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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 43, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1995

Numerically Efficient Analysis of Planar Microstrip Configurations Using Closed-Form Green’s Functions
Ikmo Park, Raj Mittra, Fellow, IEEE, and M. I. Aksun
Abstract-An efficient technique for the analysis of a general class of microstrip structures with a substrate and a superstrate is investigated in this paper using newly-derived closed-form spatial domain Green’s functions employed in conjunction with the Method of Moments (MOM). The computed current distributions on the microstrip structure are used to determine the scattering parameters of microstrip discontinuities and the input impedances of microstrip patch antennas. It is shown that the use of the closed-form Green’s functions in the context of the MOM provides a computational advantage in terms of the CPU time by almost two orders of magnitude over the conventional spectral domain approach employing the transformed version of the Green’s functions.

I. INTRODUCTION ECENT advances in packaging technology of microwave and millimeter wave integrated circuits (MMICs) have engendered a considerable amount of interest in the development of computer-aided design tools for these packages. A variety of approximate techniques, e.g., the quasi-static methods [ 11431, equivalent waveguide models [4], [5], and segmentation approaches [6], [ 7 ] , have been employed for the purpose of analyzing MMIC circuits. Although numerically efficient, these techniques do not always provide results that are sufficiently accurate. An alternative is to use a more sophisticated technique, such as the full-wave Method of Moments (MOM), which is versatile and accurate, though highly computer-intensive. In analyzing planar microstrip structures, the method of moments (MOM) can be applied either in the spectral domain [8]-[12], or in the spatial domain [13]-[17]. The spatial domain approach has the advantage that, in this method, the integrands for the MOM matrix elements need to be evaluated only over the finite support associated with the basis and testing functions, as opposed to over an infinite range required in its spectral domain counterpart [ 181. However, in the conventional form of the spatial domain approach, the Green’s functions for the microstrip structures involve the evaluation of the Sommerfeld integrals, whose integrands are highly oscillatory and slowly decaying functions; hence their
Manuscript received April 9, 1993; revised May 2, 1994. I. Park and R. Mittra are with the Electromagnetic Communication Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61 801-2991 USA M. Aksun is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey. IEEE Log Number 9407292.

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computation is very time consuming. However, it has recently been demonstrated in [19]-[21] that this problem can be obviated by using the newly-developed closed-form spatial domain Green’s functions. The closed-form Green’s function can be obtained by using a technique detailed in [22]. In this technique we extract the quasi-static images and the surface wave poles from the integrand of the Sommerfeld integral, and then handle their contributions analytically using the Sommerfeld identity and the residue theorem, respectively. Next, we approximate the remaining integrand in terms of a finite number of complex exponentials using the Generalized Pencil of Function (GPOF) [23] method. The objective of this paper is to employ these closed-form Green’s functions to analyze general microstrip structures using the MOM approach. The organization of the paper is as follows. Section I1 begins with the formulation of the problem in the context of MOM, and then goes on to present the scattering parameter analysis based upon the Generalized Eigenvalue Method. A number of microstrip discontinuities and patch antenna configurations, including patches with tuning stubs, are numerically analyzed in Section 111, and the results are compared with those published previously in the literature.
11. FORMULATION THE PROBLEM OF

The geometry of a general microstrip structure with a substrate and a superstrate is shown in Fig. 1. The substrate has a thickness of d,-l and a relative permittivity of E ~ , - I , The superstrate thickness is d, and its relative permittivity is e T z . The substrate, superstrate, and the ground plane are assumed to be infinitely wide in the horizontal plane, and the conductors are assumed to be lossless and infinitesimally thin. The time convention is e J d t . The tangential components of the electric field on the plane of the patch can be written in terms of the surface current density, J, and the Green’s functions for the vector and scalar potentials, G.4 and G,, respectively, as follows

where * denotes convolution. G”,” represents the z-directed vector potential at r due to an 2-directed electric dipole of unit strength located at r’, while G , represents the scalar potential

0018-9480/95$04.00 0 1995 IEEE

: NUMERICALLY EFFICIENT ANALYSIS Ob PLANAR MICROSTRIP CONFIGURATIONS 395 coefficients of the basis functions can be obtained as where - Y A general microstrip structure with a substrate and a superstrate. Since the Green’s functions appearing inside the inner product in (4) are available in closed-forms (See 1181 for complete expressions). and ZOlare the propagation constant and the charj . one can solve for the current distribution on the microstrip structure.. which are chosen in this work to be rooftops (see Fig. the additional equation at the left end of the load terminal can be written as (see [ 191-[21]) 11 rn where cJF’r‘ and JC”‘ are the rooftop functiono. Substituting (2) into (1) and testing by applying the Galerkin’s procedure. 2. By using these additional equations in the matrix (4). 7n)th position on the subdivided microstrip patch. The current densities at the load and source terminals. they are better suited for numerical computation than the Green’s functions for the electric field integral equation which have algebraic singularities of the third order. is the basir function for the current source. A.r’l). Fig. I:’” and IC”’ are the unknown coefficients of the basis functions at the ( n . obtained by imposing the boundary conditions at the load terminals.e. The . they do not present a problem and are handled according to the procedure given in [ 191. . which can be chosen such that the integrals can be carried out analytically.and !/-components of the current density are expressed as: - where z.‘rn‘represents the excitation voltage at the (TI>’.I. viz. The Green’s functions appearing in (1) have algebraic singularities of the first order. Fig. The matrix equation in (4) can not be solved uniquely for the coefficients of the basis functions unless additional equations.’. Although these basis functions have singularities in their derivatives. respectively. For example. whenever they are used. are added.n7‘. are modeled by the half-rooftop basis functions.nni denotes the mutual impedance between the (71. Hence. i. I . Basis functions representing the current density on the microstrip produced by a unit point charge associated with a horizontal electric dipole (HED). and v. nr’)th position of the element due to the current source. and results in a substantial savings in the computation time as a consequence. patch.r. This manipulation helps reduce the original fivefold integral to only a double integral. They relate the coefficients of the load basis functions to the remainder of the basis functions in terms of the complex load impedances. rn’)th testing function and the ( 7 1 . m)th basis function. the first step is to express the surface current density as a linear combination of the basis functions. Application of the Method ?f Moments To solve for the surface current density on the patch using the MOM. the matrix equations for the unknown where [.~ PARK Pf 01. acteristic impedance of the line containing the load terminal. 2).. O(l/lr . . it is useful to transfer the convolution integrals involving the Green’s functions and basis functions to the testing and basis functions instead. G O ( l / ( r.r’I3).

Next. .)._ U u J y . A l l . The following parameters are used for the computation: the dielectric constant and thickness of the ~ 1 substrate are ~ ~ = 9. This indicates that reasonably good results . are modeled as transmission lines with characo teristic impedances of Z l and 202.635 mm. The transmission line is assumed to support only one propagating mode.7 6'9 6. As a first example that illustrates the accuracy of the can be expressed as method described in the last section.2 . the current distribution on segment-] can be expressed as c a Y . Bzl) are equal to (1. B11.5 4 U w I I 1 + Measured [23] Present method N. I C = 0. The computed crostrip.7%) in the single layer cases. 4 to the results given in [ 171 and with the measurement 111. 43. NO. outlined above. .L Y . and p is propagation constant ( E ~ . . and that the two exponents are identical except for their sign difference. To determine the unknown coefficients. . B11) and (A21. characterizing the two-port network.I = 9 9. . we present some illustrative numerical results In this computation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Fig.the microstrip line is modeled with three transverse segments. and. 4. we consider the problem of modeling the discontinuity presented by the open end of a microstrip line. Phase of the reflection coefficient of an open microstrip line 2 reflected wave. respectively.27 mm.. . For this model. This procedure. since the reference plane is chosen to be sufficiently far away from the junction such that none of the higher-order modes are significant at the reference planes.I. .396 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES.7. The closed-form Green's with the measured data published in [24] to within 2% when functions used in this study are for general microstrip geome. and microstrip line-fed patch antennas. N= 1 .. we employ the Generalized Eigenvalue Method [23]. (ii) microstrip line with a right-angle bend. 3 . and the width of the microstrip line is w = 1. on segment-2. A .-l Ill(t) = -~ + IL(t) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ 3 1i i t 1 t +~ 3 Frequency (GHz) (6) = 1 2 7 mm. tries with a substrate and a superstrate of arbitrary thicknesses. First. (t) (7) 0 = AZle-JPJt BZ1. .. . (iii) results agree with those published in [I71 to within I%.1 . containing port-1 and port-2. . 2. d.219 mm. Unlike in the procedure described in [17]. Scattering Parameter Analysis 7. we write the current distribution on it as 1 2 1(t) = O L -5 + o -10 -15 -20 -25 Present method Measured [25] Computed [ 171 0 IL (t) + 1. Microstrip Open-End The four S-parameters. allows us to compute the propagation constant as well as the complex coefficients of the incident and reflected currents in the line segment.2%). . the difference beHowever. and 01 in (6).-l = 1. .=3 . Moving next to segment-2. respectively. and impose the constraint that the number of exponential terms representing the current distribution on the transmission line is only two. The which is the desired form we were seeking. Port-I is excited and the current distributions on segment-1 and segment-2 are computed.JJ3Jt + 5 10 I5 Frequency (GHz) 20 25 where A21 and B21 are the coefficients for the incident and Fig. n 7. . .1. and ( I & .g 6.~ = 0. effective dielectric constants are computed and compared in Fig. I i ) .7 and d. respectively. FEBRUARY 1995 B. (All. d . In this section.6033 inm). respectively. Effective dielectric constant of an open microstrip line ( r T l . the present method. At the reference planes. respectively.3 L Y Once the current distributions on the microstrip structure have been found. VOL. the line segments -1 and . and [ is propagation constant for the line segment.1 3 U . the dielectric constant of the superstrate is set to one tween the effective dielectric constants obtained by using one so that our results can be compared with published results for and three transverse segments is very small (less than 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION results from [24] (with graph reading errors of less than 0. the scattering parameters for general two port network can be computed by the following method. . Computed [17] .~ 9. = t c = 1 2 1 9 mm) where A l l and B11 are the coefficients for the incident and ? I reflected waves.was divided into 21 longitudinal segments. the half-wavelength long microstrip line for three microstrip configurations: (i) an open-ended mi.

I -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 0 2 4 6 Frequency (GHz) (a) 8 10 0 2 4 6 Frequency (GHz) 8 10 -80 L . 5. . and are shown in Fig. The dielectric constant and thickness of the substrate are ~ ~ =~ 9. as well as with the computed results given in [26].2. . a right-angled bend.6033 mm width. 5 1 and 6 as functions of frequency. I - + Present method I . I . The results obtained by using only one transverse segment are seen to compare very favorably with the measurements in 1171.08 dB. The dielectric constant of the medium and the thickness of the substrate are chosen ~ to be E ~ = 2. .Measured [26] Touchstone Present method I .: NUMERICALLY EFFICIENT ANALYSIS O F PLANAR MICROSTRIP CONFIGURATIONS 397 -10 0. Scattering parameter Sz1 for the right-angled bend.- . I I I * -25 10 . to = h 1 = 2 4 mm) Fig.-l = 0. respectively. 5 to the computations presented in [ 171.~ PARK et a/.2%. . and its phase to within approximately 2 degrees of the measured values. Microstrip Line With Right Angle Bend In the next example.2 mm and their widths are w = hz = 2.521 agrees with the measured data to within approximately 0. The lengths of the segments are L1 = L2 = 55. The scattering parameters obtained by the present method have ripples since the characteristic impedances of the line are calculated using an empirical formula based on a quasi-static approach.4 mm). The results obtained with our method agree with the quasistatic values. 1 can be obtained by using the procedure followed here without explicitly incorporating the edge condition..4 . and also to the measurements in [26]. / II \ ! .-l = 0 7844 mm. 6. t . . to = h. 6 shows that the magnitude of the computed . (b) phase ( ~ ~ ~= . B. The computed and measured scattering parameters for the right-angled bend in a microstrip line are plotted in Figs. I -130 -140 f1 0 r . d. To complete the demonstration of the numerical accuracy of this method. (a) magnitude. for (b) phase (E. The magnitude and phase of 5'11 are compared with the quasi-static values and the experimental results of Harms [27].2 ~and di-1 = 0. we consider a microstrip discontinuity problem.2. . d. / .7874 mm. For numerical computations.635 mm. The location of the current source is 4. with graph reading errors of less than 0. according to [25]. (a) magnitude.4 mm.. the half-wavelength long microstrip line is again divided into 21 longitudinal segments. Fig. respectively. requires approximately ten transverse segments for accurate modeling. The numerical results obtained with the present method are compared in Fig. these impedances. as well as with the experimental data (within the measurement uncertainty) throughout the frequency range of comparison..l = 2 2. which.7874 mm. I I 2 4 6 Frequency (GHz) (b) 8 0 2 4 6 Frequency (GHz) (b) 8 10 Fig 5 Scattering parameter SII the nght-dngled bend. # ! I ! .8 mm from the left edge of segment-1. the phase term of the reflection coefficient is computed for a microstrip line of 0. viz.9 and d.r = 2.-1 = 0.

patch antennas can be designed to radiate a circularly-polarized wave Fig. respectively. 8. published results. shown in Fig. the length La of the feed Next. (b) top view of the geometry in (a). In addition. to illustrate the versatility of our method we consider line is 35.62i C. As computed using the present method. VOL.6 mm from the left edge of the feed line. The input impedance.59 of left edge of the patch and the location of the tuning ~ ~ mm. 2. respectively.-l = 0. 7. Input impedance of a square microstrip antenna by making a judicious choice for the locations of the feed line and the tuning stub. 43. The width of the a radiation type problem involving a microstrip patch antenna.and the computed distribution remain essentially unaffected by the presence of results of Deshpande and Bailey (91. T - dfl I w T” k Lfl ! k Fig.6 mm. without and with the mm from the left edge of the feed line.9 the microstrip line-fed patch antenna. respectively. is compared in Fig. 8(b)). 9(a) and 10(a). In this example. 8. the dielectric constant and In the first study .01 cm 1 4. 7 with seen in Figs. Microstrip Line-Fed Patch Antenna and d.2 mm and the dimensions of the square patch The input impedance of a square patch fed by a microstrip are a = b = 28. The location of the current source is line at the center of one edge is computed and compared with 6. The magnitudes of the current distribution on are a = b = 40. It is evident that the the tuning stub. the width w of the feed line is 4.398 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. Both the feed line and the tuning stub are assumed to have open-ended terminations. FEBRUARY 1995 Microsmp feed line Z =50 R .55 and di-1 = 1. However. These types of configurations are particularly useful [28] for fine-tuning the resonant frequency of a microstrip patch antenna by changing the length of the tuning stub. differ slightly from example given below. which illustrates the use of the tuning the true characteristic impedance of the line.2 mm. tuning stub is 2.c-components of the current the experimental data given in Lo et al. The following parameters are used for the used as matched terminations at both ends. tuning stub. (a) Geometry of a microstrip-line-fed patch antenna with a tuning stub. 10(b) shows that the addition results obtained by using the present method are in excellent of the tuning stub induces a cross-polarization (y) component ~ . The dielectric constant of the medium and thickness of the substrate are ~ ~ = 2. the feed location is chosen at the center thickness of the substrate are E ~ = 2. 4. [ 5 ] . As a final example. stub in microstrip patch antenna design. The location of the source is 8.47 mm stub is moved from the top to the center of its right edge its length L = 116 mm. are shown in Figs. andor its location along the radiating edges of the microstrip patch. as well as other computed results over the frequency range of interest.2 mm and its width wfl is 2.794 mm. 9 and 10. NO. the .02 cm t feed line Z = 50 R . The dimensions of the square patch (see Fig.2 mm.02 cm 2. we present the results of our investigation of a microstrip-line-fed patch antenna with a tuning stub. Fig. agreement with the experimental.

Numerical results for a uniform line.(. .r.30 GHz. as seen in Fig.16 GHz. 11. (b) .6 mm. dts = 4. 0) and (0. = ~ ~ 2. = 3.62. Lts = 8.794 mm. The use of the closed-form spatial domain Green's functions in the MOM formulation significantly reduces the computation time in comparison to that needed in the conventional .Jg(r. which requires the computation of infinite integrals and is computer intensive.16 GHz. Magnitudes of the current distribution on the microstrip line fed patch antenna (a) . Freq. Freq = 3. Fig. f q t o p = 3. Magnitudes of the current distribution on the microstrip line fed y patch antenna with a tuning stub (a) Jr(.r = Dy = 2. the impedance locus exhibits a cusp-like behavior on the Smith Chart. : . spatial domain closed-form Green's functions have been employed for the analysis of a general class of microstrip structures.794 mm.4 mm.4 mm.2 mm.r = Dy = 2 . D. 1) modes can be excited simultaneously using a tuning stub. 9. 11. (a) Lts = 2.8 mm. d . when the CP condition is achieved. The analysis of the above patch antenna shows that the addition of a tuning stub is not only provides a convenient way to achieve fine tuning of the resonant frequency of the antenna.6 mm. . E .Jz(. as well the scattering parameter analysis for a microstrip line with a right-angle bend have been found to agree well with experimental results as well as with those published elsewhere. This leads us to conclude that both the (1.2 mm.62. y ) . 10. d. As is well known. Df = 0. ) .r.J. . Fig. The behavior of the input impedance of a microstrip-linefed patch antenna has been shown to agree closely with that computed by using the MOM approach in the spectral domain. but is useful for achieving circularly-polarized radiation from the antenna as well. y ) . (b) Lts = 4. in the patch current and excites a new mode along y. (b) .98 GHz.r. IV. y ) .-l = 0. CONCLUSION In this paper. (c) Lts = 6. 2 mm. D.01 GHz.I = 2. fstart = 2.6 cm. a b = 28. Input impedance of the microstrip line center fed square patch antenna witha tuning stub.PARK e / a/ NUMERICALLY EFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF PLANAR MICROSTRIP CONFIGURATIONS 399 (b) Fig. (I = h = 28.1 = 0. It should now be evident that we can achieve circular polarization (CP) by adjusting the length and location of the tuning stub until the magnitudes of the a:.and y-components become equal and their relative phase shift becomes 90".

vol. [26] G. Benedek. W. “Green’s functions analysis of planar circuits in a two-layer grounded medium. M.. 2. Michielssen. No.” IEEE Trans. Currentlv. P. He has published over 350 joumal papers and 20 books or book chapters on various topics related to electromagnetics. Sarkar. Richads. Deshpande and M. Fang. Microwave Theory Tech. Alonso-Monferrer. -. 135-143. and G. vol. frequency selective surfaces. vol. C. Katehi. Nov.” IEEE Trans. pp. 1981. 424-432.D. respectively. Oct. and the M. Eng.” IEEE Trans. H. D. “An accurate deembedding procedure for characterizing discontinuities. vol. 1992. Y. vol. R. Feb. Yang. E. Propagat. vol.” IEEE Trans. [23] T. 1982. I. H. Lo. vol. Benedek. vol. Propagar. K. “A rigorous dispersive characterization of microstrip cross and T junctions. Harokopus and P. Itoh. of Illinois. 1985. 1271 P.” in IEEE Group on Microwave Theory Tech.” IEEE Trans. and W. R. Gardiol. 1. FEBRUARY 1995 formulation carried out in the spectral domain. pp.. and Comp. D. 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James. 93 . a Past-President of AP-S.” IEEE Trans.’’ IEEE Trans. Dec. Univ. vol. 1979. 47-53. AP-27. L. pp. MTT-33. Eng. and M.. Park present research interests include numerical methods for electromagnetics. 1191-1 196.” Ph. “Segmentation method using impedance matrices for analysis of planar microwave circuits. H. Gronau and I.. MTT-40. “A simple broad-band device de-embedding method using automatic network analyzer with time-domain option. Silvester and P. Microwave Theory Tech. Microwave Theory Tech. vol.” IEEE Trans. Aug. vol.. Wolff. in a numerical experiment with 40 roof-top basis functions. 132. Dept. 1989. J. and I. C. Pt. A. Feb. J. 1968. 1988. “Efficient computations for a general microstrip geometry using closed-form spatial domain Green’s functions. 137-145. Antenn. Raj Mittra (S’S&M’57-SM’69-F’71) ia the Director of the Electromagnetic Communication Laboratory of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and Research Professor of the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois. 2058-2065. and crossings. 1981. which is a consulting organization providing services to several industrial and governmental organizations. vol. 1992. pp. pp. He has been employed by Human Devices.. pp. Jan. Los Angeles. Aksun and R. “Equivalent capacitance of microstrip open circuits. Tulyathan. D. microstrip antennas and electronic packing for high-speed digital interconnections.” IEEE Trans. 110-1 16. Silvester and P. 645-650. pp. E.. Pozar.” IEEE Trans. 2. N. MTT-40. Mar. MTl-22. R. pp. T-junctions. Degree in Electrical Engineering from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1984. 1991.. Pozar.. pp. Chandra and K.” IEEE Trans. 1837-1844. whereas 100-150 mins. 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