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1/18/12 Engineering Drawings

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Words are not the natural language of engineers.
Drawings are their prose, mathematics their grammar
and differential equations their poetr.
Glegg
DRAWINGS IN ENGINEERING DESIGN
Inodcion
Engineering drawing is not only the province oI the draItsperson. It is the language oI the engineer. It is their
means oI developing and recording their ideas, and conveying them to others. Every engineer will be using and
reIerring to some Iorm oI drawings almost daily. They will oIten be producing or directing the preparation oI
drawings. Usually, they make the preliminary sketches and design drawings in accordance with principles oI
engineering drawing. Because this is the most unambiguous way oI to convey and record inIormation. It is also
likely that every engineer at sometime will be checking the work oI designer draIters and approving drawings
beIore they are sent to manuIacturing. When engineers sign oII the Iinal approval oI a drawing, they take
responsibility Ior it. An overlooked error in the drawing could be costly.
Ideally, then, engineers should be good draItspersons.
They can constructively criticize the work oI
inexperienced draIters. However, with the limited time
available at the University it is not possible to get the
necessary proIiciency. At the university you are given
the Iundamentals, and it is up to you to improve your
knowledge and skill as required.
This course will emphasize design procedures. However, the design drawings which you will be making must be
properly executed.
Deelopmen and Podcion Daing
In their everyday work mechanical engineers must be Iamiliar with production drawings. The Iunction oI the
production drawing is to impart descriptions, speciIications, and instructions to the shop so that three-
dimensional objects and systems may be manuIactured and assembled in their correct location with respect to
other components oI a machine.
Where do the ideas Ior the creation oI the object originate, and how are these ideas developed? The Iorm oI a
design is progressively developed graphically. For example, much oI the original thinking is involved in the
technical sketch made by the engineer or designer. Many calculations are done at this stage. As Iurther
conIirmation oI the practicability oI the design an accurately made scaled drawing called a layout is made. The
layout shows the overall dimensions and will show several critical elements assembled in their Iunctional
relationships. Detail drawings are then made. Usually one drawing is made Ior each part, showing complete
details and instructions necessary Ior its manuIacture. Finally, subassembly and assembly drawings are made to
show how the detail parts are to be assembled and to show general dimensions.
Specificaion and he Popoal Daing
Layout representation begins with the interpretation oI design speciIications by making up proposal drawing (
Exhibit 1a , Exhibit 1b , Exhibit 1c ).
Suppose a Space Agency wants to purchase a new attitude control system. From preliminary studies they have
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One of he mo efl pocede in all age a he
e of feehand keche o epeen all alenaie in a
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Iound the Ilight characteristics oI their vehicle. This gives them the control requirements Ior their system. A set oI
speciIications is drawn up and requests Ior proposals are issued to the companies Irom which they wish to
receive quotations. The design engineers at these companies on receiving copies oI these speciIications will begin
rough designs. The designers will roughly design the components that will make up the system, sensors,
actuators, computers, programs, etc. so that a proposal drawing can be made. These drawings show the general
design that will best IulIil Iunctional requirements. They show general dimensions, areas, weights and other basic
design and manuIacturing inIormation. From these proposal drawings a preliminary estimate oI engineering,
tooling and production costs are made. The estimated cost and the proposal drawing are sent to the sales
department who add a Iactor Ior proIit and establish a selling price which is to be quoted. The price, drawings,
and much other descriptive inIormation are then submitted as a proposal and tender.
The proposal including the proposal drawings become an essential part oI a design contract, and it is the basis oI
the eventual design, the drawings are not used Ior Iabrication. When a complicated product is being considered,
proposal drawings with the written text indicate only the method to be employed, in obtaining basic the Iunctional
requirements. They emphasize engineering principles to be used in design. The bulk oI the minor design work is
generally suggested but not completed. It is expected, thereIore, that the Iinal product although constructed
according to the principles set Iorth in the proposal drawing, may diIIer considerably Irom it.
The degree oI completeness oI proposal drawings is inversely proportional to the complexity oI the product.
Thus, Ior a less complicated product the proposal drawing may also suIIice as the layout, and occasionally even
as a working drawing. The reason behind this is that involved systems require many specialists who must expend
much time and eIIort to arrive at detailed solutions. The development procedure is expensive and can be justiIied
only when an organization has received a contract to carry a design to its completion. Proposal drawings supply
only enough inIormation Ior contract acceptance.
The major product design work begins aIter the company has received the order and the proposal drawing has
been accepted. Meanwhile many revisions may have been made to the proposal drawing to suit the customer's
requirements beIore it is accepted. The principal component parts or sections oI the product are assigned to
specialized design groups, and each group might be headed by an engineer. A project engineer will be in charge
oI the complete product design. This however will vary greatly with the type oI organization.
The proposal may include an outline drawing ( Exhibit 2 ), at the time oI submission or shortly aIter the order is
conIirmed. Outline drawings become part oI the contract obligation. Its purpose is to provide the customers
suIIicient inIormation about the product that they can go on with the rest oI their design. ThereIore the outline
drawing gives all the dimensions oI the Iinished device requited to attach it and to connect it to the equipment it
will work with. And it must also give the overall dimensions oI the system so that the space it will occupy. Outline
drawings are sometimes required to be certiIied. A responsible oIIicer oI the company, typically the ChieI
Engineer, must sign the drawing guaranteeing that the system will be in accordance with it.
Technical Skech
The designers interpret the requirements shown on the
proposal drawing, study the accompanying
speciIications, and begin thinking out solutions. The
solutions are recorded in technical sketches. In the
technical sketch ( Exhibit 3a, Exhibit 3b, Exhibit 3c ) the designer puts down the important Iactors - general
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shapes, clearances to be checked, structural investigations, Iunctional requirements and basic manuIacturing
processes that may be used. The designer must exercise ingenuity in making approximations beIore an accurate
stress analysis is made to decide actual sizes. Technical sketches are not discarded, they are valuable because
they record most oI the ideas and the directions that contribute to the Iinal design. As much thinking and planning
as possible should be shown in the rough sketches. This expedites a more direct solution and lessens the
possibility oI having to change design principles completely on the careIully drawn layout.
The Laout
A layout drawing (Exhibit 4a , Exhibit 4b , Exhibit 4c ) by the designer is an exact graphical representation oI the
design. It is intended Ior engineering rather than manuIacturing use, although sometimes a layout drawing is used
Ior experimental production. The layout is an accurate development oI the conception oI the design, or the
placement oI units. Essential elements are developed, and the geometry oI the machine or structure is
dimensionally deIined taking into consideration its Iunction, manuIacture and other requirements. The layout is a
key drawing Irom which production drawings are made. Several layouts may be required Ior one machine. For
instance the steering mechanism in a car would require a layout drawing. The rear end would require another. In
making the layout, the basic reIerence lines and center lines are located. Adjacent or existing parts are drawn in
phantom lines. This conveniently deIines the space available to work. The general shape oI each component
member is approximated and calculations are carried out simultaneously which Iinally determines the actual sizes.
Sometimes the layout, the design sketches and calculations are made simultaneously because each provides
inIormation that is needed Ior the other.
Layout drawings are always drawn to scale, Iull scale iI possible. CAD is extremely useIul this way. Layout
drawing can also be done rapidly on squared paper to give the scale. The prime consideration is accuracy - only
a minimum oI necessary essential graphical inIormation is presented. Layout drawings are similar to assembly
drawings, except that cross hatching is conIined to the boarders and may be done Iree hand. Symbols may be
used Ior standard components unless details are required Ior clariIication.
For stress calculations Ireehand sketches may be used also. The sketches and calculations are Iiled Ior reIerence
and checking purposes. The coordination oI stress analysis, Iunction, manuIacturing, and clearance Iactors are all
embodied in the layout.
The Production Detail Drawing
Detail drawings ( Exhibit 5 ) represent single elemental components. The drawing contains complete inIormation
Ior manuIacturing the part.
Accepted draIting practice in industries engaged in mass production calls Ior a separate drawing Ior each cast,
machined, or Iorged part. These detail drawings are made by detail draIt-persons. They usually obtain the basic
inIormation required Ior the part Irom the layout drawing.
The person making the layout is usually the engineer or a senior designer. They will be responsible Ior several
draIt-persons oI diIIerent grades. The detail drawing is critically important because when it is released Ior
manuIacture it must be a document that has only one interpretation. Once released, the responsibility Ior the
accuracy oI the drawing rests not with the draIt-person, who produced it, but with the designer and/or engineer
who produced the layout and approved the drawing. They thereIore have a critical interest in the production
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For the designer the purpose of a drawing is two fold.
Although it ma eventuall conve information to others,
it is first of all an aid to thought.
Albert Leer
design Irom the start. This desirable procedure has been Iacilitated by CAD since several departments can be
working Irom the same set oI data as it is being developed.
Tool Deign
Too oIten the product engineer does not appreciate the many steps through which a design must go beIore it
becomes an actual interchangeable part. On the other hand the tool engineer is not always sympathetic with many
specialized problems that conIront the product designer creating the initial design. An understanding and
appreciation oI tool problems result in a more eIIicient operation.
The tool designers must concern themselves with the Iollowing Iactors:
1. Analysis oI the complete manuIacture oI the part;
2. Design and manuIacture oI tools and accessories;
3. Gauging and inspection oI the Iinished part.
Obviously the tool designer must have a thorough knowledge oI machine tools including the various standard
small tools and accessories. The knowledge oI machine tools and standard small tools must be supplemented
with the ability Ior careIully designing special tools such as jigs, Iixtures, gauges, punches and dies.
Although tools Iacilitate mass production, they themselves are custom-made single elements. Tool design
principles and draIting practices, thereIore, vary Irom production design and drawing techniques. Since tools
usually represent one-oII manuIacture, tool drawings may contain all the detail drawings on the one drawing. The
drawing may also show in phantom lines or color the outline and location oI the production part it is associated
with.
However, the tool designer still uses the standard stages oI development in drawing a new tool, i.e., the idea
sketch, the layout, the production drawing and assembly drawing.
Designing With the Layout Drawing
Generally designing takes place in at least two stages: draIt and operational. During the draIt stage the main
arrangement and general design oI a given unit are established (sometimes in several versions). AIter evaluation
and discussion oI the draIt, the working operational arrangement is produced, it deIines more accurately the
details oI the system and serves as the starting point Ior completing the project.
During these design stages it is important to identiIy and
establish the principal components, and to Iind the
correct order oI design and development.
Attempting to design the whole system with all its
elements at once is a typical error characteristic oI novice designers. Having received the assignment which
presents the purposes and the perIormance parameters oI the project, the novice designer oIten tries to calculate
and complete the design in all its details. then they try to draw all the elements to produce a picture as iI it were a
Iinished assembly drawing oI the project. Such a procedure is an irrational one, and results in a string oI poorly
arranged constructional elements and units.
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It is preIerable to begin the design with a solution oI principal design constraints, i.e., the selection oI kinematics,
the power sources and Ilow, or the correct sizes and shapes oI the main components and oI their most preIerred
relative positions (design sketches). Any attempt to completely describe parts in detail at this stage is not only
useless, but harmIul. It draws attention away Irom the main problems oI the design and conIuses the logical
development the design.
Another important procedure Ior design is to Iirst develop several design alternatives concurrently, analyze them
and then select oI the best. It is a mistake to set the direction oI the design by accepting the Iirst idea which
arises, or to Iollow an obvious solution. The designer must analyze careIully all Ieasible solutions and choose the
one most suitable Ior the given requirements. This requires deliberate eIIort, the problem is not at once solved,
but sometimes only aIter long investigation.
Full development oI each alternative is not necessary. Usually hand pencil sketches or overlays are suIIicient to
establish the advantages and limitations oI an alternative and to decide whether it is advisable to continue with
that particular alternative.
The drawing and the calculations must be carried out in a complementary manner, each contributing to the other.
The initial calculations need only be tentative approximations. Main design elements should be evaluated not only
Ior strength, but also Ior rigidity.
The designer cannot rely on solely selecting dimensions and shape oI parts by eye. OI course, there are very
skillIul designers who almost without mistakes can establish sizes and cross-sections assuring stress levels
acceptable Ior the given branch oI engineering. Alternately they cannot rely on calculations alone, sketching or
drawing the part to scale can uncover unsatisIactory dimensions and conIigurations. Remember, " II it looks
wrong, it probably is wrong". Similarly copying trite shapes and keeping to traditional stress levels, will not create
better designs.
To only depend upon calculations is also wrong. In the Iirst place, the existing methods oI strength calculations
do not consider many Iactors that inIluencing the suitability oI a design. Secondly, there are some parts and
conIigurations (e.g., housings) which cannot be conveniently calculated at all, or the eIIort cannot be justiIied.
Thirdly, other Iactors besides strength aIIect the sizes oI parts. For example; the design oI cast parts is dependent
largely on casting technology, parts being machined must resist the cutting Iorces and be suIIiciently rigid, heat
treated parts should be large enough to avoid buckling.
Thus, besides calculations, the designer must be aware oI existing design practices and regulations and Iollow
them, iI warranted.
Another prerequisite Ior good design practice is a continuous consideration oI the manuIacturing problems; Irom
the very beginning ever component should be given a technologically reasonable shape. A skilled designer Irom
the beginning considers how the part will be produced. Novice designers should constantly consult with the
production and test engineers.
The design should be perused on the basis oI standard dimensions (Iitting diameters, sizes oI keyed and spline
connections, diameters oI threads, etc.) where possible. At the same time maximum use oI standard elements
should be sought. II speciIic elements are necessary in one part oI the system, the same element should be used
elsewhere in the design as much as possible, the objective being to reduce the number oI diIIerent parts.
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In doing the design the designer must take into account all the conditions defining the operate ability of the
machine, develop the systems of lubrication and cooling, assembly and disassembly, and attachment of adjacent
parts (drive shafts, piping, electric wires, etc.); provide for convenient maintenance, inspection and adjustment of
the mechanism; choose correct materials for the main components; think of methods for improving the machine's
durability and wear-resistance of rubbing surfaces, and methods of corrosion protection; investigate and
determine the limits of the machine when operating under forced conditions.
Composition does not always proceed smoothly. Often during designing some small defects, overlooked in the
first estimates, are revealed. For their elimination it sometimes turns out necessary to return to schemes rejected
earlier or to develop new ones.
Some units are not always successfully designed from the first. This should not discourage the designer--they
have to devise some "tentative" alternatives and raise the design to the required level in the process of further
activities. In such cases it is useful, to take a breathing space, after which, as a result of subconscious thought, the
problem is often solved. After a while the designer looks at the outline drawing in another light, and sees the
mistakes made at the first stage of the development of the main design idea.
Sometimes the designers unintentionally lose their objectiveness and do not see the drawbacks of their favorite
variant or the potentialities of other versions. In such cases impartial opinions of outsiders, the advice of seniors
and co-workers should be sought. Their fault-finding and criticism could turn out to be useful. Moreover, the
sharper the criticism, the greater is the benefit derived.
At all stages of design manufacturers and operators should be consulted.
As general rule, the wider the consultation on the design, and the more attention the designer pays to the advice,
the better will be the design.
The cost of designing is only a small portion of the machine manufacturing expenditures (excluding one-off or
small-batch production products). In the final analysis, the greater the development work on the design, the more
are the savings in the machine cost, time of manufacture and finishing, the better its quality and the greater the
economic gains over the machine's service life.
If possible the layout is best drawn to a 1:1 scale. This enables a realistic presentation of machine proportions,
and facilitates the selection of required dimensions and sections, their strengths and rigidities. In addition full
scale, removes the necessity for a large number of dimensional specifications and simplifies later stages of design,
in particular detailing, since dimensions can be taken directly from the full scale layout drawing.
Layouts on a reduced scale, particularly less than scale, strongly impedes the design process, it distorts the
proportions and reduces the clarity of the representation.
If a 1:1 scale is not practical, then at least critical parts and groups should be drawn full scale .
The design of simple systems may be developed in one projection if the drawing is sufficiently clear. The cross-
sectional drawing can be interpreted in three-dimensions by ones imagination. However, with more sophisticated
systems, this may cause serious errors; therefore, in such cases the design must be developed in several
projections for clarity.
The development of a lay-out drawing is, a continuous process of search, trial, approximation, seeking
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alternatives. Alternatives are compared and the unsuitable rejected. Alternatives should be lightly added to the
drawing and corrected when necessary, which means that an eraser is used more oIten than a pencil.
Cross sections can be leIt unhatched, or iI hatched, only Iree hand. Time is not wasted on drawing standard parts
in detail. Typical components and units (Iasteners, packing, springs, antiIriction bearings, etc.) should be depicted
simply.
Contour outlining, hatching, listing and particulars oI standard small parts are made at the Iinal stage, when the
layout is ready Ior discussion.
OIten development drawings are Iree hand, the design drawn with a pencil on a sheet oI squared paper. Such
drawings have great advantages as to capacity, Ilexibility and easiness oI introducing corrections.
This method is especially useIul Ior showing smooth outlines characteristic oI modern designs.
The method is convenient Ior designers having certain aptitudes Ior drawing. Some designers are capable, when
applying this method, oI preparing in a Iew hours complete arrangements, which can be handed over Ior
detailing.
Drawing Morpholog
(From Engineering Graphic Modeling, by E. Tjalve, M.M. Andreasen, F.F. Schmidt)

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Draings in Design Deelopment
(From Engineering Graphic Modeling, b E. Tjalve, M.M. Andreasen, F.F. Schmidt)
Draings Stage 1
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Draings Stage 2
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Draings Stage 3
1997 G. Kardos