Title No.


Stress-Strain Relations for Concrete Under Cyclic Loading

An experimental investigation into the behavior of plain concrete under cyclic loading is described. Stress-strain curves obtained for concrete cylinders under such loading are presented, and analytical stress-strain relations for cyclic loading are derived. Assuming the property of uniqueness of stress-strain relations, it is shown how the cyclic stress-strain curves can be used to predict the behavior of a concrete fiber subjected to an arbitrary load history (neglecting creep). Key words: compressive strength; cyclic loading; cylinder; deformation; envelope curve; load history; plain concrete; reloading curve; stress-strain curve; ultimate strength; unloading curve.
A.. ,

• EXISTING THEORIES OF ultimate strength of reinforced concrete structures are restricted to the case of monotonically increasing loads;' they do not answer the question of behavior of concrete structures under cyclic or repeated loading. Before ultimate load theory can be applied to structures under variable loading, such as might arise in cases of large live to dead load ratio, the effects of such loading must be investigated.

The effects of variable loads on structures can be divided into fatigue effects, due to a large number of cycles of loading of relatively low stress levels; and incremental deformations which occur under a relatively small number of load cycles of rather high stress, each of which causes additional deformation of the structure. The investigation which is reported in this paper aims at a rational approach to the problem of incremental deformations of reinforced concrete structures subjected to arbitrary cycles of loading and unloading. In 'this way it is hoped to further understand the response of concrete structures to variable load histories and thus to contribute to a sound basis for judging the applicability of the ultimate strength theory for structures under high live loadings. To arrive at a rational basis for prediction of the response of structures to variable loading, it is necessary to obtain information about the mechanical behavior of the materials under variable loading. While the basic assumptions about such behavior for steel have been established for a long time, a search of the available literature indicates a

. . As discussed in the introduction. in particular the concept of uniqueness of the stress-strain relations which enables a set of curves to be used to predict the response of plain concrete to any arbitrary axial load history. Gerstle was a visiting professor at the SEATO Graduate School of Engineering. State Department scholar. The second part of the investigation then combines the stress-strain relations established in the earlier part with technical beam theory to predict rationally the response of reinforced concrete beams under arbitrary variation of moment. He is the author of several publications in the field of elastic and inelastic structural analysis which have appeared in the ACI.. University of Colorado. Boulder. S. ASCE. ACI member Leonard G. From 1959 through 1962 he was a U. University of Colorado. Muzzafarpur Institute of Technology. an experimental program for obtaining stress-strain curves under cyclic loading is described. P. Dr. The analytically derived results are then compared to a series of test results to confirm the validity of the method. the curves obtained from three different strengths of concrete are expressed in mathematical form so that they may be used in analytical predictions of the response of reinforced concrete members to cyclic loading. lulin is professor of civil engineering. Gerstle is professor (If civil engineering. Muzzafarpur. and with the theoretical requirements which enable this information to be used to predict the deformations of members under arbitrary axial load history. To help provide the necessary information about the response of plain concrete to cyclic axial compressive loading. Lastly.LATIONS UNDER CYCLIC LOADING . . Sinha obtained MS and PhD degrees from the University of Colorado.s-" no information is available about the response of concrete to compressive loading consisting of cycles of loading and unloading.. Active in research Professor Tulin is the author of numerous oublications in the fields of ex!. In the sections that follow some new concepts are defined and discussed. complete lack of information about stress-strain curves of plain concrete under cyclic loading.erimental stress analysis and prestressed concrete. . During 1963-1964 Dr. Thailand. STRESS-STRAIN RE. such information is necessary for a rational approach to the determination of reinforced concrete members under cyclic loading. Sinha is associate professor of civil engineering.196 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE February 1964 B. ACI member Kurt H. Then. India. Whereas considerable effort has been expended in the past toward determining the stress-strain curve for plain concrete under monotonically increasing compressive strain. the first part of this investigation concerns itself with the establishment of compressive stress-strain curves for variable loading. and SESA Journals. and results of tests are presented. Bangkok. Boulder.

such unloading curves form a family of straight lines parallel to the initial elastic loading curve. A curve will be traced which will be called a "reloading curve." Unloading curves If the strain is decreased from a value above the elastic limit of the material. another curve will be traced in the stress-strain plane which will be called an "unloading curve. Reloading curves After unloading as referred to in the previous paragraph. all three curves may be considered as overlapping. Here Curve 0 is an unloading curve and Curves 1 and 2 are two reloading curves obtained by reloading from two different stages of the same unloading curve. If it is found that this set can be represented by a mathematical family of curves." In mild steel. a "set of unloading curves" can be obtained. consider that the strain is increased again from a certain stage of unloading. such as concrete. 2 may be obtained. this is usually represented as a straight line which overlaps the preceding unloading curve. I-Genera Iized stress-strain for mild steel curves -J .STRESS·STRAI N RELA nONS 197 DEFINITIONS Usual stress-strain curve A plot of the relationship between stress and strain obtained by increasing the strain monotonically will be called here a "usual stressstrain curve. In the case of mild steel. for example. as shown in Fig. they will be referred to as a "family of unloading curves. 1." By varying the value of strain from which unloading occurs. it will be called a Fig. For other materials. It is well known that this straight line representation is an approximation which neglects hysteresis effects in the steel. shown in Fig. Reloading curves commencing from different values of strain constitute a set of curves called a "set of reloading curves. this hysteresis effect may be pronounced and unloading and reloading curves of the type shown in Fig." If this set can be represented by a mathematical family of curves. 1." In the case of mild steel.

" History of loading Referring to Fig. 2-Reloading curves Fig. Even in the case of mild steel aging effects tend to cause an increase of yield stress on reloading. 4. In general this may not be true. then the stress-strain fined earlier. Uniqueneu If the o·f stress-strain envelope. on further straining it will follow this latter curve. 3.198 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE February 1964 Fig." For the purpose of this discussion. it can be observed that Point P in the stress-strain plane can be approached by traversing the two different paths OABCP or OFQRSP. Envelope curve In the case of mild steel shown in Fig. the rate at which stress and strain are applied will not affect the material behavior. Each of these paths will be called a "history of loading. behavior. or fatigue. 1. The locus of broken curves joining the end of the reloading curves to the start of an unloading curve will be called an "envelope curve. As desuch as creep rate effects . The possibility of fatigue of the material will also be excluded from consideration in this paper. relationship is unique. such load histories will be assumed time independent. and the reloading curve passing of the plane remain strain independent through any point in the stress-strain load history disregards previous load history. the relation unloading. Here the usual stress-strain curve is shown in solid line. it is observed that when a reloading curve intersects the usual stress-strain curve. 3-Envelope curve "family of reloading curves. that is to say." In mild steel. or by an infinite number of other load paths. such reloading curves form again a family of straight lines of slope equal to the elastic stiffness of the steel. A case in which the reloading curve does not merge with the usual stress-strain curve is shown in Fig.

the specimens subjected to the two different histories follow a common path indicated by Vector 1." This procedure eliminates the often expressed doubt that the descending portion of concrete stress-strain curves express as much the characteristics of the testing machine as those of the material under test. both of which end up 'at Point P in the stress-strain plane. the other shown in dashed line by Path OFQRSP. the one shown in solid line by way of Path OABCP. If a material can be shown experimentally to possess uniqueness of stressstrain relations. For a material which possesses complete uniqueness as here defined. The usual stress-strain curves obtained by methods described later are shown. one by subjecting concrete prisms to eccentric loading. the Fig. Probably the most exhaustive set of tests to determine the usual stress-strain relations in concrete is that presented in Reference 3. similarly.STRESS-STRA I N RELA TI ONS 199 To illustrate the concept of uniqueness. The similarity between this envelope curve and at least one of the usual stress-strain curves raises the question whether the two may be considered as coinciding in concrete. If now under further loading from Point P. Fig.Uniqueness 0f stress-strain redifferent specimens under unloadlations ing from Point P follow a common path indicated by Vector 2. and for this reason considerable authority should be attached to this curve. along with those obtained by two other methods. 4. then we speak of uniqueness of unloading. the usual stress-strain curve and the envelope curve must coincide. 5 also shows sets of loading and unloading curves. if. we consider the two c load histories shown in Fig. If the . then it is possible to utilize the relations determined from one set of load histories to predict the behavior of the material for any general history of loading." and one obtained by placing springs in parallel with the concrete specimen of sufficient stiffness to neutralize the energy release of the testing machine which results when the descending portion of the stress-strain curve of the specimen is reached. then we speak of uniqueness of the reloading curve. 5. along with the envelope curve. STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP IN CONCRETE A schematic diagram of the stress-strain relations of concrete under compressive cyclic loading is shown in Fig. 4.

3.200 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE February 1964 Fig.003 . An investigation J(si 0- .002 . For a material which possesses complete uniqueness in the sense defined earlier. O(J/ . the usual stress-strain curve and the envelope curve must coincide. 4. which have been used by several investigators.004 €. 5-Stress-stra in relations crete for con- results of this investigation. 6-Effect of variable loading (b J Load history . A comparison obtained by means verification of the in Reference 4. and properties of the unloading and reloading curves histories."Jn Q / 2 J (aJ Generalized stress-strain curves for 3750-psi concrete and strain history Fig. and applicability of analytic expressions such as those given of the existence of uniqueness as suggested by Fig. and the possibility of representing them as of the usual stress-strain curve with the envelope curve of different load histories. as suggested by Fig. then the envelope curve for concrete becomes different from the usual stress-strain curve.! are considered correct. General shape for different load families of curves. 2. 3. The experimental investigation of the properties of concrete under repeated loading concerned itself with the following points: 1.

A 120. to which an electronic recorder was attached. shows a given load history. cylinders of 3750 and 3000 psi nominal strength. 10. All specimens were cured 28 days at 100 percent humidity and were permitted to dry at room temperature. The range of the actual strengths for all three mixes is shown in Fig. then it is possible to utilize information from Points 1 and 2 to predict the behavior of any concrete fiber for any load history. Here. since at any stage the loading or unloading path is uniquely determined by the unloading or reloading curve passing through the appropriate point in the stressstrain plane. cylinders of 4000 psi nominal strength and 12 each of 3 x 6-in. Experimental apparatus To eliminate time effects from the tests. intended for tensile tests. 6 with the material properties shown in Fig. consisting of the sets of loading and unloading curves. 5. it was attached to a telescoping spring loaded needle which in turn was fastened to a Fig. as indicated in Fig. They were capped with a commercial capping compound and tested at ages ranging from 2 to 4 months. 6a. 6.000 lb universal testing machine was available for the tests. 7-Experimental setup . Fig. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTICATION The experimental investigation undertaken in connection with this project had the aim outlined in Points 1 to 3 of the previous section. can be used to predict the deformation of the fiber under this load history. Specimens Experiments were performed on twenty-four 6 x 12-in. Fig. Thus. it can also be seen that for load histories involving high stresses it is possible to get additional deformation under each cycle of loading. This drum type recorder is actuated by an induction type electronic extensometer. it was necessary to construct an apparatus which enabled the various extensive load histories to be applied at a rapid enough rate so as to minimize creep. the possibility of incremental deflections (which in the case of perfectly plastic material arises only in statically indeterminate structures) may have to be considered here even in simple specimens.STRESS-STRAI N RELATIONS 201 If it is found that uniqueness can reasonably be assumed for concrete. 6b. By combining the concepts of Fig. To use it for measurement of compressive concrete strains.

//5 1-6. !}B 3 P. ~aJJ.h A 4000 I .001 ./) I Bm. Citls I·J ('lIs.002 ._ r psi Concrele (. 3750 psi Concrele C'III (13m. 7. 2t I ! le5 0 0 .3 18m 3.3 . The entire compressometer is shown in Fig..003 004 Fig.3) o Fig.9-Experimental stress-strain curves . 9/. If..1) 5im/lar Histories {or. a-Experimental stress-strain curves e: l4i I __ .3. As load was applied and released through the testing machine. o./1 J 73alc. 13 ~b~A 38 _E8 I '---1 IBA 2 -+--t----+I=~---! t.E> 5imtlar Curves for.BaJJ. This made It possible to respond instantaneously to the behavior of the specimen.A (. or to adjust the load history in order to test for incremental deformations.202 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE February 1964 standard compressometer so as to record the change in gage length under stress. 2.6.'1 3 of Bald. ?J A i5 POlnl where fnvelote Curve was louc.. the complete stress-strain curve (to a certain scale) was traced immediately by the drum recorder. ('jls4. 3. A .. /·3 (ifI5.2) (Bm.hed 1. A t'.

Points on the envelope curve. regarding unloading. IO-Envelope curves for three different concretes A typical record of a cyclic test in which complete unloading occurred at each cycle is shown in Fig. It was found that points on the envelope curve (defined by an increase in strain without stress increase." In addition. when joined. (which will be seen to depend on the minimum stress in the cycle).STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS 203 4 . and reloading earlier. Conversely. and envelope curves of the material under test. and an entire test required from 10 to 30 min. 8 and 9 were used to obtain properties. It can be seen here that incremental deflections occur whenever a certain critical stress value is exceeded during a cycle. The time required for one cycle was usually of the order of 1 min. gave a smooth curve for . reloading. whenever the maximum stress remains below a critical value. 9 shows a typical record of a load history intended to test for the presence of a shakedown region of incremental deformation in the stress-strain plane. Points C through G denote stages at which spontaneous unloading occurred (usually associated with the formation of visible cracks). then no additional permanent deformation occurs during the cycle. about the properties uniqueness RESULTS of envelope. It should again be pointed out that to minimize creep effects these tests were performed as rapidly as possible.007 Fig. the specimen "shakes down. 8. 10. In the nomenclature of plasticity. It was such as those shown in Fig.3 2 o . TEST Load histories information curves. This graph therefore contains information about unloading. and they can therefore be considered as points on the envelope curve of this specimen. Fig. as discussed and their found convenient separately. load histories of this type were also used to verify the uniqueness of the envelope curve. leading to spontaneous unloading) are independent of the previous load history. The information to plot information obtained these three sets of curves about envelope curves is shown in Fig.

-lI-. Fig. 11.204 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE February 1964 every specimen. 4 curves for 3000-psi concrete I-------r----.i •~ r------. II-Unloading 0. 12-Unloading eurves for 3750-psi concrete .001 . 14.----. It is apparent that the unloading curves may be represented by mathematical families of curves..16. 12. 15.005 .------.-------r-'--r-_'_' I lyerimenlal Ana/'fI'CaI I --- .------.003 .------.. the closeness of these envelope curves of different specimens of concrete of the same strength which had been subjected to widely varying load histories suggests that the envelope curve may be considered unique for each strength of concrete.------.-------------. Fig.003 .-I+f-+-H.002 . E>rperimenlal A noly [ica I o o . a: K.------.---4-+--+--.----:-t----!----t----4--- o o . ./1 1ft- Fig.00II e-: =.002 . and 16 similarly show that reloading curves for each strength concrete follow an obvious pattern and may therefore also be expressed as a family of curves.004 . oat/- . and 13 present a compilation of the unloading curves obtained for specimens of three different mixes subjected to many different load histories.----.005 006 Fig.007 .

In this case.005 . This can be observed in Fig.nta! Ana/rlica/ o .------.STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS 205 [xrrim.-----_. 0._----_. [Xrrimenfa/ Ana/'1lical o o Fig." repeating the previous cycle without further permanent strain.00' . fatigue problems may arise after a large number of cycles.. '4 r-----~-------r------. while maximum stresses at or below this limit will cause the stress-strain history to "go into a loop. 8 and 9. Stresses above this shakedown limit lead to additional strains.003 Fig.007 curves for 3000-psi concrete .OCI .002 . The locus of points where the reloading portion of any cycle crosses the unloading portion may be defined as the shakedown limit. 13-Unloading curves for 4000-psi concrete The pattern of unloading and reloading curves was found to be such that a region of shakedown can be clearly distinguished from a region of incremental deformation. j(. I4--Reloading .------_r------.

006 c. For complete unloading. . curves for 4000-psi eoncrete . whereas for partial unloading the shakedown limit occurs at a lower value of stress. it is also possible to see that the value of the shakedown limit depends on the minimum stress in the cycle.005 . I6-Reloading .. <l-----<--<' 1i ! £xr_rimenlal Ana/ylica/ Jf--- a o . 0. 8 and 9.. the shakedown limit is near the envelope curve. IS-Reloading curves for 3750-psi concrete £xferimenlal ___ Analtflical a o Fig. lit/f.007 Fig.4 4 I-----r---r-----rr~. =.003 .206 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE February 1964 By comparing Fig.OOb .. It follows that the value of the shakedown limit (in terms of stress) depends to a considerable extent on the stress amplitude of the cycle.

STRESS-STRAI N RELATIONS 207 ANAL YTIC.9 ..10 J 0.434 .111 . The experiments done at the Bureau of Reclamation" seem to indicate that different type tests may lead to different stress-strain curves..3.26 1. per in.8. It was found that the expressions representing the latter could be obtained by subjecting the expressions derived for the former to the following transformation: TABLE I-CONCRETE Concrete strength.125 0..11. (2) The stress-strain curves thus represented were obtained by means of tests on eccentrically loaded concrete prisms.. analytically.61 L 1. 15.42 2. and Mcl-lenry. unloading.8 C . of the form: 02 + AE2 + BOE + Co + DE =0 (1) in which the values of the coefficients for the three strengths of concrete used in this investigation are given in Table 1 (for a in kips per sq in.AL REPRESENTATION OF STRESS-STRAI N RELATIONS In the previous section it has been indicated that it may be possible to represent envelope curves. psi 3000 3750 4000 PROPERTIES A .3..3.52 0.03 1.99 fl . it will be convenient to have a mathematical representation of the complete stress-strain relations of concrete. Expression for envelope curves As shown in Fig.07 0.751 .).. and reloading curves as families of mathematical curves.01 .111 0. there is considerable variation between the usual stress-strain curves represented by Eq. (1) and the envelope curves obtained experimentally. Hognestad.95 0.- H 0.51 B .6...09 0.26 D 22_58 45 56.61 K 3. Expression for usual stress-strain curves From the results of the extensive experiments of Hansen.8 . such as beams under cyclic loading." Kriz and Lee! have established polynomial expressions for the usual stress-strain curve of concrete.434 . and s in lO-a in.14.52 4. It should be noted that the initial tangent modulus of the stress-strain curve is given by: .. Therefore algebraic expressions will be established in this section for these families of stress-strain curves. For purposes of predicting the behavior of structural members.

corresponding to the same value of stress. (1). it is possible to describe the envelope curve in terms of the expression.. It may be concluded that by knowing one constant a..- . in which there is no evidence that the stress-strain curve of concrete changes due to cyclic loading at small strains.208 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE February 1964 Ee E = _E = ~=Ee_( 1. and a is an experimental constant.. 10. and may there be compared with actual envelope curves. (3) may have an additional use. were matched. where Al BJ E F G A+aD B 2aC 2ft aB a2C a2 + + It may be noted that the tangent modulus at the orrgin remains invariant under this transformation.. Eq. (6) Eq.«s ~ ) (3) 1 + aEe ) where E is the strain coordinate of the usual stress-strain curve. Thus. (5) can be solved for the stress. The transformation represented by Eq. (4) can be rearranged in the following form: QI02 + Q20 + Qa Ee: Ee BIEe =0 . the equation for the envelope curve becomes: . Ee is the strain coordinate of the envelope curve.. Table 1 also shows values of a for the three different mixes. using the previously given numerical constants.and Qa are quadratics in QI Q2 = 1+ E + G = C+ +F Q3 = D + A Ee 1 Ee~ Ee2 Ee2 Eq. (5) where QI. Eq. To solve for this latter constant.. Q2. various large values of strain on both types of curves. In the present investigation the effects of strain rate are neglected. This agrees with the observed behavior of concrete. while in practice the rate of loading may have a considerable influence on the . .. resulting in: o =- Q2 - Y Q22 - QIQ3 . for the usual stress-strain curve.. the corresponding three curves are shown in Fig. (6) was evaluated for the three mixes. 2QI .

. and 16 could be represented by a family of converging straight lines. 12.. El.. It is believed that they are sufficiently realistic to be used in predicting the behavior of reinforced concrete members subjected to reloading. for a curve passing through a certain point in the stress-strain plane GI. 14... Preliminary tests show that within a certain range. (9) are plotted on Fig. leading to the expression: x = EI + al iT H - 11( E1 + a1 0 H) 2- £12 (8) In Fig.. 14... (7) which is then solved for the required value of X. (9).. in which K and L are experimental constants.. 15.... Comparison with experimental curves shows that they are reasonably realistic. The value of Y can be found. creep effects can be represented by varying the value of the transformation constant u........ To determine the value of the parameter X. and Y... an expression: o + K = Y (s + L) (9) was chosen. and 13 the dashed lines represent the analytical curves given by Eq.. (7). similarly to the value of X in the previous section. and solving for Y.... .. accordingly. Expressions for reloading curves It was felt that the rather complicated reloading curves shown in Fig. and X is a parameter. 11.. (10) For the purpose of comparison. is a parameter. one obtains: Y = fll+K £1 +L . and 16.. EI of a known point on the reloading curve into Eq.. 12. By substituting the coordinates GI... curves representing Eq.. different values of which represent different members of the family.STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS 209 strains. 15.. A good fit was obtained from the formula: a+H It was desirable and feasible to represent =~ (E-X)2 (7) where Hand J are experimental constants whose values for the three mixes used are given in Table 1. Expressions for unloading curves the family of unloading curves shown in Fig... the coordinate values are substituted into Eq... 11... and 13 by second order curves.

D. Denver. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant G-19938. for which thanks are extended. Jan. D. and Lee. roceedings V." ACI JOURNAL. L. pp. unloading. 455-480. Feb. W. 48219 Discussion of this paper should reach ACI headquarters in triplicate by May 1. EM3. . 6b. 61. of ASCE-ACI Joint Committee on Ultimate Strength Design. V. 2. 505-524. 52.. Hansen. "Ultimate Strength of Overreinforced Beams. and reloading curves for 3750 psi. p. 86. pp. 1956. ACI-ASCE Committee 427. N. "Concrete Stress Distribution in Ultimate Strength Design. 6a. Box 4754. REFERENCES Proceedings. U. S. P 1955. B." ASCE. 3.210 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE February 1964 Behavior under arbitrary load history The analytical envelope. and to determine shakedown limits.4. Boulder.. 6a.2.." Proceedings. 61·12 is a part of copyrighted Proceedings Journa I of the are available Institute. "Ultimate Strength Design." Laboratory Report No. 3. P 5. This figure is there used to predict the behavior of a compressive specimen under the given load history shown in Fig. 1955. for publication in the September 1964 JOURNAL.. ASCE.. and using the proposed uniqueness property. V. 81. 1964. Paper No. 1947. 95. 52.. V. No. D. Graphs such as Fig. Bureau of Reclamation. SP-12.. Hognestad. 1962. Starting at any given point in the stress-strain plane (in this case the origin). and is shown by the heavy line in Fig. 1. a complete strain history can be derived. concrete are summarized in Fig. No. cash with order. at 60 cents each. Detroit. Dec." ACI JOURNAL. Kriz. A companion paper to be published later will use the information presented here to predict theoretically the behavior of reinforced concrete beams under arbitrary load history. 1964. Separate prints American Concrete Institute. O. 809. 4. "Report Received by the Institute American Concrete Dec. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The material presented in this paper is based on part of a PhD dissertation done in the Department of Civil Engineering. 23 pp. Mar. and McHenry. Mich. Oct. 16 may in particular be used to investigate the problem of incremental deformation. See also. University of Colorado. and MeHenry. S. Rarnaley. 68 pp. June 1960. P. Redford Station. E. No. roceedings V. "Stress-Strain Curves for Concrete Strained Beyond the Ultimate Load. Title No. L.

wird gezeigt. Es werden Spannungs-Dehnungskurven fur Betonzylinder unter sol chen Belastungen angegeben und rechnerische Spannungs-Dehnungsverhaltnisse fur wechselnde Belastung abgeleitet.STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS 211 Sinopsis Relaciones Resumes - Zusammenfassung para Concreto Bajo Carga Ciclica de Esfuerzo-Deformaci6n Se describe una investigacion experimental del comportamiento del concreto simple bajo carga ciclica. de carga (despreciando la deforrnacion por fluj 0 plastico) . Spannungs-DehnungsverhCiltnisse fur Beton unter wechselnder Belastung Beschrieben wird eine experimentelle Untersuchung des Verhaltens von unbewehrtem Beton unter wechselnder Belastung. et on derive des relations C-D analytiques pour les charges cycliques. se muestra como las curvas esf'uerz o-riefurrnacion ciclicas pueden ser usadas para predecir el comportamiento de una fibra de concreto sometida a una his tori a arbitraria. . Assumant la qual ite dexclusivite des relations C-D. urn das Verhalten eines bestimmten Betons vorauszubestimmen. dass die Spannungs-Dehnungsverhaltnisse eine eigene Individuall tat haben. on dernontre comme les courbes C-D peuvent etre utilisees pour pred ire le comportement dun filament de beton soumis a un systerne de charge arbitraire (sans faire compte du fluage). Deriva una relacion analitica de esfuerzc -deformacion para carga ciclica. On presente des courbes C-D pour cylindres en beton. Suponiendo que las caracteristicas esfuerzo-deforrnacion son unicas. Unter der Annahme. wie die Spannungs-Dehnungskurven fur Wechsellast dazu benutzt werden kormen. Se presentan curvas esfuerzo-deforrnacion obtenidas de cilindros de concreto bajo dicha carga. Relations Contrainte-Deformation pour Beton sous Charge Cyclique On decrit une investigation experimentale du comportement du beton normal sous charge cyclique. der einer beliebigen Belastungsfolge (unter Nichtberucksichtigung von Kriechen) ausgesetzt war.

11 I J r I I l . . .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful