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**Generation of the Figures of Some Fullerenes by Using L-Systems
**

Mehdi Vahidipour,a,* Hosein Sabaghian-Bidgoli,a and Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaadb

a

Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167, I. R. Iran Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167, I. R. Iran

RECEIVED AUGUST 5, 2007; REVISED APRIL 16, 2008; ACCEPTED APRIL 24, 2008

b

Keywords L-system the figures of fullerenes turtle interpretation

In 1968, Aristid Lindenmayer introduced a biologically-motivated formalism for simulating the development of multi-cellular organisms, subsequently named L-systems. The applications include, on one hand, the modeling and visualization of plants at different levels of abstraction for a variety of purposes, and, on the other hand, geometric modeling of curves and surfaces. In this paper, we introduce L-system for generating NiceGraph drawing of fullerenes C20 and C60, without information about the carbon atoms coordination. We chose L-systems because they can express drawing steps in a compact way and are parallel in nature. It will be a good trend for visualizing complex supramolecules.

INTRODUCTION

A new method for generating figures of some fullerenes is presented and illustrated with examples. The idea is to generate a string of symbols using an L-system, and to interpret this string as a sequence of commands which control a »turtle«. Suitable generalizations of the notions of the L-system and of a turtle have been introduced in Ref. 1. The resulting mathematical model can be used to create a variety of (finite approximations of) fractal curves, ranging from Koch curves, classic space-filling curves, to relatively realistic-looking pictures of plants and trees. All these pictures are defined in a uniform and compact way. A special kind of rewriting L-systems, Map rewriting, is used to simulate the development of single-layered cellular structures such as those found in fern gametophytes, animal embryos and plant epidermis. All structures considered are of microscopic dimensions and relatively undifferentiated, yet the presented methods may

bring us closer to the modeling of more complex patterns, such as the venation of leaves. The process Map rewriting of cell division can be described by extension of string rewriting.1,2 A varity of algorithms are introduced to generate fullerenes and some of them are efficient. The algorithm in Ref. 3 uses the polyhedron Stone-Wales transformation and local random search to generate fullerenes at random. The search algorithm searches local minimum of specific energy function. In this work, generating realistic drawing of fullerenes was not the major goal. In Refs. 4 and 5 based on the production of polygraph from monographs, the authors tried to formulate the fullerenes. The resulted formula produced graph that had to be given to graph drawing software to generate the NiceGraph geometrical drawing. There are some algorithms for drawing molecular graphs in three-dimensional space. The article6 compared them for their ability of plausible molecular geometric.

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. (E-mail: vahidipour@kashanu.ac.ir)

rñ where S is the alphabet of the system. The method of applying productions is essentially different for Chomsky grammars8 and L-systems.m1. subsequently termed L-systems7. String with brackets is introduced to delimit a branch.8. Parallel production applications have an essential impact on the formal properties of rewrite ng systems. the left direction. the figures of some fullerenes were generated.. S* the set of all words over S. productions operate on polygon vertices. and the uprdirection. the current state of the turtle is popped from the stack. The following simple L-system is used to draw a cube. After that in section "Generation of the Figures of Some Fullerenes by Using L-Systems". Acta 81 (2) 341–345 (2008) and presented more examples of fractals and plant-like structures modeled using L-systems. In the present work without any extra information and just with the L-system rewriting rules. There are some symbols and commands in Table I that control turtle position and orientation in space.10 Let S denotes an alphabet. the node rewriting system has been used. using terminology borrowed from graph grammars. Since. A (graphic) interpretation function I : S* → R3 is mapping the set of strings over the alphabet S into the set of pictures. See Figure 1. The letter a stands for the predecessor and the word X denotes the production successor. THE L-SYSTEMS The central concept of L-systems is the rewriting that is implemented by some rules or productions. A 0L-system is deterministic (D0L-systems) iff for each a ∈ S there is exactly one X ∈ S* such that a → X..16 The sate of turtle is the basic idea of turtle interpretation.. When the turtle finds the '[' in string. We write a → X. Usage of stack is needed to draw a point with two branches. In the case of finding ']'. the third edge can be produced by rewriting the L-system productions. This means that all letters in a given word are simultaneously replaced according to productions.. In general.342 Here we introduce a novel application of the L-systems to generate the figures of some fullerenes. our idea about to use of L-system is presented. ⇒ mn. iff ai → Xi for all i = 1. there are languages which can be generated by context-free L-systems (called 0L-systems) but not by context-free Chomsky grammars. These r r vectors H. Interested reader may refer to the works of Herman and Rozenberg8 and Roaenberg and Saloma. while in node rewriting.18 In the case of edge rewriting.mn such that m0 = w and mn = V as well as m0 ⇒ m1 ⇒ .m. if a pair (a. A 0L-system is an ordered triplet G = áS..1 GENERATION OF THE FIGURES OF SOME FULLERENES BY USING L-SYSTEMS As mentioned above.am be an arbitrary word over S.2. The state is defined as Position and orientation. VAHIDIPOUR et al.2. Figure 1. there is self-similarity on nodes of hypercube. For an example the node rewriting L-systems for generating a simple cube is described. In Chomsky grammars productions are applied sequentially.. The turtle’s position is represented by a triplet (x. Aristid Lindenmayer. A word V is generated by G in a derivation of length n if there exists a sequence of words m0. rewriting is a technique for defining complex objects by successively replacing parts of a simple initial object. productions substitute figures for polygon edges. The current orientation of the turtle in space is representedr by three perpendicular unit vectors. In 1968 a biologist..17. X) is a production. Axiom: A Rule: A → A [&(–90)FA] [+(90)FA] (1) ...14 These vectors satisfy the r r equation H × L = U. The L-system definitions and concepts are in the next section. Chem. The word V = X1X2. the rewriting rules should be discovered to obtain the self-similarities in shape. whereas in L-systems they are applied in parallel.Xm ∈ S* is directly derived from (or generated by) m and write m ⇒ V. Both approaches rely on capturing the recursive structure of figures and relating it to a tiling of a plane... As the first step we found the form of L-system productions for drawing hypercube. three edges are joined to it. introduced a new type of string-rewriting mechanism. Controlling turtle in three dimensions. w ∈ S* is a nonempty word called the axiom and r ⊂ S × S* is a finite set of productions. Let m = a1a2. w. There are some functions that can be used11–13 but the Prusinkiewicz focused on an interpretation based on a LOGO-style turtle14 Croat. The edge rewriting and node rewriting are two modes of operation for L-systems with turtle interpretation. L. Suppose a node in a cube. For example. If we obtain L-systems that draw two edges connected to one node. z) in the Cartesian coordinates. In the next stage we introduce the mapping procedure of the string to the picture. y.. U indicate the turtle’s heading. the current state of the turtle is pushed into a stack..9 Formal definitions describing D0L-systems and their operation are given below. Figures of C60 and C20 that are generated by this L-system will be showed.15. and S+ the set of all nonempty words over S. M.

the symbol 'A' is put at the end of it for drawing other part of cube figure. the orientar r tion of turtle head (H) is rotated by axis (U). Using +90 to draw the second branch. By more rewriting of L-system production rules the same cube is produced. Using & (–90) to draw the first branch. The new edge is rewritten on earlier edges. Croat. the orientation of r r turtle head (H) is rotated by axis (L). As mentioned above. a pop from stack is occurred. These pentagons are loFigure 3. Since before drawing the first branch the start point had been pushed in stack. Now. Figure 2 shows the subsequent steps of the cube generation. After drawing an edge with F command. The edge F and rewriting symbol 'A' are produced in the same way. Each pentagon has 5 branches except for its edges.GENERATION OF THE FIGURES OF SOME FULLERENES BY USING L-SYSTEMS 343 [&(–90)F] [+(90)F] [&(–90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F]] [+(90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F]] [&(–90)F] [+(90)F] [&(–90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F]] [+(90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F]] [&(–90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F] [&(90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F]]… [&(–90)F] [+(90)F] [&(–90)F] [+(90)F] [&(–90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F]] [+(90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F]] [&(–90)F [&(–90)F] [+(90)F] [&(90)F … Figure 2. Chem. The subsequent steps of C60 generation. to draw a second branch of node. The pentagon is a good start point to find the self-similarity if you concentrate on figures of C20 and C60 (Figure 3). The obtained strings by following L-System rules are displayed in Figure 2 too. The figures of C20 and C60 fullerenes. Acta 81 (2) 341–345 (2008) . Figure 4. The subsequent steps of cube generation and related strings. Each branch shows a chemical bond and connects two pentagons to one another. At the end of forth step the shape of cube is generated. the turtle interpreter translates these strings to figures as shown in Figure 2.

Chem. After 4 steps. An Introduction to Parallel Map Generating Systems. Hanan. Chem. 27–40. No line is drawn. The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. On the other hand.344 TABLE I. Third International Workshop. y. although in general the position of the turtle changes. Fowler. M. If a is positive. A line segment is drawn between points (x. 4. The production rule replaces A with pentagon rules that repeat this operation. F. Choosing 31. Rozenberg (Eds. Choosing 58.7175 for pitch rotation value. Discovering the self-similarities is essential for obtaining the rewriting rules in fullerenes. the turtle is pitched up. A. A. Springer-Verlag.7175) (31. 1990. the turtle is pitched down and if a is negative. At first. r Turn around U by an angle 180. the turtle is rolled to the right and if a is negative. Figure 4 shows the subsequent steps of C60 generation. Pisanski. F (s) f (s) + (a) & (a) / (a) | [ ] r Move forward a step of length s > 0.283 for pitch rotation of turtle leads us to obtain the shape of C20. D. the symbol '–' can be used also.7175) (31. Springer-Verlag. In the end of each branch put the symbol 'A' to draw another pentagon. 1987. T. it is rolled to the left. r Rotate around U by an angle of a degrees. Push the current state of the turtle onto stack. If a is positive. P. J. The amount of rotation is depends on pentagon angles. Graovac. 36 (1996) 825–828. M. z'). Prusinkiewicz and A. and possibly other attributes such as the color and width of lines being drawn. de Boer. A. Sci. Berlin. Comp. and A. The roll left can be represented by '\' symbol. If a is positive. The amount of pitch rotation varies in different fullerenes. where x' = x + s Hx . Here this was done for C20 and C60.). If a is negative. The information saved on the stack contains the turtle’s position and orientation. Rosenfeld. Fracchia. Plestenjak. J. The position of the turtle changes to (x'. Figure 5 shows figures that are generated by L-system rules in subsequent steps. the turn is to the right. Move forward a step of length s > 0 without drawing a line. in: H. Inf. cated in different planes in relation to each other. 2. Graovac. pp. R. z) and (x'.7175) (31. CONCLUSION We introduced L-system for generating plausible drawing of fullerenes. L-system has been chosen because it can express drawing steps in a compact way and is parallel in nature. Zitnik. VAHIDIPOUR et al. Croat.7175) F ] FA] FA] FA] FA] (2) REFERENCES 1. New York. r r y' = y + s Hy and z' = z + s Hz . and G. This r means that the turtle must rotate by (L) for drawing pentagons. and L. Ehrig. Using L-systems to generate figures of other nanostructures can be subject of the further works. Comp. Figure 5. The pitch up rotation can be represented by ^(a). 3. M. Mercer). Nagl. Acta 81 (2) 341–345 (2008) . the following L-system rules can produce the C60 shape: Axiom: A Rule: A → | & (31. Lindenmayer.7175) (31. Pop a state from the stack and make it the current state of the turtle. The subsequent steps of C20 generation. D. r Rotate around L by an angle of a degrees. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 291. T. and A. Sci.7175) [ + (–126) F [+(54) + ( –72) F [+(54) + ( –72) F [+(54) + ( –72) F [+(54) + ( –72) F ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (31. Pisanski. Chem. figure C60 is generated and by more rule rewriting the same figure is obtained. y'. S. B. The symbols and commands to control turtle in space M. Baumgartner. the turtle is turned to the left and if a is negative. consider a pentagon with 5 branches to draw C60. r Rotate around H by an angle of a degrees. Lindenmayer (with J. 34 (1994) 1090–1093. y' z'). Graph Grammars and their Application to Computer Science. J. Inf. It is a good trend for visualizing of complex supramolecules. A. for drawing edges of a r pentagon the turtle should rotate by (U) in a plane.

L-sustav koristi za dobivanje NiceGraph crte`a fullerena C20 i C60. Berlin. Hosein Sabaghian-Bidgoli i Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaad Aristid Lindenmayer je 1968. 1983. 9. D. Kreowski. 7. E. 11. T. Subramanian. B. D. Prusinkiewicz. I. 1975. Ehrig. Bor{tnik. 18. Graph Grammars and their Application to Computer Science. 15 (1986) 11–24. Kaufman. Springer-Verlag. 1973. Nagl. Prusinkiewicz. G. L. B. 1982. pp. uveo biolo{ki motiviran formalizam. Babi}. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 153. Nagl. in: H. 12. in: Proceedings of Graphics Interface ’86 — Vision Interface ’86. Ehrig. A. 5. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 291. B. diSessa. and G. pp. Graph Grammars and their Application to Computer Science.-J. Habel and H. L-sustav izra`ava korake u risanju na kompaktan na~in i paralelan je po prirodi. New York. 1982. Berlin. 1987. 259 (1996) 420–424. J. Chem. 8. H. Salomaa. Applications of L-systems to Computer Imagery. G. (Eds. San Francisco. A. 143–158. Phys. 247–253. North-Holland. Herman and G. SpringerVerlag. M.). Ehrig. Siromoney and K. Graph Grammars and their Application to Computer Science. U ovom radu se. A.). Salomaa. 1980. Graovac. Szilard and R. Graphical Applications of L-systems. Mohar. O~ekuje se da bi bio prikladan i u vizualizaciji kompleksnih supramolekula. 6. Math. Ehrig. pp. M. Pisanski. god. 1983.-J. Biol. Lukman. 17. Academic Press. Quinton. Primjene idu od modeliranja i vizualizacije biljaka na raznim razinama apstrakcije i za razne potrebe pa do geometrijskog modeliranja krivulja i povr{ina. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 153. M. 534–548. M. Berlin. L-sustave. bez pozivanja na koordinate ugljikovih atoma. Rozenberg. T. A. M. in: H. Second International Workshop. Turtle Geometry. Space-filling Curves and Infinite Graphs. G. and G. Formal Languages. Pisanski. Abelson and A. Press. Croat. and T. Rozenberg and A. Theor. P. The Science Terrapin. H. Amsterdam. G. Nagl. W. M. A. 15–26. 4 (1979) 8–13. Academic Press. and G. Lindenmayer. R. and A. Cambridge. za simulaciju razvoja vi{estani~nih organizama. Second International Workshop. May We Introduce to You: Hyperedge Replacement. CIPS. 10. 380–391. 1986. Mandelbrot. Posenfeld (Eds. Third International Workshop.GENERATION OF THE FIGURES OF SOME FULLERENES BY USING L-SYSTEMS 345 15. 18 (1968) 280–315. A. in: H. Berlin. Rosenfeld. SpringerVerlag. pp.). Nagl. tzv. A. 14. B. Graph Grammars and their Application to Computer Science. 13. and A. Developmental Systems and Languages. Rozenberg (Eds. Freeman. Rozenberg. Kreowski. 16. Lett. A. Discrete Appl. Gravoac. pp. Rozenberg. Acta 81 (2) 341–345 (2008) . Chem. P. The Mathematical Theory of L-systems. 1987.). On Context-free Graph Languages Generated by Edge Replacement. Rozenberg (Eds. Habel and H. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 291. SA@ETAK Kori{tenje L-sustava u dobijanju crte`a nekih fullerena Mehdi Vahidipour. T. in: H. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. New York. Third International Workshop. Springer-Verlag.

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