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DESIGN SHEET REMAINING POINTS OF DISCUSSION 4.1 Verification of the header plate in shear (gross and net section) and in bending 4.2 Header plates with more than two vertical bolt-rows 4.3 Requirements for sufficient ductility and rotation capacity WORKED EXAMPLE 5.1 5.2 5.3 Geometrical and mechanical data Joint shear resistance Shear design check




INTRODUCTION The present paper is a updated version of the fourth draft presented at the ECCS TWG10. while the present one refer to the latest version of prEN1993 Part 1. In order to facilitate the understanding of the proposed rules. an updated worked example is presented at the end of the paper. 197) in Ljubljana in April 2002. 174) has been presented and discussed at the ECCS TWG10. . All the discussion on weld design which took place in Coimbra are not yet included in the present document.8.3 meeting in Coimbra. The four first draft were referring to the ENV Version of EC3. The scope of the document has been extended to header plates with four bolt columns instead of two in the previous versions. The first version (Doc.3 Innsbruck in March 2001. the second draft (Doc.1. 189) in Timisoara in October 2002 and the third one (Doc.

SIMPLE JOINTS WITH HEADER PLATE CONNECTIONS 2. tp tf e1 p1 p1 e1 mp e2 e1 p1 p1 e1 e2 p 2 m p p 2 e2 Figure 1 Joint with header plate connection 2.1 Geometrical data In Figure 1.2 Notations . · … The design rules presented in Section 3 cover all these possible configurations. For the supporting member. different configurations may be contemplated: · Connection to a column flange. · Connection to a column web. the geometry of the joint is given. · Connection to a beam web.2.

cf and cw for respectively column flange and web) Yield strength of a steel element (index p for header plate. tbw for a beam web) Thickness of the supported beam web Ultimate strength of a steel element (index p for header plate.a bw A As d do fu. wb for beam web. cf and cw for respectively column flange and web) Shear force applied to the joint Shear resistance of the joint Design resistance in shear Partial safety factor for steel sections Partial safety factor for net section at bolt holes for bolts for welds for plates in bearing .Rd gM0 gM2 Throat thickness of the welds Correlation factor for the evaluation of the weld resistance Nominal area of a bolt Resistant area of a bolt Nominal diameter of a bolt shank Diameter of a bolt hole Ultimate strength of a bolt Yield strength of a bolt Total number of bolts Number of horizontal rows Number of vertical rows Longitudinal end distance Transverse end distance Longitudinal bolt pitch Transversal bolt pitch Distance between the bolt columns and the toe of the weld connecting the header plate to the beam web (definition according to EC3 Annex J) Height of the header plate Thickness of the header plate Gross shear area of the header plate Net shear area of the header plate Thickness of the supporting plate (tcf and tcw for respectively a column flange and web. wb for beam web.b n n1 n2 e1 e2 p1 p2 mp hp tp Av Avnet t tw fu fy VSd VRd Fv.b fy.


8 bolt grades : a v = 0. 5.Rd = k1 a b fup d t g M2 .0 ) 4 fup 3 d0 3 d0 Fb.4 in prEN 2002.6.Rd Fv.9 bolt grades : a v = 0.3.8 e2 .4 in prEN 2002) Supporting member in bearing VRd 3 = n Fb.8 and 10. 6. 1 .8 n Fv.1 .6 for 4.Rd k1 a b fup d t p g M2 p f e where ab = min ( 1 . 2 .Rd = k1 = min ( 2.5 · where the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt : A (gross cross area of the bolt) a v = 0. Header plate in bearing VRd 2 = n Fb.8. ub ou 1.6 according Table 3.1 .Rd Fb.7 . DESIGN SHEET: Resistance to shear forces Failure mode Bolts in shear Verification VRd 1 = 0.Rd = · a v fub A g M2 where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt : A = As (tensile stress area of the bolt) for 4.5 ) d0 (see Table 3.8. 5.6 and 8.

7 . with the added problem that the number of connecting bolts may differ for the left and right connections. 2 .0 ) 3 d0 4 fup e2 . to single-sided minor axis joints and to single-sided beam-to-beam joint configurations. Header plate in shear : Gross section VRd 4 = 2 hp tp 1.· when the supporting element is a column flange : t = tcf ab = min ( p1 1 fub .8 · when the supporting element is a column web : t = tcw ab = min ( p1 1 fub . ou 1. 2 .net = tp ( hp – n1 d0) Header plate in shear : Shear block VRd 6 = 2 Feff.7 .4 · when the supporting element is a beam web : t = tbw ab = min ( p1 1 fub . The calculation procedure may cover such cases without any particular difficulty. In the other cases.5 ) d0 k1 = min ( 2.1 ..27 f yp 3 g M0 f up 3 g M2 (2 sections) Header plate in shear : Net section VRd 5 = 2A v. the bearing forces result from both the left and right connected members.5 ) d0 k1 = min ( 2. ou 1.Rd (2 sections) Feff.Rd = fup Ant + 1 f yp Anv g M2 g M0 3 .1.8 The formula as it is written here applies to major axis beam-to-column joints (connection to a column flange). ou 1.1 ..5 ) d0 k1 = min ( 1.1. It could just bring some more complexity in the final presentation of the design with (2 sections) Av. 2 .0 ) 3 d0 4 fup e2 ..0 ) 3 d0 4 fup p2 .7 .1 .

4.10.with Ant = net area subjected to tension for one bolt vertical row (n2 = 2) : Ant = tp ( e2 – d0 ) 2 - for two bolt vertical row (n2 = 4) : Ant = tp ( p2 + e2 – 3 d0 ) 2 Avt = net area subjected to shear = tp ( hp – e1 – (n1 – 0.t w ) g M0 2 with Wel = tp h2 p 6 Beam web in shear VRd 8 = t w h p f ywb g M0 3 (clause 5.36 p2 : VRd 7 = ¥ · else : VRd 7 = 2 Wel f yp (p 2 .6 in Eurocode 3) .2 in prEN 2002) Header plate in bending · if hp ³ 1.5) d0 ) (see clause 3.

85 0.3 and Annex M in Eurocode 3) Shear resistance of the joint VRd =minVRdi i =1 8 .6.5.8 0.8 0.Welds in shear Minimum weld size to be selected: a > 0.9 0.4 t w bw 3 f ywb g M2 fuwb g M0 Steel grade EN 10025 EN 10113 Other cases S235 S275 S355 S235 S355 Ultimate strength fu 360 MPa 430 MPa 510 MPa 390 MPa 490 MPa Correlation factor bw 0.9 1 (clause 6.

27 Figure 3 Design criteria for header in shear and bending VSd . OUTCOME OF THE DISCUSSIONS IN Mpl Mel B EC3 plastic resistance criterion A Elastic zone Plastic zone 1 1 1 Vpl Vpl Vpl Vpl 2 1 .1 Verification of the header plate in shear (gross and net section) and in bending Only two figures are shown here to illustrate the problem (Figures 2 and 3) which has been extensively discussed in Innsbruck.4.5 1.3 ON SPECIFIC ITEMS 4. Anv Ant a – Shear (and possibly bending) in gross and net sections Figure 2 Critical sections in a header plate b – Block shear Mpl. Timisoara and Ljubljana.

). the check of the header plate based on a limitation of applied forces to Me. is kept in the design sheet. It should be discussed by TWG10. Proposal.2 Header plates with more than two vertical bolt-rows VSd/2 VSd/2 Figure 4 Header plate with two vertical bolt-rows In such situations.3: yes.Decision further to discussions in TWG10.and bending)? Decision further to discussions in TWG10.RD and (1/1. it can. . a proposal is made. in Annex A to the present document. the latter has been integrated in the design sheet for shear resistance (see 3. respectively for moment and shear. However a criterion should be given which defines a range of application where a simple shear check of the plate (applied force limited to Vpl) could be only performed. 4.3 in the Coimbra meeting.1) and applied in the worked example (see 5. it is assumed that the shear force VSd applied to the joint distributes into two forces VSd /2 located at the centre of gravity of the two bolt-groups connecting the header plate to the supporting element (see Figure 4).3. · Can the resistance of the header plate still be carried out as for header plates with two vertical bolt-rows (verifications in shear . it can.27)Vpl.3: yes.gross and net sections . This however raises some questions: · Can the shear resistance of the bolts still be checked by simply assuming that each individual bolt is subjected to a shear force equal to VSd /n. where n designates the total number of bolts? Decision further to discussions in TWG10. The lever arm used for the verification of the header plate in bending should however be taken as the distance between the critical section in bending and the centre of gravity of the bolt-group.

Its rotational stiffness. but also on the actual deformations of the joint constituents. Two different attitudes may be adopted as far as this aspect is concerned: · The joint is considered as semi-rigid. if such a contact takes place. . In other words. This means that the assumption that the beam is simply connected to the supporting element is potentially unsafe as the joint is subjected to a bending moment in addition to the shear force which is considered in the design procedure. the contact between the lower beam flange and the supporting member has to be strictly avoided (Figure 5). to check whether the risk of contact may be disregarded. It has been demonstrated that such an approach is safe as far as the joint possesses a sufficient rotation capacity. a compression force develops at the contact place. In order to derive a simple criterion that the user could apply. This approach is the more scientifically correct one. As a matter of fact. · Design requirements for sufficient rotation capacity The risk of brittle failure in the bolts or in the welds is reduced if the bending moment developing in the joint remains low. Joints like those studied in the present document undergo a significant internal rotation but transfer anyway a certain bending moment. before any calculation. requirements for sufficient ductility and rotation capacity have to be established to ensure an appropriate response of the simple joints. In order to achieve this goal in the particular case of simple joints with header plates. the following rough assumptions are made (see Figure 5): the supporting element remains undeformed. Only its design shear resistance has to be evaluated. design bending resistance and shear resistance have to be evaluated and the actual properties of the joint have to be explicitly taken into consideration in the frame and joint design and analysis process. to develop a certain bending moment) without being affected by a lack of ductility (mainly through the brittle failure of a weld or of a bolt). The level of rotation at which the contact occurs is obviously dependent on the geometrical characteristics of the beam and of the header plate. As a result. the joint has to be able to rotate sufficiently during the life of the structure (and therefore. and it is well understandable! The joint is assumed to be perfectly pinned. it is equilibrated by tension forces in the bolts and a significant bending moment develops.3 Requirements for sufficient ductility and rotation capacity Generals A simple joint is nothing else than an idealisation of the reality. in reality. but no doubt that few engineers will follow it in their daily practice.4. the centre of rotation of the beam is located at the lower extremity of the header plate.

On the basis of such assumptions. a simple criterion ensuring a sufficient joint rotation capacity may be derived. a safe estimation (i. It writes: t gpL3 > (3) he 24 EI Similar criteria may be derived for other load cases. .e. For the usual case of a beam (length L and inertia I) simply supported at its extremities and subjected to an uniformly distributed load (factored load gp at ULS). the required rotation capacity writes: gpL3 j required = (2) 24 EI By expressing that javailable > jrequired. a lower bound) of the so-called "available rotation of the joint" javailable may be easily derived: tp f available = (1) he hp he h tp Figure 5 Geometrical characteristics of the joint and illustration of the contact between the beam and the supporting element This available rotation has to be greater than the "required rotation capacity" which varies according to the structural system and loading.

thickness of the end plate or flange cleat leg.9 yp f ub tp f d ³ 1. under the action of the tension forces. its background is given in [12]. According this criterion. is of the same nature than the previous one (Formulae 4) but ensures that Mode 1 failure governs the behaviour of the plate (see [3]).a) (4. the plate will exhibit a significant deformation before the bolt fail in tension. And that is why a more restrictive criterion is here selected.8 f yp fub tp d ³2. such a criterion does not ensure that the whole shear capacity of the bolt may be considered when evaluating the shear resistance of the joint.Design requirements for sufficient joint ductility The joint deformation assumed in Figure 5 is far from being a realistic one. According to this criterion. design yield strength of the end plate material. a criterion is given which allows to verify that. as already said. f ysu : Obviously. the bolts and the welds are subjected to tension forces in addition to shear forces.9 ysu f ub t su (4. at least one of the two following inequalities has to satisfied: d f ³ 1. bending moments develop in the joint and.b) where: d f yp f ub tp tsu : : : : : nominal diameter of the bolt. In reality. Simple related criteria should also be proposed.8 f ysu fub tsu (5. Criterion to avoid premature bolt failure because of tension forces In [11].b) . ultimate tensile strength of the bolt material.a) (5. design yield strength of the column flange. This one. at least one of the two following inequalities has to satisfied: d ³2. The premature failure of these elements which exhibit a brittle failure and which are more heavily loaded in reality than in the calculation model has therefore to be strictly avoided. thickness of the column flange. which is directly extracted from the revised Annex J of Eurocode 3. as a result.

for such a tension force. it is agreed to take this reduction into consideration by multiplying the total resistance of the bolts in shear by a factor 0. i.8). This looks at first side to be quite disappointing as the user tries to maximise the shear resistance of the joint. A full-strength weld is therefore recommended. the following rule may be applied to estimate the weld resistance per unit length (see Annex B): VRd. Criterion to avoid premature weld failure because of tension forces Decision further to discussions in TWG10.e.64] » 0.8 0. 50% of the tension resistance of the bolts.Rd.6.3 and Annex M in Eurocode 3.3. and are therefore not subjected to tension forces. it may be demonstrated : · · that the tension force in the bolts amount 0.64 for half of the bolts located in the upper half of the header plate – 0.8 0. a reduction factor of 0. Hereunder such provisions are proposed for discussion in Coimbra. In TWG10. a reduction of the resistance of the joints when the "bolts in shear" is the governing failure mode is not welcome. as the others are located in a compression zone.[1 + 0.Unfortunately.9 0. According to clause 6. it could be argued that only the bolt located in the upper half of the header plane are concerned by such a reduction.9 1 . that. (6) Steel grade EN 10025 EN 10113 Other cases S235 S275 S355 S235 S355 Ultimate strength fu 360 MPa 430 MPa 510 MPa 390 MPa 490 MPa Correlation factor bw 0.Annex M = 2a fuwb g M2 bw 3 ( 2 welds).e.5.3: clear provisions should be given to ensure no brittle failure in the welds actually subjected to shear and bending stresses. Obviously. the shear resistance only amounts 64% of the full shear resistance of the bolts according to the EC3 resistance formula for bolts in shear and tension.8 (i. An easy way to avoid the brittle failure of the web is to design the latter so that the failure occurs by yielding in the beam web and not in the weld.5Bt. Anyway. when this requirement is satisfied.85 0.5.

Steel grade (EN 10025) S235 S275 S355 amin (gM2=1. By applying this principle to the present situation.8 3 ywb M2 fuwb g M0 and a significantly lower weld size is to be recommended (see Table 2).5 t w bw 3 ywb M2 fuwb g M0 Values of amin derived by means of Equation (8) are listed in Table 1 for different steel grades. Annex M is higher than: f VRd.514 tw 0.535 tw 0. web = t w ywb g M0 (7) Then the minimum value of the throat thickness to get full strength welds may be derived as follows: f g (8) a > 0.25.5 t w bw 0.At first sight.1) 0. the full strength condition requires that VRd. gM0=1. it is stated that the requirement for full strength will be satisfied if the design of the weld is not less than 80% of the design resistance of the weakest of connected parts”.617 tw Table 1 Minimum weld size according EC3 Annex M But a less conservative approach may be followed by recognising. Equation (8) becomes : f g a > 0. that: “In Eurocode 3 (Version of April 1990). (8) . as in [14].

.25.428 tw 0. gM0=1.1) 0.411 tw 0.493 tw Table 2 Minimum weld size according EC3 Annex M This last approach is suggested in the present design recommendations.Steel grade (EN 10025) S235 S275 S355 amin (gMw=1.

00 = 53.83 = 3692.00 = 10.70 = 15. S 235 p2 e2 Configuration Column Beam Type of connection Header plate Detailed characteristics Column HEA 200.81 = 8356.50 = 200.00 = 7.5. S235 Depth Thickness of the web Width Thickness of the flange Root radius Area Inertia Yield strength Ultimate strength Beam IPE 300.10 = 150.00 = 6.00 = 18.11 mm mm mm mm mm cm² cm4 .00 = 53.00 Depth Thickness of the web Width Thickness of the flange Root radius Area Inertia h tw bf tf r A I = 300.00 fu = 360.16 mm mm mm mm mm cm² cm4 N/mm² N/mm² fy = 235.00 = 10. S235 h tw bf tf r A I = 190.1 Geometrical and mechanical data e1 M20 HEA200 IPE300 p1 p1 e1 Main joint data e2 Beam to column flange HEA 200 S 235 IPE 300 S 235 Header plate connection 230x200x10. WORKED EXAMPLE 5.

00 p1[1] = p1[2] = e1n = 45.00 lw = 230.00 230. 8.00 640.00 mm mm mm mm Number of bolts rows Edge to first bolt row distance Pitch between bolt row 1 and 2 Pitch between bolt row 2 and 3 last bolt row to edge distance n1 = 3 e11 = 45.00 200.00 mm mm Direction perpendicular to Load transfer (2) Number of bolts rows Edge to first bolt row distance Pitch between bolt row 1 and 2 last bolt row to edge distance Yield strength Ultimate strength Bolts M20.8 n2 = 2 e21 = 50.00 mm² mm mm N/mm² N/mm² Welds Throat thickness of the weld Length of the weld aw = 4.00 mm mm .00 fypl = 235. S 235 fy = 235.00 10.00 800.00 fu = 360.00 mm N/mm² N/mm² mm Resistant area Diameter of the shank Diameter of the holes Yield strength Ultimate strength Asb = db = d0b = fyb = fub = 245.00 mm 70.00 fupl = 360.00 N/mm² N/mm² Vertical gap Depth Width Thickness Direction of load transfer (1) gv hp bp tp = = = = 35.Yield strength Ultimate strength Header plate 230x200x10.00 mm 70.00 mm 100.00 p2[1] = e2n = 50.00 20.00 22.

10 1.10 1.Safety factors gM0 gM1 gM2 = = = 1.25 Applied shear force VSd = 200 kN .

8 e2 / d0 – 1.5 = 20.5) = 2.Rd= av A fub / gM2 = 94.00 mm k1 d .1/4 = 0.73 kN a a1 a2 = min(a1 .66 .00 mm = 10.5) = 2.68 = e1 / 3d0 = 0. a3 .09 kN n =6 Fb. 2.6 av A = As = 245.5) = min(4.7 .66 .5.Rd= k1 ab d tp fup / gM2 = 98.5) = min(4.00 N/mm² = 360.5 = 20.Rd = 451.22 = min(2.8 n Fv. a2 .00 N/mm² VRd2 = n Fb. 2.Rd= k1 ab d tcf fucf / gM2 = 116.7 .36 kN n=6 Fb.00 mm = 800.8 e2 / d0 – 1.Rd = 700.1/4 = 0.58 kN n =6 Fv.81 = fub / fup = 2.81 = p1 / 3d0 .08 kN = 0.81 = fub / fucf = 2. 2.00 mm² fub Header plate in bearing = 800. a2 . 1 ) = 0. 1) = 0.00 N/mm² k1 d tp fub fup Column flange in bearing VRd3 = n Fb.22 = min(2.18 kN ab a1 a2 a3 = min(a1 .68 = p1 / 3d0 . 2.Rd = 589.2 Joint shear resistance Bolts in shear VRd1 = 0.

33 kN Feff.00 mm tp = 10.66 kN Ant = tp ( e2 .00 mm e1 = 45.d0/2 ) = 390.40 cm² hp = 230.27 3 gM0) = 223.39 kN Fv.00 mm n1 = 6 d0 = 22.00 mm fyp = 235.00 N/mm² fup = 360.Rd = 545.00 N/mm² fucf = 360.1.Rd = fup Ant / gM2 + fyp Anv / ( 3 gM0 ) = 272.69 kN = ( hp .00 mm fup = 360.Rd = Av fyp / (1.Rd = 446.1.00 N/mm² Shear block of the header plate VRd6 = 2 Feff.00 N/mm² Gross section of the header plate in shear VRd4 = 2 Fv.00 mm fub = 800.00 N/mm² Net section of the header plate in shear VRd5 = 2 Fv.n1 d0 )tp = 16.00 mm d0 = 22.00 mm Anv = tp ( hp – e1 – ( n1 – 0.00 cm² fyp = 235.38 kN Av = hp tp = 23.75 kN fup / ( 3 gM2 ) = 272.00 mm e2 = 50.00 N/mm² .00 mm² n1 = 3 hp = 230.00 mm² tp = 10.5 ) d0 ) = 1300.tcf = 10.Rd = Av.Rd = 545.

00 N/mm² Welds in shear amin = 0.3 Design check Applied shear force: Shear resistance: VSd VRd = 200 kN = 201.K.Rd = 201.42 kN Fv.80 as a = 4.Rd = Av fywb / ( 3 gM0) = 201.364 p2 = 136.4 t w bw 3 f ywb g M2 = 2.40 mm ® hp > 1.00 mm 1. . then a > amin Joint shear resistance Shear resistance of the joint VRd = 201.1 mm fywb = 235.33 cm² fywb = 235.00 N/mm² bw ® = 0.42 kN Þ Design O.Header plate in bending VRd7 = ¥ Beam web in shear hp = 230.92 mm fuwb g M0 tw = 7.42 kN Av = hp tw = 16.00 N/mm² fuwb = 360.00 mm.42 kN Failure Mode: Beam web in shear 5.364 p2 VRd8 = Fv.

July 2000. French NAD for EUROCODE 3: Calcul des structures en acier. J. ENV 1993-1-1. Part 1. n° 6. A. Revised Annex J : Joints in building frames of Eurocode 3. G. K. Final draft (forthcoming ECCS publication from TC10). Düsseldorf. Gresnigt. Anno XLII. J. NEN 6770 Staalconstructies TGB 1990. Weynand.P. S. NEN 6770 : Nederlands Nonnalisatie Instituut. Ph. Department MSM. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] . ENV 1993-1-1 : 1992/A2. October 1998.SCI : Joints in Simple Construction. Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: hot rolled section.Oerder : « Typisierte Anschlüsse im Stahlhochbau ». CEN Bruxelles.: "Etude de la semi-rigidité des assemblages poutre-colonne et de son influence sur la résistance et la stabilité des ossatures en acier". Rivista Italiana della Saldatura. D.6. volume 1 : Design Methods. : “Calculation of fillet welds in Eurocode 3”. Department MSM.: "Recent advances in the field of steel joints. EUROCODE 3 ENV : Design of steel structures. Professorship Thesis. ECSC Research Contracts 7210-SA/212 and 320: "Frame Design including Joint Behaviour". Second Edition. 1993-1996.P. 1993. Dec 1992. Sedlacek.M. basiseisen. BCSA . 2000. Stahlhbau-Verglagsges. REFERENCES [1] GUILLAUME Marie-Laure Development of an European procedure for the design of simple joints (in French).SCI : Joints in Simple Construction. 1997. November-december 1990. Report SG/TC-1OA : Verbindingen : Aanbevelingen voor normaalkrachtverbindingen en dwarskrachtverbindingen. Eyrolles 1996. Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. BS 5950 : « British Standard: Structural use of steelwork in building ». Diploma work. Jaspart.Thesis. University of Liège. University of Liège / CUST Clermont-Ferrand. University of Liège. ENV 1993-1-1 : 1992 E. DSTV. avril 1998. BCSA . P 22-311-0. Jaspart. Column bases and further configurations for beam-to-column joints and beam splices". 1991. Partie 1-1: Règles générales et Règles pour les Bâtiments. volume 2 : Practical Applications.