Ideas / Knowledge / Beliefs IDEAS - It is just whatever is before the mind when one thinks. - Are mental representations (concepts, categories, metaphors) used to organize stimulus. - The basic units out of which knowledge is constructed and a world emerges. Innate Ideas and Adventitious Ideas:

1. Innate Ideas “in born” – Rationalists argue that when we are born, we already
have a store of ideas that we draw upon in order to make sense of the world. Examples of such ideas are mathematical truths (2 + 2 = 4), truths about God (that He exists, is good, all powerful, etc.), the concept of time, the notion of causality and other logically and metaphysically necessary principles.

2. Adventitious Ideas - images or concepts which are accompanied by the
judgment that they are caused by some object outside of the mind. Tabula Rasa (Latin, “blank slate” or “erased slate”) the epistemological theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception. Generally proponents of the tabula rasa thesis favor the "nurture" side of the nature versus nurture debate, when it comes to aspects of one's personality, social and emotional behavior, and intelligence. KNOWLEDGE - A familiarity with someone or something, which can include information, facts, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. Different Types of Knowledge:

1. Logical – there is a knowledge that is the result of the understanding of the
relationship of ideas to one another. (Examples: if A is more than B, and B is more than C, then A is more than C; All gazintz are gazatz, All gazatz are garingers. Therefore, all gazintz are garingers.)

2. Semantic – there is knowledge that is the result of learning the meaning of
words. Knowledge of words is knowledge of definitions. Such definitions are set in dictionaries. (Example: A Bachelor is an unmarried male.

3. Systemic – there is knowledge of Mathematics and Geometry, which is the result
of learning a system of words, or symbols and how they relate to one another and the rules of operating in that system and then any claims made that are consistent. (Examples: There are three sides to a triangle. The sum of their angles is 180 degrees; 23 + 11 = 34)

4. Empirical – there is a knowledge that comes through our senses. Science is the
best example of a method for ascertaining the accuracy of such knowledge. Scientific knowledge is a result of the practice of the method: Observation,

careful observation. then your son or daughter will probably have a birthmark in the shape of a strawberry. Italy: If you spill wine on the table at home. A comb is submerged in coconut milk with sugar to make the mother's breast full of milk. If pregnant women don't satisfy a craving. 2. China: June and December. Giving an arinola (chamberpot) as wedding gift is believed to bring good luck to newlyweds. snakes and bad animals will come. (Example: There is a computer in front of you right now. Some Filipino Beliefs: Taking pictures of a pregnant woman will cause an abortion or a difficult delivery. Indecent  Dangerous vs. Sore eyes can be cured by washing the eyes with the first urine early in the morning. A person with big ears will have a long life. Black cats crossing your path means bad luck Throwing salt over the shoulder immediately after spilling can ward off bad luck. Taking a bath before delivery will hasten the birth of the baby. When people claim to believe that something is so they don’t always claim to know that it is so. as well as of the placenta. never see your visitors off at the door of the chapel or funeral parlor. They are feelings with arrows to them: Each has a plus and a minus pole. Clean  Decent vs. However. During a wake. So if the craving was a strawberry. refinement of hypothesis. BELIEFS . People whose teeth are spaced far apart are liars. Some Beliefs around the World: Breaking glass or dishes is considered good luck. description of fact as true. statement. Taking a bath on New Year’s Day and/or Good Friday will cause one to get sick. confirmation or falsification of the hypothesis. Belief does not imply knowledge. you must immediately rub the wine on your earlobes to bring good luck. Safe  Ugly vs. Immoral - . Nigeria: Pregnant women walking alone at night should hold on to a stone or a petal to keep evil spirits from harming the baby. It deals with such things as the following:  Evil vs.Accept a proposition. Good  Dirty vs. A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. according to the lunar year. Children are told that they whistle or make noise at night. Values Rokeach (1972) to say that a person ‘has a value’ is to say that he has an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally and socially preferable to alternative modes of conduct or end-states of existence. Beautiful  Moral vs. Wherever people claim to know that something is true they believe that it is so. testing and experimentation.) • • The four types of knowledge have one thing in common: Belief. is not good to move house. then the baby will have a birthmark in the shape of a craving.abduction of a hypothesis.

The use of ‘’po’’ and ‘’’opo’’’ when in conversation with an elder or someone who is older is a manifestation of how Filipinos respect their elders. One indication of this might be a willingness to spend more than they can afford on a party rather than be shamed by their economic circumstances. this means that the issue involved has some relevance for us (intensity) and that we identify some outcomes as “good” and others as “bad” (direction). Unlike the Westerners. 1970) Values have both intensity and direction. This is mainly due to the influence of Christianity that tells us to honor both our parents and our elders. If we “hold” a value. It is also common to find the whole clan living in the same area as that the Filipinos are afraid to be too far from their own family. thus a child may have several godparents to ensure his future in case his parents will not be there for him. Hospitality The Filipinos are very hospitable when it comes to their fellowmen. or both. There are also instances when the Filipinos will serve only the best to their visitors even if at times they may not be able to afford it. They also do not let their elders live too far away from them. This debt of gratitude are sometimes abused by those who have done well to others as they may ask favors or things that may either be unreasonable or beyond the means of the one in debt. Someone else may differ from us as to the intensity. Gratitude Gratitude or ‘’’utang na loob’’’ is a very popular Filipino characteristic. They believe that when their elders are unable to live alone. not means. Irrational vs. The Filipinos recognize their family as an important social structure that one must take care of. It is said that Filipinos would go to great lengths in order for one not to be ashamed. even if it is beyond his means just to save his reputation as well as the family’s. People get strength from their family.” (Bem. Filipinos feel pressured to meet the status quo of the society when it comes to economic standing. Filipino Values: Family The Philippines is known to be a family centered nation. Example: “having money” may be highly relevant to us (intensity). Shame Shame or ‘’’Hiya’’’ is a very common Filipino value. “Values are ends. The Filipinos take care of their elders by taking them into their homes. They will invite their visitors to come into their homes and offer them treats such as snacks and drinks after a long journey. They give importance to the safety and unity of one’s family. the time has come for them to pay their respects and to be able to serve their parents just as they were cared for when they were younger. Rational - - They are nonrational (although we may subjectively feel our own to be perfectly rational) Determines our subjective definition of rationality. and their desirability is either non-consciously taken for granted…or seen as a direct derivation from one’s experience or from some external authority. . Hiya has a great influence on one’s behavior for one will do everything. Politeness Filipinos are taught to become respectful individuals. One does not forget the good deeds that others may have done to him or her especially at times of great need. and we may consider “more” as good and “less” as bad (direction). The Filipino family is so intact that it is common for members of the same family work for the same company. the direction. They also go the extremes as to give up the comfort of their own bedrooms for their guests and to the point of sleeping on floor just to ensure that their guests are comfortable. the Filipinos do not send their elders to nursing homes to be taken care of.

it may show that the Filipinos are free-spirited and that they put their life in fate’s hands. Resignation Trust in God or the concept of ‘’’Bahala na’’’ has been over-used time and again. Michael Jackson was a philanthropist throughout his career.wikipilipinas. Filipinos have a high tolerance for ambiguity that enables them to respond calmly to uncertainty or lack of information. These are manifested in the ability to adjust to often difficult circumstances and prevailing physical and social environments. excuse or legitimize our behavior. Filipinos develop a sensitivity to the nature and quality of interpersonal relationships.ehow. Loyalty Loyalty or ‘’’Pakikisama’’’ is another Filipino value. Motives .Some famous people are well-known for their social motives to help to the less fortunate in society. Hard work and Industry The related capacity for hard work and industry among Filipinos is widely recognized. This ideal is used when a person does not know what to do or is too lazy to do anything at all. This propensity for hard work. These qualities have been repeatedly demonstrated in their capacity to adapt to living in any part of the world and in their ability to accept change. Oprah Winfrey built a school for disadvantaged girls in South Africa so they can have quality . Adaptability. REFERENCES: www.wikipedia. For Filipinos often improvise and make productive and innovative use of whatever is www. Bayanihan The creation of association with neighbors and the helping atittude whenever one is in disastrous need. . which are their principal source of security and happiness. The by standing or surrounding Filipinos would help the bus driver in whatever actions to get the bus back on going. Delicadeza: Sense of honor Palabra de Honor: "word of honor" 3. Filipinos are universally regarded as excellent workers who perform well whether the job involves physical labor and tasks or highly sophisticated technical functions. which often includes a highly competitive spirit. With this orientation. The ability to laugh at themselves and their predicament is an important coping mechanism that contributes to emotional balance and a capacity to survive. the Bayanihan spirit in action can be seen when a bus gets a flat tire. Amor Propio: Concern for self image. rationalize.How people use this common language to explain. This is manifested in their basic sense of justice and fairness and concern for other's well being. Filipinos are said to be loyal to their friends and fellowmen in order to ensure the peace in the group.They are verbalizations that lay out the “why” of our behavior. .Abolitionists crusaded for the end of slavery and female suffragists made it possible for women to www. This achievement orientation is further accompanied by typically high aspirations and great personal sacrifices.Flexibility. and Creativity Filipino's sense of joy and humor is evident in their optimistic approach to life and its travails. is driven by the desire for economic security and advancement for oneself and one's family. Oftentimes.philippinecountry. Filipinos recognize the essential humanity of all people and regard others with respect and empathy. Accounts Language . This belief to put fate in God’s hands may be a sign of how religious Filipinos may be at the same time. justify.

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