º 2 Gn ( z ) ! (q  pz ) N E (n) ! Np W n ! Nqp 4 .

5 ak ak 1 . k-1 .M/D/1 Queue arrivals n cells in system CL cells/sec q cells in queue  To analyze: consider a slotted time scale nk 1 nk nk 1 1 / CL 1 / CL k k+1 .

k-1 .M/D/1 Queue ( ®nk  1)  ak 1 nk " 0 nk 1 ! ¯ a nk ! 0 °k 1 nk 1 ! (nk  1)   ak 1 nk 1 nk nk 1 1 / CL 1 / CL k k+1 . 6 ak ak 1 .

x!0 g ! p ( 0)  Gn ( z )  p (0) z G ( z )  p (0) ¸ ¨ Gn ( z ) ! © p ( 0 )  n ¹Ga ( z ) z ª º p(0)( z  1)Ga ( z ) Gn ( z ) ! z  Ga ( z ) 7 .nk 1 ! ( nk  1)   ak 1 x ! (n  1)  Gx ( z ) ! § p x z x ! p (0)  p(1)  p(2) z  p(3) z 2  .

Finding p(0) p (0)( z  1)Ga ( z ) Gn ( z ) ! z  Ga ( z ) p(0)[Ga ( z )  ( z  1)Ga ' ( z )] 1 ! Gn (1) €z€ €p p1 z !1 1  Ga ' ( z ) p ( 0) 1!   p ( 0) ! 1  E ( a ) | 1  V 1  E (a) (1  V )( z  1)Ga ( z ) Gn ( z ) ! z  Ga ( z ) V is the utilization 8 .

The buffer statistics n ® 1 q!¯ °0 g q q !0 n u1 n!0 g q !1 Gq ( z ) ! § pq z ! p (n ! 0)  p (n ! 1)  § pq z q ! p (0)  p (1)  § p (n) z n!2 g n 1 1 ! ? n ( z )  p (0)(1  z )A G z (1  p )(1  z ) Gq ( z ) ! z  Ga ( z ) 9 .

Home assignment  Show that for Poisson arrivals V E (q) ! 2(1  V ) 2 10 .

we need to be more careful.Remarks  Note that E(n)-E(q)=V=1-p(0)  The average number in service is 1·Pr(n•1)=1-p(0)  The time evolution equation for q: qk 1 ! max(0. qk  ak 1  1)  Note that here we cannot simply isolate the terms. 11 .

Fm = number of cells transmitted in time slot m.  12 .HOL blocking analysis at steady state     Assume NxN switch. Aim = number of packets destined to output i moving to the head of the line during the mth time slot at ³free´ input queues. destinations are uniformly distributed Packet queues are always full. Bim = number of packets at the end of time slot m that are blocked for input i.

Bm1  Am  1}    This is the form of the equation for the number of packets in M/D/1 queue We analyze the operation of a virtual queue. Based on home exercise: E[Bim]=V02/2(1-V0) 13 .. Fm 1 i i i Bm ! max{0..i Fm1 ! § Am i !1 N Fm 1  k Fm 1 ¸¨ 1 ¸ k ¨ ¨ 1¸ i .1.. ak | Pr[ Am ! k ] ! © ¹ © k ¹© N ¹ © 1  N ¹ º ºª º ª ª i ! 0..

586 2(1  V0 ) 2 14 . and taking expectations E[F] ! N(1-E[B i ]) E[ A ] ! E [ F ] / N ! V0 i E[ F ] ! NV 0   E[ B ] ! 1  V0 i 2 V0 E(B ) ! 2(1  V0 ) i V0 1  V0 !   V0 ! 2  2 ! 0. V0 Fm1 ! N  § B i !1 N i m 1 i Fm1 ! § Am i !1 N in the stationary case.Finding the utilization.

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