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rl{ º uvkn¸ˆj€}{Dm0o„{T‰Ÿ{Tm—oq{€Ì|uv„j€mvtvr:}jœ{ º uvk¸Œj€}n{TmvwDk~j}nxy£yknwTjœ{Dm0o„p„{‚}~jœkn‰‹“|}kÂwjŒwTknxym
¿ ¬p ∨ q Ö
¬(∀² ∈ R+ (∃n ∈ N(∀m ∈ N(m > n ⇒ |xm − a| < ²))))

p⇒q

∃² > 0 ∀n ∃m > n |xm − a| > ².

T§0µˆ³—±<³—± þ ¶ Ž{T‰Ÿry”oqpqjŒwTkr€mv{T¢“"r€p¢knmvtvuvwDwTkx€mgÖ
kîé
ú¡j€„{žtv1{ž+km|...tvuv+wTwDnkx€=mgÖn(n
{Tm]{D+š›{D1)/2
wDoqrŸ„¶ {žwTuv‰Ÿ“v}n{ º u|{ 1 = (1 · 2)/2 ¶
Sj€„rŸtv{žkm|tvuvwTwDkx€mgÖuvqjŒmvtvrŸ}~jlÙvk“"x€o„{Tsktv{žkm|tvuvwTwDkxymƒs{žoqkn{Tmv{ŒÖ

È
X

Eš‘ 

1 + ... + n + (n + 1) = (1 + .. + n) + (n + 1) = n(n + 1)/2 + (n + 1).

ø {T¢uvmNj.wDry‰‹“|p„ryNjŒwTknxymz¸y{Dp„kÂÁNwjŒp¢}~jlk£yuvj€}tvj€tztv{ž“"ry}nkmvr€‰Ÿknr€TÖ
n(n + 1)/2 + (n + 1) = (n + 1)(n + 2)/2.

k k~é
Σ (2k − 1) = n .
ú¡j€„{žtv{žkm|tvuvwTwDkx€mgÖ{Tm]{Dš›{DwDoqrŸ„{žwTuv‰Ÿ“v}n{ º u|{ 1 = 1 ¶
Sj€„rŸtv{žkm|tvuvwTwDkx€mgÖuvqjŒmvtvrŸ}~jlÙvk“"x€o„{Tsktv{žkm|tvuvwTwDkxymƒs{žoqkn{Tmv{ŒÖ
n
k=1

2 

n
2
Σn+1
k=1 (2k − 1) = Σk=1 (2k − 1) + (2n + 1) = n + 2n + 1.

ø {Tm]{Dš›{DwDo„r‹„{ oqkn{Tmv{ŒÖ

n2 + 2n + 1 = (n + 1)2 .

k knk~é 2 ≤ (n + 1)!.
ú¡j€„{žtv{žkm|tvuvwTwDkx€mgÖ{Tm]{Dš›{DwDoqrŸ„{žwTuv‰Ÿ“v}n{ u|{
Sj€„rŸtv{žkm|tvuvwTwDkx€mgÖuvqjŒmvtvrŸ}~jlÙvk“"x€o„{Tsktvº {žkm|2tvuv≤wTwD2!kxy=mƒs2{ž¶ oqkn{Tmv{ŒÖ
n 

2n+1 = 2n · 2 ≤ (n + 1)!2.

Ú

m

†‡q~r Î {•n*ãv¾kmj¯Rˆ0Ïx‚‰†‡q

ø wTry‰Ÿr

2≤n+2

„{ oqk{Dmv{ º |u {€Ö
2n+1 ≤ (n + 2)!

Dw ry‰Ÿr º u|{Tp„Ѝj€‰Ÿrytv{D‰‹r€soqp„j€p ¶
Toqj€u|§0o„µŒry³—}±4ry³—£€± Ѝþ jwTry2‰Ÿ¶ r:ú¸Bj€k„‰Ÿ{œrytv¡{{Tknm]mvtv}uvry¢wDwTjŒknxy“vmguvÖm0o„((p{T ⇒ a ) ∧ (a ⇒ q)) ⇒ (p ⇒ q) {Tuvmvj
Sj€„rdtv{km|tvuvwTwDkxym2Ö ¾ zuvmNjßwTr€mv„{D¶ wTuv{DmvwTk~jdkm|‰‹{Dtvk~jˆo’jRtv{}~j°{ º uvkn¸ˆj€}{DmvwTkj
}nxy£yknwj–Ö
È1X

E|

1

1 

(p ⇒ a1 ∨ ... ∨ an ∨ an+1 ) ⇔ ((p ⇒ a1 ∨ ... ∨ an ) ∨ (p ⇒ an+1 )).

ȑæ
TȒőÉ4§0ï|µŒÃ€³—Ä4倱4³—íN± ÉÑþ È gȒ¶ ņó ÃB{jÈlxȒő∈ÉÍåƒUƑæÂtvåˆÅEryÈ mvtvó { {TUj {T6{T}0wTrym²ã½sæ6uvȒm0őo„É4rïvtvÀÄ4{ãå€{DíNsəo„È uvtvk~jŒÿ:m0Ä4oqÃB{Dȏ ¶ ȒóőÉ4{TÇòj ÄÍƑR(x)
:
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ÿ»È‘í2ÊEÅ ïVÈ x@ -i«‚ ¶ ¾ }pqj€ DrymNj€‰Ÿ¶ kn{Tm0o„r:P„{ž(x)“vuv{D: tv{†„k‰l"ry}nkn Tj€p{Txm]}~jš›ryp„‰‹j

È1X

Eš’

´

ê

í

t|rymvtv{

(H1 ∧ H2 ) ⇒ T
H1 := ∀x ∈ U R(x) ⇒)P (x) ∨ ¬P (x)).
H2 := ¬P (a)

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o„ry‰‹j€mvtvr R(a) := F ¿ P (a) := F s{ oqk{Dmv{ º uv{ž{D}p„j€ Tr€mNj€‰Ÿk{Tm—oqrlmvr.{D¸ŒŠ€}nktvr ¶
T§0µŒ³—knmv±4³—£y± Ôvþ mƒ“Nj€¶ ÐnÙNj.£—jŒmNj€tvr:oqrBtvj€¢}j€‰‹{DtNj€}n}~j–Ö
Ë
T := R(a)

Ù

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1

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×6rBt|ry¢}ry“NjŒÐs{T¢ÙNj€m]£yj€mNj€tv∀x∃y¬M
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â }n}n£y£yÔvÔvmƒmƒ“N“Nj€j€ÐnÐnÙNmvrŸj.£—ÙNjŒj:mN£—j€j€tvmNrŸjŒtvj€}nr.£yuvmvmNkmvjl£€‰ŸuvmN{Tj:tNj€‰‹}n}~{Dj–tNÖ j€∃x∃y
M (x, y) ¶
n
}
~
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j
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∃x∀y ¬M (x, y) ¶
¢

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P (5, 10) : V P (2, 3) ⇒ P (5, 10) : V ∀m ∈ N ∀m ∈ N P (m, n) : F
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ó uœmv{T£yj€wTknxym†{T ¬ (P (x) ⇒ q) Ì º u|{ã{T }xy£€kwTj€‰Ÿ{Dm0o„{{ º uvkn¸ˆj€}{Dm0o„{ãj ¬ (¬P (x) ∨⇒q)q ¶¶
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ù {Dp„kÂÁ º uv{T‰Ÿry¢}j:NjŒ„{žtv{†knmvtvu|wTwTknxym

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P (1)
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k=1

·
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n(2n + 1)
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6
6

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xy = |x| |y| ¶
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= |x| |y| ¶
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= |x| |y| ¶
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= (−x)(−y) =
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º u|{ 21 ¿ 5 = 25 {T¢‰»j¿yryp ¶
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100n + 1 > n ¶
n = 1000 ¶
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º

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š›uvmvwTknxym longitud(L) º uv{†knmvtvkwTjl{T}m0Ôv‰‹{Dp„r.tv{ž{T}n{T‰Ÿ{Tm0o„rytv{žuvmNj.}knsoqj ¶
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T§B® ý © þ ó {Tj L = 3, 4, 2, 8 {Dm0o„rymvwT{D Borrar(L, 2) = 3, 2, 8 ¶
© þ µŒ±~­²® þ Borrar(L, i)
á­Eµ²ªNN´·rypª L = oqar , . . . a Ì i
j=i
n−1
a := a
ç4tv{D„ÙNj€wD{œ}j.jŒ„k£€mNj€wTknxymztv{ a é
a := null
ªv©<±4´ ª L
µm0Ôv‰Ÿþ S{Tp„©›r觖®RmNjŒª o„uvpqó jŒ{T} j m u|mñmBÔ|‰‹{Dp„rƒ{DÌãm0wDoqry{Dmvp„r so„¶ p„uvŽ‚knp.jŒtNuvjƒmvjèu|mN}jƒknso’}nj'k”o’wDj rym8L uv=m8a{T}n,{T.‰Ÿ. .{T,m—aoqrè¿'‰‹Š€uvTm Ì
ps{Tsuv}noqj€tvrt|{»j€¹vj€1tvkpž≤j iL≤{Dm°n {T+} }n1uv£—j€p i• àT„kn‰‹rƒ{D} {T}{D‰‹{Dm0o„r m Ì tv{Ts“v}~j€ Tj€mvtvr{Dm
u|mNj.uvmvkntNj€tƒ}ry¡o„àTps‰‹knmvryj.“NjŒpsoqknp¡tv{†àD} ¶ ir.tv{Tm|r€o’j€ps{T‰Ÿry vzÑ"å—ÀÄîÇ (L, m, i) ¶
T§B® ý © þ ó {Tj L = 3, 4, 2, 8 {Dm0o„rymvwT{Du vzÑ"å—ÀÄîÇ (L, 7, 3) = 3, 4, 7, 2, 8 ¶
© þ µˆ±î­E® þ vzÑ"å—ÀÄîÇ (L, m, i)
á­Eµ²ªN´·ª L = a , . . . a Ì i Ì m
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t|{Tmvr€oqj€p„{D‰‹r€ Concatenar(L, L ) ¶
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ó {j uvmñm0Ôv‰‹{Dp„rz{Tm0o„{Tpsr Žj€tNjzuvmNjz}knso’j
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p„{Tsuv}noqj€tvr.tv{ž„uv”oqkÂoquvknp L “"r€p m ¶ ir.tv{TmvrŒo’j€ps{T‰Ÿry Sustituir(L, i, m) ¶
T§B® ý © þ ó {Tj L = 3, 4, 2, 8 Ì m = 3 Ì i = 4 {Dm0o„rymvwT{D Sustituir(L, 3, 4) =
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: Äsc@Ä Ã Ä†¢hj=cltuÆ]Ä)Î ahtso{Æer,guÄ Ç Æ]Äscyo˜cyx"Æ]ĊÄ]Æeaj 6=a 1m 1 ‚ ¡c a o'à clgsj|g à à j5Î ahtsoqÆer Ç Æ]Äscyo˜cyx"Æ
f"c&Äso˜cyj=oqÆ2fhg a }2fhg 1 Ä]g0f"cltug0w à g†guÄ Ò ;:nT îUÏ < M ‚
©^ ©^ _ Æ]Ägsj=o{gsr,Æ]Ä 5 ž 13 m 19 Ä]Æej¥j=¢Nd2gsr,Æ]Ä Ç r›cyd2Æ]Äuž 125 m 258 Ä]Æej 

+Ï :nT3¦
tuÆed Ç Ã guÄsoqÆ]Ä ‚
ü 'ü 
 
!
#"%$ 
&
'$
(
)%4C%EG$B6D.B+D7Þ I BŠD.B6# A GD.%"G%4V.G$B !XQ A"I F(%4?.B+GD.B+# / *!$! A L% A ?ß,B !$F&%"!B # I %4?eÝXÞ.?ß,%D.B
D.F(QhF&GX%4!$B G / %4G$F§ß,F§Q4%4G°D.BÞ.?? .CB+!$%6? A ß,Þ.! A # a B G@Þ.? I %"?eÝXÞ.?~ß$%Š?.%šQ A*I (% áAšã Þ7B A #
C5B ?.%4G a á 1 G$%4?5D.F§QNF(G$%4!XB+G@D.B a á =?.F§ß,% áAŠã Þ.B•B GXß I %"?~ß,B ?.F&D7%0B+?5B+# I %4?eÝXÞ.?ß,%
%"!#(% ã Þ.B6ß$F&B ?.B6GXB+?~ß$F&D.%E# A G$F&H"Þ.F&B ?~ß$BšD.B .?.F I F&Z4?©ˆ
{−a, −a + 1, ..., a − 1, a} /
ÁÏ ÂÐ3Ñ'ҝÑ'Ó;Ð ^ ©^ ɗ afhÆ]ÄfhÆ]Äj=¢hd2gsruÆ]Ä¥gsj.o{gsr,Æ]Ä Ç Æ]Äscyo˜cyx"Æ]Ä a m b Ä]gRfhgLŸ@j|g1g z
d€Jb4cyd2ÆStuÆed†¢hj„f"cyx]c&Ä]Æer0fhg a m b mEÄ]gEguÄ]tsr›c Å g mcd(a, b) tuÆed2ÆSg z da"m~Æer0fhg z Æ]Ä
f"cyx]c&Ä]ÆeruguĔtuÆed à j|guÄ0fhg a m b ‚
 A C%4G A D.B+G A !$!X%4#&# A !‡Þ.? A #(H4%4!$F ß,C% / A ! ASI+A # I Þ.# A !‡B+#°C I D¥D.B†D.%"G6? .CB+!$%"G+ˆ
@G@Þ7? A #(H4%4!$F ß,C% I # "G$F I % I %4?.% I F(D.% I %4C% A #(H4%4!XF§ß,CE%-D.B@Þ I #&F(D.B G+ˆ YB I B+GXF(ß A !$B+C%4G
/ A ! A B+G¯ß AEI %"?.GXß,!XÞ I+I F&Z"?B+#GXF&H"Þ.F&B ?~ß,Bš#(B+C A ˆ
)’Ï :nÕ ©^ ©^ ‰— afhÆ]ÄRfhÆ]Äj=¢Nd2gsr,Æ]Ągsj=oqgsruÆ]Ä Ç Æ]Äscyo˜cyx"Æ]Ä
m ž
gsj=o{Æej|tuguÄ
a b a > b
fhÆej;fhg r guÄWg z r,guÄso{Æ5fhg”f"cyx]c'f"cyr a gsj=o'rug b ‚
mcd(a, b) = mcd(b, r)
— gsd2Æ]Äso˜rXahtscl}ej  A C5%4G A D.B+C%4G¯ß,! A ! ã Þ.B-B+# I %"?eÝXÞ.?ß,%†D.B-D.F(QhF(G$%4!XB+G I %4CWÞ.?.B G A a
á Å B GF(H4Þ A # ã Þ.‚ BšB # I %4?eÝXÞ.?ß,%WD.B-D.F§QhF&G$%"!$B G I %4CWÞ.?7B+G A Å á2A r›ˆ@OG¯ß,%†F(C / #(F IJAŠã Þ.B
ˆ
mcd(a, b) = mcd(b, r)
O?B LB I ß,% G$F D.F§QNF(D.B A a áA b B ?~ß,%"? I B G•B NF(GXß,B ?? 7C5B !$%4GB ?~ß,B !$%"G s, t ∈ Z
ß A #(B+G ã Þ.B â p
+

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t­ Á­ ñ¬ 

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a = ps

b = pt, 

°

ê
ðç‡ñOòJæ•ó3è’ôhõƒç-öé+æ ‡æUésð°ç ¨ôSóUèç-ö
7D BC%hD.% ã Þ.B# A F(H4Þ A #(D A D ã Þ.BD A B+#’ß$B+%4!XB+C A D.B #‘!$B+G¯ß,% a = qb + r GXB / Þ.B+D.B
B G I !$F&V7F&! I %"C5%
Õ µ 

)

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r = a − qb = ps − qpt = p(s − qt)

#(% ã Þ.BŠD7B+CWÞ.B GXß,! Aã Þ.B p D.F§QNF(D.B EA A r ˆ
B I / !$% I+A C5B ?~ß$B6GXF p D.F§QNF(D.B A b áA r B+?~ß$%4? I B+G
æ

b = pt

I %4?#&% I Þ A #

r = pu,

a = qb + r = qpt + pu = p(qt + u),

#(% ã Þ.BŠD7B+CWÞ.B GXß,! Aã Þ.B p D.F§QNF(D.B A a ˆ@@G¯ß,% =? A #(F A # A D.B+C%4GXß$! A"I F&Z"?D.B+##(B+C A ˆ
3%4!6ß A ?~ß$%G$F@D.F§QNF(D.F&CE%4G B+?ß,!XB B+# / !X%4V.#&B C A D7B I+A # I Þ.# A !šB+#
G$B
!XB+D.Þ I B A # I "# I Þ.#(%2D.B # mcd(b,a r) ã Þ.BWbG$%4? A à.%4! A ? 7C5B !$%4G‡C "G / B ã Þ7mcd(a,
B .%4G / b)%4!‡B #
ß$B+%4!XB+C A D.BŠ# A D7F(QhF&GXF&Z4?©ˆ •Þ.BsQ A CB+?ß,B / %hD7B+C%4GYD7F(QhF&D.F(! b B ?~ß,!XB r á %"V7ß,B ?.B+!YÞ.?
!XB+G¯ß,% r â / %4!Y#&% ã Þ.B0B+# / !X%4V.#&B C A B+G I+A # I Þ.# A !B+# mcd(r, r ) ˆ ë G UGXÞ I B G$F§Q A CB+?ß,B
GXBŠQ A ? IJA # I Þ.# A ?.D7% r â r ˆ(ˆ§ˆ ã Þ.B0GX%4?? .CB+!X%4GYB ?~ß$B+!$%"G / %4GXF(ß$F(Q4%4G ã Þ7BŠQ A ?D7B I !$B
I F&B ?.D.% r > r > r ...sˆ #&B H A ! 6B+?ß,%4? I B+G‹Þ7?C5%"C5B ?~ß$%0B+?B # ã Þ.B r = 0 â B GXß,%
F(C / #&F IJAEã Þ.B r D.F§QNF(D.B A r 'B+#U!$B GXß$%D.B”# A D7F(QhF&GXF&Z4?B+G r = 0 á B ?~ß,%"? I B G
B # mcd(a, b) = mcd(r , r ) = r ˆ
©^ ©^ ·¶ a z t à z a"r”g z d€Jb4cyd2Æ2tuÆed†¢hj¥f"cyx]c&Ä]ÆerŠfhg  +Ê * -m ,.,0/ Ê ‚

+Ï :nT¦
•F(QhF&D.F(C%42G 131 B ?~ß$!$B ê / A ! A %"V7ß,B ?.B+! ä
ʖ

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1 

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2

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1

2

3
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n−2

n−2

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®

zÝ µ 

µ Ô

8872 = 125 × 70 + 122 

% ã Þ7BŠF&?7D.F I+A†ã Þ.B ä
Ã

mcd(8872, 125) = mcd(125, 122).

•F(QhF&D.F(C%4G ê WB+?ß,!$B ê ä
® 

µ Ô

3%"!ß A ?~ß,% ä
<

3

n−1

©

1 

µ/µ

125 = 122 × 1 + 3.
mcd(125, 122) = mcd(122, 3)

n

h õ ~õ¬‡é]³é Né)é{èé{ç- ¨ð° NçŠðYæ)ôöé|çŠðés´
‡BŠ?~Þ.B Q4% ä
+

ê

‚)

Õz×

®

á / 4% !‹ß A ?ß,% ä

122 = 3 × 40 + 2,

ß$! A Q4B ä

mcd(122, 3) = mcd(3, 2).

ë

‘

3 = 2 × 1 + 1,

&# % ã Þ7BŠG$F(H4?.F IJA7ä
Á–

mcd(3, 2) = mcd(2, 1).

@#¿!$B GXß$%†D.B‡D.F(QhF(D.F&! / %"! ê B+G‹GXF&B C / !$B / %"!)#&% ã Þ.B-B # mcd(8872, 125) = 1 ˆ@OGXß$%
G$BGXÞ.B+#(B2F&?.D7F I+A ! I %4C% ã Þ.B 131 á ê G$%"? Ç r›cyd2Æ]Ägsj=o'r,gÄ '%nr,g z a"o˜cyxea"d2gsj=oqg
Ç rscyd2Æ]Ä ›ˆ
ÁÏ ÂÐ3Ñ'ҝÑ'Ó;Ð ^ ©^ ¡cfNÆ]ÄEj=¢Nd2gsr,Æ]Ägsj=o{gsr,Æ]Ä Ç Æ]Äscyo'cyx"Æ]Ä a, b ∈ Z x"gsr›c Ÿ‹t$a"j w à g
Ä]g0f"cltugsj T Ô Ñ': ;< Ï Ð¿M ÔÏ < 4 ™XÆ6ÔeÏ ¦LÕ7MÑy\.Õ.: Ï Ð¿M Ï T Ô Ñ˜: ;< œ"‚
mcd(a, b) = 1
·¶ a z t à z a Ç Æer”g z a z khÆer›cyo'd2Æ5fhg í à t z c'fhguÄWg z mcd(247, 9981) ‚ 

+Ï~Ô ÒÑ˜ÒÑ
ª =M]Õ=ҝÑLÓ;В^ ë #•!$B GXß,%¨D.BRD.F§QhF&D.F(! B+?ß,!$B b #(%nD.B+?.%*ß A !XB+C%4G a mod b I %"C5%
G$B A # A C5%4G‹B+?B+# I+A / (ß$Þ.#&% A ?~ß$B+!$F(%4! ›aˆ
Éí Ä]tsrsc Å gWgsj Ç Ä]g à fhƁtu}+f"c§khÆ5g z a z khÆer›cyo˜d2Æfhg í à t z c'fhguÄ ‚ 

+Ï~Ô ÒÑ˜ÒÑ
)’Ï :nÕ ©^ ©^
™{fh6g 5-8g 7eÆ o ©g$a"j a, b ∈ Z j=¢hd2gsr,Æ]Ägsj=o{gsr,Æ]Ä Ç Æ]Äscyo˜cyx"Æ]ÄužYgXb4c&Äsoqgsj
fhÆ]Ćgsj=oqgsr,Æ]Ä s m t ola z guĔw Ãà g œ

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mcd(a, b) = sa + tb.

— sg d2Æ]Äso˜rXahtscl}ej ‚ OG0Þ.? AI %4?7G$B I Þ.B+? I F A D.B+# A #(H4%4!XF§ß,CE%D7B2OÞ I &# F(D.B+G â !$B I %4!XD.B+C%4G
ã Þ7B â GXÞ / %4?.F(B+?.D7% ã Þ.B a ≥ b â ß$B+? A C%4G‹Þ.? A B / !$B+GXF&Z4?D.B6# A L%"$! C A7ä

a = q0 b + r0
b = q 1 r0 + r 1
r0 = q 2 r1 + r 2

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ê

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Õ/Õ 

)

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rn−3 = qn−1 rn−2 + rn−1
rn−2 = qn rn−1

7D %4?.D.B r = mcd(a, b) ˆ
 A C%4G A D.B+C%4GXß$! A ! ã Þ.B / A ! AIJA D A
C%hD.% ã Þ.B ä
n−1

ŠB NF&G¯ß,B+?pB ?~ß,B !$%4G

¿

Â

ri i ≥ 0

si

á

ti

D.B

ri = si a + ti b.

OGXß,% I %"? I #(Þ á BŠB ##&B C A / %4! ã Þ.B r = mcd(a, b) ˆ
A D.B C5%"GXß,! A"I F(Z4? ã Þ.B0Q A C5%"G A / !$B G$B+?ß A !‡B G â D.B A #(H4Þ.? A C A ?.B+! A â I %4?7GXß,!XÞ I
ß$F(Q A ˆ NF3D.B G / BqÝ A C%4G r B+?R# A / B+? 7#(ß,F(C A F&H"Þ A #(D A D â B / !$B+G A C%4G-B+# mcd(a, b)
I %4C% I %4CWV.F&? A"I F(Z4?„#&F(?.B A #@B ?~ß$B+! A D.B
á
LB+G¯ß,% ã Þ.F(B+!XB2D.B I F(! ã Þ7BB NF&G
ß$B+?„D.%4G6? .CB+!$%"G6B+?ß,B !$%4G A á B D.BErC5%hD7% ã rÞ.B mcd(a, b) = Ar + Br sˆ
hFOQ A C%4G6D.B+G / B{Ý A ?7D.% r B+?P# A G$F(H4Þ.F&B ?~ß$BEF&H4Þ A #&D A D â r B ?n# AA ?ß,B !$F&%"!+ˆ§ˆ(ˆ á
!XB I Þ.!$!XB+?~ß$B+CB+?ß,BQ A C%4GGXÞ.GXß$F(ß,Þ á B+?.D.%¨B ?¤# A GEB / !XB+G$F(%4?.B G A ?~ß,B !$F(%4!$B G â A # =? A #
B / !$B G A C%4G mcd(a, b) I %4C5% I %"C†V7F&? A"I F&Z"?#(F&?.B A #B ?~ß$B+! A D.B a á b ã Þ.B”B GOÝXÞ.GXß A
CB+?ß,B6#(% ã Þ.B ã Þ7B+!$B C5%"G+ˆ
=%4!$C A #(F A CE%4G‹B #! A %4? A CF(B+?~ß$% / %4!F&?.D.Þ I+I F(Z4? I %4C / #(B ß A B ? i ˆ
O# IJA GX% i = 0 B+G I F&B !Xß,% / Þ7B+GXß$% ã Þ.B ä
n−1

Ã

• 

°

n−1

¿

n−3

n−2

Â

n−3

³

n−2

n−3

n−2

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•

ã

ˆ

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r0 = a − q0 b.

3%"!ß A ?~ß,% s = 1 á t = −q .
O# IJA GX% i = 1 B+GYß A CWV7F +? I F&B+!¯ß,% / Þ.B+G¯ß,% ã Þ.B
GXÞ.GXß$F(ß,Þ á B+?.D7%2# A F(H4Þ A #(D A D A ?~ß$B+!$F(%4!)ß,B ?.B+C%4G ä
<

0

0

ç—

0

r 1 = b − q 1 r0

r1 = b − q1 (a − q0 b) = (1 + q1 q0 )b − q1 a.

ˆ ‡B0B+G¯ß,B”C%hD.% â

3%"!ß A ?~ß,% s = −q á t = 1 + q q ˆ
@B A C5%4G A à.%4! AEã Þ.BŠG$FB+#–#(B+C A B+G I F&B+!¯ß,% / A ! AEI Þ A # ã Þ.F(B+!‹Q A #&%"!B GXß$!$F I ß A CB ?~ß,B
CB+?7%4! ã Þ.B i ß A C†V7F ?#(%EB G / A ! A i ˆ
O?B LB I ß$% â ß,B ?.B+C%4G ä
<

1

1

1

1 0

ç—

‘¾

ri = ri−2 − qi ri−1 .

YG A ?7D.%5# A à7F / Z"ß$B+G$F(GD.B6F&?.D.Þ I+I F(Z4? / A ! A
ð

3%"!ß A ?~ß,%

ri−1

á

ri−2

G$B6%4V7ß$F&B ?.B ä

ri = (si−2 a + ti−2 b) − qi (si−1 a + ti−1 b).

<

ai = si−2 − qi si−1 

hõ ~õ¬‡é]³é Né)é{èé{ç- ¨ð° NçŠðYæ)ôöé|çŠðés´
+

ê

‚)

Õ-Ô

á
bi = ti−2 − qi ti−1

à A"I B ? ã Þ.BŠGXB6Q4B+!XF ã Þ.B6B+##(B+C A ˆ
Á–

+Ï :nT3¦ ©^ ©^ í b Ç r,guÄ+a"r2g z mcd(35, 20) tuÆed2ÆtuÆed Å cyj;ahtscl}ej z cyj|g$a z fhg( * m
Ê9‚
A GB / !$+B GXF&%4?7B+GYD.B+# A #(H4%4!$F ß,CE%†D7B0OÞ I #&F(D.B+G ä

© 

ªÑ­ ç­ ÜÐ

Ã

35 = 20 × 1 + 15
20 = 15 × 1 + 5

@?ß,%4? I B G â D.B G / B{Ý A ?.D.%”B # -B+?5# A G$B H4Þ.?.D A F(H4Þ A #(D A D†%4VNß,B+?7B+C%4G 5 = 20 − 15 × 1 ˆ
‡B+G / B{Ý A ?.D7%B # ê B+?R# A / !XF&CB+! A F&H4Þ A #&D A D
ˆ NÞ.G¯ß,F§ß,Þ á B ?.D.%SB #
− 20 × 1
G$B+H"Þ.?.D.%Q A #&%"!B+?# A / !XF&CB+! A F(H4Þ A #(D A D 5 = 1520 =− 35
B+GD.B I F&! ä
(35 − 20 × 1 â

®

Ô


Â

5 = 2 × 20 + (−1) × 35.

Ô ;¦'Õ Ô Ñ ©^ ^ ©g$a"j
fhÆ]ÄWj=¢Nd2gsr,Æ]ÄWj|ÆSj|glka"o˜cyx"Æ]Ä ¡c
ug Ä Ã j£gsj=oqgsruÆ Ç Æ]Äscyo'cyx"Æw à g2a,f"bcyx]∈c'fhg2Z a z|Ç ruÆ+f à tsoqÆ ab m mcd(a, p) ‚ = 1 1gsj=<o{Æepj|<tuguÄ abp
f"cyx]c'fhg0a b ‚
— gsd2Æ]Äso˜rXahtscl}ej )%"C5%
D.B #‡#&B C A D.B )B %4Þ7ß â G$BRD.B+D7Þ I B ã Þ.B
B NF&G¯ß,B+?B+?~ß$B+!X%4G‚ s, t ∈ Z mcd(a,
D.B6C%hD.p)% ã =Þ.B ä1 â
:¨ª

ª

«ªÑ­ Á­ Ü­

à

à

´

¡Þ 



1 = sa + tp. 

Þ.#(ß$F / #(F I+A ?.D7% / %4! b G$BŠ%"V7ß,F(B+?.B ã Þ.B ä
è

)%4C% p D.F(QhF(D.B A
´

b = sab + tpb.

GXB6ß,F(B+?7B ã Þ.BŠB 7F(GXß$B

ab

c∈Z

ß A # ã Þ.B

ab = pc

b = spc + tpb = p(sc + tb).

â D.B6B+G¯ß,BŠC%hD.% ä

« / 4% !‹ß A ?ß,% p D.F§QNF(D.B A b ˆ
:
Ô ;¦'Õ Ô Ñ ©^ ^ ©g$a"j p ž p ž ‚y‚y‚ ž p j=¢hd2gsr,Æ]Ä Ç r›cyd2Æ]Ä ‚ ¡c p f"cyx]c'fhg)a z+Ç ,r Æ+f à tsoqÆ
gsj=oqÆej|tuguÄWgXb4c&Äsoqg i ž@oÈa z w à g 1 ≤ i ≤ n m p = p ‚
p ...p
¨ª

ª

«ªÑ­ Á­ Üz¬

à

à

1

1

n

n

i

ê 

ð ç‡ñOòJæ•ó3è’ôhõƒç-öé+æ ‡æUésð°ç ¨ôSóUèç-ö
— gsdÆ]Äso'rXahtscl}ej ‚@ A %4? A C%4G / %4!‹F&?.D7Þ I+I F&Z4?SB+? n â ã Þ.B6B+GB+#©? .CB+!X%ED.B A"I ß,%4!XB+G
/ !$F&C%4G ˆ
NF n = 1 B # I %"!$%4# A !$F(%WB+Gß,!$F§QhF A # â / %4!D.B =?.F I F&Z4?D7BŠ? .CB+!$% / !$F(C%.ˆ
NF p D.F§QNF(D.B A p ...p p B+?ß,%4? I B G â #&# A C A ?.D.% a A # / !$%hD7Þ I ß$% p ...p â ß,B+?7B+C%4G
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0 ≡ 5 ≡ 10 ≡ 15 ≡ 20...
1 ≡ 6 ≡ 11 ≡ 16 ≡ 21...
2 ≡ 7 ≡ 12 ≡ 17 ≡ 22...
3 ≡ 8 ≡ 13 ≡ 18 ≡ 23...
4 ≡ 9 ≡ 14 ≡ 19 ≡ 24...





4 ≡ −1 ≡ −6 ≡ −11 ≡ −16... mod 5
3 ≡ −2 ≡ −7 ≡ −12 ≡ −17... mod 5
2 ≡ −3 ≡ −8 ≡ −13 ≡ −18... mod 5
1 ≡ −4 ≡ −9 ≡ −14 ≡ −19... mod 5
0 ≡ −5 ≡ −10 ≡ −15 ≡ −20... mod 5

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A ?.F&#(#(%6D.BY#&%4G@? 7C5B !$%4G’B+?ß,B+!X%4G / %hD.B+C%4G’!$B GXß A ! 'B NF&GXß$B•B+#¡F&?Q4B+!XG$% / A ! A # A G$Þ.C A
á G$BŠ!XB+G / B ß A ?# A G!$B # A*I F&%"?.B+GD7B I %4?.H4!XÞ.B+? I F A ˆ
ë à.%"! A #(% ã Þ.B ã Þ7B+!$! A C%4GYB G / A G A !•B # 5D7F(QhF&D7F&B+?7D.% #&% ã Þ.B0B+?#&%4GY? .CB+!$%"G
B ?~ß$B+!$%"G0?.% / %hD.B C5%"GŠà A"I B+! / %4! ã Þ.B5B #@F&?Q4B+!XG$%D.B B G0â # A L! A"I I F(Z4? _ê ^ ã Þ.B5?7%
B GŠÞ.?„? .CB+!X%B+?ß,B !$%.ˆ ASI Þ.B GXß,F(Z4?„? A ß$Þ.! A #°B+GŠG A V;B+!6G$F A #ß,! A V A Ý A !šCZhD.Þ.#&%
L%CZhD.Þ.#&%%"ß$!$%4GŠ? .CB+!X%4G0B+?ß,B+!X%4G ŠB # ß,F&B ?.B5%?7%RF(?~Q4B !$G$% / A ! A B # / !X%hD.Þ I ß,%
CZhD.Þ.#(% p ˆ A ! A G A V;B ! I Þ *?.D.%¥% I Þ.!$!$BB+GXß$%¥?.B I B+GXF(ß A C5%"G†B #‹#(B+C A D.B ‘B %4Þ7ß â
D7B+C%4GXß$! A D.% A ?ß,B+!XF&%4!XC5B ?~ß$B"ˆ
Õ ©^ ©^ ©g$a"j a, p ∈ Z j=¢hd2gsr,Ɓċgsj=oqgsr,Æ]Ä Ç Æ]Äscyo'cyx"Æ]Ä@j|Æj à z Æ]Ä ‚ ¡c mcd(a, p) =
Ü Ï gsj=ÔeoqÏ Æe:n
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guÄgXb4c&Äsoqgg z cyj=x"gsr,Ä]Æfhg a Ç a"rXaPg z©Ç ruÆ+f à tso{Æ]ž0guÄfhgutscyr à j gsj=o{gsr,Æ b ola z
1
w à g a × b ≡ 1 mod p ‚
— gsdÆ]Äso'rXahtscl}ej )%4C%
B+#7#(B+C A D.B )B %4Þ7ßOH A ! A ?~ß$F A # A B NF&G¯ß,B ? I F A
D7BŠD.%"G? .CB+!X%4‚ GB ?~ß,B !$%4mcd(a,
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1 = sa + tp

á / "% !ß A ?~ß$% A #©ß$! A V A Ý A !CZhD.Þ.#&% / ß,B+?7B+C%4G ä

1 ≡ sa mod p,

3%"!ß A ?~ß,% s B+GB+#F(?~Q4B !$G$%D.B a / A ! A B # / !$%hD.Þ I ß,%CZhD.Þ.#(% p ˆ
[†ì< Ï~Ô \7Õ=ҝÑ'Ó;Ð ^ ©^ ©g$a"j a m p gsj=o{gsr,Æ]Äuž”tuÆej p > 1 ‚ ¡cšgXb4c&Äsoqg b gsj=oqgsr,ÆoÈa z
w à g ba ≡ 1 mod p gsj=oqÆej|tuguÄ b guÄ6¢hj=cltuÆd2}+f à z Æ p ‚
ÁSÏ : ;< M Ô Õ=ҝÑLÓ;В^ hÞ / %4?.H A C5%"G ab ≡ 1 mod p ˆYO?ß,%4? I B+G ab − ab ≡ 0 mod p â
B GXß$%6B G â p D.F§QNF(D.B A a(b−b ) ˆ NF mcd(a, p) = 1 / %hD.B C5%"G°Þ.G A !°B # )%4!X%4# A !$F(% 7ˆ 7ˆ ê
á2A G p D.F(QhF(D.B A b − b #&% ã Þ.B I %4? I #&Þ á Bš# A D.B C5%4G¯ß,! A*I F(Z4?©ˆ NF r = mcd(a, p) 6= 1 â
B ?~ß$%4? I B G•B 7F(GXß$B+?B ?~ß,B !$%4G s á t ß A #&B G ã Þ7B a = rs á p = rt 1 < t < p›ˆ ‡B6B+GXß$B
C%hD.% ≡ 0 mod p ˆ )%4C% ab ≡ 1 mod p B+?ß,%4? I B+G t B+GYÞ7?C .#(ß$F / #(%WD.B p #(%
ã Þ.B6B+GYâ abt
Þ.? AEI %4?ß,! A D.F I I F(Z4? â áAEã Þ.B 1 < t < p ˆ
[†ì< Ï~Ô \7Õ=ҝÑ'Ó;Ð ^ ©^ ±í j z aeÄ-d†c&ÄsdaeÄ0tuÆej;f"cltsclÆej|guÄ-fhg z o{guÆer,gsdaež3Äsc mcd(a, p) =
j|ÆSgXb4c&Äsoqg b ∈ Z ola z w à g ab ≡ 1 mod p ‚
r 6= 1
ÁSÏ : ;< M Ô Õ=ҝÑLÓ;В^ )%4C% mcd(a, p) = r 6= 1 â B ?~ß,%"? I B G‡B NF&G¯ß,B+?B+?ß,B !$%4G s, t ∈ Z
ß A #&B G ã Þ.B a = rs á p = tr I %4? 1 < t < p ˆ ‡BB GXß,BC%hD.% at ≡ 0 mod p ˆ
hÞ / %4?.H A C5%4G ã Þ.BŠB NF&GXß$B b ∈ Z ß A # ã Þ7B ab ≡ 1 mod p ˆ@O?~ß$%4? I B G ä
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bat ≡ t mod p

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#&% ã Þ7BŠB+GÞ.? AEI %"?~ß,! A D.F I+I F&Z4? / Þ.B+G 1 < t < p ˆ
‡B6B+GXß A C A ?.B ! A B+#©ß$B+%4!XB+C AEA ?~ß$B+!XF&%4! á # A G‹%4V.G$B !XQ A*I F(%4?.B+GYGXÞ.V.G$F(H4Þ.F(B+?ß,B+G IJA
A! "I ß,B+!XF A ? I Þ A ?7D.%B NF&G¯ß,BB+#@F(?~Q4B !$G$% / A ! A B+# / !$%hD.Þ I ß,%CZhD.Þ.#&% p á„A D.B+C "G6B+#
ß,B+%"!$B+C A F&?7D.F I+A†I %4C% IJA # I Þ.# A !$#(%7ˆ A]áSã Þ.BŠÞ7G A !B # A #&H4%"!$F§ß$C%WD.BŠOÞ I #(F&D.B G / A ! A
#&#&B H A ! A # A F&D.B ?~ß,F(D A DSD.B+##(B+C A D7B ‘B +%"Þ7ßJˆ
©^ ©^ ©g$a"j z Æ]Ä0j=¢hd2gsr,Æ]Ä * m  a"d2Æ]Ĕat$a z t z a"r†g z cyj.x"gsruÄ]Æ2fhg 

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d2}+f à z Æ 11 ‚ ¶ Æed2ÆSÄ]Æej Ç r›cyd2Æ]ÄSgsj=o˜r,gEÄ -gsj=‚ao{Æe` j|tuguÄSgXb4c&Äsoqg aà ∈ Z ola z w à g 5a ≡5
¶ a z t à z a"d2Æ]ĕg z xea z Æerfhg a ‚ í‘z a z khÆer›cyo'd2Ɗfhg í à t z c'fhguÄYfa z aŠc'fhgsj=o˜c'faf
1 mod 11 ‚
fhbg 5-8g 7Æ à ol×
1 = 11 + 5 × (−2).
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1 ≡ 5 × (−2) mod 11.

iYÆer z Ƭw à g a = 9 guĨg z cyj=x"gsr,Ä]ƃfhg * d2}Jf à z Æ  ‚ ™ U Å Äcsr›x"guÄ]g¥w à g −2 ≡
9 mod 11 ‚ œ
@G¯ß,% / B+!XC5F§ß,Bš!XB+GX%4#(Q4B !# AWI %4?.H"!$Þ.B ? I F AEã Þ.B / %4? A C%4G‹B ?Þ.?B{ÝXB C / #&% A ?~ß$B+!$F(%4! ä

3x + 3 ≡ 4 mod 5.

NB A # A C%4G ã Þ.BŠD.F I à AEI %4?.H4!XÞ.B+? I F A B+! A B ã Þ.F(Q A #&B ?~ß$B â / A G A ?.D.%B # E!XB+GXß A ?.D.% â A
³ ”

3x ≡ 1 mod 5.

3%4!‡B+#Uß,B %4!$B C A2A ?ß,B+!XF&%4! â I %4C% á 5G$%4? / !$F(C5%4GYB+?ß,!XBWG 3B NF(GXß,BWB #3F&?~Q"B+!$GX%SD.B
SCZhD.Þ.#&% hˆ ë #ß$! A V A Ý A !‡C5ZhD7Þ.#&% 2ß$%hD.%? .CB+!$%SB+G I %4?.H4!XÞ.B+?ß,B I %4?¥Þ.?.%D.B+#
I %4?eÝXÞ7?~ß,% {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} ˆ 3%hD.B+C%4GB ?~ß$%4? I B+G•V7Þ.G I+A !YB #F&?~Q4B !$GX% / !$%4V A ?.D.% ä
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3 × 0 ≡ 0 mod 5
3 × 1 ≡ 3 mod 5
3 × 2 ≡ 1 mod 5
3 × 3 ≡ 4 mod 5
3 × 4 ≡ 2 mod 5

@GD.B I F&!B+#F(?~Q4B !$G$%D.B # EB GYB+# ⠝á AEã Þ.B

µ

3 × 2 ≡ 1 mod 5

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3x × 2 ≡ 1 × 2 mod 5,

B GYD.B I F(! â

x ≡ 2 mod 5.

3%"!Oß A ?~ß$%šß,%hD.%4GO#&%"GO? 7C5B !$%4GOB+?ß,B !$%4G x ã Þ.BG$%"?G$%4#(Þ I F(Z4?†D.B# A-I %"?.H4!$Þ7B+? I F A G$%4?
D7BŠ# A L%4!XC A
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x = 5K + 2

K ∈ Z.

.V G$B !XQ A ! ã Þ.B”à.B+C%4G / !$% / Þ.B+G¯ß,%D.%4G‡C A ?.B ! A G•D7B IJA # I Þ.# A !YB #3F(?~Q4B !$G$%2D.B”Þ.?
? .CB+!$% a C5ZhD.Þ7#&% p ˆ 3%4!°Þ7?E# A D.%‡Þ.G A !°# A F&D.B ?~ß$F&D A D”D.B )B %4Þ7ß â / %4!%"ß,!X%-# A D.%‡F&!
/ !$%4V A ?.D.% I %4?2#&%4G@D.F&G¯ß,F&?ß,%4G / !X%hD.Þ I ß$%4G a · 1 â a · 2 ⠈§ˆ(ˆ â a · (p − 1) à A G¯ß A B ? I %4?ß,! A !
B # / !$%hD7Þ I ß$% ã Þ.BšQ A #(H A ê ˆ
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3 · 1 ≡ 3 mod 6
3 · 4 ≡ 0 mod 6

3 · 2 ≡ 0 mod 6 3 · 3 ≡ 3 mod 6
3 · 5 ≡ 3 mod 6 3 · 0 ≡ 0 mod 6

sg j=oqÆej|tuguÄ -j|Æo˜clgsj|g@cyj=x"gsruÄ]Æd2}Jf à z Æ E ‚ U Å cÄ sr›x"guÄ]g’w à g’j|ÆÄ]g’o'clgsj|gsj z aeÄOºhc Ç }eoqguÄsc&Ä
fhg z oqguÆerugsdaež@m"aSw à g mcd(3, 6) = 3 ‚
±— gsd2Æ]Äso˜rXa"rŠw à g z at›Æejhk"r à gsj|st c'a z cyj|g$a z

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3x + 4 ≡ 5 mod 6

j|ÆEo'clgsj|gšÄ]Æ z à tscl}ej ‚
Cd a zyz a"r6oqÆ+faeÄ z aeÄ-Ä]Æ z tsclÆej|guÄWgsj=oqgsrXaeĔfhg z atuÆ*j~k"r gsj|tsc'a

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5x + 2 ≡ 5 mod 7.

NFYG$B / Þ.B D.B+? / # A ?~ß,B A !B I Þ A*I F&%"?.B+G2#(F&?.B A #(B+G â B+G5? A ß$Þ.! A # A à.%"! A / # A ?~ß$B A !B #
/ !$%4V.#(B+C A D.BŠ!XB+G$%"#(Q4B ! <Jј<sM Ï :nÕ=<Ö Ï Ò ;ÐUK ÔeîUÏ ÐUҝÑ'Õ=<¦'Ñ˜Ð Ï Õ=¦ Ï < â B+GYD.B I F&! â B / !$B
GXF&%4?7B+GD.B #ß$F / %
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x ≡ a1 mod p1

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x ≡ a2 mod p2
...

x ≡ an mod pn

O# Ï ÔeÏ :nÕÒfeUјРÖ Ï ¦ ;< ÔeÏ < M ¿< B G@B+#=F(?.GXß$!$Þ.CB+?ß,% A D.B I Þ A D.% / A ! A G A V;B !
G$FÞ.?G$Ü F(GXß,B C A D7BŠB GXß$B6ß,F / %†ß,F(B+?.BšG$%4#(Þ I F&Z4? á / B+!XC5F§ß,B I+A # I Þ.# A !$# A ˆ
Ï ÔÏ :PÕ ©^ ©^ ©g$a"j
j=¢hd2gsruÆ]ăgsj=oqgsr,Æ]Ĩm p , p , ..., p gsj=oqgsr,Æ]Ä
ÇÜ Æ]Äscyo˜cyx"Æ]Ěx"gsrsc Ÿ‹t$a"j;fhÆ"× a , a , ..., a
c œ p > 1 Ç a"rXat$afa i = 1, ‚y‚y‚ ž n Ú
Ç a"rXat$afa i, j = 1 ž ‚y‚y‚ ž n tuÆej i 6= j ‚
cyc
í j=oqÆeœj|tumcd(p
guÄWg z ěc&,Äspo{gs)d=a 1
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x ≡ a1 mod p1

x ≡ a2 mod p2
...

x ≡ an mod pn

o˜clgsj|g-Ä]Æ z à tscl}ej¢Nj=clt$a5d2}+f à z Æ2g z7Ç r,Æ+f à tsoqÆ P = p p ...p ‚
— gsd2Æ]Äso˜rXahtscl}ej ‚ hB A ? P = p ...p á P = P/p I %"? i Þ.?nB ?~ß$B+!$%B+?ß,!$B ê á n ˆ
3%4!)à.F / Z"ß$B+GXF&G)#(%4G p G$%"? / !$F(C5%"G‘B+?ß,!$B-G I %"?S#&% I Þ A # mcd(P , p ) = 1 â i = 1 ⠈(ˆ§ˆ â
ˆ )%"C5%Eà.B C5%"GQhF&GXß$% A ?~ß$B+G gYUB+%4!XB+C A 7ˆ Nˆ / A ! AEI+A D A c¿B NF&G¯ß,F&! q ß A # ã Þ7B
n
1 2

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qi Pi ≡ 1 mod pi .

NB A B+?ß,%"? I B G
³

x0 = a1 P1 q1 + a2 P2 q2 + ... + an Pn qn

D.B6C5%hD.% ã Þ.B A #|ß,%4C A ! I %4?.H4!XÞ.B+? I F A C5ZhD.Þ7#&% p G$B6%4V7ß,F(B+?.B ä
G$F j 6= i B+?ß,%4? I B+G P B GYD.F§QhF&GXF&V.#(B / %4! p â / %4!‹ß A ?ß,% P ≡ 0 mod p
G$F j = i B+?ß,%4? I B+G P q ≡ 1 mod p â
/ %4!°ß A ?~ß,% x ≡ a mod p i = 1 ⠈§ˆ§ˆ â n I %4C5% ã Þ.B ! A C5%"G°D.B+C%4GXß$! A ! ˆ ë G .ß$%hD.%4G
#&%4G? .CB+!$%"GD.B6# A L%4!$C A
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x = x0 + KP

ê 31
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G$%"?GX%4#&Þ I F&Z"?D.B #–GXF&G¯ß,B+C A ˆ
K∈Z
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A D.B+C "G ã Þ.B‹ß$%hD A G$%"#&Þ I F&Z4?”D.B #7G$F(GXß,B C A B+G°D.B‹# A L%4!$C A x = x +KP I %"? K ∈ Z ˆ
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3Y %"C5B C5%"G á D7%4G’G$%4#(Þ I F(%4?.B+G@D.B #;GXF&GXß$B+C A â B ?~ß,%"? I B G
GXF&G¯ß,B+C A D.B I %"?.αH4!$Þ7βB+? I F A G

α−β

B+G‘GX%4#&Þ I F&Z"?D.B+#

x ≡ 0 mod p1

x ≡ 0 mod p2
...

x ≡ 0 mod pn

B G‡D.B I F&! â α ≡ β mod P â áA2ã Þ.B α − β B+G‡C .#§ß,F / #(%ED.B
D7B+CWÞ.B+G¯ß,! A # A Þ.?7F I F&D A DSD.B6# A GX%4#(Þ I F(Z4?CZhD.Þ.#(% P ˆ
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/ A ! A5IJA D A i#(% ã Þ.B
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x ≡ 2 mod 3
x ≡ 3 mod 5
x ≡ 2 mod 7

)%4C% â á ”GX%4? / !XF&C%4G‘B+?ß,!XBšG â B+#;ß,B %4!$B C A”I à.F(?.%WD.B-#&%"G)!$B GXß,%"G / B !$CF(ß,B
I+A # I Þ.# A !‹# A .?.F IJA G$%4#(Þ I F(Z4?CZhD.Þ.#(% 3 × 5 × 7 = 105 ˆ
NF&H"Þ.F&B ?.D.%†# A ?.%"ß A*I F&Z"?D.B #ß$B+%4!XB+C A
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P1 = 105/3 = 35
P2 = 105/5 = 21
P3 = 105/7 = 15

ë à.%"! A B G†B+#)F(?~Q4B !$G$%1D7B CZhD.Þ.#(% 7ˆ )%4C% 35 ≡ 2 mod 3 B ?~ß$%4? I B+G
B ?~ß$%4? I B G q q = 2 â áAEã Þ7B 2 × 2 ≡ 1 mod 3 ˆ
‡B0# A CF&GXC A C A ?7B+! A q B G•B+#UF(?~Q4B !$GX%2D.B hê CZND7Þ.#&% â B G‡D7B I F(! â B+#–F&?Q4B+!XG$%
D7B ê C5ZhD7Þ.#&% â / %"!ß A ?~ß,% q = 1 ˆ 
F&? A #&CEB+?ß,B q = 1 ˆ
3%4!ß A ?~ß$%
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x = 2 × 35 × 2 + 3 × 21 × 1 + 2 × 15 × 1 = 233

h õXWõ Né –æ ç  YðšóUçŠðésô ¨´Só3è’ô @Eæ @öšô
ê
B+G°# A .?.F IJA G$%4#(Þ I F(Z4?”CZhD.Þ.#&% ê â D7B‹C%hD.% ã Þ.B)ß,%hD A G# A G3GX%4#&Þ I F&%4?7B+GD7B+#NG$F&G¯ß,B C A
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x = 23 + 105K

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5888851358 ≡ 58 mod 100
5888851358 ≡ 72 mod 99
5888851358 ≡ 78 mod 97.

259632147 ≡ 47 mod 100
259632147 ≡ 93 mod 99
259632147 ≡ 7 mod 97.

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x ≡ 47 + 58 mod 100
x ≡ 72 + 93 mod 99
x ≡ 78 + 7 mod 97

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x ≡ 30 mod 100.

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x ≡ 30 mod 100
x ≡ 25 mod 99
x ≡ 13 mod 97

¶ Æed2Æ  9.9 ž i.i m i /6Ä]Æej Ç r›cyd2Æ]Ĕgsj=o'r,g-Ä &ž)g z Äsc&Äsoqgsdao'clgsj|g-Ä]Æ z à tscl}ej ‚ ¶ Æed2Æ
gsj=oqÆej|tuguÄ z a¢hj=clt$aÄ]Æ z à tscl}ej Ç Æ]Äscyo'cyxeamd2gsj|ÆerEw à gguÄ]g
100 · 99 · 97 = 960.300
j=¢hd2gsr,ÆguĆg z j=¢Nd2gsr,Æ5fhg Ç a"r›o'cltsc Ç a"j=o{guĔgsj z a5da"j=c ÎJguÄsoÈahtscl}ej ‚ 
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mcd(10223, 33341) = mcd(33341, 10223)
33341 mod 10223 = 2672

â

mcd(33341, 10223) = mcd(10223, 2672)
10223 mod 2672 = 2207

â

mcd(10223, 2672) = mcd(2672, 2207)
2672 mod 2207 = 465

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mcd(2672, 2207) = mcd(2207, 465)
2207 mod 465 = 347

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mcd(2207, 465) = mcd(465, 347)

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465 mod 347 = 118

mcd(465, 347) = mcd(347, 118)
347 mod 118 = 111

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mcd(347, 118) = mcd(118, 111)
118 mod 111 = 7,
mcd(118, 111) = mcd(111, 7)

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mcd(385, 1729) = mcd(1729, 385)
1729 mod 385 = 189

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385 mod 189 = 7

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mcd(385, 189) = mcd(189, 7)

189 mod 7 = 0

â
mcd(189, 7) = mcd(7, 0)

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9 × 8 mod 5 = (−1) × (−2) mod 5 = 2 mod 5
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(−1) mod 5
(245 + 1321) mod 5 = (0 + 1) mod 5 = 1 mod 5
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(4 + 5) mod 2 = (0 + 1) mod 2 = 1 mod 2
(1044 + 8) mod 2 = (0 + 0) mod 2 = 0 mod 2
(9 × 8) mod 2 = (1 × 0) mod 2 = 0 mod 2
841234 mod 2 = 01234 mod 2 = 0 mod 2
(245 + 1321) mod 2 = (1 + 1) mod 2 = 0 mod 2
Â
(3 + 75) mod 7 = (3 + (−2)) mod 7 = 1 mod 7
(234 + 458) mod 7 = (3 + 3) mod 7 = 6 mod 7
(9 × 8) mod 7 = (2 × 1) mod 1 = 2 mod 1
841234 mod 7 = 01233 mod 7 = 0 mod 7
(245 + 1321) mod 7 = (0 + 5) mod 7 = 5 mod 7.

84 mod 5 =

F&F

F&F(F

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x = (5 × 6 × 13 + 7 × 6 × 11) mod 143 = 852 mod 143 = 137 mod 143

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> Ô ¡TÑ Ï ÖUÕ.Ö U^ |A ∪ B| = |A| + |B| − |A ∩ B|.
> Ô ¡TÑ Ï ÖUÕ.Ö ^ |A × B| = |A| × |B|.
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Ç r›cyd2œ gsr,Æ]ž BA g z tuÆejJ² à à j=o{ƨfhgRa z à à d†j|Æ]Äda"o˜r›clt à à z afhƁÄ1gsj`a z k à à j;a aeÄsc§k"j;a"o Ãà rXapfhg
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m¨a z k à j;apfhgSÄ]glk à j;fhÆ ‚ í j=oqÆej|tuguÄ1g z j=¢hd2gsruƄoqÆeoÈa z fhga z à d†j|Æ]Äfhg Ç r›cyd2gsruÆ¥m
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yc cyc œ ¡cUa z aŠÄ]glk à j;fa z gso'rXa z g Ç g$f"cyd2Æ]ÄYw à gÄ]g$a”x"Æ]t$a z žOgsj=oqÆej|tuguÄužOg z t›ÆejJ² à j=oqÆ R
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Õ ¶ 

E(X) = 0(1/40) + 1(2/40) + 2(3/40) + 3(3/40) + 4(3/40) + 5(2/40)+
+6(10/40) + 7(10/40) + 8(3/40) + 9(2/40) + 10(1/40) = 5.52.
V (X) = (0 − 5.52)2 (1/40) + (1 − 5.52)2 (2/40) + (2 − 5.52)2 (3/40)+
+(3 − 5.52)2 (3/40) + (4 − 5.52)2 (3/40) + (5 − 5.52)2 (2/40)+
+(6 − 5.52)2 (10/40) + (7 − 5.52)2 (10/40) + (8 − 5.52)2 (3/40)+
+(9 − 5.52)2 (2/40) + (10 − 5.52)2 (1/40) = 5.54.
σ(X) = 2.35.

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L(v)
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L(h) = 5.

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T = {a, b}.

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L(a) + 1 = 3 < L(i) = ∞.

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L(c) = 5

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T = {a, b, i}.

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L(i) + 2 = 5 < L(f ) = ∞.

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š

L(d) = 6

L(f ) = 5. 

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T = {a, b, i, f }.

L(f ) + 1 = 6 < L(e) = ∞

L(f ) + 3 = 8 < L(g) = ∞.

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