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ِ ّ ِ َ ْ ّ ِ ‫بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬

Today’s lecture is about the skull:

The Skull is an easy subject and it’s made of several bones , as usual we always have a classification to make things easier. The Skull is traditionally studying of the following words >> we look at it from frontal view then we see some bones and we don’t see the other’s . some parts of the skull we study it from lateral view, posterior view , inferior view and so on. Skull is defined into two parts>

Cranial bone

Facial bone
Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone

Frontal bone

parietal bone

Occipital bone

Temporal bone

The part we discovering with the brain is the cranial part. What are the bones that make the cranial part? 1-Frontal bone > why we call it frontal bone ? because it is in the front. There’s a sutures that make the joint between two bones . Sutures :The process of joining two surfaces or edges together along aline

2-lateral bone > briefly bone that surrounding the brain.

3-occipital bone. 4- temporal bone. 5- sphenoid bone. 6- ethmoid bone.

*These are cranial bones , we will study each of them in details . The second part of the skull is the face > so there are facial bone and there are cranial bone . You as a dentist have to have a good knowledge about the skull

Note: mandible is not a part of the skull , it is a separate one articulate with the temporal bone . The doctor used a mind map and he said that it is one of the easiest way to study anatomy. Temporal bone > we call it temporal because when somebody become older the most white hair grow there .

From WiKi : temporal bone either of the two irregular bones forming part of the lateral surfaces and base of the skull, and containing the organs of hearing. It is divided anatomically into four parts: the mastoid, petrous, squamous, and tympanic parts

- at frontal view you don’t see any part of parietal bone but if you look at the back of the skull you will see the two parietal bone . *Cranial vault : 1- sagital sutures : articulates the two parietal bones. 2- coronal sutures :articulates the frontal bone with the two parietal bones. 3- lambdiod sutures :articulates the two parietal bones with the occipital bone.

Parietal bones :

form the sides and the roof of the cranium and as we said that they articulate with each other in the mid line at the sagittal suture and they articulate with the occipital bone behind, at the lambdoid suture.

* lambda: is an intersection of sagittal and lambdoid sutures.

-Why parietal bone is simple? Because when you look at it you will not see any process or foramen.

- Coronal suture lies in the coronal section and it is located between parietal bone and frontal bone and it is articulate with the greater wing of sphenoid bone. **When we look > - anteriority > we will not able to see the parietal bones only we can see the frontal bone. - superiorly > frontal and parietal bones and a very little part of the temporal bone

- laterally > parietal bones. -Inferiorly > temporal bones.

*Note :- You will find two lines in the temporal bones we call it temporal lines >

the lower one is inferior temporal line which begin as a single from the posterior margin of the zygmotic process of the frontal bone.

These lines give the origin to attach the muscles to the coronoid process of mandible and it is called temporalis.

So : The over view of the parietal bone > it is large and quadrangular in shape that has 4 sites, and it forms greater part of the skull (sides and roof of the cranial cavity). Pariatal bones articulate with 5 bones one of them is the frontal bone by a sagittal sutures.

What are the surface features of the parietal bone? External and internal surfaces. Quadrangular has an external surface ( convex) and internal surface. And it has a superior and inferior temporal lines > these temporal lines receive the origin of the temporal muscles which is the muscles of mastications.

In the internal surface of the parietal bone ( which is concave) there is a depressions and elevations.

The frontal bone:
- when we look at the frontal bone we will not able to see all the parts so the frontal bone , so to be able to see all the parts you must look at different parts of the skull. - There is a foramen in the frontal bone called :orbit.

From Wikipedia encyclopedia The orbits are conical or four-sided pyramidal cavities, which open into the midline of the face and point back into the head. Each consists of a base, an apex and four walls. They are intended to protect the eye from mechanical injury.[4] The base, which opens in the face, has four borders. The following bones take part in their formation: 1. Superior margin: frontal bone 2. Inferior margin: maxilla and zygomatic 3. Medial margin: frontal, lacrimal and maxilla 4. Lateral margin: zygomatic and frontal The apex lies near the medial end of superior orbital fissure and contains the optic canal which communicates with middle cranial fossa. The roof (superior wall) is formed by the orbital plate frontal bone and the lesser wing of sphenoid. The orbital surface presents medially by trochlear fovea and laterally by lacrimal fossa The floor (inferior wall) is formed by the orbital surface of maxilla, the orbital surface of zygomatic bone and the orbital process of palatine bone. Medially near the orbital margin is located the groove for nasolacrimal duct. Near the middle of the floor, located infraorbital groove, which leads to the infraorbital foramen. The floor is separated from the lateral wall by inferior orbital fissure, which connects the orbit topterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa. The medial wall is formed by the frontal process of maxilla, lacrimal bone, orbital plate of ethmoid and a small part of the body of the sphenoid.

From the book: - The lateral wall is the thickest wall of the orbit and the thinnest part of it is where the anterioinferior corner of the parietal bone articulates with the greater wing of the sphenoid : this point is referred to as the pterion

- The frontal bone have a process ( bony projection or sth protruding out of the bones) this process goes towards maxilla and forms maxillary process of the frontal bone.

If you look a little bit more in details and see the frontal bone its also making the roof of the orbit and this is what we are going to see in the skull: - supraorbital margin. - supraorbital notch or foramen. - the roof of the orbit.

- Again when you look laterally you can see that there is a frontal bone articulating with the parietal bone by coronary suture, anteriorly you can see that the frontal bone articulates with bone that making side of the face >> But we still have another parts of frontal bone and we need to look to the cranial view to see it . there is a part of the frontal bone goes inside to make the roof above our eyes and a floor of interior cranial fossa .

Interior cranial fossa is a depression in the floor of the cranial vault which houses the projecting frontal lobes ( from wikipidia )

So this part will make the roof of the orbit and there for we will call it orbital plate of frontal bone .. Also as the frontal bone comes down from ( sorry I can`t hear ) …… it becomes thick and there is a cavity . That will open to the nose and this is one of paranasal sinuses … And now lets see the mind map of frontal bone …

the sphenoid bone
it is a central bone that is very important and if it become destroyed the skull will become weak and useless

NOW lets start from the center there is a depression ( fosaa ) that is called a pituitary fossa ( because the pituitary gland is there ) … also there are two elevations just like a horse saddle … there for this depression is called sellae turse ( pituitary fossa ) it has 2 wings one lesser and the another is greater wing 1- the lesser wings ( 2 in number ) … in its roof there is a foramen ( the optic nerve enter from it so we call it optic foramen this lesser wings articulate with frontal bone 2- 2 greater wings that join the body

There is an area between lesser and greater wings and its called superior orbital fissure this wind has 3 foramen : * foramen rotandum … maxillary nerve is going through this foramen ,its gonna supply skin , upper teeth and a part of the nose * at the back there is an oval foramen called foreman ovale … mandibular nerve comes down to supply the lower teeth .. * posterior and lateral there is foramen spinosum why spinosum ??? because in the last part of the greater wing ( basal part ) there is a spine … middle meningeal artery goes through it

NOW let`s see the greater wing from below ( basal view) … (note : we can`t see the lesser wing from below ) We can see the spine of sphenoid .. there is a ligament from this spine to the mandible called sphenomandibular ligament …( I cant hear)

The body of the sphenoid is not solid it has sinuses that are called sphenoid air sinuses .. They are lined with mucous membrane and communicate with the nasal cavity , ther serve as voise resonater ( from the book ) The two legs are called pteregoid process They give attachment to two heads of medial pteregoid muscle

We have : • • lateral pteregoid ( two parts) …. One of them attached to pteregoid process medial pteregoid ( two parts) … both of them attached to pteregoid process

NOW let`s go to the mind map and this will be the final part of our lecture … Forgive us if u find any mistake and good luck in you new semester  Done by : SONDOS MAJDI  WEAM AL RAHAMNEH 