01a_Ch13-European Middle Ages: The Middle Ages (Overview)! Timeline: 6th - 14th C!

FQ: What social, political, & economic traits are unique to Medieval Europe?"

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Main Idea: Medieval Europe was a transition between Classical and Modern Europe. The Medieval European Period was marked by changes brought about initially by the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West (Western Europe). There are distinct social, economic, and political traits that develop in the three segments/ phases that comprise this period. A common theme throughout the ~800 year period is the quest for stability in the midst of tumultuous (and, at times, horrific) events.! #! CCSS…"

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I. The Medieval Period of European history can be divided into three smaller periods. Each period or “phase” had its own distinct characteristics that differentiated it from the others. One common characteristic that linked all the phases was unsettling events and the quest for the stability that marked the Roman Era.! II. ‘The Dark Ages’ (Early Middle Ages/ Early Medieval Period, ~5th - 9th C.): Absence of a central authority changes urban lifestyle.! A. City/ Town Infrastructure Collapse" 1. Roads & aqueducts in disrepair" 2. Sanitation suffers" 3. Economic Activity Collapses" a. Lack of Security (ex. law enforcement & fire)! b. Unenforced Standards" B. Population Plummets" 1. 2nd Century Rome => ~1,000,000 inhabitants" 2. 6th C. Rome => ~30,000 inhabitants." 3. The countryside becomes the destination of many seeking sustenance and security." C. Institutions Weakened or Disappear (Judicial, Religious, Education)" 1. Local loyalties based on kinship replaces loyalty to a central authority." 2. Laws are not codified, but influenced greatly by custom & tradition." 3. Houses of worship experience shrinking congregations. Negative impact on ability to offer services and maintain the facility." 4. Learning becomes decentralized and provincial (based on local history & customs)" D. Christianity flourishes as it spreads among the Germanic tribes" 1. Clovis, the Frank, converts to Christianity.! 2. Spread of Monasteries and increase in the popularity of Monastic life. [St. Benedict and the Benedictine Rules]! 3. Increasing secular power of the Church [Gregory I and the concept of ‘Christendom’]" E. The Rise of the Franks" 1. The Franks unite many of the Germanic Tribes. When Clovis converts he also “encourages” the Franks to do so." 2. The Franks and Papacy join in an alliance. Pepin the Short is anointed " #King by the Pope. The Franks vow to subdue non-Christian tribes (eg. Lombards)." 3. Charlemagne continues unifying leadership of his father (Pepin the Short). Despite his illiteracy, he paves the way for a rebirth in learning." F. Collapse Of The Frankish Kingdom" 1. Rivalry among the sons and grandchildren of Charlemagne fractures the kingdom." 2. Treaty of Verdun ends the warfare; the kingdom is permanently divided." 3. Viking Invasions. “Save us, O [GOD], from the fury of the Northmen”"

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4. Creation of Viking Kingdoms (eg. Normandy)."

III. Phase 2: 'High Middle Ages' (~9th - 11th C.)! Feudalism: A socio-economic system based on the ownership of land and the bonds of loyalty/ service derived from such ownership. The system focused on local protection, local government and selfsufficiency.! A. Bond between Lord and Vassal! B. ‘Lay’ Investiture and the Fief! C. The Manor and Manorialism, the Serf, the Free Peasant"

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IV. Phase 3: 'Late Middle Ages' (~11th - 14th C.)! A. Economic" 1. Expansion of trade between Europe, Asia, and Africa." 2. Rise of Commercial Cities & Families" 3. Collapse of Feudalism" B. Social" 1. The Plague" 2. The Crusades" C. Political" 1. Mongol Invasions" 2. Expansion of The Church's secular & religious influence."

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V. Summary Activity: Why it Matters Now.! The Middle Ages mark a transitional period in European history. It spans the period from the Classical Age (Roman Civilization) to the Renaissance (Modern Age). It provides clues how Europe recovered from Rome’s collapse and developed a ‘new’, modern, world view."
Materials/Sources:#Refer to the course calendar for additional materials, assignments and pertinent due dates.! World History: Patterns of Interaction" ! Map handout" ! Slide Presentation" ! European Middle Ages an interactive timeline created by Mr.V. !

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