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BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY
1 X
E. AASSISTANT IN

WALLIS BUDGE,
THE DEPARTMENT OF ORIENTAL

M.A. (CANTAB.)
ANTIQUITIES,

BRITISH

MUSEUM

THIRD EDITION

WITH MANY ILL USTRA TIONS

THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY
56

PATERNOSTER ROW, 65

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We to have recourse to whatever contemporaneous records we can find for the explanation of the history of the time which is not clearly stated in the Bible. starting with every the time of their occurrence. in a small compass. THE following pages have been written with the view of offering to the Bible student. letters altered or erased. . additions inserted. writings possess one wonderful attri they are records of events written at Manuscript histories can be tampered with. and. thing correct. a little of the history of Babylon. her thought. The cuneiform bute. a careless scribe will make mistakes that For after generations will never be able to put right. and manners. When they wrote. and consequently the means whereby he may understand better some of the allusions of . they knew they were addressing a nation fully acquainted with the knowledge necessary for the understanding of inhabitants of the West are obliged their words. whole parts cut out. religion.INTRODUCTION. Conse quently the notices of Bible events and Bible history which are obtained from the nation which had so much to do with the Jews are of particular value. and that is.the prophets and Bible historians.

difficult. unaffected by the hand of slowly but surely destroying Time. crumble away slowly. in cuneiform decipher is much that is still body of cuneiform scholars is working hard to clear up these doubts. because they have been buried under the dust and dirt of centuries. when they dry. example. and in many cases the sharp edge of the writing has been sadly rubbed. are written in such a way as to prove that the scribe cannot have understood what he was Fortunately. Very much that has been done ment is quite certain. out of the reach of the hands alike of the destructive Arab and Tourist/ and. documents have been rendered impossible. being The writing is complex and peculiarly hard to copy. When the tablets are dug up they are wet and fall they often into dust or brittle. and even whole chapters.6 INTRODUCTION. there will be very little in it unknown. The decipherment of the clay tablets is not by any means easy. while the wedge itself is partly or wholly filled in with dust and silica. alterations in these cuneiform writing. which have recently been brought to England from Babylon and Sepharvato. on which we may find the words explained which at present are unknown. the unbaked. but there uncertain. little patience and forbearance too from those who are sceptical as to the results obtained from cuneiform decipherment are necessary when cuneiform has been studied as long as Greek and Latin. words. We greatly need more sylla baries and bilingual tablets. in the oldest Egyptian papyri. The small A . . in a measure. some of which day by day disappear.

religion. but the more Assyrian is studied the more will it be evident how well and thoroughly the early labourers in the field of Assyrian research did their work. and it carries us back through the long dark vista of us to know . and the thought of the haughty Nebuchadnezzar it has given us some of the beliefs. . and it is upon the broad ijll foundation laid down by these scholars that every one else has built. remains to be done for Assyrian grammar and lexico graphy. for in many cases . superstitions. Sargon. and Esarhaddon . and Oppert. The general system and plan of work thought out by Sir Henry Rawlinson. When new texts are brought to light it is very probable that alterations in mir ideas respecting the exact signification of some words will have to take place . the friend of God . Norris. Tiglathit has revealed to us Pileser. learning. main It is true that much structure of the interpretation. Hincks. 7 and discussions among Assyriologists occasionally appear in English and foreign journals should not be used as an argument against differences The which the general truth of the decipherment of the Assyrian inscriptions. it has brought us face to face with Sennacherib. the home. never be overthrown. the language.they only deal with philological details which in no wise affect the. and wisdom of the fellow . it has caused intimately a branch of the great Semitic race akin to the Jewish nation from which sprang the Christ. tions See what the decipherment of the Assyrian inscrip has already done for Bible history It has told us it has of the land of Abraham us a version of the given story of the flood it has told us of Babylon and Nineveh I . his and immediate followers. . citizens of Abraham.INTRODUCTION.

. 240. The Assyrians $nd Babylonians kept a good and strict reckoning of events others.the Bible are now made clear. in my opinion. necessary to refer here to the inscription of of Sippara. In favour of the inscription there are many points among .8 INTRODUCTION. and to state plainly that the A opinions of Assyriologists are divided as to its antiquity. although future discoveries may prove them to be right. The meanings of many as are also the titles of the names of the cities and countries mentioned in . Die JCeilinschnftm und das AU& Testament) p. deeply learned French scholar denies that the first of the latter character in the form this name is rightly read. the 1 Schroeder. meanings of the names of the kings and Thus. which they briijg agrees. and says that the name is not what it should be and with . and step by step was slowly centuries advancing to civilization. Nebuchadnezzar is Nebo pro ( landmark/ Nabopolassar is Nebo protects the son/ Nabuzaradan is Nebo gave a seed. Sargon is the established king/ Esarhaddon is Assur gave a brother/ tects the c c Sennacherib Pileser is is confidence is f the moon-god increases brothers/ Tiglathis the son of the Sharra temple */ Chedorlaomer is chief of the princes/ Tartan the landmark of Lagamar/ Rabshakeh is the mighty son/ and so on. It is Sargon I. of officers. form of the characters of the inscription and the inscription itself. forward are not conclusive. and shadowy time to a period when mankind was learning its letters. and above all the date given by Nabonidus in his cylinder. statement a famous English Assyriologist The arguments. however.

a land given over to a its superstition. a nd want. the utterly corrupt and debased form of ancient pagan religion. closed. the ancient highways of the country are empty. with its belief in genii. It is a land with no cities . 9 and their general correctness goes to show that is no reason to doubt the accuracy of the state ment of Nabonidus. I I for evidence to the contrary can be brought for one will cheerfully give up the belief in what fact. I think that the evidence we have leads one to the conclusion that the inscription is of the period of about B. Moreover. . If in future days new inscriptions come to light. and scarcity are the kings of the land to-day. and the makers have passed away together with their works. the date is found on more than one cylinder clearly and carefully written. But now . its temples desolate. now think a The land that is to-day a howling wilderness was once a flourishing country its cities were queens.INTRODUCTION. The king could have no object in giving a false an there tiquity to his kingdom. or rather . past. cities are ruined. in limiting it to the time of Naram-Sin and Sargon I. their gods broken.C. and sufficient ward. ghosts. 3800. if he had wished merely to say that his kingdom existed for ever? Finally. its emporiums are share in the world s progress. There were kings of Babylon before this time why then did he choose these two monarchs. European travellers tell of the desola its and misery of the land the wretched Arab prowls around the mounds which are the ruins of the former tion . What was good in it has ghouls. when he might have chosen others of greater antiquity. misery. and their inhabitants were the richest of the rich. and monsters.

for reading the proof-sheets of the book. of the British Museum. the space little to the take the opportunity of expressing my obligations to every scholar who may find his work used or quoted. As new will E. 14. are also due to Dr. and. as allowed would not admit of it. .10 departed. and its glory has perished. has forsaken In this it. Richard Garnett. new facts be brought to light. My thanks and for his thoughtful suggestions. however. and it is hoped that these will be embodied in this work from time to time. with its INTRODUCTION. God it is the home of the satyr and the screech-owl. excavations are made in Babylon. its power. A. The 1 wood devil* dances there. and its glory. 1 Isaiah xxxiv. WALLIS BUDGE. might. been made I book but few references by name have works of other Assyrian scholars. as Isaiah prophesied. Here.

CONTENTS. campaigns . names. .. wrote an account of them. capital city. Its name.. CHAPTER I. Its \valls and their discussion thereon... great temples of Babylon. Names of Babylon in the in Its old name.. line 53. Sippara the Biblical Sepharvaim. I. and walls... Meaning of their names. . The statement of Herodotus about Babylon. from derived Extent of country. authors as to its size Views of other Classical and extent. River Tigris and Nineveh 17 CHAPTER II. Meaning of Babel. Nebuchadnezzar s prayer.. .. Want of definite history concerning his Syrian. PAGE Babylonia. Their Plajn of JDuru the same as the plain of Dura of colours. Nebuchadnezzar s buildings. Talmudic Its size.Its Euphrates. Translation of a long Nebuchadnezzar inscription obtained from two barrel cylinders in the British Museum. . Its great antiquity. Babylon andBorsippa according Their bad name among the Jews. Remains of to the Talmud. He The two Daniel. defences. . Babylon. Comparison of these Temple of Jupiter Belus. houses. . name and meaning. BABYLON ACCORDING TO THE CLASSICAL AUTHORS.. etc. Birs-Nimrud the siteiof Borsippa. Its situation. accounts with those of the cuneiform inscriptions. streets.. Nebuchadnezzar List of temples of rebuilt the Tower of Babel. col.. The tower in seven stages. Nebuchadnezzar used cedar covered with gold for the ceilings of his temples. BABYLON ACCORDING TO THE CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. Name scriptions and their meanings. Inscriptions of this monarch near Riblah.. Its gates.. Extract from East India House inscription. 29 .

Revival of commerce in Babylonia. The Assyrians kept a strict^. The eponym canon.-. boast of the The. BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM Rise of the Assyrian Empire under Rimmon-Nirari.Sennacherib His wars with Merodach-Baladan. damage Rabshakeh. PACK Method of reckoning time in use among the Babylonians. the good His canal. B. Image of calculations by the 34 CHAPTER IV. inscription to be dated. Inscription of Sargon I. Rise of the Jewish power under David and Solomon. B. canon. Sir H. the kind and merciful king. B. His care for the libraries. Shalmaneser II. Abraham. who reigned 3200 years before his time. Extract from inscription of Nabonidus. His hunting expeditions in Pileser I. Babylonians ma. his good policy. CHAPTER III. Assurnasirpal. 1330. Fall of The vengeance of the Babylonians. 1330-668. His respect for the Babylonian temples.de their Nabonidus mentions help of astronomy.J2 CONTENTS. Rawlinson s discovery. 67 . Sennacherib s death. Translation of his inscription. Rimmon-Nirari I. Assurbanipal s wars with Elam.. caused his Extract from eponym of events.C.. NEBUCHADNEZZAR.gt. 1330.The destruction of slt Jerusalem and captivity of its f Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel. Ur-Bagas. a 668-560. king of Assyria. Sargon against Ashdod. account the goddess Nana. 3800-1330.C. Terrible to buildings and libraries. Contract tablets dated in his king. Esarhaddon. Josiah. Contract tablets. Nebuchadne^zfirs buildings and canals. Legend about Sargon. The bronze gates of Balawat.C. Ismi-Dagan. king of Judah. The Inscription on a bronze step of Tyre. Sennacherib destroys Babylon.C. B. THE FALL OF NINEVEH. Hezekiah and Merodach-Baladan. Naram-Sin. ? . Lebanon. Extent of his empire. Wai:. and Methuselah found on the tablets l&amp. 3800. 46 - CHAPTER V. BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM ABOUT B.C. Tribute of Jehu. Babylonian kings Naram-Sin. Trans lation of an inscripti on in Babylonian . The kings his suc reign. cessors. Wars between the Assyrian and of Assyria sends the Tartan Babylonian kings. B..Nebuchadnezzar s Nraeveli. TiglathHis immense kingdom. with the Egyptians. Dungi. Hammurabi. and others.. Biblical names of Adam pwteflt Abel. Libit-Istar.. . Tablet giving list of kings after the flood . 1 .

Bible account of the fall of Babylon. The signs. Bilingual lists of words. Rise. of Babylon.. and texture. size. Comets&quot. List of months. PAGE Rab-Mag. pictures. Extract from a table of cube matics. Babylonian astronomy. Cambyses. His His restoration of the. Babylonian observatories. tablets. Sir Henry Rawlinson s trans Darius. BABYLON UNDER THE RULE OF THE PERSIANS. Part of cuneiform Translation of it. Babylon under Philip and Alexander the Great. Death of the mother of Nabonidus. written. Chief events of the years of the reign of Nabonidus. Nabonidus.CONTENTS. . kindness to the Jews. His conciliatory policy. Translations of their reports.C. master of the army. His cylinder. Prophecies relating to its fall 90 CHAPTER VIII. Arrival of Cyrus at Babylon. in syllabaries in Polyphony of the characters. colour. His restorations of the temples. Comparison which the characters were Cuneiform signs were once Compound roots. Babylon under the Persians. Confirmation of the decree of Cyrus. Ma&quot. cities and temples. 13 CHAPTER VI. Extract from an inscription of this monarch. THE CUNEIFORM ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE OF BABYLON BY CYRUS. of Darius to the Jews. Gradual decay historical cuneiform inscriptions after this period. THE CAUSES WHICH LED TO IT. Invention of the calendar. Cyrus. Their shape. Xerxes gave the Jews permission to build the walls of Jerusalem. the good king. Babylonian wedge-writing.gical Eclipses. Nabonidus a sun-worshipper. Cyrus the shepherd. His researches. text relating to the capture of Babylon. B.. Belief in evil spirits Incantations. king of Babylon. kings of Babylon. Kindness Extract therefrom. two and three columns. AND UNDER SELEUCUS. 560-530. Babylonian mathe Their method of counting. Method of making tablets. Seleucus. The proclamation of Cyrus to the Jews. Lack of Extract from an inscription of Antiochus. Bilingual reading books. Belshazzar s feast 76 CHAPTER VII. BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE. and Belshazzar. Names of gods to whom they were dedicated. Manner of signs. of his power. and Gomates.. lation of the Behistun Inscription. Writing instrument.

Anu. Discovery of cylinder tablet.14 CONTENTS. etc. Translation of a Babylonian boundary stone or Nabonidus. landmark. Commerce. etc. Nebo. containing 1. Ea Ea received through Marduk taught men learning and knowledge. land of no return. Nergal. of the Creation. Omen tablets. prototype of the Babylonian seal giving representation of it. the saviour of mankind. the and maker of The ship of Ea. Cremation. His weapons Tablet representing worship thereof. Reading Babylonians good builders and writing.Translations of nail marks. Babylonian names. Great current in the time of Isaiah.. Hymns to the sun. Babylonian belief in spirits. the lady of war. sent to do battle with hen. The banking firm of Egibi and Son. number of sides. The belief degenerated. Babylonian Trinity. The latest dated contract importance of these dated documents. The seven evil spirits.War. RELIGION. Sun-god worship. religion into Marduk. The fight. Marduk. Sin. and Rimmon. Ninip. the son of Ea. ^&quot. Gistubar legends 104 CHAPTER THE BABYLONIAN IX. Description of hell. Her address to Esarhaddon.Text of a contract tablet. rag. all things* Ea the supreme god. Hymn originator to Istar. the Tiamat Her rebellion against the gods. Standard inscription. Marduk. Temptation of Adam. Contract tablets. the c old serpent/ the devil. BABYLONIAN LIFE AND ART. Babylonian hell and heaven.300 lines. Extract therefrom. two slave contracts. and power. 125 CHAPTER X. the moon-god. Oppert s translation of it Translation of contract tablet of the xyth year of Translation. of Assurbanipal. The Slavery. Istar. and Bel. the son of Ea. Tiamat. PAGE Seals of witnesses. Ea..His armour. their shape. Engrav148 . Portents. Babylonian account The penitent sinner . Phoenician and Greek signatures. Dr. Religion? duties of great importance. the prayers of man. Her two forms. Cylinders. Paraphrase of the Babylonian account. Difficulty of reducing their a system. Their pure Greeks borrowed from their myths. Enjoyments of the Babylonian after death. Her search after Tammuz in Hades..

About B. B. king of Babylon. bearing the name of 71 7r Nebuchadnezzar Bronze Step (?) of Nebuchadnezzar II. The Fight between Merodach Stone object bearing the Contract Tablet and its (Bel) and the Dragon [Frontispiece]. Rassam Inscription Found at Abti-Habbah (Sepharvaim) by 51 on the edge of the Bronze Step. king (about).LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. C.C. name of Sargon. Mr. 3800 40 43 Case. king of Persia 77 by Cyrus 83 99 Terra-cotta Cylinder of Antiochus.C.. B. 1120 of recording a grant of privileges to Ritti-Marduk. accession year of Neriglissar. 2300 Stone object containing an Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar L. BIT-KARZIYABKU. bearing the name of Rim-Sin. king of Babylon Terra-cotta Cylinder containing the History of the Capture the Great. B. king of Sippara. Scene from the so-called e king adoring the Sun Babylonian Seals s disk or Sun-god Tablet/ representing image. 280-261 priests .. H.C. dated 8th day of Babylonian Contract Tablet with Seal-impressions. B. 900 and 133 I 53 . of Babylon Sebat. c.

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no doubt. Names of Babylon in the inscriptions and capital city. Its name. Their colours etc. were the only nations who Jiave left definite traces of their very early civilization. Babylonia. He wrote an account of them. . River Tigris and Nineveh. it must have been at a time when all the nations around were in a state of rude barbarism. Meaning of their names. Translation of a long Nebuchadnezzar inscription obtained from two barrel cylinders in the British Museum.Name derivedfrom Its old name. Euphrates. Its name and meaning. Its great antiquity. and had already become a settled empire. Its situation. col. No Babylon began its . Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the Tower of Babel. I. at a period involved and shrouded in the mists of antiquity. Talmudic discussion thereon. Extent of country.BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. -. judging by the evidence gained from the inscriptions. Babylonians and Egyptians. Its size. List of Temples of Babylon. but. CHAPTER . Egypt existed. Its walls and their names. Meaning of Babel. B existence. The two great temples of Babylon. and its people had reached a remarkably high state of civiliza At present is seems as if these two peoples. Remains of Nebuchadnezzar* s buildings. Babylon and Their bad name among the Jews. line 53. Borsippa according to the Talmud. the city of exact date can be assigned to this event. Plain of Duru the same as the plain of Dura of Daniel. The tower in seven stages. very far back. Sippara the Biblical Sepharva im. L BABYLON ACCORDING TO THE CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. their meanings. the tion. Birs-Nimrud the site of Borsippa. Nebuchadnezzar s prayer.

^jj^^y-fcjjiy &amp. The form o^r 4 Babylon J3at&amp. that is.gt. the place which gate -H of god + the place. and the 43rd and 5 ist degrees of longitude. quite true that it can mean hollow/ but the Babylonian meant that it was the most important dwelling-place in the world. Kasdim of the Old Testament. that is. South and North Babylonia. first name reads KA DINGIRRA Kl. the Hittites from Heth. in &amp. They are as follows by : & Stf 2.^ Assyrian A 53 The 4 . The name Babylonia is derived from its capital city. bab Hani and bti&rilu respectively. the metropolis of the universe. the wood of life. i. and the fourth is ^Iways added fcfixsjc name of a country. par the house It is according to others.lt. excellence-. The two forms of the name given under No. 22.1 8 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY.e. and many others. The mere look of the name 1 and means. Its old I. . What its extent was in the very early days of its career is unknown. just as the theirs from Eber. The third is E KI. They took their ancestor called name from an Hebfews took Chesed 1 . Still more anciently it was designated the two names Sumir and Akkad. i. In later days Babylonia was comprised between the 3oth and 36th parallels of latitude. in fact.a representation of a gate with its posts and bars. xxii. according to some scholars. the city. Babylon. the hollow. 3. the name was Kaldu. 4 are simply translations of No.$| 1 Gen. e.Jg[ . the third is the sign of genitive case. the people were called Kaldai. second represents a star. and are read. meaning is the The second name reads TINTIR gate of God. is called by various names in the inscriptions. tells what it means. The first sign &. Ki.lt.

Rabbi 3 replied. 2. Only one thing is certain. The outer wall is said to have been built by Belus. Why is c Babylon so called ? was asked. It be remembered that in a Talmudic discussion the question. made a pun upon the history of the matter is that the Semites the name of the city. fTThe* city was surrounded by two walls. 1 Lam. are given the suburbs of the city are probably taken into consideration. Every historian differs as to his measurements. will because the confusion of tongues took place there. 19 in our Bibles translation of is derived from the the Akkadian ka e dingirra-ki. above Borsippa. then the It has been generally stated that Babylon gate of God/ means confusion/ but the inscriptions prove this to be 3 incorrect in . as will be seen in the following chapter when huge numbers . to mix/ and from this word they derived the name Babylon. and that is that it was of enormous extent. They are mentioned by Herodotus.CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. Because it is confused in Scripture. Babylon or Babilum (in Assyrian) means. River Euphrates. the other Nimitti-Bel. commonly met with Assyrian Semitic . ill 6. And the Rabbi explained the words dark places in the verse He nath set me in dark places 1 / by saying that it meant the doctrine of Babel/ Johanan e c c gate of God is the designation (among of the city from the earliest to the latest times others) The name upon the monuments. the one called Imgur-B^l. which means to confuse. There is a root Hebrew. and in Talmud. and repaired by NebuchadnezzarJ The following cylinders which is came a translation made from two barrel to the British Museum in 1878. B . in Mishnah. dwelling-place of the god Bel/ Babylon was situated uponf tfefe It was called M% and the town tf Marduk/ size of Unfortunately no very trustworthy account of the Babylon has come down to us. bdlal.

the 3. n. fiis supreme fortress. 10. the 5. . temples 14. 30.never had any king predecessor 34* Ttie qasty (jof the fortress). its ditch (moat). [the walls] 17. . Upon the threshold of its great gates. Imgur-Bel. it will give an idea of the extent of the works under taken by Nebuchadnezzar the Great. the citadel his my my my judge.0. exalted prince. the worshipper of the god Marduk. 16. the beloved of the god Nebo. the who 7. % mighty lords (gods) and [images] of poisonous snakes I set up. a$. trust in Marduk. unwearied prince of the gate.20 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. then caused me to hold firmly 12. the 6. aa. I put lord. the wMoti . supreme lord. tie my begetter. $. my made. who causes the ituti to be deep. Prince Marduk. high place. to restore the fortresses. 5* tdtft bitumen and brick fetlier. the King of Babylon. the eldest son of Nabu-pal-usur (Nabopolassar). I. the exalted one. and to renew the 9. greatly he encouraged me. the 4. 1 8. restorer of the temple SAG-ILI. 15. the King of Babylon am I. 3. messenger of the great gods. ip. built bulwark and completed for a (?). COLUMN i. . a sceptre (?) to rule the people [as a] shepherd 13. and the temple ZIDA. Nebuchadnezzar. to the god Nebo and the god Marduk his lords worship has performed before their persons. Nimitti-Bel I caused to be completed over against [their] great fortresses. the great lord.

I raised 33. completed. his eldest son (i. the temple of the gbds. twice 39. the paths of the ancient quay 28. the shrine of and of Marduk. 49. the paths along the quay with bitumen and brick. and 52. 37. 37. the seat of tran quillity. I quay which its my father had worked at I ex cavated. the seat of the goddess Zirpanitum^ 50. caused foundation to be laid with huge its flat slabs. he built two layers of brickwork. eldest son Babylon The paths along - . 38. I built anew. 44. the 31. the dwelling-place of the divine king of heaven and earth. Bel. 46. up summit I like a mountain. the beloved of his heart. 48. and 21 30. e. within 35. % I renewed. The quay of brick at the ford of the setting sun 34. 51. I made them brilliant as the day. the gate of Hilisud. Nabopolassar) . As for me. 41. In the temple of SAG-ILU the kissra I set. 40. 39. of 42. I built up with bitumen and brick *. the tower of Babel 54. the quay with bitumen and brick the father my begetter had worked at . the foundation of heaven and earth. The palace of heaven and earth. I caused them to be covered with shining gold. 45. and the temple of ZI-DA. 1 I. The temple. in addition to the quay which my father had made. As for me. 47. and 32. its buttresses with brick (?) along the river of Sippara I bound together and I fully completed its banks. 53. 43. e. 36. E KU-A.CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. . once.

22 55. The height of the fortress of Borsippa thoroughly 23.I made its bed of bitumen and brick. 8. I rebuilt within Babylon. I reared up their ^ummits 12. the lofty fortress with bitumen and brick t. Four thousand cubits square. I dug out the moat. the everlasting fortress of Babylon at the ford of the rising sun. The Nebo * caused to be erected before those three. with gold and sculptured stones I made like the brilliance of heaven. great temple. the which never had any king my predecessor done. he gives the sceptre of the 7. I emptied away the water that had gathered there. . 3. the (temple) Nebo built anew within Borsippa. the temple of the dwelling before the temple of the lady of heaven. [it] I caused it to be covered over with durable cedar and gold 4. the temple of the wind within Kumari. and COLUMN 1. I rebuilt. the eternal. 15. the citadel with walls 5. I 6. 22. 17. the quay which my father had worked at. 1 6. 56. i$v. The 14. and 11. near the fortress 10. I built up like a mountain upon its sides. the temple of Nebo of Harie. The temple beloved of I of ZIDA. I caused to surround. II. 9. BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. towering and inaccessible. the temple (called) world. the temple of the lady of the headland within Babylon. 2. the temple of Namgan. 13. and I excavated 19. up to the ceiling of the great temple of shrine of Life.

49. the temple of Istar of Erech. the temple the established seat. of all my works have written upon the stone tablet 51. 29. I have made extensive 43. the breaker of the weapons of my enemies Sun-god 27. the lord. The temple of the Sun. these temples of the great 37. and upon the glorious things of the gods 50. the temple of the god 30. the 41. I made to surround the citadel for a protection. 33. 48. An account of all my magnificent works 45. and 38. 23 with The quay and the moat [lined and built] bitumen and brick 25. the 31. I rebuilt . and of my restorations of the temples of the great gods 46. of the city Batz. The restorations (or furniture) of the temples of SAG-ILI and ZIDA. 36. with understanding mayest thou look upon 52. the temple of the Sun. 35. above what the kings my fathers wrote and 47. I caused their beautiful adornments to be completed. upon a stone tablet I wrote 40. the temple of the god Dar 32. the temple of heaven. 26. 28. new places of Babylon which more than before 42. 24. 44. of the city of the planet Venus. temple of the eyes of the god Anum. The account which . the temple of KIS-KUR-GAL. the temple of the Moongods god of Ur. 34. the temple of the Sun-god of Larsa. I rebuilt his temple within Borsippa.CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. . 39. the temple of the of Sippara. For the god Turkit. I set it up I for future days. and I have reared them up even to their summits.

I built the fortresses of the Istar. my god. I took hold of. upon the foundation stone.. 13.. 6. 20. and not failing him 4. I laid down its foundation. I made an inscription in my name and placed it within it. sweep them all away. fixity of throne and length of rule 21. 16. 17. May [men] understand that. 3. 28. Sweep away the disobedient. the beloved of the Moon9. I 14. I 5.24 53. 1 8. Thy mighty weapons 27. devastate the lands of the enemies. 24. 25. 54. I uncovered and n. to the brickwork which my happy hands [have made] be favourable joyfully and my life to a far distant day 19. God the king of Marad. smash their weapons. [I rebuilt] (?) for the god the king of Marad his temple within Marad the . gods and the goddess 55. . ancient father. 2.. reverently. completed his beautiful [works]. BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. 26. lord of all warriors.. which had been built from a remote time . As for myself Marduk urged he girded me up in heart. which benefit not my enemies may they draw near and may they fight . to eternity do thou lengthen. the king. 15. of the great lord and of Marduk. III. 22. 10.. 23. 7. iz. COLUMN i. with abundance of glory. its my lord 8. me on. ancient foundation stone which no former king had ever seen.

was dedicated to Marduk. where ruins are found such as one would expect to find of such an edifice is at a place called is this.the temple of the lofty head. spot. Babel and Borsippa are mentioned together as places which do harm to the The question is asked. 1 of Belus of seven spheres was so large (being a stade . so they made one on Borsippa. and ( : 5 The only square). and as in a hymn we find an expression like Birs-Nimrud. for the subjugation of 25 my enemies. &7T0A^&quot. In the presence of Marduk king of heaven works pronounce blessing 31. A third temple existed.4he teraple of life. 30. Borsippa thy crown. e. . a dry well. e. and is the same as that said to be dedicated to Belus by the Greeks. . however. sides. 606 feet 9 inches. What does the word mean? Now just as the Jews made a pun on the name Babylon. In the Talmud. law. Borsippa is. 29. What is Borsippa? that is. eight or nine miles distant from the site of the old Babylon.CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. This question is followed up by c l This place site of the old Borsippa. the 1 I. O Bel. upon my command my prosperity. it leads us to suppose that Borsippa was in cluded in Babylon. which was called the temple of the firmament of heaven and earth. . The temple of Zida had four gates the names one was called the gate of the rising sun of the others are difficult to interpret. Within Babylon there were two temples of great these were the objects chosen for restoration by all the Babylonian kings one was called E-SAGILI. and the answer is given. the other importance. we ought to find some remains of it. may they go by and earth my 32. Babylon is thy dwelling. and no satis This temple factory translation has yet been given. bor shappel i. . Herodotus says that the two principal buildings in Babylon were this temple of Belus and the royal palace he says moreover Now as this temple that the river ran between them.

Because whose waters are dried up that is. . was 104 feet square. and south-west sides are 643. . The third is 1 88 feet square. The one stage that remains is coated with blue slag. The fourth is 146 feet square. and in the tunnels which were excavated by Sir A. call Borsippa Babel. and the Moon respectively. We Borsippa. The mound called Amram. is and 376 feet long . vol. in the British Museum fragments of coloured glazed bricks from this spot. it was silver-coloured. and 26 feet high it was coloured bright red. ii. and The fifth 15 feet high it was coloured bright yellow. high . . ruins which &quot. which is length and 800 in breadth. east. however. 230 feet square. south. it was coloured dark blue. and upon its top there is a large mass of brickwork. . : another it is Why is the place called Borsippa ? . . 577. it makes a man forget all that he has learnt. south-east. and 136 yards long respectively. north-east. . These burnt bricks bear the name of Nebuchadnezzar. the Sun. and west brick sides are 200. 200. The first stage is 272 feet square. Mercury. p. Its height is 133 feet. have Venus. and 26 feet high it was orange-coloured. and 15 feet high stages were dedicated to Saturn. and they said like a cistern c that the air of the tower caused forgetfulness or oblivion. 183. and Babel Elsewhere they said. Jupiter. i At Babel uoo yards in the ruins of the probably At Birs-Nimrud. the other stages have decayed. Mars. This temple was called the . The seventh is 20 feet 643. and 26 feet high The second stage is originally its colour was black. Remains of a facing of burnt brickwork are still to be found at the base. Layard.may be parts of the temple of Belus. They consist of a large mound. and 15 feet pale yellow. there are ancient palace. whose north-west.respectively. there is a huge oblong mass of unbaked l TO feet high. the north.26 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. This huge edifice was built in seven stages. and 15 feet high it was coloured The sixth is 62 feet square. We 1 See Rawlinson s Herodotus. These square. 420.

In a geographical list three places in Babylon are mentioned called Duru. Sippara of the sun-god/ and the other Sippara of Its old name was Zimbir&amp. situated upon the Sippara. sponds meaning in Assyrian texts appears to be the water.gt. Its exact meaning is uncer Semiticised to Sippara. lonian name was Purat. i. 34.CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS. The explanations of the meaning of this word generally given that are not derived from these native sources are incorrect. iii. name ( . 7 . which we shall read that 1 a Chap. 5. Sippara is the same town as the Sepharvaim of 2 Kings xvii. a book/ with which it has been often compared. c e 5 c city. 4. inscription of Cyrus. god of the city was Samas. The Bible also calls 2 The Baby it Euphrates/ and the river Euphrates : . notice farther on. The Euphrates was called the soul of the land. and it became Anunit. 2. and the dual * termination is a reminder of the double form of the . or P^lrat^t its old Akkadian and this corre Pi^ra-minu^ the great stream Its to the name given it in Gen. 6. . and Sippara is also Called Agade in the Sippara. tain.lt. 6 5 &amp. and the above measurements are his. 18. xlvi. we the Sepharvites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech. and in chief 2. One of the most important parts of Babylon was It was a double town. or the Sun-god Kings xvii. 31. and the Seven its ruins were thoroughly Lights according to others excavated and examined by Sir Henry Rawlinson. Jer. . xiii. and the name Sippara has nothing to do with the Hebrew word sepher. One part was called left bank of the Euphrates. in the province of Babylon/ mentioned by Daniel 1 Through Babylon ran the great river/ the river Euphrates. xv. the gods of The Euphrates was called the river of Sepharvaim. etc. The his 31. temple was called E-babbara. Its name e in the inscriptions is ut-kip-nun-kL . and very possibly one of these may be the plain of Dura. 27 Seven Spheres according to some.

Each of the kings Assurbanipal. Other cities of to the inscription Jdiklat or Diktat. and I think that there is no doubt that this is the Ur from which Abraham came. 10. and their dimensions are known from other sources. and the river with the high banks/ On Babylonia were Borsippa. The temple of Anunit which existed in the city was built by a king called Sagar-ak-ti-as. remain to this day.38 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. the Hiddekel of Gen. and was called E-ul-bar. and Larsa. Nippur. Ur. for the wall The builders used hot bitumen for cement. and means the dwelling-place of the god Ninua. Around the city of Babylon (according to Herodotus) was a moat. It has been recently shown that the correct reading of the cuneiform sign for Akkad is Uru. x. it means according to some the fire crown/ and may perhaps refer to the sun-god worship. Esarhaddon. with the impression of the king s sta mp on the brick upon them. . Kutha. and are in the National Collection. This name is probably the same as the Accad of Gen. there seems to be a representation of them upon a sculpture. The next most important river in Babylonia was the Tigris. and the soil which was excavated from this was made into bricks. The name is non-Semitic. Erech. As to the hanging gardens. 14. It It is called in corresponds appears to mean this river the city Nineveh was situated. and Sennacherib built palaces there. and pieces of this bitumen. ii.

Temple ofJupiter Belus. behind which rises a wall 50 royal cubits in width. i. and 200 in height. And here I may not omit to tell the use to which the mould dug out of the great moat was turned. vol. full of water. by a broad and deep moat. defences^ and walls. It is surrounded. after which they proceeded to construct the wall itself. Views of other Classical authors Its gates. Nebuchadnezzar used cedar covered with goldfor the ceilings of his temples. as to its size and extent. BABYLON ACCORDING TO CLASSICAL AUTHORS.CHAPTER II. Want of definite history Inscriptions of this monarch near Riblah. HERODOTUS tells us that the city Babylon stands on a broad plain. and is an exact square. they constructed buildings of a single chamber facing one another. gates all of brass. so that the entire circuit is 480 furlongs. and when a sufficient number were completed. Then they set to building. pp. As fast as they dug the moat. houses streets. . concerning his Syrian campaigns. a layer of wattled reeds at every thirtieth course of the On the top. cuneiform inscriptions. the soil which they got from the cutting was made into bricks. with brazen lintels and side posts V Herodotus then goes on to say that the river 1 Rawlinson s Herodotus. Extract from East India House inscription. and interposing bricks. leaving between them room for a four-horse In the circuit of the wall are a hundred chariot to turn. . and began with bricking the borders of the moat. 297-301. 130 furlongs in length each way. Comparison of these accounts with those of the -. nor the manner wherein the wall was wrought. The statement of Herodotus about Babylon. in the first place. along the edges of the wall. using throughout for their cement hot bitumen. they baked the bricks in kilns.

there is a second temple. deep Armenia. an inner wall of less thickness than the first. however. of the . 368.a spacious towers of unusual temple. size. not only those high but also the cross streets which lead parallel to the river. of the kings. divides the city into two parts. and does not think that the height of the walls of Babylon exceeded 60 or 70 English feet. by a path which winds round all the On the topmost tower there is . surrounded by a wall of great palace in the other was the sacred precinct strength and size of Jupiter Belus. 385. . and swift stream which rises Euphrates. Below. There are also conflicting statements as to the height of the walls of Babylon. four of which were equal to the cubit. in the same precinct. for he says they were 50 fathoms high. and that is that the defences of Babylon must have been remarkable in their day for their strength.30 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. Clitarchus. a furlong in length and breadth. 360 furlongs city. There is. 365^ Ctesias. tower of solid masonry. a broad. Strabo. with gates of solid brass. down to the water side. One thing is certain. on the outside. which was also remaining In the middle of the precinct there was a in my time. and inside the temple stands a couch with a golden table by its side. but very little inferior to it The centre of each division of the town in strength. In the one stood the was occupied by a fortress. The outer wall is the main defence of the city. and on that a The ascent to the top is third. Curtius. the streets all run in straight lines. all of gold/ Other historians give different lengths for the circuit in . richly adorned. Sir Henry Rawlinson thinks that Herodotus referred to hands. One . Pliny gives 200 feet and others 75 as the measurement. upon which was raised a second tower. The statement of Ctesias goes to confirm that of Herbdotus. and so on up to eight. Q. in which is a sitting figure of Jupiter. The city wall is brought down on both sides to the edge of the The houses are mostly three and four storeys stream. a square enclosure 2 furlongs each way.

72. which formed the defences of his city. . and speaks of his delight to do the works of the gods Nabu. and Nimitti-Bel 68. the prince of the gods. In the first column he gives a list of his own titles. At the end of this column he mentions the two walls. s . He rebuilt -the gates of E-Zida and E-Sagili. which Nabu-pal-usur king of Tintirki (Babylon). is given. In the second and third columns an account of the restoration of the great temple of Marduk. an outer and an inner. 3! 1 of the greatest evils prophesied by the prophet Jeremiah was the broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken. the 71. 58. the mighty fortresses of Babylon. Istar. and began the restoration. of Imgur-Bel 67. my begetter had made. and In column 4 parts of it he covered with bright silver. He attributes his enthronement and origin to the god Nebo. and others. 1 Jeremiah li. their beauty. the father 70. but had not completed . It appears that various parts of the temple had fallen into decay. Marduk.BABYLON ACCORDING TO CLASSICAL AUTHORS. He says : 66. and is engraved on a short column of black basalt in 619 lines. he gives a list of the temples he built. in Borsippa he built the temple of Zida. so the pious king collected all sorts and kinds of beautiful and precious stones. It consists of ten columns. The chief authority on the buildings of Babylon is the large inscription of Nebuchadnezzar preserved in the India House. and of their gods. he brought cedar wood from Lebanon to embellish the temple (like the Jewish king Solomon) the inner walls he covered over with pine and lofty cedar wood. 69. and her high gates shall be burned with fire/ The cuneiform inscriptions do not bear out the account of the classical writers as to the height of the walls and the extent of the city. mentions his father Nabu-pal-usur.

given is very difficult to make out. two huge embankments. which he completed in fifteen days. Royalty . In the eighth and ninth columns a summary of his deeds is given. 6. and for the long rule of the king over the dark races. the inner defence of the city. with brick and with bitumen 4. Nebu chadnezzar followed up his father s buildings. and the religious king attributes all his glory and all his greatness to the god Marduk. The exact meaning of all the words in which the description of the decorations is Inside Nimitti-Bel. and from the Sippara River to the Japur-Sabu. text here becomes very difficult. In the tenth is a prayer for the general security of the empire. building of his palace. he bound. and joined the parts of the fortresses which he built with those that He built the wall of Babylon with his father began. 5 The ditch arahti he made.of the He built the lofty place of within Babylon. He excavated its ditch (with) 2. he bound (lined) its interior. brick across the river westward. V. but 10. it extended from the eastern canal to Imgur-Bel. COLUMN 1.33 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. he did not complete (his work). The when it The moat which he had built he caused to be filled with water as deep as the ocean. Nebuchadnezzar built a defence 400 cubits long (?). but is clearer speaks of Imgur-Bel and Nimitti-Bel. On the eastern side of the river he built a fortification the like of which no It was 4000 cubits long other king had ever made. and with buttresses (?) of brick 8. the bank of the Euphrates 9. 3. The end of column seven gives an account . 7. to keep off insolent enemies who were hostile to the children of Babylon. (?).

wood transplanted to his own land for the beautifying of the temples of the great gods his lords. every one of which bears the impression of the name of Nebuchadnezzar. the son of Nabopolassar.king.BABYLON ACCORDING TO CLASSICAL AUTHORS. A short time ago some at a inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar were discovered states spot not far from Riblah and in them the king that he cut down cedar trees in Lebanon. Among the ruins of Babylon there are bricks by the thousand. and the The inscriptions support this view most completely. From too an inference can be drawn as to the enormous number of men that were compelled by him to serve with the service of bricks/ In the Book of Daniel Nebuchadnezzar is regarded as a builder. There can be no doubt as to the extent. and had the . and ex history of other nations tells us of his wars the inhabitants of peditions undertaken to subdue Palestine and elsewhere. this : c . but about his military exploits the inscriptions are almost silent the only piece of his history at present known is found upon a small fragment of clay about half the size of a man s hand. and beauty of these temples and their decorations. and this alone will show how great were his building operations. 33 For details as to the buildings undertaken by Nebuchadnezzar the reader is referred to the translation of the inscription given in Chapter I. magnificence.

Smith said. BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM ABOUT Method of reckoning time in use among B. These 5 . Babylonian kings the Babylonians.. Rawlinsoris discovery. Whenever the twelfth month ended more than thirty days before the equinox. Libit-Istar. The eponym canon. the good king. they inter calated a thirteenth month.C. 3800. C. considering our present knowledge.CHAPTER III. 1330. B.. to give an idea of the way in which the Assyrians and Babylonians managed their chronology. his good policy. B. Contract tablets. goddess of Image of Babylonians made their calculations by the help of astronomy. before we begin our sketch of the history of Babylonia. This question is extremely difficult to answer. as Mr. Contract tablets successors. 3800-1330. who reigned 3200 years before his time.gt. His canal. Naram-Sin. Ur-Bagas^ Dungi^ Ismi-Dagan. Nabonidtts mentions JVaram-Sin&amp. Inscription of Sargon 1. Tablet giving list of kings after the flood. Their year began about the vernal equinox. perhaps be well. the new moon next before the equinox marking the commencement of the new year. How old is it ? has been asked over and over again. This was called Ve-Adar. Extract from inscription of Nabonidus. and others. The kings his Babylonian empire is certainly one of the oldest and the question. Hammurabi. even with a moderate amount of in the world. Rimmon-Nirari /. the Nana. Revival of commerce in Babylonia. and each of these had either twenty-nine or thirty days.C. Legend about Sargon. caused his inscription to be dated. and they had also an intercalary Nisan and Elul. The Assyrians kept a strict account events. Extractfrom eponym canon. dated in his reign. They reckoned twelve lunar months to each year. THE It will accuracy. Sir H.

1330 to about B. however. 1330. An instance of this is given in the Bible 1 where we read of the words of Amos which he saw concerning Israel two years before the earth A .C. Babylonian and Assyrian documents were more gene rally dated by the names of these eponyms than by that of the reigning king. i. B. or eponym. the dated Babylonian contract empire. tablets serve to keep our reckoning correct down to a The following few years before the birth of Christ. It was one of the grandest and most important discoveries ever made. about B. C 2 . In 1862 Sir Henry Rawlinson discovered the frag ment of the eponym canon of Assyria. Fragments of seven copies of this canon were found. for it has decided definitely a great many points which otherwise could never have been. archons at Athens and consuls at Rome who were elected annually.C. are only found on Babylonian dated a king s reign was reckoned after his accession to the throne. in the British Museum (for a translation of it see page 46). 3800-1330. extract from the eponym canon will explain itself : 1 Amos i. historical inscription of Rimmon-Nirari I. quake.C. and important town had its limu^ so there is no doubt that the custom was widespread and well known. which is dated on the side by the name of the eponym of the After the fall of the Assyrian year about B. 35 The first year of from the new year s day tablets. 630. 620.C.C.gt. cleared up. common way of reckoning in olden times was by referring to some important event which at that time was well known. though there are instances in which this rule Now just as there were has not been adhered to. so among the Assyrians there was a custom of electing one man to be over the year whom Generally each district they called Kmu&amp. and from these the chronology of Assyria has been definitely There is an settled from B.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM two latter.

carried back the image which had been brought to Elam one thousand six hundred and thirty-five years before.C. appearances of the moon. Beth-el. Samas-mukin-durug Rammanu-bel-ukin Sin-salim-anni Nergal-nasir Nabu-bel-usur governor of Rezaph governor of Nisibin governor of Arbaha in the land.BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. peace in the land. 626 (about). in the land. Tiglath-PUeser ascend ed the throne on the 1 3th day of lyyar. and is the same word as Beth in the names of For example. temple/ which would be . etc. 1 It must be borne in mind that E means read in Assyrian bitu. king into Elam. had carried off from Assyria or Babylonia the image of the goddess Nana. place a great number of years before. and therefore a very good guess can be made at the date of this raid of Kudur-nantwndi. inscription that he made an expedition Now Kudur-nantmndi. While Assurbanipal was in Elam the goddess put it into the heart of the king to carry her 1 or the temple of heaven. . etc. expedition to Zimri. places in the Bible. the king of Assyria the tartan chief of the palace rab-litur the tukulu the governor the year. sun spots. it means place or house. Beth-shemesh. Beth-dagon. The historical inscriptions of the Babylonian and Assyrian kings often give notices of events which took For instance. Assurbanipal reigned from about B. B. and that they kept a body of men to do nothing but report eclipses. He marched to neigh bourhood of the river in the month Tisri. revolt in Calah.. upon Babylon. When prefixed to the names of cities and countries. mindful of the wishes of the goddess. Name Principal events of of eponym. Beth-letem. king of Elam. an ancient king of Elam. image back into E ANNA The king. expedition to Zimri. tells us in his large Assurbanipal. in the land. It must never be forgotten that the Babylonians were a nation of star-gazers. Beth-boron.C. of Assyria. 668 to B.C. etc. 753 Assur-nirari 752 751 750 749 748 747 746 745 Samsi-ilu Marduk-salim-anni Bel-dayan peace peace peace peace in the land.

in its place.C. 1 The concluding lines inscribed on a large cylinder of Assurbanipal in the British Col. among the kings my Istar shall proclaim for the dominion of the country and its no. and that he saw the inscription which the Assyrian king had caused Nabonidus did not remove it. Museum read thus : and descendants Assur 109. had made. extend unto him power and glory even as they have unto myself. may he look upon. in to be put there. Now this brings us back to the earliest date we are ible to fix in the history of Babylonia. the inscription in my name. 10. He appeal s also to have been an archaeologist and an He was a votary of enthusiastic student of antiquity. and my grandfathers. father. A king called 554&amp. He sought for the foundation stone. the judge of heaven and earth. . but found it its . my 112. an everlasting royal seed. 1. he cleansed it. most important to us. together with one of his own. 37 Their calculations then may be relied upon for a large imount of accuracy generally. he tells us that he uncovered the part of the temple which Assurbanipal. may he place (my inscription) with his own.gt. the Sun-god and adorned his temple with the most 3 beautiful decorations. giving an account of all his works and pious deeds to the gods. a preceding king. May he whomsoever. had made. but. and as he was anything but a warlike king he appears to have spent his time in meditation and retirement. 3800-1330. people. king of Assyria. may he repair its decay. Rassam in 1883. chamber (altar) may he cleanse. He caused several cylinders of clay. and restored the place to former condition 1 Nabonidus then made excavations under the temple of the Sun-god. Among other things. when this temple of Riduti has become old and decayed in. to be inscribed.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM B. and the greater part of them were brought in fragments to Eng land by Mr. in Sippara. 113. accordance with the request upon it. which Nebuchadnezzar. and He then put the inscription back offered up sacrifices. Nabonidus began to reign over Babylon about B. And may the great gods whose names are written down in this inscription 115. may he offer up sacrifices. the 114.C.

[for] D. ammati square ga - ga - ri * u T cubits *ar sap *r- - ^IT il -tT yy foundation r sdn r- / dug ^pi down -~nr - ma the ^r . he brought out the Sun-god and.gt. placed it in another temple Nabonidus made further excavations. In other words.&amp. tfT. Sin Naram-Sin &amp.y 56.lt.gt.r- gp abil H^ - D.na te-me-en stone 3&amp.gy excavated *fl&amp. HP- &amp. not. and as the temple had much decayed.lt.R^^T ET hundred years no .lt. 15^ fifteen 57. us and to chronology I his own generally. - thousand two sarra a-lik ^^ mah .x . quote words : LINE COLUMN IL 5?T bit 55. king of Babylon du&amp.gT H - en. Tte-me&quot. and having gone to a depth of 15 square or earth cubits he made a great As his account of it is of such importance to discovery.R Na 58. -^ .38 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. ram D.gt.gt. Nabonidus.ri ya li mu . { .P.a .lt. rr r- 3^1000 .P. my predecessor had seen. I &amp.gt. *@r ad - *f Id - spj e - ^y ma.+ 2x100 mu-an-na-mesma-na-ma three. sr TC su . sar gi - ^ na of the o f Serffm iRrm &amp.su la bi - ^ u - y ri ba - ^ -n ^y -ma ancient foundation stone / sought. &amp.&quot.tim that temple. ^-T^T.

The legend : transcribed into ordinary Baby lonian reads thus 5H $* Zf . It is of habbah).*&amp. arrived It was found to contain a at the British Museum.C. was brought from Sepharvai m (Abuand was discovered by Mr. made of mottled.200 years before his time. very short time ago a small.C.-. the Sargon mentioned in the inscription of Nabonidus.&amp. 3800-1330. these two numbers added together make a total of which is the date of Naram-Sin s building 3. and he The stone says that Naram-Sin reigned 3.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM B. which was found too cumbrous and difficult. pinkish-grey. Now Nabonidus began to reign about 554 B. Sargon fcJnT the King king of Agade to the Sun-god (Samas) iri Sippara have dedicated.gt. . and it also gives his father s name. A legend in what is called technically line Babylonian writing. oval-shaped object. then.gt. that is. writing in which the characters are formed more by lines than by the ordinary wedges. Rassam.gt. We have at present no notice of an anterior date or king.. Here. * &amp. it fixes the date of the very early king Naram-Sin. perforated. hard stone. and goes back to a period in the history of the nation when they were beginning to discontinue the use of the hieroglyphic or pictorial system of writing. the utmost importance. This style of writing is found upon stone gate sockets of the earliest times. thp temple of the Sun-god at Sippara. for it is an inscription without doubt made by the father of Naram-Sin. 39 accepted as correct.7 JJ4 years.

to suppose that there were no Babylonian kings before Sargon or Naram-Sin the only difficulty in the matter is to estimate the number of years which must havejpassed . king of Agade. before the Babylonians had arrived at the high state of culture and civilization necessary to enable them to produce such an object as that described above.) is extant respecting this king. 3800.mighty warrior. B. vas a . ^Babylonian history. that he was rescued by a man called Akki. curioijs effect that A us. stone is The most beautifully drilled and polished. to the he was born in a city on the banks of the Euphrates. It would be absurd fairly accurate chronology begins. . B. then.. KING OF SIPPARA. begins with legend rushes :he river in the water-tight with pitch . Sargon I.40 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. and that from :his position the goddess Istar made him king. and in chariots of bronze passed He rebuilt the palace at hrough difficult countries. and brought him forth in a humble that she placed him in an ark of place . and the characters are carefully and remarkably well executed. vho brought him up to his own trade. 3800. as known to Sargon I.C. that his mother conceived him in secret. and closed it .C. STONE OBJECT BEARING THE NAME OF SARGON. that she cast him upon ark that the river carried lim along.

a city which became of great importance under the ruling hands . After these kings. so it is impossible to say where this country was. and also at Larsa a temple dedicated to the Sun-god } and at Nipur and Lagas he reared up many fine building and temples. The next rulers of Babylonia we find sprang from Karrak.. 41 Agade. who :ame from Larsa. several patesi or viceroys (as the word is of royalty translated) ruled. Another very important king was Simti-Silhah. Kudur-Mabug. . and under his rule Larsa became a most important city. making Zergulla their seat and government. The name of the king of Magan is lost. He appears to have been an Elamite.. . as there are three different lands of Magan mentioned in the inscriptions. There are to be seen very many fine cylinders ind inscribed cones which were made in his reign. son of Sumulau. Naram-Sin conquered a city called Apirak.. He built in the city Ur a temple to the Moon-god Sin.. Rim-Agu. and repairing some of his father s A works. The most important among these was Gudea.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM B. carried out his policy..C.. There are in the British Museum some bronze images and a mutilated torso in black marble of this king.of Ismi-Dagan and Libit-Istat. 3800-1330. and succeeded in making them list of selves masters of a large part of Babylonia.. and the temple dedicated to the goddess Anunit.. Anunit. king called Dungi reigned after Ur-Bagas over Babylonia. His son. and his grandson. and made wars in a country called Magan. The most important king who reigned after Naram-Sin was called Ur-Bagas. built the temples of Samas and .. 35 Zabu. . a temple at Erech. in Sippara 14 . whose chief works were building a tower at Ur. . of Babylonia following after Rim-Agu gives the kings following particulars of this period : A Sumu-Abi Sumulau reigned 15 years.

when the other parts are discovered. Hammurabi was a He tract tablets in the British Museum dated in his reign. two kings were called Ammi-sa-duga and Samsu-satana. or The Hammurabi reigned 55 years. he reigned 25 years. Rim-Agu. Ebisum was the next king. dated: day of Sebat.. son of Zabu reigned 18 years. Commerce must have revived considerably under his rule. pious. for there are a very large number of con king. it is hoped that it will be possible to recon struct the chronology of that early time with accuracy. his son. for a tablet .42 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. was written on both sides of a flat piece of clay. Sin-Muballit.. There are no details of the reigns of these kings. 2100 a powerful king (some think him a Kassite).. deed of sale. in the year when Hammurabi the king in the and Bel marched victoriously service of Anu and overthrew the king of Elam and Rim-Agu. called Hammurabi. and upon this the deed was again inscribed. and broad-minded repaired the temple of every god. who reigned 35 years. made Mabug and his son. who reigned 25 years. He was followed by Samsu-iluna. son of Abil-Sin 35 9. . The names of the kings who reigned subsequently to . He had a son The next called Ammi-satana. who reigned 21 and 31 years respectively. became master of all Babylonia. Abil-Sin.C. which piece of clay was then covered over completely with other clay. . On a bilingual tablet lately discovered there are nearly a hundred kings names given and some day. devout. It must have been about this time that Abraham went forth from Ur of the ChaldSes. contract. He war against Kudurdefeated them and Rim-Agu appears is to have called in the aid of the Elarnites. . which he called Hammurabi. the benefactor of mankind. About B. and dug a huge canal for the benefit of the people of Sumir and Akkad.

CONTRACT TABLET AND ITS CASE. c. B. 2300. .SW.RIM. BEARING THE NAME OP.

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4 and after him Merodach-Baladan I. reigned. slew Nazi-bugas. king of Assyria. Asnunak. Mr.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM the are 8. He also prays to Anu and Anunitum. they nasir. Bel and Beltis. next reigned. Kuri-Galzu. Amil-Gula. Burna-Buryas is called king of Gan-duniyas/ a district which has been He identified by some with the Garden of Eden. Alman.C. and was defeated. the king of Assyria. Burna-Buryas. married Muballitat-Serua. Smith attributed to this king a boundary-stone which is now This king was attacked by Bel-Nirari. the daughter of Assur-uballit. men of the Kassi revolted and slew him/ and they placed Nazi-bugas. It is to be noticed that the above names are Semitic. or Mili-Sihu. Abil-BelI Sin. king of Assyria. Ea and Damkina. The next king. The Assyrian king went to Babylon to take vengeance upon the murderers. B. and Guti. Padan. and he reigned over Babylon. we find a Kassite dynasty ruling in Babylon. 7. to grant him a long life. Sipak. Sapin-mat-nukurti. and he restored the temples of the gods Marduk and Zir-panitum. upon the throne. Amil-Samas. Sargina. During his reign (we are told by a tablet of synchronous history). 4. 9: Abil-Ea-sar-mati. the first king of which was called Agu-kakHis sway extended rimi. The first part of the column is broken off. the son of nobody/ upon the throne. Muabbid-Kissati.C. regarding the boundaries of their dominions.C. lo. 3800-1330. over Babylon. Bau-ellit. is. ii. About the year 1450 we find a king called Kara-Indas ruling over Babylon. the then king of Assyria. 45 commonly accepted : date of the Flood are given. 3. 6. About 1700 years B. His son was called Kara-Hardas. He was king of Kassi and Akkadi. 5- Sin. SamasAmil-Sin.the son of Kuri-Galzu. reigned about B. the son of Tassi-gur-umas. and he made a covenant with Assur-bil-nisi-su. a usum-same. . and placed the son of MiliBurna-Buryas. 1425 He likewise made a covenant of peace with Bursur-Assur. in the Museum.

Wars between the Assyrian and Babylonian kings gates of Sarpon of Assyria sends the Tartan against Ashdod. the kind and merciful king. B. and he has left us an account of his conquests in a beautifully executed inscription dated in the eponymy of Shalman-Karradu. 3. the holy Prince.C.c/ienb destroys Babylon. destroyer of all enemies above and below. the trampler on their countries from Lubdi (?) and Rapiku to the confines of Zabidadi and Nisi. OBVERSE. Sennacherib s death. 7. 8. the holy conqueror. Ri^ Of e the Jewish power under David and Solomon. Translation of his inscription. ruler called Rammanu-Nirari held sway. 1330. 5.46 CHAPTER IV.Hwekiah and MerodachBaladan. established by heaven (and) earth (and) the gods.Baladan. His wars with Merodach. 1330 the kingdom of Assyria began to be most enterprising and spirited powerful and mighty.C. and is a good specimen of an Assyrian historical inscription. RIMMON-NIRARI. appointment of god. BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM 1330-568. . Extent of his empire. Assttrnasirpal kin? of Tribute of Jehii. Rise of the Assyrian Empire under Rimmonari. I reproduce here Professor A Sayce s translation of it. Shalmaneser XL Balawat. 6. His respect for the Babylonian Translation temples. 2.C. of Mr Senna- ABOUT B.-l His immense kingdom. 1. Esarhaddon. As it^is not very long. of the host of the Cassi. Terrible damage to buildings and libraries The boast of the Rabshakeh. Sennacherib. an inscription in Babylonian. establisher of fortresses (and) demolished buildings 4. His hunting expeditions in Lebanon. B. Tiglath-Pileser f. Gutium.The bronze Assyria. and Subari. Lulumi.

B. 12. was decayed. RlMMON. to distant regions like a and peace of his kingdom mountain he extended . 3.C. ASSUR. the (overthrower) of Kings and Princes (whom) the gods ANU. that time the ascent to the temple of ASSUR my Lord. The grandson of BEL-NIRARI. their streams and lands the remover of boundaries and landmarks. 19.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM 9. the powerful King as a worshipper in Bit-Kurra I fixed. 13. . the remover of boundaries The great-grandson 27. . and landmarks. 1. \&s&amp. of the widespread Subari. the 35. 1 8. strength I took. the sweeper away of the armies 33. SAMAS. restoration 31. 14. this 5. 20. 21. 11. whom The 30. 28. its and the gate of the stars (called) Judges. the (remover) of boundaries and landmarks. 1330-668. 34. 2. his hand captured. established by BEL. the conqueror of the lands of Turuci and Nirkhi as far as the frontiers of furthest castles. 17. worshipper of Assur also. 23. 4. 1 6. laid his yoke. and was stopped up and was ruined . which (was before) the gate of the men of my country. 29. and ISTAR to his feet subjected the supreme worshipper of BEL. of the Gunukhlami and the Suti. At remover of boundaries and landmarks. place I selected. 15. 32. REVERSE. . of ASSUR-YUBALLIDH. The son of PUDIL. 24. Vicegerent of ASSUR. who on the army of the Cassi 25. 22.gt. 36. ruling the mountains and the forests of the frontiers of wide Gutium. which existed in former times. 47 10. and the spoil of his foes 26.

shall cause to 23.1. TSIRU. 31. 22. 13. the wicked one and the injurer. 17. 34. 39. (and) the spirit of earth. his seed. who dwells shall accomplish. the duration of his people and his landmarks. 36. in the water shall lay. BEL. in the temple of Kharsak-kurra. : descend and place. the 32. 30. . a rival shall urge on and excite. may it go forth. and whatever he devises he ASSUR. . the mighty god. then I appoint these curses 24. made. 3. his prayers heareth. HEA.48 6.country. and may RlMMON in inundation malign inundate (with) whirlwind. at the 11. 15. to its place Whoever 14. 25. the spirit of heaven. into a house underground. a place not seen. its ruins let grow old and decay him renew. 37. in the fire 19. shall time (when) this place 12. fo destruction shall devote. in their ministry. the hostile tongue. for future days. The future Prince 10. gods ANU. may they injure him. his forces and his family in the land may they destroy the glory of his. with the dust shall cover. shall erase 1 6. 29. 38. I 8. the stranger. (even) the enemy. 28. and my place I restored. 7. inscription I placed to its 9. . 30. and whosoever 26. shall burn. in the flood shall lay. BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. with clay and sand 4 gurs I cemented. my name wash and his own name and the record of my shall write. mightily 33. 1 8. my inscriptions (and) my written name god ASSUR written The let him restore. by their august mouth. and with a grievous curse quickly may they curse him his name. inscription shall cause to out. 35. the great gods. 27.

fought. during the eponymy SHALMAN-KARRADU. famine in his country may he lay. Marduk-nadin-ahi. who With . king of Assyria. . may 44.. and Assur-ris-isi was the grand forty of his chariots taken. overrunning at the same time all Baby He captured both parts of the city Sippara. may RiMMON 43. Upe and Rapiku. and captured it. The particulars of the ris-isi (or Him). son of Assur-Danan. and the father of Tiglath-Pileser I. Following in his steps. and amongst his offspring destruction. h*e marched into Assyria. king of Assyria. however. doubtful. also lonia. to in his evil devouring his country devour. king* of and Babylonia. Assyria I. want of crops. curse (and) rain his country like a whirlwind may he fill. manu (Rimmon) and Sala.C.. and captured the cities of Zaba.0. 41. Tiglath-Pileser. conquered Babylonia.. After the time of Rimmon-Nirari the history becomes and all that is known with certainty is that Tukulti Ninip. king in the second we read first campaign are not given Nebuchadnezzar burnt his baggage and retreated that and in the third he was defeated by the Assyrians. 112.C. with 42. B. 49 the wind dry up. pillaged and carried off the images of the gods Ramtemples. About this time Nebuchadnezzar the First became wars against Assurking of Babylon. 1330-668. a mound and ruins may he turn . the soth day. made an attack on Babylon. gathered together his army. Agarsal. the next king of Tiglath-Pileser the Babylon. the Assyrian king Assur-Danan attacked and defeated Zagaga-suma-iddina. The next king of Babylonia appears to have been Beland during his life the Elamites made zakir-iskun several fierce attacks upon Babylonia. (Dated) the month of Mukhur-ili.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM 40. reigned about B. under the leader ship of Kudur-nan-hundi. . Under the powerful rule of Tiglath-Pileser I. . Irriya. and he made three of Assyria.

Pinches and myself.of Eridu the sun of this country rejoicing his people. and crossed the rivers on rafts of inflated skins. the governor. protector of the boundaries.50 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. 5. i TOO) He Mediterranean Sea. made to brind| water to the city Assur. Marduk-sapik-kullat being king over Babylonia. 2. 4. H&amp. 3. He attacked and de feated on all sides the nations that had rebelled after the death of his father. made by Mr. in this reign. for hei which Assur-Dartan had. son of nobody/ upon the throne. the warlike ruler. and from one of the towers: which he made for one of these were obtained three| cylinders which record the principal events of five years* of his reign. When the latter died the Babylonians set Rammanuabla-iddina. the establisher of the sons [of Babylonia].lt.C. His armies marched through diffi cult countries. penetrated as far west as the shores of the He (which place&quot. undertook various buildings. the king of the gods sent Nebuchad nezzar the glorious prince the mighty. : 1. When Marduk . and he records that he went into a ship at Arvad. and appeared in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology for April. and put it in good repair. which records that a grant of land was made to Ritti-Marduk. the chief of kings. During his journey through the Lebanon forests and mountains he slew one hundred and twenty lions and many other animals. recording a grant of land and privileges to Ritti-Marduk. 1884 a copy of it is given below. the offspring of Babylon. and killed a dolphin.. Assur-bel-kala ascended the throne of Assyria.p about A : Translation of an inscription of Nebuchadnezzar I. 1 1 20.C. king of Bit-Karziyabku B. became a truly mighty empire. cared also for the well-being of his people. very important inscription of this monarch exists on a fine large white stone.. king of Bit-KarziAn English translation was yabku. After this king s death took re-cut the canal B.

C. RASSAM. . H. KING OF BlT-KARZIYABKU. RECORDING A GRANT OF PRIVILEGES TO RlTTI-MARDUK. FOUND AT ABU-HABBAH (SEPHARVAIM) BY MR.STONE OBJECT CONTAINING AN INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR I.. B. 1120 (ABpux).

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the prince. 4. and covering (?) the roads there sprouted forth under growth (or jungle) there was no water of any sort. the places thereof were destroyed. and Nebuchadnezzar marched on. B. 22. The strength of the great horses remained. 27. the bearer of the mighty bow. he sent forth his weapons to revenge Akkad. 23. who to judges with righteous 7. he took the road. [i. who i his fortress.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM 6. 15. (and) among them strong king marched speedily. and the zeal of the warlike hero returned. e. (to) the king his lord he did not give up he burnt his fortress. 36. 20. the wooden growth he cut down.C. The made battle. the subduer of Phoenicia. 6. 25. Bit-Imitti. Ritti-Marduk lord of the house of Bit-Karziyabku. far as the 28. 8. his weapons struck down the power of the country of Lullubi. the month Tammuz. the anointer of kings. to. 30. The mighty king went forward. him. the warlike MAN who make battle increased his army. . they the fire blazed forth. he captured as bank of the river Ula. 1330-668. 24. 3 the king of justice judgment. fearless in battle. 1 8. 21. [the words Marduk the king of the line inform this line in the texi\ gods sent (see 13. the gods sustained 19. the burning (?) blazed like fire. kings of every region gathered together. In the month. none opposing him. sixty miles). the spoiler of the Kassites. The 29. He turned not back from the strength of the field. the beloved of the who with god Marduk C2. 9. 1 17. From Der the fortress of the god Anu he made destruction for the distance of thirty kasbu (i.

and to the enemies of his lord he came down with fury. and 50. no master of the horse. 40. the 39. 53. In the whole boundary of the country of Namar. But king Nebuchadnezzar took his part powerfully 43. When he returned to Akkad with glory and joy of . 49. he feared not the battle. he marched to the enemy. 45. heart. the possessor of a chariot. 42. who with those hostile and inimical to the king his 47. the governor of Namar. shall not enter 48. Ritti-Marduk. then to the king of Elam his country was subjugated. the % messengers of the king. By the comtnand of the gods Istar and Rimmon. evil surrounded him. 51. 36. shall cause to go into the midst of the cities . of the land of Namar. his lord. 52. the king pacified the princes.54 31. 44. Bit-Imitti he burnt 37. the hurricane collected itself. who his fortress. [he gave] the cities their freedom as in days of old. could not recog nize the companion with him. 35. 38&quot. or mares. BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. had come under the boundaries of Namar. the king. he looked favourably upon Ritti-Marduk. 46. lord of the house of Bit-Karziyabku. 41. which by a former king had been freed. (to) the king his lord he did not give up his fortress. 34. foals. lord of the house of Bit-Karziyabku. The face of the sun was darkened by their clouds of dust. and the chief. Nebuchadnezzar. storm broke. the city. In the storm of their battle 33. 32. . he captured the land of Elam and spoiled its goods.. regards all the cities of Bit-Karziyabku. through enemies. lords of battle. restored. against their agreement. As lord [had contended]. 54. a hero.

(?) spoke to him boundary of the country of Namar. 59. the cities of 8. and the multitudes dwelling in those 10. 5. the road shall not be castle of shall not opened. man) of Akkad. the bridge shall not be made. the son of Karziyabku. Here follows the list of witnesses Nazi-Marduk son of Kurkame the kalu (i. 14. 1330-668. 6. (and) of Babylon. freed for future days. cities chief. 9. as many as dwell in the cities of Bit-Karziyabku. Nebuchadnezzar king of multitudes. all the ground of the land of Namar. Bit-Samas and of the city Ilu-Ba& be made. of Namar not be cut down. a seizure of men shall not take place. From the people of Nipur. 13. Arad-Nana the son of Damik-Rammanu the recorder of the land.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM 55. 4.e. at the freeing of those cities. 57. whether in town or whether in country.C. 55 56. the fruit of the plantations and the sakal trees shall oxen and sheep by the king and governor shall not be taken. taxes of B. 3. 11. : he appointed the i a. Marduk-kudurri-usur the priest of BeL . stallion keepers shall not enter the city. From the time when the god Tuk in the 7. for a compensation to the governor of Namar. stallions shall not be taken among the mares. a measure (?) or homer of fodder (?) an ass shall not be given to the tax-gatherer. The 2. 58. II. COLUMN 1. Ritti-Marduk. (and) 60. for the army of the king.

Namar. Arad-Gula the son of Kalbi governor of Usti. or shall hide-it in a field unseen : &quot. 32. and shall bring [them] back and establish the [old] boundary 33. 21. When in future days GASSU. or in the river shall sink. 1 6. or a or an evil sama. The scribe who wrote this tablet was [called] Bl-tabni-bullit. and shall destroy this tablet with stones. small [and] great all there are [of] 30. 36.5 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. shall not fear the king and his gods. or to the prefectship of the land of man. or anyone else. And Nebuchadnezzar the prince of Namar are the witnesses.lt. 23. 15. Tdb-asab-Marduk the son of E-saggil-zir governor of the land of Halman. the palace gate. the cities of Bit-Karziyabku. whether a sdkla or a sdkka. . Kirban. Marduk-ken-abli son of Himile the satam of the treasure-house. 22. and shall destroy the name of god and king. the 26. which the king in the boundary of the country of Namar has freed. 20. man of the the 17. Bau-sum-iddina the son of Hunna the governor of Babylon. 25. shall instigate. 34. (or) with fire shall burn. 35. and another shall write. Samas-nadin-sumi the son of Atta-ilu-ma 19. whoever among the sons of 28. 29. shall be appointed to the Namar. 1 8. Balatsu-Gula son of Arad-Ea the prefect. 31. governorship of the land of 27. Ardu-taris-biti the son of Zabri. Tfibiyaenna the captain. 24. governor of the city Isin. Bel-nadin-sumi the son of Kirban the governor of Namar.5&amp.

whose names are _ _ 38.C. she who 46. Sumaliya. the conqueror] send life lasts. long as his his seed. lord of watercourses and rain. and walks upon the dwells 47. lady of the shining on the heights.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM . 57 that man. be bound press and evil. fill up and he establish hunger and want for him. for evil destine him. May may 48.Smmanu. 54 may &quot. May Rimmon. 40.may he not accept he cut off his life speedily. my nng I* 44 May may by 45. 60. to him. in strength of heart. D may and Supu the son 53. Gula. may all the great gods. he bow down his m 59. and the goddess the mighty one of the house of righteousness. his weeping from him. afflictions to him as . destroy the great chief of heaven and earth. his landmark. may God and king mightily o heaven and earth. and house which he another become master of the m^ku.7 B. 50. of the house the great gods. the gods the |od Sin. his rivers with slime. 57. by day and may he down his hand upon the inhabitants] of his wretched city. degradation. May by _ shall build. and the lady of Akkad. 41. mountains. [and may he be] his eye. . a running a sharp goad in his side. 1330-668. expel his seed. oppression. 56 . &quot. of Kirban. may his hands enter the destruction of his house may 58. curse him angrily. and as long as heaven and earth exist may he expel . 51. mly^LLe. and face to his conqueror. and night. may *2. 42. Nergal and Nana. recorded in heaven and earth. the gods of of the temple of the 49.

Next came Kassu-nadin-ahi.^ who^ reigned cessor was Ea-mukin-ziri. of Assyria. then The history is again II. brother Ninip-kudurri-usur reigned for two years. and they attempted to resist the power of the Assyrian king. Zabdan. The leader of the Suhi and seventy of his followers fled by way of the river.. son of for three months. was taken captive. After Nabu-sum-damik we over Babylon. for three months. none of the enough quiet. They were. Simmas-Sihu the son of Iriba-Sin. and after him E-UlbarSappai. king of Zobah. Curiously to great power nations around were powerful enough. He reigned for fifteen years. six years. Tukulti-Ninip IV. unsuccessful. but he was defeated by Ramsum-damik find manu-Nirari.. next (or Sipak). doubtful until the time of a son of Iriba-Marduk. About this time the Jewish nation and kingdom rose under David and Solomon. While Assur-nasir-pal was ruling over Assyria. His suc in his reign. the brother of the king of Babylon. and did great mischief. Egypt was and the unfriendly Assyrian little by little lost importance until the empire revived under Assur- nasir-pal. NabuHe joined in league abla-iddina held sway in Babylonia. together with the chief of the host. with the Suhi. Sippara son of Kutmar. and another brother. Afterwards the Babylonian king made . and were defeated after two days battle.58 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. however. We find that a king called Sibir marched into Assyria and king called Nabudestroyed a city called AdliL next reigned. all his to attack or to harm the kingdom of David after his defeat of Hadar-ezer. whose name is uncertain. who ruled for son of Bazi. a king called Nabu-suma-iskun ruling who likewise was defeated by the Assyrian king. An ruled Babylon Assyrian king. his sakin-sumi. Merodach-Baladan A for seven years. The Elamites pillaged reigned for seventeen years. An Elamite dynasty then assumed the govern ment of the country for six years. Bel-pal-iddina.

C. The Assyrian king. took the part of the lawful heir to the throne. Rammanu- . . and in another he defeated the Babylonian army. This king was a votary of the Sun-god. Bau-ahi-iddin and Marduk-balatsu-ikbi were the next kings of Babylon. In one of these raids he took Dur-papsukal. pay him tribute . took possession of the country. and marched to his assistance. the son dead. He apportioned a fixed revenue from the royal farms for the support of this temple. claimant to the throne was the son of Nabu-pal-iddina. the picture of Jehu kneeling down doing rever This king ence to the Assyrian lord may be seen. called the Sutu.. and on the black obelisk. and in the so-called { Sun-god tablet he relates that a wicked enemy. and presented the priests with valuable garments. had attacked the temple of the Sun. Little is known of either save that the latter was king during the reign of Samsi-Rammanu over Assyria. who. but it Marduk-suma-iskun. II. The that many expeditions were made by its kings. It must not be forgotten that it was this king who made Jehu. which stands in the British Museum. but was followed by the the rebel was defeated at GanAssyrians and slain nanati by the Assyrian king. erected most magnificent gates covered with plates of bronze. .next legitimate . was also claimed by an usurper called Marduk-bel-usati. aided by the populace. having in relief upon them beautifully executed scenes from his wars and expeditions. 59 king of Assyria. Shalmaneser II.. B. but who was now ? * t no one had done so much as he did.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM a treaty with Shalmaneser of Assur-nasir-pal. Other kings before his time had executed several considerable repairs. had invaded Babylon before his time. who made many raids on Babylonia. and had wrought considerable damage and destruction therein. The heir fled to Halman. the son of Nimshi. 1330-668. Babylonian history is now silent as to the names of its kings but we know from the annals of the sister kingdom Assyria. who then marched to Babylon.

60
Nirari

BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY.
III..,
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Shalmaneser IIL, and Assur-Dan against III. was the son of SamasBabylon. Rimmon, who died about B.C. 812. Shalmaneser III. made three expeditions against Babylon between the years B.C. 783 and B.C. 767. Here comes a blank in Babylonian history for about twenty years, and the next king we find to be Nabu-nasir. No mention is made of him in the inscriptions, but he is

Rammanu-Nirari

brought to light by Ptolemy s canon. Tiglath-Pileser III. was king of Assyria during his reign, and he captured the fortress of Kuri-galzu (a town built by an early Babylonian king of that name), together with that part of Sippara dedicated to Samas, the Sun-god. The people of these places, he tells us, he took away to people his city of the fortress of Assur/ which he had founded. Nabu-nasir died about B.C. 734, and was succeeded by He in his turn Nabu-nadin-ziri, who reigned two years. was succeeded by Nabu-suma-ukin, who reigned but a few weeks. The inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser, the king
*

become masters of the country. But now a new king of Babylon arose

of Assyria at this time, seem to point out that there were many important chiefs living in Babylonia each He mentions three, maintaining his city and army. Nabu-usabsi, Zakiru, and Ukin-ziru. This latter chief is probably the Chinzirus of Ptolemy, who appears to have become sole king of Babylonia about B.C. 730. The canon of Ptolemy inserts the name Ilulaeus (Assyr. Ulaa) after Ukin-ziru. For the last two or three hundred years Babylonia had been the scene of perpetual fights and battles, at one time winning, at another The losing. energies of the people had been strained to their highest pitch to maintain their position, but little by little the Assyrian power had dominated until the Assyrians had
called

Merodach-

Baladan, or Marduk-pal-iddina, i. e. Marduk gave a son. He was the son of Yakin, the Yugaeus of Ptolemy s canon, and appears to have been a man of great ruling In arms he was no match for the ability. great Sargon,

BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM

B.C.

1330-668.

6l

king of Assyria, who began to reign about B.C. 732, for about B.C. 712 we find him sending an ambassador to Hezekiah to solicit aid against him. He then sent to Humba-nigas, the king of Elam, and supported by him the Babylonians rebelled. The Assyrian king, Sargon, conquered them and ravaged the country. This is one of the most interesting periods of Assyrian history, for the great king of Assyria comes into very close contact with the Jews. Isaiah in his twentieth chapter tells us that he sent his Tartan to besiege Ashdod, and took it ; and on a fragment of clay cylinder of Sargon a most graphic description is given of the means taken by the Assyrian king to capture the city. The siege took place. B.C. 711, and the following is Sargon s account of it In my ninth expedition I went to Philistia and Ashdod, and to the land beside the Great Sea (i. e. the
,

:

Mediterranean). Azuri, king of Ashdod, hardened his heart against bringing tribute to me, and he also sent to the kings round about who were unfriendly to Assyria, and worked wickedness. I shattered his power over his people, and carried off spoil (??). After this I appointed his brother Ahmuti to be lord of the realm. I fixed the taxes and tribute which he should pay to me like the other His wicked people, however, kings round about him. hardened their hearts against the payment of tribute ; they revolted against their king, and because he had been loyal and good to me they drove him away. After this they established Yaman, a usurper, in the kingdom ; and they seated a man who was not the lawful heir on the throne of their lord. They assembled their forces for war, and they fortified the town against me. They made an excavation like a ditch all round the city to a depth of 34 feet, and into it they directed all the springs of the city, to form a moat. All the inhabitants of Philistia, Judah, Edom, and Moab, dwelling by the sea,

whose duty it was Assur my lord, spoke

to bring treason.

gifts and offerings to These people and their

6*2,

BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY.
Pharaoh, the
deliver

rebellious chiefs carried their presents to

king of Egypt

a

monarch who could not

them

and entreated

his assistance.

Then

I,

Sargon, the

of Assur and Merodach, majestic prince, the worshipper for the honour of Assur, passed over the Tigris jealous and Euphrates at their flood time. Yaman, who relied to my authority, upon himself, and who would not submit heard of the advance of my expedition to the land of
the Hittites

He

fled to

and the might of Assur overwhelmed him. Meroe, near Egypt, to a far-off place, and was
;

no more seen. Hezekiah did not support Merodach-Baladan, who then sent to Kudur-Nahhunte, king of Elam, and they became allies. Having prepared his army, he made strong his fortifications to resist the march of Sargon of Assyria. But his city Dur-athara was captured, himself put to flight, and obliged to seek refuge in his own country Beth-Yakur. On the road thither he retreated to a city called Ikbi-Bel, and Sargon having captured Merodach-Baladan and Babylon marched against it. his followers forsook Ikbi-Bel and took refuge in DurYakin, which they strongly fortified. This was useless, carried oft however, for Sargon took the city Merodach-Baladan and all his family. Sargon died B.C. 705, and was succeeded by his son, Sennacherib. He reigned quietly for two years, when a man called by Eusebiu s Hagisa (probably Mardukand"

,

of the inscriptions) came to the throne, Sennacherib being deposed* Merodach-Baladan gathered his armies together, attacked this rebel and slew him. He then set himself upon the throne. Sennacherib reassembled his armies and marched from Nineveh against him, and utterly routed Merodach-Baladan at the city of Kisu, and compelled him to seek refuge in Guzummanu. Afterwards he gathered together what ever people were willing to follow his fortune, and led them to a district called Nagitu, down by the Persian Sennacherib placed upon Gulf, where he died an exile.

zakir-sumi

Mahallib. his brothers. fell into the hands of the victorious Assyrian army. and his strongholds. and his relatives. Urumilki of Byblos. Another Babylonian rebel arose called Suzub. and his garrison submitted to me. EthBaal of Sidon. and I imposed upon him a fixed annual tribute. Malikram of Edom.. on the Tigris he was utterly defeated. king of Judah. but soon after he gathered together another army and again taking Babylon. and I subjugated his land. and. to Assyria. Beth-Zitti. Nabu-sumu-iskum. and the son of Merodach-Baladan. that we give a translation marched against the land majesty and lordship over whelmed Elulaeus. my lord. I carried away the gods of the ancestors of Sidka king of Askelon. his helper. himself. . Akko. and all the kings of Phoenicia and the sea-coast made offerings unto me and kissed my feet. Sennacherib s account of his attack upon Hezekiah. Sarepta. marched to Babylon and became He was routed by the Assyrians and obliged to king. Chemosh-Nadab of Moab. but Sennacherib soon suppressed him and ravaged He was taken captive and sent to Nineveh. Little Sidon. Pudil of Ammon. Menahem of Samsimurna. Abdiliti of Arvad. his country. aided by the king of Elam. Sennacherib was now occupied in trying to destroy Merodach-Baladan s settlement in Nagitu. The supremacy of the arms of Assur. Ekdippa. while labouring for this object. his sons. He met the Assyrian army in battle at Halub. 1330-668. and he retreated to the sea. his lands. Ushu. Suzub fled. who had joined him. king of Sidon. who had not submitted to my yoke. I set Eth-Baal on the throne. I . proclaimed himself king. of it here : is so important. the son of Gahul. and Umman-Minanu. Suzub escaped. Mitinti of Ashdod. his fortresses. keep in hiding. the king of Elam.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM B.C. and. his In third my campaign I of Chatti. 63 the throne of Babylon a young man called Bel-epus. retreated to his own kingdom. his wife. The terror of my daughters. overwhelmed Great Sidon.

. who was a faithful vassal of Assyria. set Sarludari. Askelon. I marched against Beth-dagon. and Azuru. the king of Judah. Ekron. eight hundred talents of silver. over I imposed tribute upon him. The hearts of the chief priests and of the people of Ekron. them. garrisons Nineveh. and Gaza. I slew the ringleaders of the rebellion. raised mounds against him. The terror of the majesty of my might over whelmed Hezekiah. and he became Continuing my expedition. to vicinity. and carried right moment away spoil from them. Sennacherib s vengeance upon Babylon was most . feared. I set him upon the throne and made him tributary to me. ivory seats and couches. The towns from which I had transported the inhabitants I separated from his territory. and they called to their aid the governors of Egypt. which had not submitted to me at the I captured these. skins of animals. The commander of the Egyptian host. the son of Rukibti their former king. I advanced against the town of Ekron. who threw him into prison. however. I besieged and captured forty-six of his towns and innumerable in their tributary. and diminished it by giving them to Ashdod. and I carried away as spoil thirty talents of gold. did not submit to me. I did battle with them before the city of Altaku. the sons of the Egyptian king. Hezekiah.64 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. and the commander of the host of the king of Miluhha. and defeated them. precious stones. I caused their king Padi to leave Jerusalem. who had cast into iron bonds their king Padi. and his retinue. chariots. I captured alive with my own hand. cities be longing to Sidka.150 of their inhabitants Hezekiah himself I shut up in Jerusalem I as^ spoil. and had delivered him to Hezekiah of Judah. . Joppa. . Bene-Berak. I increased their annual tribute. rare woods his daughters. and I transported those of the inhabitants who had taken the part in it rest of the people I pardoned. and horses belonging to the king of Miluhha. his wives. with countless numbers of archers. and I carried away 200.

Assur-nadin-sumi.gt. meanwhile. in his turn.C. The libraries were the repository of all the science and knowledge which the most civilized of the Semitic races had. 65 He pulled down the temples. It is very hard to form even an idea of the damage which this king must have done. king.). Everything capable of being destroyed he destroyed. In deeds he was cruel. 68 1. 1330-668. 680.BABYLONIAN HISTORY FROM B. tions breathes the spirit of his boast. c. nadin-sumi reigned about six years. Assur-nadin-sumi. In Babylon was the accumulated learning of ages and of hundreds of gene rations of the children of men. With every other great building.lt. and his son. The particulars of these battles belong properly to the history of Assyria.C. and hurled them into the river Araxes. The books of astronomy and observations of the heavenly bodies were all there. and towers. the powerful. Sennacherib was murdered about B.- fc&amp. 694. the gate of God. and was succeeded by Nergal-edir. who. in addition to their beautiful collection of myths and stories of the childhood of the world. Every one is familiar with the boastful speeches of the Rabshakeh 1 (in Assyrian &Zm and ^ft^ without doubt they were the very words which the king himself had commanded to be spoken. E . but. came to the Assyrian throne B. in speech haughty. a son of Merodach-Baladan. perished under the needlessly cruel vengeance which Sennacherib wreaked upon the city. t * |&amp. 19-35. called Nabu-zir1 2 Kings xviii. and raised to the Baby lonian throne his son.C. but it is necessary to touch upon them briefly for the Assurright understanding of the history of Babylon. removed walls severe. Another son. Esarhaddon. 3 I am the mighty Sennacherib deposed Bel-epus. had died about B. and very possibly many of the stones and legends which have supplied the other nations of the world with the groundwork of their mythology. the libraries must have suffered. whom he had appointed over Babylon. and every word of his inscrip . was succeeded by MusesibMarduk.

His mild but firm policy pacified the excitable and angry -breasts of the various tribes ever ready for war. and Nabu-zir-napisti-esir was compelled to take His brother. and there are inscriptions in the British Museum in Babylonian as well as in Assyrian. The sons of Sennacherib after his death quarrelled as to the succession. The judicious king. for Esarhaddon. napisti-esir. marched against him. went to Babylon and began to repair the damages which his father had done. this quarrel While was going on Nabu-zir-napisti-esir attacked the city of Ur. having defeated his brothers.66 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. which go to prove that he wished to conform to the usages of the as people and their he could. and rendered his short reign of thirteen far as . kings and left the government of Babylon to another son. He built ten temples there. Nahid-Marduk. He not only was merciful and kind. had seized his father s dominions near the Persian Gulf. Assurbanipal. with him in the kingdom of Assyria. however. Esarhaddon. . During his reign he associated his son. but he did his best to show that he honoured the ancient city Babylon. years very glorious. and was appointed by him to the govern ment of the sea-coast. to Esarhaddon. Samullu-sum-ukin or Samas-sum-ukin. His siege was unsuccessful. which was ruled over by Ningaliddina. submitted refuge in Elam. and wished to rule Babylonia.

Nebuchadnezzar s buildings The siege of Tyre. the king of Elam. Another serious His brother s spirit trouble now awaited Assurbanipal. and taking out their gold and silver he sent it to Umman-igas. than his own son. Josiah) king ofjudah. Biblical ofJerusalem and captivity of its people. followed the policy of his father Umman-igas. desperate and fierce wars. Parritu. THE FALL OF NINEVEH. and canals. He. and. and raising a large army. Assurbani The Elamite king was quite ready to take up arms against his benefactor. upon the throne. the sacrilegious monarch opened the treasuries of the temples of the gods Bel. Nebo. The Inscription on a bronze step. made a league with Bel-basa.C. and began to make war against Assurbanipal and his brother.o7 CHAPTER V. The Elamite king had no sooner left his city on this expedition. he. chafed at the idea of his being in subjection to him. destritction Daniel. to Assurbanipal. Fall of The vengeance of the Babylonians. Nebuchadnezzar and names of Adam. called Urtaki. began a series of pal. Nebuchadnezzar s war Nineveh. AssurbanipaTs wars with Elam. rebelled. Assurbanipal hearing of this. and Nergal. sending his head as a present to Assurbanipal. E 3 . and knowing that the king of Elam was ill-disposed igas. with the Egyptians. His care for the libraries. 668-560. king of the Gambulu. together with the Babylonian king. Abraham. attacking his father. slew him. and prayed for his assistance to make a war against his brother. NEBUCHADNEZZAR. After this a king of Elam. however. Abel. B. which country he subsequently conquered and placed Ummana son of Urtaki. and Methuselah found on the tablets. FOR ten or a dozen years we have peace in the land. and it succeeded in driving Urtaki back into Elam. sent an army to fight these kings.

and they ran each other through with their swords. 648. called for his armour-bearer. as in days of old. Assurbanipal sent to this new king. -Naturally enough. Umman-aldas. who reigned about twenty-two years. fearing this insult. he and his family had been slain by Umman-aldas. and great and mighty.C. and perished in the flames. Instead of being rebellion. he it^xt turned his successful troops against their old enemies the Assyrians. Nabu-pal-usur was a general of great ability and tact and the government of Assyria appear to have made him Governor of Babylon on account of the skill which he showed in ruling Babylon and suppressing the .C 626. Then followed peace until about B. and the Assyrian king sent a general called Nabu-pal-usur to quell it. who had ascended the throne. He afterwards became king of Babylon. brought to the Elamite king. sent an ambassador to its king to inform him of the event. Assurbanipal demanded that Nabu-bel-zikri should be Before this request could be delivered up to him. he found that he had armies under his own control. a grand son of Merodach-Baladan III. to Assurbanipal. and the power to do with them as he pleased. made it . found his way to Elam. and took refuge with Inda-bigas. sent the body of Nabu-bel-zikri. being well disposed to Assyria. the ruler of the sea-coast. and was succeeded by Kandalanu. the king of Elam. together with the head of the armour-bearer. . but one Nabu-bel-zikri.68 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. however. and joined the Babylonian faction. Assurbanipal severely punished the insurgents. when another revolt broke out in Babylonia. The Babylonians were only too glad to assist their vigorous leader Nabu-pal-usur in his meditated attack upon Nineveh. its king. who. The king set fire to his palace. demanding that Nabu-bel-zikri should be given up he. Samas-rsum-ukin reigned over Babylon about twenty years. When. The Assyrian army and took conquered the Babylonian king and his ally Babylon about B.

About this time Josiah. and he therefore made a league with Pharaoh Necho. fate of this courageous. is known to all. having been declared. news of the death of Nabopolassar he therefore 2 2 Kings xxiii.THE FALL OF NINEVEH. went out x The with his small army against the Egyptian hosts . Nebuchadnezzar. 29. and about B. taken upon them by Sennacherib. together his wives and property in the palace. of Egypt. 2 In the fourth year of Jehoiakim Nabopolassar. and Shalman. kings marched against Assyria. The united kings then besieged Nineveh. While Nebuchadnezzar . monarch . was carrying out the reached him 1 instructions of his father. He was wise enough to see that Assyria could not be completely crushed by one nation. but eventually the Assyrian army was defeated. sent his son. the king of Judah.C. and The setting fire to it. the brother of the king of Assyria.away the greater The Assyrian king gathered part of the city wall. Cyaxares. all perished in the flames. but her power and her glory were diminishing. 69 the general in the service of the government of Assyria.During the siege the river Tigris rose and carried . fearless and needs no repetition here. to give his daughter Amytes to Nebuchadnezzar. and the Vengeance destruction he wrought and there is very little doubt but that Nabopolassar took care to avenge this treatment. Assyria as a power practi The Babylonians remembered the cally ceased to exist. and asked the Median king. They suffered various defeats. and she found herself powerless to resist or control the iron-willed rule of her opponent. he now became a most formidable rival and opponent of its king. enemies went into the city and utterly destroyed all they could lay their hands upon. to Thus a league was made. . war. . for some reason or other. king of Babylon. . xlvi. to make war against the Egyptians. Assyria had been the ruling power for some time. Jer. slain. Nabu-pal-usur (Nabopolassar). 2. 30. With the fall of Nineveh. his son. 609 the wife.

hastened back to Babylon to receive his father s crown. 1 and dug the great canal.gt. Tf ^&quot.. supreme is lord mentioned by 1 See Col.T f ^T D.T ri Nabo. the remains of fifteen days which Sir Henry Rawlinson traced from Hit to the . Syrians.-3?T ^M 5 za- ni in the restorer 3. ILI u E zi .abla Nabu -pal.C. Phoenicians. i. of his large inscription. 608. {i &amp.ki su .^2&amp.P.na . and Egyptians.tir usur the king of Babylon (the seat of life) am /. an inner and an outer.DA SAG of the temple Sagili and the temple Zida E -^^r ablu the ^w eldest w asaridu m sa f D. a distance of nearly 500 miles.P. Na - bi- um - ku - du - ur - ri - u - su - ur Nebuchadnezzar sar the king -ka - dingi - ra - ki of Babylon - (the gate of god) 2 . but the He reared a huge palace in inner he built entirely. the ^ - ssT um x the a - na For Na god bi- bil - ^ ni * T^ si .lt. .gt.i - -TT&amp. established in the kingdom he set his various become work And as a builder he remains almost unsurpassed. The outer wall he simply repaired. ^m EESST Nabu . Jews. line 63. He surrounded Babylon with two huge walls. INSCRIPTION ON A BRONZE STEP OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR. to make Babylon the greatest city in the world. bay of Graine. H D. Egyptian king took place at Carchemish When Nebuchadnezzar reached Babylon he found When he had that the throne had been kept for him.ku . and this Berosus. at captives.ur sar a.yo BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. 8.P. The battle which Nebuchadnezzar fought with the about B.tin. son of u 4- - .

.

.

. threw off his yoke together with Phoenicia. 11-17. i) he afterwards submitted. Three years before the fall of Tyre. 8. met king in his stead with much resistance from the Tyrians. 5. and made . Ezek. 73 ^ mu - -&amp.lt. for it took thirteen years to capture the city. however. 2 Kings xxiv. his Srif temple in Borsifpa &amp. Pharaoh 1 Compare 2 3 3 * 2 Chron.T- ssTT is &- fifl - es - si - e tf/w After / built (made) pu us Nebuchadnezzar had returned from Syria. xxvi.iT * - sa - ri fo tengthener 6. xxxvi. . 1-6. He marched expecting help He at once against Tyre. hoping to obtain assistance from the new king of Egypt.um of the day of ku ma- la * ki - ya my i rule (or kingdom] E - zi - DA bit - su - na Bar - si - pa ki E-Zida &amp. . that iron-willed Nebuchad generally it seems impossible nezzar should be defeated in this matter. Jer. therefore left an army encamped before the city. Grote thinks it never was taken Jeremiah and 4 and speaking Ezekiel both prophesy its downfall . however. So good an historian as Mr. having all his army and the whole naval force of Phoenicia to help him. Judaea from the king of Egypt. 3-6 . removed Jeconiah from the Zedekiah throne. Jerusalem rebelled.THE FALL OF NINEVEH. and went to Jerusalem \ Jehoiakim. it was to no purpose. 2 Kings xxiv. &quot. who was king of Judah and although at that time. for Nebuchadnezzar put him in fetters and established 2 Soon after Nebuchadnezzar Jeconiah in his stead came to Jerusalem again. carried him to Babylon. . 6 Chron.lt. rebelled (a Kings xxiv. xxvii. xxxvi. and in the ninth year of Zedelciah. . 3 The Babylonian king.lt. but was unable to take it. u .

Ezek. and trans force . is The Biblical Pharaoh Hophra I (otherwise known j[ &quot. Ezek. could come from this quarter Nebuchadnezzar had 2 and hearing that the Egyptian besieged Jerusalem Hophra and with . 5. 3 Jer. Beltis The Daniel 1 question has been asked over and over again. xxix. . Zedekiah s eyes were the nineteenth year of his reign 3 4 Nebuchadnezzar put out and he was carried to Babylon destroyed the temple. he Compare 11-16. xxxi. . xxxvii. 2 Kings xxv. Jer. 1 Ezek. for it was this king that threw the three children into the fiery furnace and it must never be forgotten that he was very kind to the prophet Daniel was called 7 Belteshazzar. Some say that Pharaoh Hophra was defeated. iv. ravaging the country far and wide. 3. this is Jeremiah. was on the march. 5-11 . 7 Jer. Is s name found in the inscriptions ? The answer is. yet shall not see it. though he shall die there. 12-30 . 1 . 13. he raised the siege and went to do battle with it. But before help sent messengers to Egypt. 8. . 17-20. i. Dan. 8-12. xlvi. probably a corruption of Beltis-sarra-usur. Zedekiah. 13-26.74 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. Jer. xvii. xii. Nebuchadnezzar returned to the siege of and after two years the city surrendered in Jerusalem. A . the city and its walls. it s In cuneiform would be &amp. 12. others that he retreated as the Babylonians advanced.gt. 4 *I will bring him to Babylon to the land of the Chaldeans. lii.O as Apfies) the $tjft [ O * $ ^ J or %S2 ( | of the Hieroglyphs. e. xxx. 15-20. 10-26. xxxvii. . this end in view the Jewish king. 8 protects the king . 5 ported the greater part of the people to his own land few years after this he again marched through Syria and Palestine into Egypt to make war with the Egyptian king. As usual he was successful. Jer. and obtained much spoil and many captives 6 Nebuchadnezzar is the subject of the liveliest interest to us. 5 lii.

Ashdod. and however important his work. for c Adam/ Ablu example. but the king claimed the glory.C. it is not likely that Nebuchadnezzar would concede to him his The plain of Dura due and mention his name.THE FALL OF NINEVEH.-sa-ili (the man of god). When an eastern king performed any great work or deed. but his Jerusalem. It is necessary to mention that the form of this monarch s name. . Nebuchadrezzar xxix. correct according to the inscriptions : for and . So. 19. after a reign of 43 years. xxx. or carried on any war. 10). A bramu Abraham/ Adamu Abel. Muttt. xxvi. When Sennacherib and his mighty army besieged did all the work. the Tartan did all the work. however great a man Daniel was in Babylon. Many another Biblical name is found on the tablets. but the share of his generals was attributed to him. and so on. B. 563. is the more (Ezek. 75 No but this fact is easily explained. and was succeeded by his son. Amil-Marduk (the Evil Merodach of the Bible). the Rabshakeh name is not even mentioned in the account of the siege When Sargon besieged written by the king s orders. 18. Methuselah.e. There is no reason whatever why the name may not be found in future days when all Babylon is excavated. not only his own share in the labour. mentioned in Daniel is probably one of the districts in Babylon which are called in the inscriptions Duru. 7 Nebuchadnezzar died . and every one s glory became merged in that of the monarch. fortress. i.

Rise of hispottier.CHAPTER VI. The next successor to the throne was Nabu-Nahid. Kali-Mag. Chief events of the years of the reign of Nabonidns. the son of Nabu-balat-su-ikbi. and the inertness of Nabonidus prepared the way for his future capture of Babylon. THE CAUSES WHICH LED IT. who &quot. f cylinder. 55^5. Nabonidus His Part of cuneiform text 7 elatingto the capture of Babylon. Rab-Mag is in Babylonian rub a etnga. Labasi-Marduk (the prince/ Laborosoarchod of Ptolemy). king of Babylon. 556. 3 nnd 13. Translation of EVIL MERODACH.C. master of the army. was assassinated by his sister s husband. and Belshazzar. Death of the mother ofNabonidus. Some think that he was the Nergal Sharezer. And now began Jer.C. Nabonidns a sun-worshipper. Nabonidus dwelt in the city Tema. and temples. C. Arrival of Cyrus at Babylon. Nabonidus. In the first year of the reign of Nabonidus we find that he made 1 to reign about B. it. and died B. OF TO B. . THE CUNEIFORM ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE BABYLON BY CYRUS. and was assassinated after reign of nine months. His restorations of the inscription of this monarch. Extract from an His researches. and to his son Belshazzar was entrusted the care of the army. succeeded him. His con His kindness to the Jews. Nergal-sarra-usur or Neriglissar. His son. Cyrus was be coming a powerful king. His restoration of the cities ciliatory policy. Bible account of the fall of Babylon. temples. Belshazzars feast. xxxix. who was with Nebuchadnezzar at the siege of Jerusalem \ He reigned three years. the Rab-Mag. Cyrus.gt. &amp. Cyrus the shepherd] the good king.a the glorious slowly but surely the Babylonian empire began to decay. 560-530. after a reign of two years.

.

.

it makes us wonder why the king to offend them. or Persia. 79 war with a king whose name is lost in the second there was a slight rebellion in Hamath. Nabonidus was in The priests made in Akkad. In his third year he went to a country called Ammananu. and delivered him into the hands of Cyrus. Cyrus was pushing on his fortunes rapidly. asking for peace. 549. gods of Babylon and Borsippa. and went army together. and the army sacrifices to the these particulars also tells us that the god. Cyrus marched from the land of the Elamites into Akkad.ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE OF BABYLON. and goods which he had taken In the seventh year of his reign there to Anzan. the mother of the king died there was mourning year for three days and much weeping. furniture. save that the king was in Tema. Hearing of this. the king of Anzan. On the cylinder of Nabonidus. We have no notice of what took place in the In his ninth year he was still in Tema. crossed the to attack a king who lived In the tenth year. and carried the silver. Cyrus. the king of . and eighth year. B. This would make the priests carried angry. which means that even the worship of the gods began to be neglected. Of the eleventh year of Nabonidus we know little. c . for he captured the royal city in Ecbatana. while his army was in Akkad. gold. the army in Akkad. Tema. Anzan Tigris there. In his sixth year Cyrus. entreating peace. quoted further on. gathered his by Arbela. . the soldiers of Astyages revolted in this year. on the aist of Sivan.C. . the king says that Cyrus himself conquered Astyages but the statement which makes the soldiers of Astyages deliver their king into the hands of Cyrus agrees with that of Herodotus. and as they were a caste which always dared great influence. In this year. went to a country whose name is lost. Bel did not go to Babylon/ nor did Nebo come forth during these years. In the month Nisan of this his army was in Akkad. Nabonidus was still in Tema. and that they sacrificed victims to the gods presiding over Babylon and The tablet which gives Borsippa.

5 He begins by calling himself the son of Nabu-balat-su-ikbi. 16. the mighty It appears that an enemy called the Sabmanda prince. strong was their might. with the horses of thy chariots 19. the strengthener of all showed me a dream. Some little time ago Mr. In the seventeenth year of Nabonidus (B. Marduk spoke with me (saying) Nabonidus. Marduk spoke with me saying shall not exist. ^ i Reverently I spoke to the lord of the . and Marduk and Sin.80 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. . house of which thou speakest I will build. The following is Nabonidus own 3 account of the matter 15. that 23. the Sabmanda of 35. the great lord. had gone to Harrari and had destroyed the temple of The god Bel wished Nabonidus to the Moon-god undertake the re-erection of this temple and the reestablishment of the city. 22. great lord and Sin Marduk the 17* 1 8. is a very important document. : In the beginning of my long reign. fix the dwelling-place within it. 539) Cyrus captured Babylon but we must give some notice of the work of Nabonidus before we deal with this event. king of Babylon. and we shall describe here The cylinder is in three columns.C. the illuminator of heaven and earth. 26. . Rassam brought to England c One of these fragments of some Nabonidus cylinders. 24. their country and the kings going by their side year with his small army he made Cyrus the king of Anzan his young servant to go. In the third 27. appeared to him in a dream and told him what Bel desired. which thou speakest they. rear up the walls of E-hulhul and of Sin 20. and contains 159 well-written lines. briefly its contents. gods Marduk. The Sabmanda of which thou spealcest destroyed it. the Moon-god.

the son of Esarhaddon. Which for three thousand two hundred years no king going before me had seen/ He goes on to say that Samas. After this he tells us that he excavated as much as eighteen cubits. (who reigned about B. had restored the temple. had restored it in his time. revealed to me the house the seat of the joy of his The king was very pleased with this success. which he tells us he saw. it will be remembered. the Sun-god.. and found the foundation stone of Naram-Sin. During the excavations for the necessary of the foundations. 28. he glazed them white. it The . Thinking that the image of the Sungod had been placed in the wrong shrine.e. 860) and Assurbanipal. the great lord of E-parra. 5 pious king next restored the temple of Anunitum in Sippara). Astyages king of Sabtnanda and took to his own land. He tells us that Assurbanipal. heart. brought from Su-anna and placed it in the shrine god He made an inscription. the son of Sargon. Forty-five years after this restoration Nabonidus looked for them. Nebu chadnezzar. he his treasures $9. and found them not. which he set at flarran. by side with that of Assurbanipal. for the purpose. f 5 and he c sacrificed a victim. Having done his duty to the Moon-god he next speaks of the Sun-god at Sippara. and brought army from Gaza. the lady who walks before the gods. but this inscription tells us that he looked for side 3 the cylinders and found them not. 8r he overthrew the wide-spreading captured Sabmanda. and had the bricks made like white marble/ i. He set figures of the god Latimu on each side of the doors He then had the image of the Moonof the temple.ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE OF BABYLON.C. Nabonidus had it removed and set in another temple. his Nabonidus began the Work of restoration. he found the cylinders which repairs had been deposited by Shalmaneser II. Nabonidus gave all his energies to the work..

On the i6th day Gobryas.. were allowed to remain in their places. Cyrus came to Babylon. Cutha. The men of Akkad made a revolt The soldiers took Sippara on the I4th day without fighting. having bound Nabonidus. Cutha. and we are at a loss for details until the seventeenth of the reign of Nabonidus. all the images of the around gods they could find were taken in procession and only those of Borsippa. This brings us back to the tablet containing the annals After the eleventh year we of the reign of Nabonidus. In the month Marchesvan (October). he took him to Babylon. and the army of Cyrus came to Babylon without any opposition. whom Nabo. came not down.re above the atmosphere. of the river Nizallat. was called E-ulbar. the 3rd day. but neither in that temple nor any other temples of the country was there found a weapon for its defence. Kudurri-Bel. came down to The gods of Borsippa. and Sippara Babylon. for the tablet is broken. who we. know not what took place. While excavating for the founda tions he found two foundation stones of earlier kings. and Nabonidus away. : gives us information.. In the month Tammuz (June) Cyrus . Afterwards. the roads were dark before him.8s BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. the governor of Gutium. From the month Kislev (November) to the month Adar (February) they brought back to their shrines the gods of Akkad. This namely those of Sagasalti-Buryas and to the remarkably interesting cylinder ends by a prayer gods Samas and Anunit. He made peace to the city and promised peace to all fled Babylon.. Nabonidus appears to The period of the inertness of * made battle in Rutum against . Cyrus appointed Gobryas to be governor in Babylon together with others. of which year the tablet year be over the gods were brought forth and sacrifices were made. At the end of the month Tammuz the rebels of Gutium closed the gates of E-sagili . The tablet of annals gives the following account of this year At the end of the month Elul (August) the gods of Akkad. and Sippara Babylon. .

TEKRA-CQTTA CYLINDER CONTAINING THE HISTORY OF THE CAPTURE OF BABYLON BY C\RUS THE GREAT. KING OF PF. F % .RSIA.

.

hence Sippara was easily taken. are readable. he had taken himself away Merodach was kind to the people of to other peoples. of 27th of the month Adar (February) to the 3rd day the month Nisan (March) there was weeping in Akkad. Merodach did not appear. . and he returned. and the rebels who shut themselves up in E-sagili were without arms. At this In the inscriptions of Nabonidus no mention is made of any restoration of the temple of Marduk by him.ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE OF BABYLON. and the gods left the sacred feasts which were celebrated within Kal-anna. 19. and which 2 As this the taking of Babylon gives his account of famous record is so important. At their respective shrines. established a festival. in the Temple of 4th day the Sceptre of the-World. therefore they were subdued without difficulty. This is the brief history of the conquest of Babylon and it will be easy to see that as recorded in the annals it was brought about by other things than force of arms. 1 unperformed. the lord of the gods. grieved. course arouse the indignation of the priests of Marduk. s desire of the god what perform according to the heart He proclaimed the ever was entrusted to his hand. and the king (Nabonidus) died. 1 On the All the people were free from their chief Cambyses. There was a revolt among the troops of Nabonidus. given : first few lines of and only a few words import of them seems Nabonidus the rites of and that the ordinary The the fragment are much broken. . offers and sacrifices were left Merodach.. 2 Compare Job iii. but the general to be that under the care of the temples were discontinued. the son of Cyrus. . the nth day. 85 In the month of nidus had sent down to Babylon.. Marchesvan (October) the dark. a paraphrase is here .. and rejoiced all the He sought out a king for himself who would countries. and it seems that he neglected entirely This would of the worship of this very favourite deity of Babylonia. Gobryas From the . Sumir and Akkad. There is a fragment of a cylinder in the British Museum which was drawn up by the command of Cyrus. and he fled.

86 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. 8 &amp. i&m^ P I & J o 63 i M c* i K c^i fe r_ ^ O O O .lt.lt. .J &amp. o S M D O 12.

the great king. he crushed beneath him. daily reoiced the heart of h is follower. king of the city of Anzan. to his city the forces of Cyrus marched like a cloud and an earth (Babylon). His army was wide-spreading and far-reaching waters of a river. the mighty king. king of the four regions of the earth. king of the city Anzan. He made them enter Kal-anna without fighting and without contest he made breaches all round the city. and all the dark races The god commanded him to make the march Babylon. whom the Babylonians had grieved. king of Tintir. And then the god Merodach.. f according to the beneficence of their hearts/ After Cyrus entered Babylon with joy and gladness. and he repaired the cities and made joyful the children of Babylon. and he proclaimed He made all the people of Gutium.. to dwell under law and righteousness.\ ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE OF BABYLON. and they carne and kissed his feet. Merodach. of the ancient seed of royalty. and he (the god) delivered Nabonidus. All the people of Tintir and all the people of Akkad and Sumir. great-grandson of Teispes. l am Cyrus the king . who by his service makes the dead to live. 87 renown of Cyrus. whom he had gathered to his feet. king of Sumir and Akkad. nobles and priests who had opposed the king. he enlarged the royal palace.. the great king. the seat of royalty. Cyrus was careful to repair immediately the temple of . his glory to all. the great king. saying. and Merodach. who did not reverence him. the king of Anzan (Persia). the son of Cambyses. His wide-spreading forces j were spread over the land peacefully. whose dominion (reign) Bel and Nebo had exalted like the . whom he had caused his hand to take. the great lord. and who in difficulty and trouble aids every one. 5 . grandson of Cyrus. he made him take the road to Tintir wall. directed his (Cyrus ) hand and heart he lived happily. the great king of the city of Anzan. into the hands of Cyrus. his forces were without number. throughout the length and breadth of the land. drew near to him favourably and made known his proclamation.

old historian Herodotus tells us that Cyrus drained the river Euphrates nearly dry by means of a canal running into a lake. Josephus says. which Nabo nidus had brought from their shrines for the final festival.Nabonidus and the son Belshazzar became confused in the minds of the writers of the histories. and kissed the feet of Cyrus. but there is no reason why Cyrus should not scriptions have had recourse to this means as well as to fighting. and else where. and when Neriglissar was dead the kingdom came to Baltasar. He restored the shrines and dwelling-places of the gods of the towns of Agade. and in another Nabonnedon/ part of his book he calls Nabonidus Now it is evident that the father . Zamban. and that Merodach would regard him as his faithful follower and son. and that the Persians marched up through the river gates. We of Nabonidus. because he was master of the army. The gods of Akkad and Sumir. have mentioned that Nabonidus had entrusted the charge of the Babylonian army to his son Belshazzar. the god Merodach. and the Bible tells us that he was slain on the awful It makes no mention night of the capture of Babylon. and the god was pleased to approach him favourably. It was natural that foreigners should consider Belshazzar to be the king. . which were carelessly left open by the No mention of this is made in the in Babylonians. It is said 1 . but one and the same king is meant. The last line or two of the inscription tells us that he prayed daily to Nebo and Bel that they would be pleased to prolong his days.88 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. All the kings of Phoenicia and round about brought their tribute. Such is the account given of this remarkable fragment It will be remembered that the of the fall of Babylon. Cyrus restored to their places. . who by the Babylonians was called Naboandelus. The Bible and Josephus record an event in this king s life which the inscriptions and Herodotus mention not. to bless the decree for his prosperity. Isnumnak. Belshazzar the king 1 made a great feast to a Daniel v.

his wives. The prophets of all nations Israel denounced Babylon in their prophecies . might drink therein. . TEKEL. the king of the Chaldeans. In that night was Belshazzar. called for all the astrologers. temple which was in Jerusalem that the king. and the cry Babylon is fallen resounded from city to city. but they felt secure when they remembered the walls of their city and the huge gates which broke their line at short distances. . : .e. servant of the Lord. and from one end of the earth to the other. whiles he tasted the wine. In the same hour came forth ringers of a man s hand. They thought of their past and conquests. took up the cry of joy at her downfall. and augurs.e. God hath numbered thy kingdom and finished it thou art weighed in the balances arid art found wanting thy kingdom is verse divided and given to the Medes and Persians. of their old lines of kings. 5 . slain/ The Babylonians had heard for years of the conquests of Cyrus. exceedingly terrified at this. of their glories. Belshazzar. .ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE OF BABYLON. MENE. king saw the part of the hand that wrote. and his and his concubines. 5 A or two later we c read. commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which his father his ancestor) Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the (i. 89 thousand of his lords. and read the awful dictum to the king MENE. princes. soothsayers. UPHARSIN. and demanded an interpreta At last came Daniel. the tion but none could read it. i. were insolently secure in their hearts. and drank wine before the thou sand. and wrote over against the candlestick upon and the the plaister of the wall of the king s palace Belshazzar.

and Israel Mine shepherd/ and My My . The proclamation of Cyrus to the Jews. Confirmation of the decree of Cyrus. and gave an exact description of the siege: Thus saith the Lord to His anointed. Cyrus. to open before him the two-leaved gates and the gates shall not be shut I will go before thee. xlv. to Cyrus. . with Babylon under the hands of Cyrus than it did when Sennacherib the king of Assyria was the conqueror. Gradual decay of Babylon. Extract therefrom. Xerxes gave the Jews permission to build the walls ofJerusalem. : : My 1 Isa. i. 28. however. kings of Babylon. AND UNDER SELEUCUS. Extract from an Lack of historical cuneiform inscriptions after inscription of Antiochtis. and obtained the glorious appellation of anointed 1/ from the Lord God of Hosts. which call thee by thy name. . Babylon under Seleucus. Kindness of Darius to the Jews. Babylon under the Persians. Prophecies relating to its fall. that thou mayest know that I. and hidden riches of secret places. king. Darius. he re. and made its inhabitants to dwell in peace and safety . whose right hand I have holden. restored its temples. this period. Philip and Alexander the Great. BABYLON UNDER THE RULE OF THE PERSIANS. and endeavoured to make the people regard him as a kind reformer more than as a conquering king. am the God of Israel. Sir Henry Rawlinsorfs translation of the Behistim Inscription. to subdue nations before him and I will loose the loins of kings. For Jacob servant s sake.CHAPTER VII. and Co??iates.organised the religious services in its temples. IT fared better. Who also spoke by the spirit of prophecy in Isaiah. He was a generous protector of the Jews. Cambyses. the tolerant merciful &quot. the Lord. and cut in sundef the bars of iron and I will give thee the treasures of darkness. xliv. and make the crooked places straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass.

the Lord God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth and He hath charged me to build HinV an house at Jerusalem. 7-11. thirty chargers of gold. . 28. though thou hast not known Me. and from the west. Thus saith Cyrus. . I am the 1 Lord. and let him go up to Jerusalem. and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid the height thereof threescore silver 4 . in any place where he sojourneth. saying. Ban. only did Cyrus speak from the heart to the Jews. I am the Lord. the prince of Judah . thirty basons of gold. king of Persia. and with goods. beside the freewill -Not offering for the house of God that is in Jerusalem. nine-and-twenty knives. Ezral * 1-4. and in his first year 3 the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus. Ezra vi. altogether 5. 3-5. that he made a proclamation throughout all his king Under his rule we are * When Cyrus had dom. Let the house of God at Jerusalem be builded. i. that there is none beside Me. and build the house of the Lord God And of Israel (He is the God) which is in Jerusalem. a thousand chargers of silver. king of Persia. 2 2 Chron. which is in Judah. and is. 22. and other vessels a thousand. there is no God besi de Me I girded thee. whosoever remaineth let the men basons of a second sort four hundred and ten. -23 . of his place help him with silver. and there is none else / : : told Daniel prospered V arranged the affairs of Babylon. Who is there among you of all His people? his God be with him. and 4 handed them over to Sheshbazzar.400 vessels.RULE OF THE PERSIANS. and there is none else. he turned his attention to the Jews. xlv. and with gold. T-6. but he brought forth the vessels of Jehovah (which Nebuchad nezzar had carried away from Jerusalem to the house of his gods). xxxvi. and with beasts. though thou hast not known Me that they may know from the rising of the sun. : 91 I I have even called thee by thy name have surnamed thee. elect. 1 3 Isa. the place where they offered sacrifices. and put it also in writing. which is in Judah. The actual decree which Cyrus made as to the re building of the temple is given in Ezra vi.

and the building proceeded.93 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTOR^ cubits and the breadth thereof threescore cubits. the king of Persia. being attracted to the Jews with their one Almighty Jehovah but for all that he was most tolerant to the other nations who believed in many gods. There has been much argu ment on this point some chronologists make this Darius to be Astyages. . and a row of new timber arid let the expenses be given out of the king s house. he had captured Babylon. and brought unto Babylon. 538. Daniel. 12 . xxv. . . others say he was a Median prince. Thus were confirmed the prophecies of 1 Jeremiah.C. however 2 says. and place them in the house of God/ Josephus tells us that Cambyses. for it would occupy too much space. the grandfather of Cyrus. And also let the golden and silver vessels of the house of God. and if he reigned his reign could only have been for a few months. The arguments which have been brought forward to prove these various theories it would be use less to repeat here. recorded in the various parts of his book himself a monotheist. xxix. v. the son of Cyrus. which Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the temple which is at Jerusalem. 7-14. was unfavourable to the Jews and stopped the building but in the reign of Darius the original decree of Cyrus was confirmed. 1 Jer. and when given nothing would be proved. . 31. It is generally thought that Cyrus was the sole king of Babylon after . every one to his place. and Darius. being about threescore and two years old and Josephus tells us that both Cyrus. the son of Astyages. . xxxiii. and some say he was a general in the army of Cyrus. 10. others say. 2 Dan. the king of Media. made war with Nabonidus. was no doubt much Cyrus. . took the kingdom. We must . with three rows of great stones. It is a very hard matter to settle the question as to who this Darius was. the Median. while a few think him to be Darius Hystaspes. be restored. for the inscriptions make no men tion of him. and brought again unto the temple which is at Jerusalem. as the canon of Ptolemy places Cyrus first year B.he was Cyaxares. and Darius.

. The story goes that while leaping on his horse to begin his journey. and conquered it. 530. nearly eight years. 93 wait.gt. he would make all straight for him and set him on the He then sent heralds in all directions saying throne.C. to be Nebuchadnezzar. assumed the power was called Gomates. the blade of the sword wounded his thigh. knowing this fact. may have been for disaffection among the Babylonians under the reign of Cambyses is unknown it has been thought that they wished to do away with their Persian lord and his rule. &quot. also a Magus. Shortly after his ascending the throne he made an expedition into Egypt. and the thigh mortifying he died. Soon after the Babylonians revolted under the rule of Nadintu-Bel. Cambyses (who had been associated with him during the last year or two of Whatever reason there his reign).C.RULE OF THE PERSIANS. 537. The news was announced by a herald to Cambyses. and perhaps when Babylon is excavated we shall find tablets which will offer a solution of the mystery. stood the real state of affairs. and his son. The name of the Magus who it is . the son of Cyrus. and Patizithes&amp. was king in the place of Cambyses. reigned in his stead. the . and resolved to set out immediately against the Magus. who pretended. one of his brother Bardes or Smerdis these Magi. that Bardes. and this Magus with his brother. and the bone became diseased. slain by Darius. whom he had appointed to kill his brother Bardes. The Babylonian contract tablets make no mention of the name of this Darius the Median. * Cyrus died B. and having a brother very like the deceased BardeSj determined to make him per Then Patizithes persuaded his brother that sonify him. and who then thought that Prexaspes. Cambyses had left a Magus in charge of the affairs of Babylon. said he was. had deceived him and had not After a little consultation Cambyses under slain him. who was with his army in Assyria. about B. however. having reigned . Some time previously Cambyses had murdered revolted. and that he treated the people with great kindness .

the son . he was here king before me. He arose from Pissiachada. There was not a man. the. Afterwards Cambyses. He seized the empire. . that empire had been in our family from the olden time. died. became king. same father and mother as Cambyses. translated : . killing himself. they shall recognize me that I am not Bardes.94 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. Darius at once marched against and defeated the rebels in two battles. &quot. neither Persian.&quot. The empire of which Gomates the Median dis possessed Cambyses. on the 9th day of the month Garmapada (the 5th month) then it was he thus seized the empire. the son of Cyrus. He slew many people who had known the old Bardes. named Gomates. Then the whole state became rebellious from Cambyses it went over to him both Persia and Media and the other pro vinces. the brother of Cambyses. Then Cambyses proceeded to Egypt. a Magian. him exceedingly. gives the statements about the revolt of Gomates following He who was named Cambyses. nor Median. Darius. who could dispossess of the The state feared empire that Gomate^ the Magian.Afterwards there was a certain man. Nadintu-Bel. by Sir Henry Rawlinson. both in Persia and in Media and in the other provinces. &quot. in his Behistun in son of Nabonidus. The Babylon rebel chief. nor any one of our family. There was of that Cambyses a brother named Bardes he was of the scription. Afterwards When Cambyses slew Cambyses slew this Bardes. was captured in Babylon by Darius and put to death. from thence on the I4th day of the month Viyakhana (the i2th month) then it was that . . for that reason he slew the people &quot.Bardes it was not known to the state that Bardes was killed. After Gomates the Magian had dispossessed Cambyses of Persia and Media and the dependent provinces. son of Cyrus of our race.lest e To the state he thus falsely declared I am Bardes. the moun tain named Arakadres. : . When Cambyses had gone to Egypt the state became wicked then the lie became abounding in the land. he acted with his own party (?) he he arose.

Martes the Persian. and Hystaspes appears to have his he certainly played a secondary part in the war of the rebellious Parthians. I 4 Cambyses. there I slew him By the grace of Ormazd I sessed him of the empire. of Cyrus. became king Ormazd granted me the sceptre. I am the ninth. He gives his . of Teispes account we have been called Achaemenians. of the old Achaemenian line. Gomates the Magian and the chief men who were his . royalty My father was Hystaspes of genealogy thus: was Arsames. (Hystaspes. On Teispes. I dispos of Media. Nadintu-Bel Phraortes the Median. in the district followers. 6 Cambyses. 5 : i Achaemenes. Veisdates the Persian. named Nisaea. that There are eight of my race who have been kings before Sir Henry Rawlinson gives the me. and Aracus Phraates the Magian. been a private person. 3 Cyrus. some one else the Armenian.RULE OF THE PERSIANS. each of whom personated . . Darius restored all the temples which the rebel and established the Magian had injured or destroyed. On the loth day of the month Bagayadish (the 1st with my faithful men I slew that month) then it was. the Babylonian. Sitratachmes the Sagartian. against There was not any one bold enough to say Gomates the Magian until I arrived. Cynis the Great.&quot. The fort named Sictachotes. conquered Gomates the Magian. 95 auo-ht Then Ormazd brought help to I prayed to Ormazd me. 5 8 Arsames. I 7 Ariyaramnes. I 2 Teispes. of Ariyaramnes the father was the father was Achaemenes. line in a double series provisionally thus royal . Darius son Darius against Atrines the Susian. of Arsames the Hystaspes the father father was Ariyaramnes .) 9 Darius.

and therefore we have to rely solely upon the statements made by the classical authors on the subject. let it be given them day by day without fail that they may offer sacrifices of sweet savours unto the God of heaven and pray for the life of the king and of 1 his sons The prophets Zechariah and Haggai lived find Babylonian during the reign of this king. Cyrus had ordered to be made.C. endorsing and confirming the decree of Cyrus which allowed the Jews He added to the gifts which to rebuild their temple. for the burnt offerings of the God of heaven. salt. according to the appointment of the priests which are at Jerusalem. however. the son of Nabonidus. Josephus tells us that this was the king who gave Nehemiah permission to go and build the wall of Jerusalem. personated Nebuchadnezzar. and this shows that the latter was considered the legal king at the time the documents were made. in the year 515 B. No cuneiform documents have yet been discovered which give the history of Babylon at this period. probably in the reign of this Darius that Daniel was cast into the lions den. We must wait until Babylon is thoroughly exca vated for fresh light concerning its history at this time. Seleucus became king of Babylon after the death . 9. This Aracus. and oil. wheat. who was favourable and tolerant to the J. and appointed them Young bullocks and rams and lambs. He was the son of Handita. which fact goes to prove that his reign was . Alexander the Great. 485. or Arahu. again come to our help. 1 Ezra vi. and pretended to be a king. and was succeeded by his son Xerxes. . Under him Babylon remained an but it became absorbed entirely into important town the Persian kingdom. wine. and his It was rebellion took place at a town called Duban. and record the names of Philip of Macedon and his celebrated son. The con tract tablets. contract tablets dated in the thirty-fifth year of the reign of Darius. We long and successful. Darius died about B.96 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY.C. .ews. Darius was most kind to the Jews. 10.

Rassam from Babylon. the eldest son.. in the 43rd year of the Seleucian era (i. to grant and establish by thy command the prosperity of Antiochus. He restored the famous temples of SAGILI and ZIDA. * the queen.C. from about B.e.C. and his son was called Antiochus after himself. the eldest son of Seleucus the Macedonian/ the king of E-ki (Babylon). This is very important. the offspring of the god Aneana. Seleucidae begins. G . The wife of Antiochus was called Stratonice. The cylinder is is so curious. the opener of the hands of (her) offspring. He Seleucus his son. for it shows that the Greek had so far influenced the Babylonian at that early age as to cause him to use Greek words to express what he could have expressed so easily in his own Semitic tongue.C. we figured on page 99. and the writing upon it is the most curious and complex of all the various styles and kinds of Babylonian varieties.). The small cylinder which gives the above facts uses the Greek word k&klos under the form ku-uk-ht. he had the good policy to restore the temples of the gods. the reign of Antiochus given upon this account of . On the 2oth day purpose of the month Adar. he laid the foundation of the temple in Borsippa dedicated to the god Nebo. and Stratoirice the queen. This little cylinder was brought to England^ by Mr. and his pure hands brought the bricks for this from the land of Hatim. reigned in his stead. Like reigned Cyrus. This king was. of 97 Alexander the Great. as he styles himself.RULE OF THE PERSIANS. the eldest son of Marduk. Antiochus. and with him the era of the At present nothing is known of him from the cuneiform inscriptions. that the be able to observe how different the style is a trans Though the literation and translation are also added. Antiochus prays Nebo. and his son. and as the writing a few lines of it with a transcript in have reproduced reader may ordinary Babylonian and Assyrian. 281-380 to B. He died about B.C. and to sacrifice to the ancient divinities of the nations which it was his lot to conquer. about 270 years B. 281-380. 261-360.

9#

BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY.

cylinder is very short, yet it is most valuable, for it shows that Antiochus wished to conciliate the Babylonians by rebuilding their temples, and also to restore to the city a little of its former glory.

CYLINDER OF ANTIOCHUS.
r

D.P.

An-

ti

-

--ku-

us

.

sarru

rab

-

u

Antiochus

king

great

sarru

dan

-

nu

sar

kissati

sar

king

great

E
3-

-

ki

SQ^
,

X
E

king of
><

multitudes

king of

sar

matati
countries.

Babylon
\\

za-

^
ni
-

king of

-

S^
in
-

Sf?!
-

restorer of

E
da

Sag
-

-

ili

Sagili

E

zi

Zida

ORDINARY BABYLONIAN.
T
D.P,

Hf-

An

-

^
ti

4J$fc>

Hi
ku
-

^H<T

zg>

ITrab-

us

sarru.

u

Antiochus
2.
6fc>

king

great

8ff? 9*.

sarru

dan-nu

^ Sj^Spf^c^yV
kissati

sar

sar

E

-

ki

sar

-matati

king great king of multitudes king of Babylon king of countries.
3.

za-

m

-

m

E

-

Sag

-

ili

u

E

-

Zi

-

da

restorer

of

E-Sagili

and

E-Zida.

TERRA-COTTA ^CYLINDER OF ANTIOCHUS, KING OF BABYLON.

B.C. 280-261.

together with Egypt. Their work made they laid down all day long. Her children were always nations around their letters. An ti - * - ku - us sarru rab - u Antiochus 2. and other prophets inscriptions. distorted. formed the base for the beautiful superstructure of the Greek myths and fables her learning and know of the nations her ledge furnished food for the minds and. and set his face to scatter abroad. For ages had Babylonia been a battle-ground she had looked on and seen for contending nations nation after nation vanish and disappear. in the infancy of their nation they dared to insolent make a tower whose top should reach unto heaven/ notice of this event is recorded in the Assyrian . was Babylon a city she was flourishing when Joseph arid his people were in Egypt before Homer sung or Romulus founded Her mythology. she taught the successors. 2a-ni- H^^MM ^^in&XH^MnOTH^HT E in E - SAG ILI u - Zi - da restorer of E-Sagili and. Ages before Abraham came from Ur of the Chaldees. king great sar E . for : . Jeremiah. He gave a command to make their counsel of none After they had become a mighty nation they effect/ dared to brave the threats and denunciations which hurled against Isaiah. In his anger he poured out secret counsel.ki sar matati kissaii sar multitudes king of Babylon^ king of countries* king mighty king of sarru dan . his city she was an established power. .P. Babylon faded away. of their tower they an end entirely in the night. . . E-Zida.RULE OF THE PERSIANS. Babylon went to sin corruptly. A we read Small and great mingled on the mound. IOI ASSYRIAN* D. city . Thus* little by little.nu 3 . and the with a venerable and hoary antiquity was at last broken and utterly crushed by the Persian and the Greek.

Thy nakedness shall be uncovered. and probably the &quot. and Isa. and get thee into darkness.. xiv. and marched back to his He made the captive Jews capital with joy and glory. O daughter of the Chaldeans for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate. . assist in building the walls of his town. and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee. His fate and : : : : : : . and I will not meet thee as a &quot. and the cedars of goes on : * : How I ! my : . Sit thou silent. Take the millstones. and sit in the dust. Her king.. but her haughtiness and pride brought along with them their own punishment. 1 the -golden city / and with his majestic language describes her downfall. O daughter of the Chaldeans for thou shalt no more be called. thy shame shall be seen I will take vengeance. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds I will be like the Most High/ And the prophet The fir trees rejoice at thee. 8. and the worms cover thee/ art thou fallen from And of her king he says how art thou Lucifer. saying Thy pomp is brought down to the grave. 5. I will exalt will sit also upon the mount of the congregation in the sides of the north . Babylon was the home of luxury and refine ment. pass over the rivers. and wasted Jerusalem with fire and sword he sacked the temple and brought out from thence the vessels of the Lord. 3 Isa.. . and grind meal uncover thy locks. 2 following verses. xlvii.. sit on the ground there is no throne. 1-3. 1 Isa. : Lebanon. uncover the thigh. yea. make bare the leg. which didst weaken the nations For thou hast said in thine heart. them. I will ascend into throne above the stars of God I heaven. The lady of kingdoms 3 The renown of Babylon filled the earth. and her children only cared to toil for self-grati Isaiah in his prophecy called her fication and delight. xiv. cut doAvn to the ground. trod down the land of Palestine. 4.102 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming V And again Isaiah says Come down.man .walls of the temples of his pagan gods. O virgin daughter of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar. son of the morning heaven.

the people of to-day. : V : 1 Jer. a land wherein no man dwelleth. 19-22. and dragons in their pleasant palaces and her time is near to come. the glory of kingdoms.37. and they shall be weary V We. a -dwelling-place for dragons. neither shall the shepherds make their fold there. neither doth any son of man And I will punish Bel in Babylon. its exact site would still remain unnoticed and And Babylon. It shall never be inhabited. xiii. and the folk in the fire. without an inhabitant. shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. beauty of the Chaldees excellency. and I pass thereby. so at Babylon shall fall the slain of all the earth.cities are a desolation. Her. and their houses and owls shall dwell shall be full of doleful creatures there. Thus saith the Lord of hosts The broad walls of Babylon shall he utterly broken. and a wilderness. will bring forth out of his mouth that which he hath swallowed up and the nations shall not flow together any more unto him yea.43. God cursed the land. generation neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there .49. and their place is not known. saying : come heaps. But wild beasts of the desert shall He there . the unknown. and her high gates shall be burned with fire and the people shall labour in vain. a dry land. . Isa. see how very surely all these We look for Sodom and threats have been fulfilled. 2 11. And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses. an astonish ment and an hissing. neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to : : : . and can it recover ? : .44. As Babylon hath caused the slain of Israel to fall.58. and but for the enterprise of our nation and the inscribed bricks of Babylon. the wall of Babylon shall fall. f 103 the fate of his city have been accurately described by And Babylon shall be Jeremiah in his book. and satyrs shall dance there. and her -days shall not be prolonged The prophet with his God-directed voice pronounced the fate of the city and it has come to pass .RULE OF THE PERSIANS. Gomorrah.

Beliefin evil spirits current Eclipses. and texture. became th& material generally used for writing purpbsis. Oppert s translation of documents. Contract tablets. Bilingual reading-books. Discovery of Cylinders. it. in even was found difficult to write. Their method of counting. in the time of Isaiah. Dr. cylinder of Assurbanipal. which shows that it was some vegetable substance. Method TJieir shape. etc. number of sides. inscription. Gistubar legends.the of sdtrie material. &quot. Manner in which the characters were written. Writing of making tablets. An official is por trayed noting down the amount of spoil upon a scroll &quot. size. Magicaltablets. Babylonian observatories. and bore some rudje resemblance to the It is uncertain what material was used ^o objects copied.. when but few inscriptions were inscribed. dedicated. etc. The bankingfirm of Egibi and Son.104 CHAPTER VIII. Invention ofthe calendar. Comparison of signs. it was found difficult to form circles . instrument. No. Names of gods to whom they were Comets. they were carefully done. Translation of contrac^ Text of a contract tablet. and therefore tlif^original made papyrus picture of the sun. represented on a sculpture in the ^British Museum (Assyrian Gallery. Babylonian wedge-writing. Bilingual lists of words.300 lines. Compound. Translations of their reports. containing 1. and has the determinative for wood before it. Q. columns. Omen tablets. List of months. nail marks.e. Great importance of these dated The latest dated contract tablet. groups of wedges in Babylonian writing which form syllables were originally pictures of objects. Translation. Trie word $ften translated is called in Babylonian likMsi.gt. etc. /or writing upon besides stone. Now when da^. metal. Ph&nician and Greek signatures. but that cuneiform writers had a substance which they used for the purpose besides these is certain. Portents. The syllabaries in two and three Polyphony of the characters. BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE. their shape. Extractfrom a table of cube roots. perhaps. Babylonian mathematics. colour. i. Seals of witnesses.. Incantations. Cuneiform signs were once pictures. Standard. boundary stone or landmark. 84). Translation of a Babylonian tablet of the \^th year of Nabonidus. Babylonian astronomy. and this is. Translations of two slave contracts. . This wedged became and consequently we \^&amp. signs. At first. clay.

Thus ^ ****** .C. as found 4. with a few exceptions. Hf- sr In v r some cases the character still shows what the they originally represented was. 2. 1. 280. 380. of characters found on the inscribed clay cylinder of Antiochus. custom gradually discarded that could not be written easily in this direction. 3. BABYLONIAN. .BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE.C. B. wrote from left to right (the wedges being in a slanting all the wedges direction). In column i a few of the characters are given. tablets .C. Column 3 shows the ordinary form of Babylonian writing as found upon contract and other and column 4 the ordinary Assyrian upon the tablets of Assurbanipal s library. The following small table of characters will show how the forms of the characters varied. 20OO. ORDINARY B. selected from inscriptions of the Column 2 gives a short list early Babylonian empire. NINEVITE B. 105 As the scribe find the Assyrian form of this to be *|. and how they became simplified. OR ASSYRIAN.

.e. also placed and the home of a star.^oss showing that it is to be read Zipl when used with tm s meaning. two signs are placed together to express a word. i. Thus d^= represented a circular object. The sign for . thus &amp.f- gate was .. sa. star. in two columns. &amp. Sometimes posts. The Babylonians and Assyrians drew up what are technically called syllabaries/ that is. Assur-akh-bal and Assur-nasir-pal by different scholars.gt. essa. objects.lt. lists of words. . when dingir^ god -when .gt. ^5==^ the wedges at the ends representing and those joining them cross-bars. -^tJ means mouth/ and U water. essa. but v means to drink/ can be called dingir.means palace/ or great house. and hence we find the same king called Assur-izir-pal. only when it is read ana it means sky OE heaven when sa. the heavens before a god s name. and (i. 2 gives a short sentence of two words in Akkadian.-&amp. etc. and their two meanings added together give a new one. tjyfy means house/ and fcV. star. divinity of corn (?). great but pfff f f. and sentences. . c c .I06 sented a it is BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. and explains them In i single jigR c . No. thus . At times we find them signs.) in two languages. This diversity of reading has un fortunately been made a strong ]point of by the adversaries of cuneiform decipherment but thanks to the discovery of new texts these difficulties vanish day by day. and ^ meant but 5$^ meant month/ -called after the thirty round moon and its thirty days. the signs in the right-hand coluipn explain the in the left as meaning destiny/ while the smaller signs are a.fr : tTT (*) and often in three columns. (It is very difficult at times to discover the right reading of the signs having this quality of polyphony. ana.

BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE.
c

107

Assyrian as meaning the going forth of the sun. No. 3 has the character to be explained in the middle column, the signs on the right hand read katamu, and show that the sign meant cover, while those on the left tell one that its sound is dnl.* -Syllabaries in three columns have been found written in Akkadian, Sumirian, and Assyrian. The bilingual lists were exceedingly useful to foreigners who came to Assyria, and they were used by the native children and others; and to us to-day they are among the most important necessaries
in

for the right

decipherment of the

inscriptions.

drawn up in two must have been enormous. Indeed,, at one languages thus written. But, period nearly all documents were

The quantity

of tablets that were

f

though these syllabaries were necessary and explanatory for the students of Assyrian or Babylonian and Ak kadian, yet there was another indispensable, and that Some of these have come down *was a reading book. to us among other things, and the following is an extract from one of them
:

a price. his price. for his price.
for his price

he

fixed.

a complete price. an incomplete price. his complete* price. his incomplete price.
for his complete price. for the ending of his incomplete price.

(Tablet

K 46-)

Among
that

came Babylon in writing short upon which the scribe exercised himself on others lists of signs and the^sight of the sentences, and the ill-formed and badly-written attempts remind one of of to-day in their copy books. first attempts of children of imagination to picture the Jt requires no great stretch with his oblique eyes and thick little Babylonian boy
;

the last collections of unbaked clay tablets were trial tablets, i.e. -tablets from

I08

BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY.

form bending over his piece of moist clay, laboriously %and clumsily impressing his wedges thereon. Human nature is so persistently the same. And now we must speak of the manner in which the Fine clay was selected, kneaded tablet was formed. and moulded into the shape of the required tablet. One The writing -wa side was flat, and the other rounded. then inscribed on both sides, holes were pricked in the The holes allowed the clay, and then it was baked. steam which was generated during the process of taking to escape. It is thought that the clay used in some of the tablets was not only well kneaded, but ground in some kind of mill, for the texture of the clay is as fine ,as some of our best modern pottery. The wedges appear to have been impressed by a square headed instrument. So much for the writing materials and Vejementary matters; we now come to the literature itself.. Babylonians were essentially calculators, as their"
"

astrology required. wedges, 2, and so on. - or = r ,000. ^ x
^f>|<y>-

A

wedge,

=

<

represented I, two 20; ]*too; and In Babylonian the year 1884
\,

10,

=

=

<[<

would be V- The wedge f represented ]f$ y 60 as well as one. Tables of squares and cubes were found at Senkerek the Square of 60, 3,600, was given, vtfhich shows they had need of these high numbers for
y>~

;

some kind of reckoning.
clean
T

An

example
I
is

will

make

this

!B? T
TT

W

H l$= !y
<*o.

>

the cube of

i

,,8
27 64
125

2
3

^
TV
*

TTT

do,
do.-

V W W ^ W
<

4
5

da
do.

216
343 512

6

do.
do.

7
8
w
;
,-

.-^
fi

do.

do.

729 i coo

9
10

,,

BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE,

109

Astronomy mixed with astrology occupied a large number of tablets in the Babylonian libraries, and Isaiah 1 to Babylon, Thou art refers to this when he says wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. Let now the
astrologers (the viewers of the heavens, Marg\ the starThe gazers, the monthly prognosticates, stand up/ largest astrological work of the Babylonians contained and was compiled by the command of seventy; tablets, S argon of Agade, thirty-eight hundred years before It was called the illumination of Bel. Their Christ.
<

"

observations were

made
:

in

c

towers,

ziggtirate?

The

following are specimens of their purely astronomical portents and reports
(i.)

The The
The The The

star

star of the
rain.

Marbuda passed into an eclipse. Upper Sphere aforesaid causes
Lula portends extended mists.

fog and
star

star of the Wolf portends tempest. star of Mars to the Double-Star is

oppo

site

(3.)

life. The The stars at sunrise are for windy rain and flood, The report of Nabu-kul-la-ni. The M6on and the Sun were seen with one

the prince dies. star Nin-si portends a complete
;

(3.)

another on the i6th day: hostility sehds etc. The sixth day of Nis*an the day and the night were balanced (i. e. equal). (There were) six kasbu of day (and) six kasbu of night.
3

king to king

May Nebo
to the king draw near.

and Merodach

my

lord

This latter report refers to the vernal equinox. They divided the day equally into two parts, and assigned one kasbu equalled two hours of six kasbu to each
;

1

Isa. xlvii.

1

3,

7. The king of the land the throne perpetuates. The face (is) firm. Every seventh day was a rest day. 1. (The report) of Sumai. 1. The Babylonian year was divided into 1 2 months of 30 days each. . (is) 10. BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. 5. the heart of the land good. 2389) gives all the lucky and unlucky (76 The following are examples of days in the year. III. down. is 2. continuously in the mo uth of the people continues. No. II. the gods of Akkad or prosperity heart. and was under the protection of tablet calendar in the British Museum some god. and on these days it was forbidden to do certain things. : The country is established. Joy is in the soldier s 12. Daily food is in the mouth of the people.110 time. The Moon and the Sun are balanced. 4. Each day was lucky or unlucky. A astronomical reports and portents 1. 8. 56. of 4. The Moon and the Sun are balanced. 3. in the desert safely lie 15. The king of the land enlarges (his) ears. The Moon and the Sun are separated. The king of the land the throne perpetuates. No. with an intercalary month every six years. is The country established. devise. The cattle of Akkad 14. The fourteenth day of the Moon and the Sun with one another are seen. Food 2. The king the country the ear enlarges. 9. 2. Daily food in the mouth of the people. The heart of the king 13. The Moon and the Sun are balanced. 3. The Moon and the Sun are separated. (The report) of Istar-sum-esses. good. n. ii 17.

it is seen and the report) of Nebo-akhi-erba.9. 9. Aim Sivanu 3. 10. prosperity to Elam and Phoenicia. Evil to Akkad it (is). Rain comes down. 10. and each was dedicated to some god. Arah-samna Kislimu Tabitu [August] [September] [October] Istar. did not see (it). . 4. Ill 4. favourable wind. 2. The Moon out of its reckoned-time is seen. 2. 5. 8. 7. i 1 o. Prosperity In the midst of a cloud to the king my lord. [November] [December] [January] [February] n. Papsukal. [May] [June] [July] 4. Bel. : Nisannu [March] [April] was dedicated to Anu and Ea. 6. The king of Akkad under the enemy is placed. a list 1. 8. 1 . A 7. The following is 13. 5. 13. Samas. The months were called after the signs of the Zodiac. 1. IV. 7. The tariff is small. The seven great gods. Arafcu-mahru (the intercalary month). 14. 6. strong enemy ravages the land. . The The king-of multitudes the throne perpetuates. The twelfth day with the Sun (the Moon) is seen and . Nergal.BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE. 3. (The report) of Balas&quot. Duzu Adar. 8. 11. Rain falls. There is fog (?) and movement. (the moon) goes. the twelfth day it is seen and evil to Akkad. 3. 5. 13. and contrary to their calculated time the Moon and the Sun with one another are seen. The Moon at its appearance piles the sky (with clouds). 12. The twelfth day with the Sun it is seen. Sabatn Addaru Rimmon. In a thick cloud (this is No.i. fourteenth day (the Moon) is seen. 6. Merodach. The Moon at its appearance in clouds was hidden. . c Abu Ulnlu Tasritu The Queen of the Bow. A We 9. . Sin.

arranged upon shelves.E. Geology was represented among the Babylonians by lists of stones.W..E. They found out that the sun was spotted.. During the reign of Nebu chadnezzar I.. and the ecliptic was called the the long road. There are fragments of two planispheres in the British Museum with figures and calculations inscribed upon them. insects. they were supposed to portend future events. be proved that the greater part of our learning was to them. their E.W. and for their time were great astronomers. being their N. The Babylonian must have passed his life in perpetual terror of evil spirits and demons. and so we find addresses to every kind and sort of spirit to avert evil from the reciter. The history given in the former pages of this book is derived from their own If we except the physical sciences. drawn up in two languages. and N. etc. it can easily records. it is related that a comet arose whose body shone like the day. The yoke of the sky. and from its brilliant body a tail like the sting of a scorpion extended/ They were c ( for able to calculate eclipses.JI2 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. The Akkadians invented the calendar.. and they knew of comets. There were whole series of these in their libraries. and birds. and had long lists of them. our N. the Zodiac. S. mayest thou . their W. and each tablet bore as a colophon its number in the series and the -first words of the first line. known Another very important branch of Babylonian litera ture was formed by the magic tablets. Natural history was represented by lists of animals. There is a large incantation tablet in the Kouyunjik Gallery of the British Museum which gives a number of formulas ending with O spirit of heaven. earth. their S. Museum in 1881 it appears that their cardinal points were rather different from ours. and reports like the above were They were the inventors of regularly sent to the king. S. and Geography by lists of From a tablet brought to the countries and lands. such was the wisdom of Milky Way the Babylonians. They built observatories in all the great cities.

Marduk. Isaiah s time. becoming pure. it means the night spirit/ The which was especially malignant and harmful. the sixteenth and twenty-seventh .by the 1 contract . H . the former directs the placing of the god of a sick man before the rising sun. too. Another very important branch of Babylonian ture is litera formed. May the Sun-god give that man life. and find for herself a place of rest. and to put a beneficent one in its The tablet concludes finally with the sick man place. The rest there. to expel the evil spirit prays from the sick man. and other allusions to this demoniacal In possession are scattered throughout the Bible. the belief was prevalent. mayest thou exorcise/ The belief that evil spirits took possession of human bodies was current in our Lord s time. the fourth prays spirits of the spirits to avert the ulcer spirit. The first three paragraphs entreat the compassion of the heaven and earth generally. like refined copper. or Proserpine. mayest thou exorcise spirit of earth. and the same word -translated screech owl is word is found in Babylonian. eldest son of the abyss. implore protection against the evil spirits which cause sickness in the different parts of the body. Rabbis have many stories about her. the seventh entreats the spirits of heaven and earth to exorcise the demons which were supposed to attack children . Two other paragraphs are worthy of note.gt. the fifth is against the sickness of the head and disease of the heart/ the sixth is against the evil eye and evil breast. . and happiness be to thee. Isa. peace. or the figure of a propitious bull. and so on to the end of the tablet. 5 liliih&amp.tablets. O . xxxiv. by an offering of grace and peace. spirit of heaven. mayest thou exorcise. 113 The spirit of earth. for we read 1 And in the synagogue there was a man which had a spirit of an unclean devil . 1 O . the latter to free him by its influence from his sickness to Ninkigal. 14. 33. O . 2 The Semite Luke iv.BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE. and these baneful spirits were supposed to dwell particularly in 2 The screech owl also shall Isaiah says desert places. exorcise sentences .

and the other tablets or produce to his . have many thousands in our national collection. Often we find signatures in Phoenician. the sale of houses. and wheat. indeed. and all intermediate shades. on the other (reverse) comes the list of witnesses. Sometimes they are baked. As the tablet is interesting we give a translation of it : . Bel-balat-su son of Nidintum. square black. their &amp. We 5 . the name of the king and his country. There is in the British Museum a fine collection of these. oblong. promissory notes. marriage deeds and dowries. son of Nabu-kusur-su. trader. Nana-Babili-sininni. either actual or theoretical but these tablets open to our view the very innermost work One serious draw ings of their commercial business. and jupon one tablet we find some curious writing which at present no one has been able to make out. which belong to a period as far back as 2400 B. often they are not. then brown. E-sagila-lissi 2. fields. They record loans of money and produce. and that is that very many of the words are Contract tablets are of all shapes. dark and light.114 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. record their learning. servant . and Ina-E-sagila-lilbir son of Belederu in the joy of their heart. their colour varies. and upon the outside a copy of the contract within has been inscribed. i. Often these tablets bear the poor impressions of the seals of the witnesses impressed the mark of his nail.000 were unpacked at one time. as many as 5.lt. 3. reveal the immense wars undertaken by the various kings. quite unknown to us. been placed in a clay envelope. sometimes oval. back exists. sales of slaves. was always a and was always able to lend money more needy brother or foreigner. The historical documents. notices of loans paid. On the one side (obverse) the contract and contracting parties names are stated. and at the bottom follows the date. and all sorts and kinds of traffic carried on by one Babylonian with At times we find that the contract tablet has another.C. sometimes the reverse is in Greek.

the son of Nadin . Urmanu bought the female slave Nana- maneh and eight shekels of refined from the three men. son of the priest of Gula. Sum-iddina. month Adar. which were made by my colleague. son of Nabu-ludda Babylon. E-sagila-lissi. the price of Nana-Babili-sininni. That is to say.u. 17. ^ 115 whose right hand with the name of Ina-E-sagilathe slave dealer son of Bel-ederu. by the hands of Urmanu have In the day when a claim upon the servant of the men. . year 23rd Artaxerxes king of countries. Bel-balat-s&quot. an the joy of his heart. Mr. son of Sula&quot. 19. men and Ina-E-sagila-lilbir received. 14. . Bel-upahhir son of Bel-balat-su son of Ikubu Nabu-iddannu. .BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE. is inscribed. 13. Theo. Itti-Bel-guzu his servant. 3. REVERSE. [Here follows the si. : Witnesses . 1 8. the servant of the 9.] . shekels of silver 6. is shall receive i. %. for one maneh eight lilbir 5. E-sagila-lissi. 22. the amount have collected 15. to Urmanu (?) and shall give. son of Nabu-balat-su Sua. Bel-balat-su. Ea-epus. for the price complete to son of Lisir they have given*. the Urmanu money one maneh eight shekels of silver 8. son of Samsaa. (?) and Ina-E-sagila-lilbir. whose left wrist to the name of Meskitu H2 . Nana-Babili-sininni E-sagila^lissi is made. refined. day eleventh. Pinches. 4. line of unknown characters. Nabu-balat-su. 16. refined. Bel-Iddin. son of Umas Bel-eres. and Ina-E-sagila-lilbir* and a clause is inserted whereby Babili-sininni for one silver it provided that if any one claims the slave Urmanu compensation. 11. the slave dealer. 12.. Bel~balat-s*u 10. G. The above and the following translations are specimens of slave contracts. the scribe. 7.

coined. son of Nabti-pi-sin. 1 8. son of Buzazu. 1 6. 9. son of the black smith he has given. 8. son of Bl-akiirba. . son of Bli-Sunu. son of Lisiru. son of Nabti-sum-sir son of Nabunnaa . 17. mana which is by the one shekel piece. for mana 5. son of the priest of Gula Nabft-uhi-u son of Nabft-kissir. 23. son of Nabft-rimanni. the price of Itti-Bl~guzu his servant. wife of Sum-iddina 25. his wife. month Adar. and he was the founder of a firm of bankers who made it their especial business to carry on the commerce of the city. son of Siatu Bel-iddin. is inscribed. 6. 14. 26. son of Blu-Usumgallu . m 19. of dwelling Meskitu. Iddina-Nabu. son of the Chaldean. son of TunS. son of Basia. son of Ilu-damur Alj-iddin. king of countries. . king of Babylon. and to Iddina-Nabti shall give. son of Arad-Gula. 13. s In Babylon during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar there man called Egibi. . . Darius. the scribe. year 2oth. 12.gt. Bel-idannu. The silver. son of Nergal-balit. son of Egibi Bl-temenna (?) son of Sum-ukur. Witnesses Bel-iddin. son of Sin-naslr Nabti-usur-napistu. son of Gula-zir-tpuS. son of Nabu-usitik-urri. Nabft-sab-sunu. son of Irani Nabu-bullitsu. . 22.Il6 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. son of Marduk-irba. Babylon. daughter of Bel-lumur. Sum-iddina by the hands of Iddina-Nabu has received. ai. . son of Sin-kudurri-usur Irba-Marduk. day i6th. Kuddcla. one and twothirds 10. for the 4. of a 11. The day when a claim upon this slave be made. Kiribtu. the seller of the slave. In the : &amp. . have au lived a We . of silver by the one shekel com plete price to 7. Sum-iddina the slave shall forfeit. . 15. son of Rammanusea. 24. one (and) two-thirds of a piece coined.

Kistar. it will prove that the use of cuneiform did not fall into decay until I give here Dn Oppert s trans after the Christian Era. The tablets are dated month after month and year after year. in Babylon. who reigned about the time of Domitian. century B.BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE. characters dated in the 6th tablets in in the . Some have tried to show that Egibi is the Babylonian form of Jacob. son of Airad . . 40 tetradrachma. beginning in the reign of Esarhaddon. and going on through the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar. In the British Museum. of Pikharis. Oppert. Owed 40 tetradrachma. there are tablets dated 2t8th year of the era of Arsaces. &amp. son of Hablai. dated in the 5th year of Pacorus. small contract tablet in the Museum at Zurich.gt. that is. Larassib. Babylonian : . OBVERSE. Na. which would lead one to suspect the but this is not certain at family to have been Jews The following is a copy of one of the contract present. son of Sinam Zir-Idin. c. lation of the curious little document 3 . . and thus they afford us a sure method of fixing the chronology There is a of that very uncertain period of history. 117 enormous number of the documents of this firm. in the month of Kislev. in the : month lyar. in the temple of the Sun. dis covered by Dr. There is a little dpubt about the reading of one of the characters in the name. in the 5th Babylon. . i.. king of Persia. however. Witnesses Urrame. King of Persia. son of Hablai. C. son of Bel-akhe-irib will pay into the hands of Zir-Idih. Literally translated.bonidus and other kings down to the time of Darius. it reads : Bel-hai-iddin an4Nabu-ahi-bul-lit the sons of E-sagili- suma-epus . writer. 29. son of Puya Allit. the 3rd day. B. but if it is correct.

month Elul. the woman Klsrinni and the woman Gisinni his * sister(s) four people. the woman Bani-tum-umma his wife. day i6th the year of accession 9. 1 2. Neriglissar king of Babylon. silver iron. The amount of interest charged for the loan of money. the scribe Ri-mut the son of Nabu-suma-iscun the son of Gahul. i. for two manehs of silver for the price 7.. in all 9. and mar ban-u-tu of the people Bel-ahi-iddin and Nabu-ahi-bul-lit the sons of E-sagili-suma-epus the son of Sin-damak and the woman Rimat their mother have brought one but double they bring. bu^it H-hi-i pa-kir-ra-nu 6. BABYLONIAN&quot. the son of Dup-zir the son of Nergal-ukin the son of e Sin heard my prayers/ 5.Il8 3. daughter of Suzub son of the priest of the altar/ in the joy of their heart. 8. 3. the son of Sin-damak and the woman Rimat their mother. four. or five per cent. 3. 10. Nabu-e-du-ahi. The passages in italics are difficult to understand. . } . and the above will serve to show the curious idiom of this class of documents. Witnesses: Nabu-epus-ahi the son of Suzub son of * the altar priest . complete to Nabu-ahi-iddin the son of Sula 8. REVERSE. Bel-iddin the son of Bel-sibsi the priest of the god Zariku 6. Babylon. the son of Egibi has given. -ridu the son of Marduk-nasir the son of the priest of the god. Rimmon-ibni the son of Zariku-zir-epus the son of the priest of the god Zariku 7. was either three. 3. 11. Marduk-basu-anni the son of Bani-ya the son of Ellat-nahid 4. 4. etc. LIFE AND HISTORY. It should be stated that these tablets were kept in jars. 5.

. 1 19 1* If W C/3 1 ft U ^ mEt &2 -in:i &amp.gt. .BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE.

does not actually take possession of the house. the judge (the impres sion is rather effaced) the seal of Zikir-ukin. I. as if the deposit would belong to the son. nor about the right of taking possession of it. and will give it to Bel-rimanni. whose son is dead. the price of the house of Bel-rimanni. 3. king of Babylon. Nergal-afr-usur and Zikir-ukin. e. over . The seal of Edir-Bel. the magistrate. over which on the top of a pole axock is seated). the son of Nabuahe-iddin (shall repay) it.130 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. manas 18 drachmas of silver. . belongs to his (i. the judge (represents a priest standing before a large bird. the 5th day. The owner entrusted to Nabu-ahe-iddin. buys and this. Trans. pt. The seal of Nergal-ah-usur. the judges. 18 drachmas of silver. sealed and assured. vol. is sum of money. that he does not know this. they shall bring him before the tribunal of the chief magistrate and judges. son of Da-Marduk. and he will say thus: the inheritance of the property. Itti-Marduk-balat. the son of Musezib-Bel. p. the testator s) son Zirya will decide. the magistrate. . Edir-Bel. including the deposit. Bib. the scribe. Da-Marduk. of the house will remain in possession as long as Belahe-iddin.royal city of Babylon. vii. the i7th year of Nabonidus. a deposit.&amp. Bel-rimanni (shall receive) his deposit. the intendant (?) of the temple Saggal. in the month Elul. Soc.gt. 407. CONTRACT TABLET. The seal of Kiribtu (a priest standing before an altar. the purchaser of the house. the actual holder. N. Strassmaier. the magistrate a priest standing . 1 J. Itti-Marduk-balat will render it with his seal in presence of Kiribtu. son of Egibi. Arch. After the death of Bel-ahe-iddin and Nabu-ahe-iddin. deposit (the option shall last) for four years. to whom the deposit is entrusted. which is a star). which Bel-ahe-iddin the son of Marduk-zir-ibru. son of Egibi. The &quot. son of Banu-^in-ilu.TH YEAR OF ii manas. does not give back nor render the deposit. for this n . kind of inheritance of the testator s property. to Zirya. but if he.

BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE. wfe&amp. names of witnesses. the brothers. who will (or any One else). adjoining the property of KlLNAMANDU one stade fifty fathoms up in the South. : Three stades in measured as follows length towards the East. and a whole string of curses on the person who shall dare to move it. his daughter. COLUMN Whosoever the sons. among men and women.gt.guest. who will_detrqy . 121 before an animal seated on an altar. the servants- both male and female. the II. gave it for all future days to DUR-SARGINAITI. son of KlLNAMANDU. the bride of TAB-ASAP-MARDUK. and on the other are figured in relief various gods and signs. Such a stone is generally inscribed on one side with the agree ment.. who wrote this and TAB-ASAP-MARDUK. . The Michaux stone is a fair specimen of this kind of document. SlRUSUR. wrote this in. or a &quot. or whosoever he may be this field. son of INA-E-SAGGATU-IRBU (the field is . depending on the property of KlLNAMANDU. order to son of INA-E-SAGGATU-IRBU. which then formed landmarks. in the process of time. on the I. of the great gods and the god SERAH/ w . without interruption the memory of this gift. Sometimes Babylonian legal documents were inscribed on large stones. perpetuate and commemorated on this stone the will. and I therefore give Dr. bank of the river Mekaldan. Oppert s translation of it : COLUMN arura. Bagdad adjoining the house of TUNAMISSAH . adjoining the property of KlLNAMANDU. behind which two poles are standing. in the direction of the town of three stades in length towards the West. the family. one stade fifty fathoms in breadth towards the North. Twenty hin of corn is the quantity for seeding an The field is situated near the town of Kar-Nabu. of the house of KlLNAMANDU. The pretended). either a foreigner.

away the boundary-stone. funds. or will throw them into the waters will bury them in the earth will hide them under stones will burn them with fire. May NABU. . judge his unpunished misdeeds. the wife of NlNIP. of will this field to venture to take cate it : vindi a god. the son of the warrior ANU. and give him up to the wild feasts that wander in the outsides of the town. EL. and deliver him for vengeance to the god and the king. the Queen of heaven and earth. the great Guardian of heaven and earth. the great Judge of heaven and earth. the supreme Watcher. will alter what is written on them. and may he void blood and pus like water. or change the extent. May MARDUK. carry him off. strike him with May GULA. : . * . infiltre into his bowels a poison which cannot be pushed out. May NlNlP. and limits. son of EL the sublime. that he reaps new or who will say of the field with its harvests (crops) whether he call forth measures. extir whether he consecrate .123 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. May SAMAS. take away his larids. HEA. in swearing and in asserting The head is not the head There whosoever will carry elsewhere those is no evil eye tablets . may he torture his flesh and load his feet with chains. There is no granter malediction and hostility on the tablets . : 1 e . inundate his field. the great Lord of eternity without end. or establish on it any one other who change these curses. . the surface. annihilate his family. son of the zenith. clothe him in leprosy as in a garment. and surprise him flagrant deeds. . or claim it for himself. . : pate his name. the brilliant (Nartnar] who dwells in the sacred heavens. will confine them into a place where they might not be seen that man shall be cursed May the gods ANU. bind him in fetters which cannot be broken. or earn it for his superior. the . inflict upon him the utmost contumely. May BIN. May ISTAR. the great goddess. great Queen. May SERAH destroy his firstbolfi . in May SlN. the great gods. or the limits.

of their wars and victories in lines across the huge and sculptures which adorned their palaces. prism. and which when described would only interest the specialist. May all the great gods whose names are recorded on this tablet. the description of which would occupy too much space. dreams. a woman bears a child and its lower jaw wanting. The large ones have usually six sides. The following are specimens : If (i. the days of the prince are long . a description of their form The Assyrian kings wrote the annals will suffice here. the gods to the country grant no favour. Omens were drawn from births. the foundation of x that temple is not stable. a black dog into a temple enters. 123 misfortune and ruin. Some of these documents . too. and as their contents (as far as they relate to Babylonia) are given in the chapter on Babylonia. birds.) a dog to the palace goes. and reveals many of the strange ideas and beliefs of the Babylonians so long since passed away.) When destroyed. and on a bed lies down. The tablets which interest us most are of course the historical. or cylinder/ asf|t is technically called. and scatter his race even to the last days. that house If * (2. that palace none with his hand takes. but the finest one of Assurtake the banipal has ten. of having brief notices stamped upon the bricks of their palaces but the usual form the royal historical documents took was that of a . in the wrath of his face. curse him with irrevocable malediction. There have come down many to us from the old Babylonians isolated tablets. the produce of the country for a year is is is not brought down. When a woman bears a child and its jaws are want ing. If a dog into a temple enters. Assyrian Babylonian kings were fond.BABYLONIAN WRITING AND LITERATURE. and blast his happiness that he not obtain it. animals. and geometrical figures. The class of tablets inscribed with omens is verjN interesting.

mentioned above has a curious history. These cylinders are of wonderful British Museum. . form a barrel.ayjfei. for they had dug found nothing. upon tablets. on which are two Or more columns. third. tradition lives in the Orient. giving important variant readings. Rassam. doubt that Sargon went and besieged had said in his twentieth chapter. They asked. and the same There idea is given occasionally in different language. and found the pile On opening it they found the noble cylinder containing is the finest in the it 1. yet the run of thought and many of the expressions -give proofs that. began to do this. men of the great excavator. like the A small but composed is remarkably interesting class of literature The Izdubar Legends. fragments of five or six of which are in the British Museum. Every one knows. It was a fragment of a cylinder of Sargon which value. of the so-called e world has already taken great interest in the Deluge tablet which gives the account of the Flood. were digging. They to consist of bricks. and sometimes in th$ first person. That of Assurbanipal ing. when When . clear that little pile away. Historical records are also written rest of the literature. a king built a palace it was customary for him to bury one of these in each of the four corners and it is ones remain owing to this that we have so many perfect Occasionally they are solid. as Isaiah.gt.300 lines standing upright. Though they are written in Assyrian. and how it is shall ^ndgBown from generation to generation. existed Babylonian copies of this story. c 5 e ptoved beyond all Ashdod. Once. had Rassam said. series. Yes. how long these stofie^re current before they &amp. they are only translations from the very late Akka The stoiy of the Flood is told sometimes in the dian. Who \rr^ written down ? . for there are ragments of them to be seen in the British Museum. Some time and they came to a stop. and which There were twelve tablets in this is one of the series. Mr. Shall we go on ? Mr.124 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. low Jong. of.

Marduk. RELIGION. the supreme god. caused tablets as mucn for Apolitical library at Nineveh it is thought reasons as for the sake of learning. Marduk. His armour. As is well known. All that can be done is to gather together the statements made in the texts about the gods. Ninip.CHAPTER THE BABYLONIAN Babylonian belief in spirits. the lady of war? Her two forms. the old serpent Babylonian seal The giving representation of it. Description of hell. the originator and maker of all things. andRimmon. -Temptation of Adam. Her search after Tammuz in Hades. Difficulty of reducing their religion into a Babylonian Trinity. IX. Nebo. Ea. worship thereof. Ea. and these of course are copies of older tablets. was l^ing but he rebpe4 n. and draw our own conclusions whether they are right or . was their. c j penitent sinner. Samullu-suma-ukina. Ea taught men learning and knowledge. Babylon w&s a city : &quot. fstar. Nergal. Babylonian account of the Creation. wrong. and Bel. tributary of course to him. hoary with age. Her address to Esarhaddon. His weapons and power. Sin. land of no return. Marduk. people flocked to teijn . the Enjoyments of Tiamat. and thither we imagine . Anu.glorious heritage time his brother. iii his time wisdom that. Sun-god worship. fr&amp. Assurof all kinds to be copied founts banipal. belief degenerated. Ea received throtigh Marduk the prayers of man. Hymns The seven evil spirits. Ea The ship ofEa. the son of system. WITH our present knowledge it is most difficult to give anything like a perfect account of the religious views of the Babylonians. Her rebellion against the gods. the prototype of fight. the moon-god. the devil. Extract therefrom. The to the mythology greater portion of the texts relating and religion of the Babylonians is in the Assyrian Ninevite character. the Babylonian after death. Tabl&t representing to the sun. The Paraphrase of the Babylonian account. Hymn to Istar. the great literary king. the saviour of mankind.the Hbygone generations. Babylonian hell and heaven. texts discovered in the future will decide. In Assur. Their pure The Greeks borrowed from their myths.lt. the son of Ea^ sent to do battle with her. Tiamat.

said that he once tried to count the number of gods in whatever period the Babylonians formulated their at first started with pure and good ideas religion. Sin. Babyknian Semitic inscription that we that of Sargon I. namely. same may be \ of their empire frequently fell into disuse and neglect in The most important ennead among the after times. 3800. speaking of the Egyptian Pantheon. Offspring. The At said of the Babylonian Pantheon. Anu Ea Bel Anat Damkina Beltis Rimmon. lists. whoWppears to He was one to the last days of the empire. to foment other and rebellions. into the lowest and worst possible gradually degenerated forms of Nature-worship. It is extremely probable.. they of objects in Nature. began by worshipping^the spirit they but in latter days the esoteric view of a god was lost. Female Element. lonian mythology and philosophy. and Bel r tbei* wives. * It is certain that the greatest borrowed largely from the old Baby Greek. mentions the^ have. J&quot. that he caused all these tablets to be copied and taken to his city Nineveh. one time one god was a greater favourite with the nation than another. after some difficulty Assurbanipal subdued him and took the city again.C. B. The very ytrly bricks and cones have been speak often of the god Bel. was as follows Babylonians : Male Element. ^ The first trouble that besets any attempt to reduce the religion to order on the is the enormous number of gods enumerated Mr. The oldest ~ . philosophers - but they were so numerous that he gave it up.At . then.136 BABYLdjJIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. Renouf. that henceforth there should be no need of the learned to resort to the aged city of Babylon. and the cult of the god or gods which the old Babylonians preferred in the early days it. Ea. Samas. worshipped * of the great Trinity of Anu. Sun-god of Sippara. and there. Their worship and the utmost confusion prevailed. together with the priests.

the god who orders good for His worship goes far back into the early days of kind/ addressed to him which have Babylonia. Beltis.lt. and and Jeremiah 1 says. Bel is confounded. broken in pieces. name mean either the circle. come and our translations are made generally from the * His father Ea was Assyrian translation appended the the personification of all knowledge and learning .THE BABYLONIAN :&amp. he healer of men troubled with evil spirits man how to exorcise demonvafrd he offered to taught of penitent man. and the greatest and best names were of life and light.r RELIGION. 127 Damkina is feminine elements. and as the signs which form his object of adoration. or radiance of the sun. li. But Merodach himself now claims attention. Jer. He was. father Ea the &amp. for last days of th$ to^how rr^ercy to mankind. He was He was the lord the son of Ea. His it is not hard to see that the god man old name meant. of the conceptions of brightest and best fts sole duty in the Pantheon was the Babylonians. and in Jeremiah the Zeus of the Greeks. were called Anat. There appears to be a confusion between Bel and Merodach (the names occur together on a tablet which applies numbers to the gods). Marduk (Merodach) was omnipresent and omnipotent and was the healer and god who went before Ea. the god of the abyss.gt. To the his prayers pecans* the s . was a solar hero. Merq{ . . He is mentioned by Isaiah 2 and again tion of the city. z He was the Jupiter of the Romans. revealed to mankind the for mankind. for the hymns down to us are written in the ancient Akkadian. and the temple dedicated to Merodach (as we know by the inscriptions) is the temple of the Belus of the . 44- . which goes to prove that his dach the worship was widespread and very important among and his downfall the signal of the destruc Babylonians. toediator PC he is invoked as the /knowledge of Ea in all incantations to save against evil and ill. With the Oriental fire has ever been the o-iven to him. c Greeks. \the t . He was the o-od mighty and diseases.

the lady of battles. thy strength I will ease the supports of thy heart. where it says. and she went to seek him c . and she was in pain for battle.\ Esarhaddon. Istar. in her hand with the string stretched by an arrow pointed Her face was fixed. and he went to the king saying. was in trouble and grief because of the war -brought against him by his brothers. and he made a prayer to her in which he recalled to her mind the benefits that she had bestowed upon his father Esarhaddon he told her that the enemy Teumman had spread out his forces against him. who called her Ashtoreth husband was called Tammuz. and Arbela also. saying : ( Fear not. Istar the beloved of the gods has decreed a decree saying thus. 33. It was the good goddess Istar that appeared to Assurbanipal in a dream the night before a battle. Whither thou goest I will go I will guard thee. (as) Bel. neither sliall hg in the c 3 . That night a seer slept and had a vision. and The king sacri told him that he should be victorious. the goddess Istar spake to him by the oracle of Arbela. . There sat women weeping for Tammuz. land of no return. when the father of this same king. even as a mother bringing forth.128 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. . 1 i Kings xi. An allusion is made to him in Ezek. order. viii. Before thee the enemy shall not stand in battle. concerning thee. 14. I am. oppose thy steps/ And farther back. Another lofty conception was that of the goddess Nineveh boasted an Istar . Istar of Arbela drew near me surrounded with She held a bow glory on the right hand and on the left. and I will cause thee to obtain the desire of thy heart. . O Esarhaddon. empire his name was revered and his temples kept in His ^ife was called Zirpanitum. ficed to the goddess Istar of Arbela. and then entreated her to crush him and overcome him in battle. She was the spirit or goddess of the and a debased form of her worship was planet Venus x Her carried on by the Jews.

1 Upon mankind trust not bend thine eyes upon me. 8. the Moon-god at thy right hand. . The : specimen of the best hymns of this is translation that of my friend Professor Sayce 1. Istar. in the dwellings of the earth her name revolves . may 7. 139 Each of the sixty great gods my strong ones with his life will guide thee. the Sun-god at thy left. Thou. I am Istar of Arbela. It contains a hymn to is written in the two languages The reading of some of the Assyrian. of heaven. 9. Compare Psalm cxlvi. 3 cxviii. number the goddess Istar. art king of kings/ tablet During the reign of Esarhaddon a very beautiful little was made which we now have in the British its Museum. I . O O thy 8. . may thy heart rest. And again : Mighty legions which devise against me. . As to the mountains. 2. may thy liver be magnified. but the of it. 5. is the is obverse is difficult and doubtful. reverse sufficiently clear to show the meaning and it will serve as a kind. liver be magnified. their goodly stronghold (art) thou. heart rest. Lord. May thy heart rest 6. . the Lady 1 may thy . Lord Ami. before thy feet I cut them in pieces.THE BABYLONIAN RELIGION. their mighty lock art thou my begetter. mountain) Bel. the mighty Prince (lit. my begetter. As Queen of heaven above and below may she be Thou who invoked 3. the*mighty. 954. my begetter. 4. my begetter. and Akkadian and lines of S. thou. as the axis of heaven dawnest. fiercely she hurls into the The mountains deep .

of heaven. the intervention of no other god be warded off. Istar. may thy 17. may thy 14. 1 8. gf wisdom and animated all. which He -had in tha bilingual hymns as the spirit of earth. may thy heart (rest). Queen of the land of Erech. for king against injustice if the we are avenges not according to the 6 &amp. may four Lady. BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. Lady. Queen magnified). gods. and to the Babylonians was the personification He was the soul that secret knowledge. Queen of the Memorial of Nana.130 9. but no rally mentioned among a Erech/ but is gene especial him.. (rest). may thy thy liver heart u. Lady. Queen of Temple of the Resting-place of the World. and could their attacks by. may thy heart (rest). The sky-god Anxi very number of gods. Queen of the House of heaven. is. and he is often invoked ftrvaded all. Merodach. liver (be magnified). but was self-begotten. Lady. heart (rest). In a tablet containing warnings to Jthe fills the place of avenger. Queen of Mountain of the World. may thy Prayer of the heart to A cuneiform tablet little is mentions an Istar of known of her. Lady. (be magnified). Queen of the land of the rivers of Erech. worship appears to have . or deep. 13.Ea told. Queen of the liver (be magnified). _ no ftf her. O O O Lady. and perpetually renewed himself from the watery element which formed his home. liver (be Lady. Queen of the Temple. may thy magnified). for he is always called the lord of the abyss He was the god that knew how to frustrate the powers of the demons and spirits. for he knew their secrete. O O O O 15. Queen of Babylon. 16. king .been paid to Ea was another god of great importance in the Baby He was the father of the mighty lonian Pantheon. O O Lady. may thy liver (be 10.gt.

The worship of Samas. he was the originator of all created moving things he was the spirit of the earth/ and Damkina was the substance her name means the lady of the great earth. was widespread He was called the king and his votaries numerous. Among other attributes of Ea we find him called a warrior. 24. - c :&amp. The cities in which his wor^ were Larsa or Senkeretr.lt. His . I 3 . The serpent is one of his forms. c * . where he was associated with In the tablet of Anunit. and earth. if the king avenges according to the writing of the god Ea. * hymns attribute to him a ship unparalleled by fate. iii. and a just judge instead of unjust ones. is On hostile to his destiny and Replaces him by another. his wives names were of judgment/ the son of Ea Malkit. Gula. and he was furnished with armour made of all sorts of precious stones. It was in this ship that Ea saved Sisithrus from the flood. which turned every way destroying the bodies of the fighters. warnings to kings alluded to above we find it stated that and if the king smites the son of the city of Sippara the Sun-god. which reminds us of the flaming sword which turned every way mentioned in Gen. and he was represented as having seven heads. the great gods seat nim in stability and the praise of justice/ Together with his wife. shall^ppoint another judge in -his country and a just prince. i. and so he has been compared with the Noah of the Bible. the god Ea. in which he sailed over the sea to the help of his son Marduk when he was fighting Tiamat. e. 13! law of his country. His This agrees with his title of king of judgment and goes back to a time when the worship was very old. and Zirpanitum. It has been said that his name means habitation. The Surigreat powers of Nature &amp. the king of destinies. and Anunit. . The Babylonian 4 . who judges heaven gives him to another. the Sun-god. the dwelling-place of created things. Marduk.gt.THE BABYLONIAN RELIGION. as we are told in the account of it. . and she was the personification of the mass of the earth.principal weapon was one with seven rays and fifty faces. were worshipped. the other hand. Damkina. ship was particularly favoured and Sippara in Babylon.

%.. and Istar or Venus. a priest. 3800. 900. . stool with legs supporting a figure of the disk of the . 4. the king of Babylon. Three figures stand with their faces towards the disk the first. It is The god is seated upon a figured on the opposite page. disk. which read the image of the Sun-god. from the foundations of heaven thou art risen thou hast unfastened the bolts of the shining skies thou hast opened the door of heaven. and of the Sun-god.. whose right hand is raised in adoration to the god.sun. the above this are three circles. the king. the dweller in the Temple of Parra (or Bara) which is within Sipparal^ : HYMNS TO THE SUN. . It appears to be supported by cords which are held in the hands of two attendant spirits by the roof. There is a fine tablet in the British the order of this king. and holding in his hand 1 a ring and a short rod. god of Sippara 5 was evidently a well-known deity in the time of Sargon. The third figure follows at a short distance with both hands Above the heads of the three raised in adoration. which contains columns of beautifully executed Babylonian writing. : This may be also read the disk of the sun-god and the rays from his eyes. the mighty lord. Sun. for he mentions this god. and no other. 3. and also a picture of the worship of the Sun-god.BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. the Sun2 Before the pillar stands a god and Istar in six Museum made by .. seat (having carvings of two figures on one side) square set in a pillar-supported porch. One of his truest and best votaries was Nebobaladan. which represent the new moon the Sun. Two lines of writing run above the roof which read the Moon-god. a The meanings of the words which occur here on the tablet are not known. Above is written the crown of the Sun-god. B. figures run the three lines of inscription.e. who began to reign about B. I. I.C. 1 Magical incantation. . i. is holding the stool by his left hand while with his right he grasps the left hand of the second figure.C.

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10. 4. who sustainest the weak. Though we Westerns regard the moon as a femi nine and the sun as a masculine object. 8. for the In the Hebrew latter is called the lady of the world. 7. Ninip. 6. gender. above the countries thou hast raised thy head. Sun. the archangels of the abyss. template eagerly thy 5. held a prominent place in the Babylonian Pantheon he was the personification of the moon. O God! . face. Sin.THE BABYLONIAN 5. 135 Sun. 6. the men who dwell afar off contemplate thee and rejoice. 1 . . Ionian Pantheon he was both the son and husband of He was. who settest up those that are bowed down. the modern representative of Beltis. Ninip was the god of the planet Saturn. In thy illumination thou dost reach afar to the boundaries of heaven. illuminator of the darkness. Thou art the banner of the vast earth. who piercest the face of darkness. . 9. Nergal. The language of praise. RELIGION. perhaps. Lord. The other principal gods. Like a bridegroom thou restest joyful and gracious. was Ur. as one word. call for little comment. and Rimmon. and the eldest son of Bel. every one of them. Side by side with Samas. hence arose Her chief city the idea of her hermaphrodite nature. The wife of the Moon-god but the moon is represented as a female. the Moon-god. the Orientals held just the opposite idea. Nebo. 3. namely. and the terrestrial countries. and was the Hercules of the Baby-. The host of their heads seeks the light of the Sun in the South. thou directest it. Merciful God. text of the Bible the sun is regarded as of common was called Nana. II. con 2. thou hast covered the immensity of the heavens.. (like the Germans) that the moon is masculine and the sun feminine. and her daughter s name was Istar. Towards the light the great gods direct their glances.

the but in later moon. and diseases was regarded as a devil. etc. and had to be exorcised.The . i. and he worshipped its spirit days this higher idea was lost.e. the storm. and everything in Nature had its spirit. Every man. Nergal was the god of the planet Mars. pains. In addition to the number of gods which the Baby lonians worshipped. and the writing upon the tablets is regarded as the secrets of Nebo. and this to so great an extent that the prayers and incantations against them form a very large portion of their religious literature. began his existence possessed of some spirit. and his commonest name is the inundator. generally the atmosphere. In Matt. accord ing to their belief.evil spirit which gave him. 3 1 Isa. xv. then. There were seven spirits which belief read of a e .. very distinctly in the Bible. ana was prayed against accordingly. To the Babylonian the spirit of the overflowing river. the belief in spirits. and nothing but sun worship pure and simple remained. the. Nergal Rimmon was the son of Anu. and the tempest. the Akkadian god Nindar. xii. 22.136 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. Nergal-sara-usur.lt. the lofty intelligence and the lord of Tablets his 5 3 . 22. . we find them much addicted to. aches. 2 Matt. and his name forms part of the name Nergalsar-eser. which desolated his lands and destroyed his property. and his wife was He was the god of the planet Mercury. The god Nebo 1 was also called Nusku.%e dumb man possessed with a devil the 2 was grievously daughter of the woman of Canaan vexed with a devil. good or chief city s was Borsippa. and protects the king/ He represented the governor of heaven and earth. We can trace ^tjhis bad. It spirit if bad. i. Babylonian saw the mass of the sun. was the duty. xlvi. e the night sun. This god is usually mentioned with the goddess Tasmit) in the colophons (together broad ears to of tablets as the being who gives the king that he may understand knowledge. \&amp. was an evil spirit. called Tasmit. of a man to propitiate this and if good to endeavour to make it serve him.

In the brightness of heaven seven are they. thei Sun-god fled away and* Istar went to the The god Bel. In a large tablet contain ing incantations we find a description of them. it appears necessary to them \ere. baleful are they. the Mercury of the Greeks. A hymn tells us that during the eclipse of the moon. the father of the moon. for we read Among the gods their couch they have not. and sent Nebo.. Moreover the deep is their pathway.. female they are not. and their dominion extended to highest heaven. Prayer and supplication hear they not. In the abyss of the deep in a place was their growth. seven are they In the abyss of the deep seven are they. They went to the depths of the earth. child is not born to them. They were the objects of awe and terror to them. 137 s imagined to be more wicked and 13E deadly than any others. however powerful. hierarchy of heaven. highest heaveln. To Ea are they hostile. even as he 5id Tiamat. they had no part in the ! 3 . to ask the assistance Easent the lordly an.BABYLONIAN RELIGION. Male they are not. Merodach to dcKbattle with these dreadful spirits.. 3 Evil are they. They appear to have been storm-clouds originally. and by his fiery and brilliant armour he completely defeated them. and though it has been quoted often before. saw the attack of the evil spirits upon his son. The Babylonian implored every spirit in heaven and . Wife they have not. These evil spirits were born and reared in trie mountains of the sunset and the dawn but. Among the thorns of the mountain was their growth. It give a translation of the part relating to reads Seven are they. 6 T : c I and order know they not. The throne-bearers (?) of the gods are they are they set Disturbers in the Law . the lord of wisdom. anq were supposed to attack the moon during an eclipse.d advice of Ea.

vi. place much to. Luke is viii. 2. We will give.138 earth to BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. Beat. or of a devil the evidence we can from the inscriptions. with huge staling eyeballs and for . There are four models of this monster in the IJWtish Museum (there is another at Paris). was called the land of the shining sky/ and was the seat of the gods. Christ tells us of seven other spirits l whjich may enter a man and we are all familiar with story of His 2 casting out seven devils from Mary Magdalene There was one evil spirit which was a grqat terror to the Babylonian.ali hell. It cannot at present be decided whether they attained the conception of one God the Almighty/ but it seems improbable. salaams to the right and to the to pacify the spirits that he imagines are present there. suffered through terror of thejaffonsters of their religion. the house of unity of God e . th&amp. / This belief was current irithe early ages of the world s /history nations his face . xii. 2 . Israel the Lord our God one Lord or is according to the true translation. . or the pit. and perhaps we shall find that their Hades was not so very far different from the Sheol.of the duration of their kingdom.lt. and this was the spirit of trie South-West Wind. 26. they were the originators of all diseases and evils. 45 j Luke Hear.be 1 Matt. gaunt features and lantern jaws. and appealed to the and to-day the Arab. when praying with towards Mecca. for to the last days .* the place where the spirits of good Babylonians reposed. of the Bible. which brought disease and death with it. 9 . nor the-devil distinguished from the Satan we read of. AmujKets were worn as a protection against these spirits arfd a few of these emblems of superstition have come/down to us.jb . O I&rael.left. ward off the attack of the evil spirits from them. the prophets by it . knew of it. L)id the Babylonians know of a heaven or a a ? of torment for the wicked. Hear. in the prayers and histories they mention more than one god. Heaven. xi. The Jews were the people who enunciated the grand idea of the 3 In the Babylonian heaven. telling us very plainly what torments tijjgfse people must have . 4 : O Mark xvi. the Lord our God .

where they dwell in darkness whirl round and round ^the vaults ghosts (?) like birds dust. through it. but far. nor sorrow. ^ . 4. where there is no more curse. iNot a strange idea for a nation that was at war with its fellows perpetually.THE BABYLONIAN RELIGION. Sheol. o. 6. over the doors and wainscoting there is thick . To the land of no return. very far. nor pain. The lady of the Babylonian and the place itself had a river running called Nin-ki-gal. its pure river of water of life. and drank pure drinks^together with his friends and associates. i. to regions 3. Istar. the dwelling of the deity Irkalla (to go) to the house whose entrance is without exit to the road whose way is without return to the house whose entrance is bereft of light a place where much dust is their food. their meat mud. its tree of life for the healing of the nations. God Himself wipes away all tears. 11. 7. Tammuz. fixed. has been found but this assertion has been made in Babylonian texts while the means for definitely proving it do not at . over which spirits had to cross. 139 the { land of life/ the warrior found his reward. fixed the house of corruption. Hades was present exist. her attention * firmly 3. off. has been stated that the same words for Hades. * The tablet mentioned above tells us that ( i. There was a porter of the waters (which reminds us of the also Charon of the Greeks). from the holy conception ^of heaven of the prophet of the New Testament. The Babylonian conception of hell is made known to us by a tablet which relates the descent of Istar thither It in search of her lovely young husband. her attention the daughter of the Moon-god. and it had seven gates. for he reclined on a couch. and where . with God for its sun. 5. 10. to the afar of corruption. 8. the daughter of the Moon-god. life. where light is never seen. as that used in the Hebrew Scriptures.e. nor death.

^ Tiamat dwelt in the sea.140 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. pieces of an Assyrian copy. outer gate of this 5 guarded and bolted. devourers of the living. The first lines open by saying that the gods had set Merodach upon his throne in the dwelling of the great ones. who made war against the godsJoTwlroEwer^re ii. land of no return was strongly the porter having refused to Istar admission. Amenti. or disorder. but it has been conjectured by some that they thought it to be in the west \ Whether they believed in a final judgment or not is unknown. or the land of no return. pronunciation as Arali. and there appears to be some connexion between them and the seven wicked gods which dwelt in Hades. the signs which the house of the land of the dead. ment tins for a happy burial in the West. as is likewise the principle which decided whether a man gloss gives its the Babylonian hell. then. and is the prototype of the sea serpent of to-day.e. and I cross the doors. Then follows a kind of paean of praise thus repeated : 1 The pious Egyptian always prayed i. If thou openest not the gate. is should go to the land of the shining sky. and in the Coptic versions of the New Testa same word amenti is used to express hell/ or Hades.Qw. 2). A meaning name for Hades. raise the dead. the bolt I shatter. and was a kindred demon of Bahu (the Bohu of Gen. and I come not I force the gate. Such. (for) the dead exceed the living is There form it another c It is difficult to say where they imagined their Hades to be. I in. Recently a piece of tablet was discovered which gave about 64 lines of the account of the conflict between her and Merodach and the following paraphrase is made from the fragment of a tablet written in Babylonian. I strike the threshold. the .able tp give some account. and two or three . The seven evil spirits dwelt in the deep. i. They were probably the companions of the awful monster Tiamat. the goddess says grant for The Open thy gate and let me enter in .

1 We are told that word sumgar is Anu his father it made appears to The mean exact meaning of the not known. He follows the record of the equipment of the god. thrgne. art honourable. among the great gods unequalled. the beautiful line of prayer. The gods decreed his Now out on his enterprise. thy fortune not failing. may it be established. but protecting divinity? . for we are told they rejoiced. among thy destiny O Merodach thou is thy fate 1 unequalled. and may the wind carry. comes next. thy sumgar is the god Anu. may thy place : be established. may thy command be high. The gods then approve of Merodach s mission against the wicked Tiamat. A prayer follows. in the dwelling * The narrative then proceeds with the statement that Marduk s command is unchangeable and unalterable.THE BABYLONIAN c RELIGION. thy sumgar is the god Arm. thou hast in the assembly of the gods the multitude of the whole of everything. a club. fate. lord.away : her blood to a dismal place. at the place of their crown. and said Go. who trusts do thou benefit his soul. make an end of the life of Tiamat. And thee. and that high and low seek his hand. Again follows a paean of praise Merodach thou art also the returner of our benefits. and he hung the skin quiver at his side. Next there appears to be a reference to the gifts of the gods. and then another prayer saying. He set the lightning before him. may thy enemy tremble. they endowed him with sceptre. we ascribe to thee royalty. O Marduk. which entreats that whatever goes forth from thy mouth. his right hand held the bow. and filled his body with swift destruction/ Then he obtained a scimitar (or as some read net ) to and made him set J attack Tiamat. they gave him an unequalled weapon for destroying his enemies. they drew near to Merodach the king. 5 may they not force thy weapon. 141 the great O Merodach thou gods is art honourable also. and reign. of the gods. had a bow.

( the bow. he took the evil wind and let it loose before and behind him. he cut through her interior. destroyed their attack and broke their weapons they sat down mournfully and filled the regions with groan Merodach . however. He laid hold of Tiamat and bound her fast with bonds. east. he made his weapon approach her. winds the storm. north. and spread trouble upon his path. But Tiamat made desperate resistance. and they came after him to trouble Tiamat. he mastered her heart. and c The might of the good god was completely established over the enemy he strengthened his hold over the rebellious gods Tiamat whom he had laid hold of powerfully he turned backward the lord trampled down too the foundation of Tiamat. cleft her face. He threw her body down and then sat upon her. Tiamat opened her mouth to engulf him. and west he made the evil wind. Not content with the destruction of the monster herself. but Merodach drove such a quantity of wind down her throat that she could not cover her lip. Merodach scattered her band of followers and swept away her assembly. his allies. and not content with all these weapons Merodach made league with the south. he laid hold of her and destroyed her life. though of exactly what nature the fracture in the tablet forbids our find. for Merodach into her. the tempest. probably because he refused to assist her in her rebellion. for Merodach drew near in a warlike manner. 3 husband.also made an end of Kingu. husband Kingu. he rained mighty winds Now Tiamat s heart was afraid. and the sven deadly winds. that she sought out her kfiowing. destroyed her belly. . he raised his club. The lord of the storm also lifted up his mighty weapon and rode over the sea in his unequalled chariot of fate. the malignant wind. Tiamat s ing. they Merodach clung to one another fleeing helplessly. The gods that went by her side turned and fled. But to no purpose. and she also used incantations to effect the destruction of Merodach. : We * .142 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY.

It is another form of an old Semitic idea: the Jews wrote copies of the law each man for himself. and while this fight was going on she apparently had stopped the tides from flowing. and that it was placed in the temple of Zida. The story is told in very concise and brief language. To go back to the Baby lonian tablet. Merodach is the brilliance of the sun/ and he goes armed with the bow of his father Anu. The sen^e of a few of the lines I cannot make out. but the colophon shows that it was a meritorious act on the part of a pious man to write or copy a religious book as a thank-offering to a god. owing to a number of words the meanings of which at present are unknown. After his labours the lord Merodach rested and refreshed his body. Now Tiamat was a sea demon. and the expressions are . which reads A He made And beautiful the fortresses of the gods great.here and there somewhat obscure. The tablet not only gives us a valuable piece of my thology of the Babylonians.THE BABYLONIAN RELIGION. 143 The next lines tell us that the north wind carried away her blood to a wretched place. representation of the battle. every king was bound to do so to-day the Mahommedans write copies of their Koran. an^ was written by Nabu-beli-su Nahid-Marduk for the saving of his life. taken from a sculpture in the British Museum. If one of the Oriental puts aside the weird and mystic imagery from it. and was glad when he saw this and when the messengers brought him the news. it is the account of the battle of light against darkness. the sky after this . comes a colophon stating that the tablet contained one hundred and forty-six lines. * . is given in the frontispiece. but this the god Merodach rectified. which were not coming forth. however. Then follows the account of how the heavens were made bright and clear after this dreadful fight. Then Merodach s father rejoiced. and the text goes on to say that the gods made the waters to come forth. The tablet then adds the first line of the next tablet of the series.

2 7-9 xx. O lord. A curious name is given to Tiamat in the tablet. gaping jaws. she is called the great serpent (we have already spoken of her shape and of her being the personification of chaos). too. and reveals to us the craving of the soul of the Baby lonian for the assistance and support of a mighty and powerful god.144 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. was darkness upon the face of the deep. the second read that there chapter of Genesis. xii. do thou benefit in his soul. the powers of the heavens. equivalent to this word we meet with first The Hebrew verse of the We . Whether they had a deeper meaning veiled under the words is hard to say. is rendered club . With this . John. and a tail. and the imd-mul-lum *. feathers. or principle of the stars and he takes the lightning and gathers together to his fire side the winds. have called Satan the prince over chaos/ This Tiamat then is clearly the Babylonian tempter which led man astray. and which brought *death and destruction into the world. in Babylonian. but it is not at all improbable that the ideas of right and wrong were repre sented by them under the symbols of light and darkness. which reminds one of the Revelation where Satan is called the great dragon V The Jews. in the Apocalypse. 3 reminds one forcibly of various passages the Psalms. wings. perhaps fire stick would be a translation. spoke of the time when there shall be no more sea/ intimating that the abolition of the sea with its monsters and terrors was to be a part of the glorious future. 2. St. . claws. who trusts in thee. There is a seal in the British Museum bearing an en graving which seems to be a picture of the fall of man. . god. e. i. 1 The word Rev. Tiamat. In the tablet spoken of above the line in armour he does battle against Tiamat. and over this hideous being the glorious light sprang. Tiamat is represented as the abyss from whence all she herself is personified in the things noxious sprang form of a being with scales. and the word rendered deep is fhoin.

we my 1 2 Smith. or entered with wrong motives the house of my Have I approached the wife of my fellow man? fellow ? Have I shed man s blood or robbed one of his clothing? The Babylonian could bewail his sins. and his conscience was at times sorely When in distress. K . for the days of the lament of one which says. but the clouds were not in the earth was not a seed. he asks himself. through a calamity or any other cause. Seated on the right is a man. and and the following lines ignorance in very pathetic words. Compare Matt.From. Have I estranged father and son. Then none of the gods had come forth/ 5 These words evidently refer to a time when the earth was without form and void. iniquities. Apparently the pious Babylonian repented deeply at times. and has been published before 1 In the middle of the scene there stands a tree with branches. 145 . and collected. and beneath. youth I am bound fast to the yoke of &quot. released the bound. the abyss recorded not a name. The tree is the tree of life. The waters first were collected together. and on either side of the trunk there is a fruit. and these on a fragment of a tablet. on page 153. for only a few lines on this subject. xxv. and delivered him who was confined in prison 2 ? Have I resisted my god or despised my goddess? Have I taken territory not my own. find. Chaldean Genesis. As to the views of the Babylonians about the creation we know but little. and was understood too by the Babylonians to be the symbol of immortality. the water deep first begot them. have come down to us. or friend and friend ? Have I not freed the captive. sin. . behind whom stands the serpent. and upon the left is a woman. brother and brother.THE BABYLONIAN It is figured RELIGION. p. 44. which played a great part in the BabyIonian and Assyrian religions.troubled. They read When on high the heavens were not named. 91. the lady Tiamat was the bringer forth of all.

let the name of eyery god be invoked 65 times. and none my palms took. not. How long.. my goddess . who knew though knew not. my 1 My ..3$j(jji&quot. O my lord. may thy judgment give me life. I To my god. I made supplication. I made supplication. The .. my trans gression is great.that knowest that I knew not my trans gression is great. did I trample upon. O my goddess ... in the strength of his heart I in the wrath of his heart has In tears I cried aloud The feet of dissolved myself. and no man extended the hand. many are my sins. . my goddess I embraced. has overpowered me. Inis prayer to be repeated five times. We so ^een .. . bis have now seen something about the Babylonians neaven. many are my sins. May thy heart like the heart of the mother of the setting 2 day to its place return For the tearful supplication of my heart. many are my sins. . my transgression is great. his devil and evil spirits.. O my god . My lord God 1 punished me..some of his best ideas and conceptions. The forbidden things did I eat. Peace afterwards.146 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. there was none that would hear me.. 3 The sin that I committed I knew The sin that I sinned I knew not. O my god ? How long. seven times seven are my transgressions. his hell. O my goddess ? O my god. lay on the ground. ? !. To my goddess who knew.prayef to be repeated ten times. transgressions are before me transgressions are before me. * gocls. will show how nearly the words and ideas approach some of our own prayers of to-day . O my god that knowest that I knew not.

its people repented living witnesses of the preaching of Jonah. he made the gods He never grasped the idea of one God in his own image. This brought down Jeremiah just l It is the land of graven images. of purity and impurity. Baaland thus the mind Peor. - . * . neither did they who^had deeds and driven out mighty nations -for done mighty and the three children were Daniel this . powerless to save him. and the groves of the Babylonian was led astray. the Ruler and Governor of nations and individuals alike. have of Us accumulated dust of centuries in the land instead of the it is beholden to the -children former glory. 38. and they observation He was superstitious and are mad upon their idols. In the day of retribution when Babylon fell his idols were as he found to his bitter cost. as Nineveh repented at like Its gods are gone.of Baal. yet they profited nought by learn anything of Jehovah. making and ruling all things. if. of refined limity ideas and coarse conceptions in short.l. Though Jer. its people. \est for the discovery in recent times of its ancient . 147 ^ He had grand ideas about his gods. the Babylonians asked the Jews to sing them Though one of the songs of Zion.make as attractive as possible. and hence arose His religion was a mixture of sub the great gods. and obedience to it. and its tributary kings. K 2 . people. but he multiplied idols and s gods without end. Astitoreth. was slavish in his easily terrified by the supernatural. At the beginning he peopled all Nature and everything in Nature with spirits. but he appears to have feared the attacks of the evil spirits more than he trusted in his great gods to defend him from them. vanished there is nothing. and site. not. which the priests took care to . but by degrees he attributed more power to some of these than to others. Jo these were added the practices of Nature worship so strongly de nounced in the Bible under the names. and whatever good he had lying in his soul was crushed and blotted out. but the theif conquerors.THE BABYLONIAN RELIGION. and absurdity. ! God in Babylon. His mind was easily led captive by the pomp and religious processions.

according They craved for to his ability. Which relate that the solar hero Gistubar performed deeds. * 6 was recited praise a huge chorus in wMch eVery one joined. or low. recording the fight between and a parallelism in many and Tiamat. that they chanted hymns and praises fourth tablet of the for the Babylonian copy of the Merodach Creation series. and the lines of or was to of the chief concerns of the Babylonian and to take part in the duties. worship and praise due to thenthat were carried out of the exact ceremonies but it seems that processions of priests bearing temples. Their sacred books were the so-called Qistubar legends.lt. or as they put it. The the image of a god were common the temples with part of the spoils kings richly endowed which they obtained in war. for their prayers a have cope idown to us. and were not visible representation of their deities. The Babylonians prayed. : &amp. exhibits a rhythm One would think that the narrative part of its lines.a . Every person. high which was earned poor took part in the Nature-worship It is probable out under the beautiful sky of Chaldea. and frequent. and each person. a even if they had any satisfied with an invisible presence. to his religious m . no doubt did the same. rich or conception of it. Crentat -Commerce-Sla^ Babylonians good builders* ONE attend We are ignorant his gods. Every seventhly was of rest for the day Sabbath. duties of great importance-Babylonian names. to their gods.148 CHAPTER X. each of which formed the subject Itvelve sung by by mighty if a narrative. a few vdices. BABYLONIAN LIFE AND ART..

and the mighty treading down power of the*bull. and even the body of !pt||nfeer various services Sp^sts necessary for performing the ^d i fi. Babylonian his soul went to the land of the silver -sky/ the kings . and a beautiful woman was the type of Istar. the body and tail of a horse. and it is thought that furnaces were always kept going for this purpose. one an official and the other private whether any ceremony attended the naming is not known. and of these specimens in a greenish glazed On the death of the . These figures guarded the footsteps of the king their maker/ The contract tablets show us that the Babylonians had two names. with their regents mentioned. It has been suggested that it was into one of the year. heart/ 149 god or goddess presided over every day in and lists of the days of the months. the swift body of the horse. and the huge feathered pinions of a mighty bird. the legs and hoofs of a bull. 9. When the Babylonian died he was most probably burnt.. .eagles. Isaiah describes iHe home of these spirits in almost identical words \ The numerous to an enormous tennples must have given occupation of people and servants. the daughter of the Moon-god.earthenware are still to be seen. Isaiah xiv. At the doorways of their palaces they placed huge stone figures of a composite being. which indicated that it had the wisdom and intelligence of a maji. Babylonian cities. have come down to us. There are ^earthenware pots in the British Museum it f which contained the calcined bones and ashes of pe^e that were burnt more than two thousand years ago.ve 8 been large. A these furnaces that the * e three children were cast after had been made seven times hotter than usual. 1 . used coffins. gjk these pots are common and abundant in the ruins of tie In the time of the Parthians they old. with the face and head of a man.BABYLONIAN LIFE AND ART. Their repre sentation of the Sun-god took the form of a disk. the fleet wings of the . .au^ dwelt with the heroes of bygone times who ruled ages before.a.

. This. necessitated expeditions to all parts of the country to put down the various rebellions. Their battles consisted more of surprises and skirmishes than what we should call definite warfare. that the. . It was the wealth of Hezekiah s palace and of the Temple that attracted MerodaclvBaladan and Nebuchadnezzar and the riches of Tyre always made it an attractive object for conquest in the eyes of the etc. Many of the Babylonians were engaged for the Semite was always a trader. Babylonians and Assyrians. and once a city they destroyed it utterly. A . There was a set time of the year for warlike expeditions. of Sennacherib offered Hezekiah horses. and men were set under cover to dig out the stones from the foundations. for them. They showed no mercy. 1 . such as rebellion and invasion of territory but the kings often made raids on slight provocation when the funds of their treasuries were low. and of the spoil taken. of course. but the greater part of the army must have gone It will be remembered that the Rabshakeh on foot. all the tributary kingdoms tried to assert their independence. 2 Sam. and staves in the later days they had helmets and shields. and made them In besieging build walls and temples. They used horses and chariots in battle. bows and arrows. Wars were undertaken on various pretexts. The chief occupation of the Babylonian was war. A captives to their capitals. I will give thee two thousand horses if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them V list was kept of the people destroyed in each city. saying. 1 we know for inasmuch as we find that Isaiah xxxvi. city walls might fall. as soon as one king was dead.150 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. xi. i. and certainty* that it in commerce. as we learn from The Babylonians were armed with swords. slaying having captured the unfortunate inhabitants and burning everything few of the kings took the that could be burnt. cities they used scaling ladders. S.. was respected.

power of life and death was in his hands. and sandals on their feet The Babylonian youth learned to read and write early. How the Babylonian king amused himself is not known the Assyrian hunted The Babylonian libraries were well stored lions. Babylonians were very superstitious. it In stature the Babylonians were short and thick-set they had the characteristic Semitic nose. The king was absolute monarch he heard complaints and redressed wrongs the. The Babylonians bought slaves. the astrological and the astronomical texts. probably of a brilliant colour. girdles round their waist.They were . and the old Akkadian language. very fearful of the evil spirits and genii. . he therefore copied the characters over and over again. the hand. They drew maps upon ^jfee a very great deal The. This business firm of Egibi and Son arranged dowries for unwedded women. way we see it represented is doubtful. and therefore they became the centre of attraction for the literati ao& savants great . and Their hair was thick and curly.astrologers and moderately good astronomers . with tablets by generations gone by. intended for priests or astronomers learnt the omens. course black whether they plaited or knotted it in the . thick lips. They bought sold land. and appears that some of the owners went so far as to brand their own name upon them with hot irons. 151 the business of the firm of Egibi and Son was carried on throughout all the wars and civil commotions which con vulsed Babylon. . pf that day. and. . and of oblique eyes. and they lent and or merchandise on money interest. for the dressing shown on the sculptures may be for the sake of ornament. until the eye. . male and female. They wore dyed raiment. and some records of this sort are in our national collection. The task of learning the huge syllabary was no easy one. . The Babylonians made legal promises to pay certain debts they had contracted. which they imagined were always ready to attack them.BABYLONIAN LIFE AND ART. we to them. and the memory all helped him Those who were to gain a perfect knowledge of them. etc.

we exact statements about them. The objects of art and luxury which the Babylonians were unable to produce for themselves they . of beautiful stones it has been thought that they were but one storey high. Drawings of some of these seals are shown on the opposite page. and and glazed. etc. and delighted in inscribing figures of the beings of their Pantheon upon agate. though these belong probably to the later period of the empire. among the treasures of our national collection. haematite. others they sun-dried.1-53 BABYLONIAN LIFE AND HISTORY. but their palaces and temples were very extensive. alabaster jars. and they used pillars in their Their palaces were decorated with all kinds buildings.C. bronze statuettes. jasper. Some of their bricks they burnt. Of the houses of the poorer classes we know nothing. of which the polish and smoothness is a marvel even in the nineteenth century. as the ruins and remains of their temples and walls testify. They excelled in seal cutting. knew the use of the more colours. The Babylonian was a skilful engraver upon the hardest stones. and there are fragments of their planispheres. They meaning many architectural cannot make terms employed in their buildings. The Babylonians were good builders. chalcedony. They made plantations around them. others for ornament in two or occasionally we find them both fluted arch. There were beautiful objects of art in the kings palaces. of of the Owing to our ignorance of the . and each brick bore the impression of the seal of the king its makr. clay. glass bottles and vases. The little stone which contains Sargon s inscription (B. the inscription being admirably cut. ivories with gold and beautiful colours. 3800) is beauti fully rounded and smooth. Some bricks were glazed with one colour (these were probably used to lay the foundations in damp places). which are divided into divisions corresponding to degrees. but this is scarcely credible. and a little tablet gives us the names of the various plants and trees that were in the gardens of Merodach-Baladan. their dwellings have long since passed away.

. HEA-BANI STRUGGLING WITH A SAVAGE ANIMAL.ANCIENT BABYLONIAN SEALS. THE BABYLONIAN HERO GISTUBAR IN CONFLICT WITH A LION. ENGRAVING ON A BABYLONIAN SEAL REPRESENTING THE TEMPTATION OF ADAM AND EVE AND THE TREE OF LIFE.

.

The task of reading the cuneiform inscriptions is a hard one. 155 could obtain from Phoenicia and Egypt. of the facts obtained from the cuneiform inscriptions is for the right understanding of that part of Bible history which relates to Babylon and Assyria. and much but is necessary before it can be done . Every single tablet that is recovered from the mounds of Babylonia reveals fresh facts and gives new testimony of the enormous amount of knowledge possessed by the It will be impossible to obtain an exact Babylonians. knew to be done is enormous. and no doubt they availed themselves of the opportunity. how . and we have tried to and are certain. enough work for many lifetimes the . self-evident. patient work it is a study attractive enough surely In this little book only a few of the most important ! facts have been touched upon. and the labourers in the field are very few.BABYLONIAN LIFE AND ART. . idea of what they excavated and all Already there is quantity of work until all the mounds have been the literature read and understood. only such things as admit of proof however.state It is very necessary the knowledge.

Azuri. 95. 45. Arah-samna = Abraham. 1 8. Achaemenes. Alexander the Great. 117. Arad-Gula. Atrines the Susian. in. oracle of. her tem ple in Sippara. 69. Assur-nadin-sumi. Babylonia. 117. Apries. Abel.. Arahu-mahru. . 112. 65 capture of. its antiquity. Accad = Ur. 50. Bagayadish. Babylon does not mean confusion Jews play ed on the word. wisdom. name Adlil. Agarsal. 45. Assur-akh-bal. 97. 123. the gate of God/ the house/ the wood of life/ 19 . . Istar. 29 size of the city. Astronomy. Anna. 97. Assur-bil-nisu-su. the inter calary month. 26. called Chesed. 46.156 INDEX. Ashdod. 138. 28. Abu = July. extent in later times . compari son. his walls. Aneana. 65. 60 manners and customs. blank in. 75Abil-Bel-usum-same. 45. Adam. Amil-Marduk. 61. . 19 accord ing to Herodotus. Babylonians. Assur-Dan. 45. Anzan. - Assyria. Amytes. Assurbanipal. .J7. 106. Kaldu. 124. 5 heaven. 128. in. 94. 81. antiquity of. Ashtoreth. in. . Akkad= North Babylo nia. various statements as to the size of. rise of. 42. 19. Amil-Gula. Baltasar. 61. for twenty years. Arakadres. 148 signs. Assur-uballit. Sabbath. 34. Akkadian hymn to 129. 126. . Assur-ris-isi. cylinders. 124. 42. 58. 65. 60. 58- 96. 95. 93. Asnunak. 49. his cylin der. 118. Aim -April. Babylonian copy books. 101. 74. 19 destruction of. 18. heaven/ 36. Assur-bel-kala. mound of. Akki. 116. son of Nabonidus. Antiochns. Artaxerxes. Apirak. under I. Arithmetic. 1 50-1 55 . 19. revolt of soldiers. 45. Agii-kak-rimi. Anat. 107 history. Abil-Ea-sar-mati. 88. 1 08. Arsaces. 123 Bani-tum-umma. in. 115. n October. 45. siege of. 45. Ariyaramnes. Abil-Sin. year. 45. 106. Assur-nasir-pal. 41. 99. by Cyrus. Addaru = February. Rimmon-Nirari Assyrian annals. Barrel cylinders. situated on the Euphra tes called the dwell ing-place of Bel and town of Marduk. A-mram. 60. 75. Airad. 30 its * . 42. 109. Allit. Anuiiitum. 16 their progenitor . 79. 95. Amil-Samas. 49. fortress of. 95. . Arahu or Aracus he per sonified Nebuchadnez zar. Amulets. Amil-Sin. Arsames. Amm^satarja. 128. Alman. Astyages. 45. nacherib. 79. . the inscrip tions. Its two . Ahe-iddin. its old name Ammananu. * Assur. Assur-Danan. 76-89 . 45 . 27. cylin Ammi-sa-duga. by Sen in . the era of. Araxes. 116. 105. 45. 97 . 138. 75. 79. . Assur-izir-pal. 6. Arbela. 67 der of. Bardes. . Annnitj temple of. Talmudic discussion on the word. 95. 49. 40. 117. 75.

.

Months. 126. 59. Merodach-Baladan. 121. 45. 141. in Musesib-Marduk. 113. his death. Marduk-sapik kullat. 80. Michaux stone. 24. gods to whom each was dedicated. 115. his temple Harran. in. a god. Marduk-zakii-sumij 62. 63- 60- Meskitu. 131. Merodach. 45. 114. 59. 69 his kingdom. 1 1 4. his excavations. . 50. Marbuda.INDEX. tract 120. con in 1 7th year of. his dream. Marduk-buma-iskun. 88. Mili-Sipak. 88. 49. 109. Marduk-irba. Money-loan tablets. Marduk-balatsu-ikbi. 45. 95. 81 . 116. Marduk-Bel-usati. Marduk-nadin-ahi. 59. 89. Merodach-Baladan 58- II. Malkit. 135 Moon-god. . N abonnedon. 75. Marriage dowry. tfaboandelus. Mythology. ^abonidus. Moon-gocl. 112. a sun76 worshipper. 85. S&quot. Man possessed of a devil. 68. Milky Way. Martes. his fight with Tiamat. 37 . Marcluk. Mene Mene. Methuselah. 65. (Nabu-pal- the rise of usur). 127. Muballitat Serua. Muabbid-Kissati. or Marduk.abopolassar . 80.. Marad.

123. 147. Nabu-nadin-ziri. II. 70 . 1 1 6. of Nergal-balit. wall of Rimmon-Nirari I. his wars against Assyria. &quot. abmanda. 117. Samas-nasir. Samas-sum-ukin. 114. Shahnan. called Puya.gt. Rassam. Nabu-usitik-urri. 42.. mary. goddess. 95. 61. 136. 58. Rammanu-NirarillL. 45. Nabu-usur-napistu. Ningal-iddina. Samsi-Rammanu. Pacorus. 116. Nabunnaa. Nisannu= March. 49* Rabbi Johanan. Omen tablets. 148.INDEX. Nergal. Nabu-bullitsu. Nabu-balatsu-ikbi. 114. his temple at Harie. Nebuchadnezzar 33. 45. 113. Pissiachada. Sir H. destruction 69. 93. 138. Sargon and the siege of Ashdod. 61. 25. Pharaoh Necho. 116. 45. a god. 35. date of his. 96. 35. his War against Egypt. 76. 45. Nabu-e-du-ahi. Narara-Sin. 38. Sibir. Nindar. 39. 45. Nabu-balat-su. Phraates the Magian. Seleucus. 59. Rab-Mag. 112. 145. in. legend: cylinder. Promissory notes. 50. 117. Nabu-nasir.East &amp. 59. discoveries. Nebuchadnezzar L. his of. 116. Padan. 65. 70. 76. 58. 36. Nineveh. a Nabu-ludda. 22. 65. Namar. 19. a temple of Sag-ili. Babylon. Nail marks.ur. 69. 74. 19. translation of two of his inscriptions.. lon. Repentance of the Baby Riblah. 31 brought wood from Lebanon. 80. Jeremiah. 95. Nabu-usabsi. 116. 116. Samullu-sum-ukin. 144. 95. 37. - Nebuchadnezzar II. 40. Nabu-abla-iddina.. 65. Samsu-satana. 60.. Shalmaneser his kindness to Rammanu-sea. 116. war against Tyre. 70. Phraortes. 116. 117. 116. 115. 94. Nazi-bugas. Shalman-Karradu. Nimitti-Bel. 60. 120. 68. Sabbath. 60. 66. 114. 43. 20. 60. Sargina. 74 India House inscrip tion. H. 93. Nippur. 49./ Marduk. 58. 116. Rimat. 69. Nabu-uhi-su. 136. 115. Nagitu. Baby Nabu-sum-damik. Nabu-bel-zikri. Nabu-zir-napisti-esir.. His temple Life. 58. 114. coveries. 95. 60. Nabu-lddannu. 24. Rim-Agu. 42. Pharaoh Hophra. 62. 29 . Nisaea. 114. Ninip-kudurri-us. loS. Nergal-edir. Nabu-rimanni. Nahid-Marduk. Philistia. Rim-Sin. 93. 97. 95. 66. 58. 41.. his . Religious belief the Sictachotes. 80. Sagasatli-Buryas. Pudil. 58. 116. inscriptions Nebuchadnezzar Babylon. Neriglissar. his prayer to Marad. Nabu-kusur-su. 115. 159 Sum Babylonians. 28. 46. his dis Shalmaneser Sheol. 116. Philip of Macedon. 66. S^batu= January. 115. Sappai. the great. in. Nabu-sab-sunu. 50-57. Sennacherib. III. 60. Sala. 19. of his birth. . 47. Samsaa. Nadintu-Bel. Rabshakeh. Nebo. Senkerek. Rawlinson. Nana-Babili-sininni. Screech owl. Sargon Nana. Nabu-ahi-bullit. 136. ^^ 82. Sapin-mat-nukurti. Siatu. Nabu-sum-esir. contract tablet of. lonians. Ormazd. Nabu-epis-sin. 63-65. Serpent. L. Patizithes. Nusku. s city. 66. 73 50. Nabu-suma-iskun. Nabu-kissir. Nadin. . Planisphere. 116. Rammanu - abla iddina. of his . 54. Samsu-iluna. 118. 116. Seal marks. Ritti wars. Nabu-surna-ukin. reign from Nabonidus 1 Prexashes.

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