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AERODYNAMIC CONTROL CHARACTRISTICS OF GENERIC UCAV

MODEL USING TRAILING EDGE OUTBOARD ELEVONS.

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Chapter 1 Introduction :- .................................................................................................................... 11
UCAV ............................................................................................................................................... 11
Key Tasks:- ...................................................................................................................................... 11
Generic UCAV specification:- .......................................................................................................... 12
Wing Geometry:- ............................................................................................................................ 13
Chapter 2 :- Experimental Programme, Apparatus and Instrumentation ........................................... 14
Wind Tunnel :- ................................................................................................................................ 14
The figure shown above is the schematic representation to know the direction of airflow ,
aerodynamic force and moments on wind tunnel model. Aerodynamic control is explained in other
chapters. .............................................................................................................................................. 15
Wind tunnel Balance:- .................................................................................................................... 15
Data Acquisition System:- ............................................................................................................... 16
Wind Tunnel Wall Corrections:- ...................................................................................................... 17
Chapter 3 :-Literature review .............................................................................................................. 18
Part One .......................................................................................................................................... 18
Primary Control Surface:- ............................................................................................................ 18
Part Two .......................................................................................................................................... 20
Circulation Control Replacement to Conventional Control Surface:- .......................................... 20
Recent work on Circulation Control :- ......................................................................................... 22
Fluidic Thrust Vector(FTV): .......................................................................................................... 24
Chapter 4 :- Aerodynamics as a Basic ................................................................................................. 26
Bernoulis Theorem :- ...................................................................................................................... 26
Chapter 5 Wind Tunnel Operation :- ................................................................................................... 36
Flow Visualization Test :- ................................................................................................................ 37
Chapter 6:- An Overview on Test Rig Blowing System ....................................................................... 42
Appendix & Graphs :- ...................................................................................................................... 45
Chapter 7 :-Conclusion & Recommendation ....................................................................................... 48
Chapter 8 :- ......................................................................................................................................... 50
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Graphical Representation ............................................................................................................... 50
Chapter 9 :- APPENDIX TABLE ............................................................................................................. 59
APPENDIX A :- 40 Deg UCAV Model .............................................................................................. 59
APPENDIX B :- SYMMETRIC OUTBOARD ELEVONS .......................................................................... 62
APPENDIX C :- ASYMMETRIC OUTBOARD ELEVONS................................................................. 80
REFERENCES:- ..................................................................................................................................... 99

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...... declare that this dissertation is my own work...... part or phrasing of more than 20 consecutive words that is copied from any other work or publication has been clearly referenced at the point of use and also fully described in the reference section of this dissertation........ DNYANESHWAR LAXMAN KALE........................DECLARATION “I................” “Signed .......” 4 ..... Any section....

who has guided me all the stages of my dissertation by providing time to time feedback to me. I would never have been able to finish my dissertation without the guidance & support of Mr Mike Penny Lab Technician. Dr. He always encourages me to improve my research to do better. Leslie Johnstone. I would like to take this opportunity to thank him. 5 .Acknowledgement I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor.

roll and to yaw. Part of this project is to study the fluid flow characteristics near solid object. 200. This study is towards the integration of function of flight control surface of aileron.Abstract This Dissertation project is comprises of experimental work on generic Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle Model . Main promising approach are wing become flexible and its fluidics. made of slot able to emit the air flow as a consequence can change the direction of vehicle. This comes under the flow visualization test . 6 . elevator. low cost. formation of vortex flow over a forward swept wing gives an idea about flow pattern created by model. 300 respectively. In fluidics forces applied on vehicle through circulation control in which complexity of mechanical parts have been replaced by smaller fluidic system . also it reduces the radar cross section for structure which is great advantage for combat air vehicle. Here the solid object is Forward Swept Wing. less complexity (by keeping few moving parts . In flexible wings it can be direct the air flow by changing its shape of wing surface. reduced drag. Also the study of test rig for blowing system may help further investigation towards implementation of it on Generic UCAV configuration model in order to achieve trailing edge blowing as an alternative to conventional control surface to pitch . elevons into wing to analyse the performance of aerodynamic control with the merits of less mass .The purpose of this experimental work is to study the aerodynamic control characteristics of outboard Elevons installed on Generic 40 0 UCAV at an angle of 100 .less maintenance as well) in overall this will make faster and stronger response .

............ 2006)............................................................ 2006).................................. 2011).................................. 28 Figure 14 Net Aerodynamic force & moment on body (Anderson..... accessed on 24/10/2011).............................................................. 26 Figure 13 Pressure distribution over surface ................ 2005)........................................................ 15 Figure 6 High Resolution Data Logger......................... 2005) ....................................................... F......component overhead balance University of Salford........... 11 Figure 2 Schematic of 400 UCAV ............................... .. Zhang et al. 21 Figure 9 Conventional Flaps & CC (GURSUL et al..................................... 2006)29 Figure 16 Integrated pressure & shear stress distribution over surface of 2D body ..................... . 32 7 ....... 14 Figure 4 Schematic of close working section of wind tunnel (Liège...... ............................... 28 Figure 15 Resultant aerodynamic force and the components into which it splits (Anderson.......... 23 Figure 10 CC & Plasma Airfoil (P..... 29 Figure 17 Aerodynamic force on an element of the body surface (Anderson........ 30 Figure 18 Reference area & reference length (Anderson.................................. ..... 12 Figure 3 Schematic of closed-loop wind tunnel [4] .......................................................................... 2005) ... 31 Figure 19 Stability Axis (Parts of an Aircraft.................................................. 2010) ....... 20 Figure 8 Trailing edge of Retractable CCW (Loth.........................................................................................................................LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1 Generic 400 UCAV model University of Salford .................................................................. 2006) ............2011)........... 15 Figure 5 Six............................... .............................................. 2006)............................ 24 Figure 12 Venturi tube...... 16 Figure 7 Elevons working principle (James.............................. 24 Figure 11 FTV principle (Russell Sparks et al............................................. continuity principle (Talay....... .......................... .....................

............................ 39 Figure 27 Five degree ......................................................................................................................... 2007) ............................... 33 Figure 21 Dihedral – Lateral Stability(Handbook)....................... 34 Figure 22 Various Position of C....................................................................................................................... 35 Figure 23 Movements of different stabilities (Carlos P´erez Arroyo.....................................................................1 – 10................................................................... ......................... 42 Figure 32 Schematic of Test Rig ................................... ................................................................................................ 41 Figure 31 Test Rig Blowing System University of Salford Lab.................................................. 40 Figure 30 Twenty Degree .......................................58-96 8 ........ 40 Figure 29 Fifteen Degree........................................................ 39 Figure 28 Ten Degree ...............................................1...........7...45-46 CHAPTER TEN Table 10 .........................................................................................52..............................G affect the longitudinal stability (Carlos P´erez Arroyo...............................................................................................1............................................................................................... 2007) ...................... 35 Figure 24 Wind tunnel model inside working section.............................................................................16 CHAPTER SEVEN Table NO 7...........13 CHAPTER TWO Table No 2............... 43 Figure 33 Arrangement of Pulley & spring Balance ..................................................................................................... ............5 ...............................................................................................Figure 20 Sideslip (Carlos P´erez Arroyo................................................................... 44 LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER ONE Page No Table No 1 .......................................... 37 Figure 26 Zero degree University of Salford.................. ....................... 36 Figure 25 Outboard trailing edge Elevon ... 2007).................

A.F (mV)] N 9 - CL *0.C.NOMENCLATURE & SPREAD SHEET FORMULAE CL = Lift Coefficient L = Lift CD = Drag Coefficient D = Drag CM = Pitching Moment L 0 = Lift at Wind Off condition SF = Side Force D 0 = Drag at Wind Off condition YM = Yawing Moment PM 0 = Pitching moment Wind Off condition RL = Rolling Moment RL0 = Rolling moment Wind Off condition M.2346 *( L – L0) N 1.PM0) N 1.175*100*Betz(mbar)*Area m2 * M.0113 * ( PM . = Mean Aerodynamic Chord q = Dynamic pressure S= reference area V∞ = free stream velocity Spread sheet Formula Lift Coefficient = 0.D0) N 1.A. Side Force = [ 0.0763* (D .175*100*Betz (mbar)*Area m2 Drag coefficient = 0. .175*100*Betz(mbar)*Area m2 Pitching Moment Coefficient = 0.1 M.A.C.C.1386* S.

175*100*Betz*Area*M.M.1.(mV)]N 1.008048* Y.175*100*Betz*Area*M.C.006326* R.(mV) ]N 1.C 10 .A.175*100*Betz(mbar)*Area (m2) Yawing Moment = [0. Rolling Moment = [0.M.A.

more advance and low structuralweight-to take-off-weight ratio.over a range of incidence angles up to and beyond the stall. Figure 1 Generic 400 UCAV model University of Salford . Future unmanned flight vehicles will supple in technology . 2005) [5]. Key Tasks:o (1) To measure the lift. drag. Present UCAV are operated by human control but in future it may won’t be control by human control operation that is with pre-programmed route and target information.. It reduces the risk of human being injured or death during war [1] [2] . These will perform extreme manoeuvres at high g (Gursul et al.Chapter 1 Introduction :UCAV An Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle(UCAV) name itself indicate an aerial vehicle without an onboard pilot and its primary objective is to deliver weapon to attack targets . pitching moment characteristics of a 40 Generic UCAV configuration Figure 1 . This can give familiarisation with the operation of No.1 Low-Speed Wind Tunnel and its relevant data analysis. 11 .

8 m 0.2 m 0. Force and moment calibration are to be made at a number of various incidence angle for a range of control surface at a different deflection angles.4m 45o chamfer 40o lower surface 0. The ability to vary the elevon angle is needed. rolling and yawing moment of the 40o UCAV configuration. weight of Generic UCAV model is 1. Then data are to be used to establish the pitching.522m 0.1m Wind tunnel struts Figure 2 Schematic of 400 UCAV 12 . o (4) Design and supervise the manufacture of a new 40 UCAV model equipped with the trailing edge elevons. it has delta wing shape. Generic UCAV specification:The details of Generic UCAV used in this experimental work is 40 degree sweep back.143m 40o 0.175 kg.(2) Flow visualization test on Forward Swept Wing in order to understand the basics of flow pattern created near solid surface and its characteristics. 0. (3) To study the test rig single slot trailing edge blowing system which may be helpful to implement on model for Fully Flapless for Generic UCAV model.

147068 m2 Mean Aerodynamic Chord 0.229149 m Wing Pivot Point 0.1 13 .8 m Root Chord 0.1 m behind root ¼ chord Table 1.4 m Area 0.Wing Geometry:Span 0.

aircraft scale model in order study the aerodynamics . Aim of wind tunnel is to investigate the effect of air flowing on the solid object such as aerofoil . Apparatus and Instrumentation Wind Tunnel :Wind tunnels referred as large tubes in which air is flowing inside.Experimental Programme. Figure 3 Schematic of closed-loop wind tunnel [4] 14 . Now days mostly wind tunnel are closed-loop due to its efficiency. The schematic of wind tunnel of No -1 Low speed wind tunnel at Salford University is given below.Chapter 2 :. Researchers and engineer use wind tunnel to know the attitude of aircraft during flight and how it will fly[3]. Working Principle of Wind Tunnel :There are generally two types of wind tunnel  Open –Loop wind tunnel  Closed – Loop wind tunnel Open-loop tunnel intake and exhaust ends are not connected which is expensive to circulate more air around the model .

Figure 4- is a schematic of a closed-loop tunnel in which air is circulated , to reduces the power
losses and to minimize turbulence special vanes are installed. The dimensions of working section
wind tunnel is 0.85 × 1.15 m and the maximum flow speed in the working section is up to 36 m/s .
Wind Tunnel Close working section :-

Figure 4 Schematic of close working section of wind tunnel (Liège, accessed on 24/10/2011).

The figure shown above is the schematic representation to know the direction of airflow ,
aerodynamic force and moments on wind tunnel model. Aerodynamic control is explained in
other chapters.
Wind tunnel Balance:Wind tunnel balance plays an important role in aerodynamic experiment .In engineering balance is
an instrument which measures small forces at a high degree of accuracy . Experiment carried out in
wind tunnel has high importance so instrument must be sensitive to measure such forces encounter
during experiment. Force balance technique is needed to find out the parameters of aerodynamic
performance and these parameters will be the base to aerodynamic characteristics which would use
as tool for designing a vehicle (Smith et al., 2001). Wind tunnel balance used at University of Salford
–No 1 Low speed wind tunnel is Six-Component Overhead Balance.

Figure 5 Six- component overhead balance University of Salford

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Six-Component Force Balance Calibration

Lift Force

1mV = 0.2346 N

Drag Force
Side Force
Rolling Moment
Pitching Moment
Yawing Moment
Betz Manometer

1 mV = 0.0763 N
1 mV = 0.1386 N
1 mV =0.006326 Nm
1 mV= 0.0113 Nm
1 mV = 0.008048 Nm
1 mV = 0.01800 mV
Table 2.1

Data Acquisition System:Data acquisition system is comprises of several components which gives conversion of
physical force into values managed by computer. There are different types of DAS used in
wind tunnel , DAS used at University of Salford at No-1 Low speed wind tunnel is
ADC -24 which is Analog to digital converter this device makes conversion of continuous
analog signal into a discrete time digital signal. Depending upon various parameters the ADC
is distinguished the most important are resolution, sample rate and mainly accuracy. An ADC
of resolution 16 bits (216 analog to digital level of conversion), 8 channel and speed of
sampling 2.5 Hz per channel (Miguel A. González et al, 2011).Betz manometer gives the
pressure reading.

Figure 6 High Resolution Data Logger.

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Wind Tunnel Wall Corrections:The Dynamic Pressure (q) in the working section calculated using the equation;
, K1 = 1.175

The Lift, Drag and pitching moment coefficients can be calculated using ;

The Wind Tunnel Wall Corrections will applied because of the development of downstream
wing trailing vortex system will affected by the interference of wind tunnel walls and is given
by,

Where S is the wing area and CR is the cross sectional area of the wind tunnel working
section.
In order to determine the average free stream velocity and Reynolds number of the
experiment the average air density and viscosity during the experiment are required. Using
the measured atmospheric pressure Patm (mmHg) and the average temperature in the wind
tunnel working section Ttunnel (in K) thus:

The Average Velocity and Reynolds Number are calculated as:

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By deflecting port side aileron up and starboard aileron down create a roll bank towards port side (left wing) about longitudinal axis of aircraft. Greater downward deflection of airfoil create a greater lift on that wing while upward deflection create less lift on other wing this overall effect causes aircraft to roll. It moves in up or down position it produce amount of force in the tail section which cause airplane pitch up and pitch down. pitch and yaw . Basically control surface are divided into three groups these are Primary group. Description of it is given in part one. (NASA. first part is about conventional control surface and second part is about replacement of conventional control surface by Circulation Control.Chapter 3 :-Literature review Literature review presented here is divided into two parts . Part One An Overview on Control Surface:- Primary Control Surface:Aileron. 2011) 18 . Elevator. to do this aileron located near wing tip should deflect in opposite direction means one aileron should deflect downward while other deflect upward to create a roll and vice versa. Secondary group and Auxiliary group. Control surface are movable airfoils can deflect in specific direction There are different types of control surface installed on aircraft to change its attitude in its flight operation. It also helpful to control the angle of attack of main wing and nose up and nose down moment of aircraft. It is also called lateral control.Elevator works in pair it means that if left elevator goes down then right elevator must go down to make nose down pitching moment and vice versa. Effective flight control allows pilot to change aircraft attitude and make aircraft stable in flight. Elevator. (NASA. It also works on the same principle explained in aileron section which by changing the effective shape of airfoil to generate the lift on that part. This is all done by changing the shape of respective airfoil of trailing edge of the wing .These are attached to horizontal stabilizer able to deflect in up or down position in order to cause the airplane pitch up. Rudder fall under primary group is also fundamental control surface which allow pilot to roll. 2011) Elevator:. By changing the angle of deflection at trailing edge causes to change in its amount lift on wing. And to bank towards right wing about longitudinal axis port side aileron should deflect down & starboard aileron should goes up. Elevator keeps an aircraft flying in a straight. Aileron:-These are airfoil attached to trailing edge of wings. pitch down . Their purpose is to roll about Longitudinal axis of aircraft .

Flaps allows pilot to land in small area it also reduce the take off speed by making more camber of wing which increase the overall lift. Slats :. It controls the yawing moment of aircraft by deflecting the angle of rudder by vertically left and right. rudder. spoiler & slats. It reduces the work of pilot by trimming the control surface otherwise pilot has to apply continuous force on control surface to level or to change the attitude of aircraft. also its purpose is to decrease the landing speed which reduce the landing rollout. Elevons can do both functions of aileron and elevator which itself is an advantage. These are namely aileron. its primary function is to provide the stability to aircraft.It provides the extra lift to aircraft . Secondary Control Surface:. to pitch about lateral axis .Rudder is located at the end of the aircraft in the form of vertical stabilizer . Wing flaps:. Spring tabs are similar to trim tabs its function is to serve as hydraulic actuator to move a larger control surface such as aileron and elevator (Engineering. It creates the amount of force needed to yaw or turn about vertical axis this is known as directional control. When it is in raised position it helps to destroy the smooth airflow flowing over wing ultimately reduces the lift on wing. In retracted position these spoiler makes level with the wing surface.These are trim tabs and spring tab.This group includes the wing flaps. which makes aircraft to roll. . On some aircraft spoiler are narrow connected to leading edge of wing. These are small airfoil attached at trailing edge of primary control surafec. The idea of Elevons comes from combination of ailerons and elevators into a set of single control surface which has the advantages of both aileron and elevators (James) in order to reduce the complexity of control surface. Spoiler:. It has different shapes depending on aircraft. 2011) Auxiliary control surface:. 19 . Trim tab connected to its primary control surface which also called as parent primary control surface but operate independently to each other.Slats are attached to leading edge of wing. elevator. This improves the boundary layer over wing surface and increases the lift.to turn or yaw with reference to its axis. Basically it is a movable portion deflect about respective axis which cause aircraft rotate in a specific position. when its in retracted position it flush with the shape of leading edge of wing and when it open it create a slot between slat and wing leading edge. Elevons:- There are different types of control surface as already explained previous section.Its primary purpose is to reduce the lift on wing.Rudder:.

200HP compressor APU is mounted for blowing air purpose (Loth.The figure given below is blown flap of BD-4. (FERNHOLZ.Figure 7 Elevons working principle (James. Swanson. Part Two Circulation Control Replacement to Conventional Control Surface:Literature review presented here is about the circulation control technology to control the Aircraft . 2005). 1976).2011). Fix wing aircraft installed with CC makes ideal for creating high lift for (STOL) short take-off & landing air vehicle (Loth.C. Curvature of body plays an important role in circulation control.Stall of leading edge is delayed with the help of CC wing of BD-4 airplane by rotatting its flap through 166 degree that made round CC wing from sharp trailing edge. Flow control helps to improve aerodynamic characteristic as well as environmental impact affected by flight vehicle (R.Circulation control is based on Coanda effect is that when moving fluid comes in contact with curved surface it follows the shape of curvature of the surface instead of moving in straight line. 20 . Historical review:- Historically there are very few CC aircraft have been built since 30 years this is due to implementation of application is expensive. 1965). 2009). 2003). While surveying the literature it shows that early research done in England (Liu.

1975). 1975) and others studied on CC airfoils of different thickness . During this period DTNSRDC (“David Taylor & Development Center”) became main center for Circulation Control effect research. 1970).. (Englar R. J. reduced moving parts which in turn reduce noise and low weight .. Benefits getting from CC are simplified actuatation. 2004). 2005). Early work started in england to improve VTOL verical take off & landing. (Salikuddin et al 1987) Brown & Ahuja experimentally studied the difference in noise produced by upper surface when blowing is installed and without blowing as well . Since more than 30 years research is going on CC technique (Englar R. (Abramson. at different angle of attack. (Munro et al 2001) have studied the noise charactristics of CC wing and conventional control surface for the same lift and also studied the fluid dynamics of high 21 . Blown rotor blade having capability to produce high lift per blade to propel. In 1970 conceept of CC began to study by Navy research pioneers. camber and free stream considaration for Mach-number as well . Talking about the research done past few decades studies were focused on CCW for fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft (Englar R.2000) provides information of a such studies up to the year 2000.Figure 8 Trailing edge of Retractable CCW (Loth. Various reseachers (Williams. reduce oil and lubrication because of less moving parts in wing structure. J. J.

Project is funded by BAE system and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (J. There is a less computational study done on CCW configuration . 22 .elevator force the air to flow in a specific direction and ultimatly one side is pushed according to air affecting the aircraft to bank or turn (Weimin Sang. Fielding. The moving fluid over a CC airfoil is difficult to understand due to rounded trailing edge or to say Coanda effect and it also makes more unpredictable with the application of blowing jet. P. 2010) .aspect-ratio jet . Project aim is to use air as a flap and control surface rather than change its shape with the conventional flaps and control devices also project goal is to develop an aircraft which can produce similar effect when compared to other aircraft of having flaps. . wing has more curve shape on upper surface than lower surface which allows more air to flow on upper surafec than lower surface which creates pressure difference and that is how wing contributes to lift the aircraft. Imperial college London and many other universities. Recent work on Circulation Control :Flapless Air Vehicle Integrated Industrial Research (FLAVIIR) Project which is run by British Aerospace (BAE) and University of Manchester. Cranfield University. aileron. Pressure difference is reponsible for generation of lift and that makes aircraft to fly in the air. Finding out Performance of CC airfoils has proved with the help of analytical or numerical methods is difficult its because of viscous flow that should be fistly modeled. from these experiment they have found that CC wing had acoustic merits over conventional wing of the same lift performance. Navier-Stokes equations represents the best method to solve it but problem associated with highly curved flows which has adverse pressure. Also shape of wing contributes towards the generation of lift. When talking about flaps and other control surfaces that is rudder . 2011). In order to get accurate flow field a method of viscous flow region highlycoupled with inviscid flow is necessary .

Zhang. Implementation of CC airfoil with the help of blowing a high velocity jet for a highly curved shape like rounded trailing edge make trailing 23 . F. In general conventional airfoils have slender trailing edge Kutta condition satisfy for these airfoils and uncover the circulation for airfoil for a given angle of attack and free stream condition. according to him moving fluid has tendency to attach to curve surface. P.Leicester University and Imperial college to develop algorithm code for flight control (J. CC concept is based on Coanda effect discover by Romanian Henri Coanda around 1930s (H Coanda. 1936) . Fielding et al 2010).et al has worked on Plasma Circulation control technique which is abstracted from CC wing (P.Their results shows that plasma CC is more better for lift augmentation than conventional CC .Figure 9 Conventional Flaps & CC (GURSUL et al. Zhang et al 2010) . Manchester University. F. Advancement in Circulation Control P. 2005) DEMON is flying UAV Demonstrator which demonstrate the tecchnology used for completion of FLAVIIR programme these technology are related to fluidic thrust vectoring FTV and CC device developed by Cranfield University . The location of plasma actuator of plasma CC is below the separation point of boundary layer using efficient distance where it delays trailing edge stagnation by the effect of Coanda and it allows separated shear layer reattach to airfoil by doing this they got higher lift augmentation for Plasma CC than conventional CC. Centrifugal force and pressure gradient remains in equilibrium the fluid remains attached to surface and there is no separation ata all.

edge separation point free to move keeping Kutta condition constraint sketch below provide details of it. with blowing there is a shift of separation point towards pressure side which force to change the entire circulation. 2005) 24 . 2006). 2009) Figure 11 FTV principle (Russell Sparks et al. If mass flow rate of blowing jet is controlled by this above effect then it is possible to control the separation point of location (Liu. C. Zhang et al. F.. 2003). CC airfoil Figure 10 CC & Plasma Airfoil Plasma CC airfoil (P. Fluidic Thrust Vector(FTV): Thrust vectoring method is ability to change the orientation of vehicle thrust independent of its attitude. By changing the geometric boundary condition of exhaust jet mechanical thrust vector is achieved while for fludic control geometry of nozzle reamains constant and flow control allows to change boundary conditions. 2010) It makes trailing edge more efficient. For the enhancement of DEMON UAV in addition to circulation control fluidic thrust vectoring is used which controls the direction of jet of exhaust nozzle basically it would be usegul for pitch control (BUONANNO. Pilmoor W. (M.

2005). Mason. It also allows reduce drag due to fixed nozzle geometry (H. simplicity.not much expensive and no moving parts which makes fluidic thrust control more effective (Mark S. Advantages of flow control technique to FTV – Elimination of moving parts to which are interacting to primary flow as a result there is a weight reduction and increase in reliability.The working principle of FTV is similar to CC although FTV has Coanda jet which is use to control primary jet instead of free stream. primary jet gets attached to secondary jet making thrust vector as a consequence it can be use for pithch controlling (Russell Sparks et al. 2002).J. Although mechanical thrust vector has some merits like effectivness fluidic thrust vector has adavntage of low weight. 25 .. 2002).

. continuity principle (Talay. 2007)..Consider a tube having different cross section as shown below. 2006). potential energy and pressure energy is constant...Aerodynamics as a Basic Aerodynamics is branch of science which deals with the study of motion of air with considering pressure forces that is dynamics is involved in it (JR..(1) .. continuity equation says that mass of fluid passing over section 1 at a given time must be equal to fluid mass which passing through section 2 per unit time...Energy contain in the flow is of several energies.. Figure 12 Venturi tube. Then again flow is consider as horizontal if aircraft is in level flight so fluid potential energy consider as a constant then bernoulis equation becomes Kinetic Energy + Pressure Energy = Constant 26 ...Kinetic energy of fluid is due to motion of flowing fluid while pressure energy is due to potential of fluid that is random motion of fluid (Carlos P´erez Arroyo. 2007).Chapter 4 :..one dimensional flow.Conservation of total energy which is summation of kinetic energy. Bernoulis Theorem :Bernouli theorem is about the continuity equation and energy conservation will provide and how aerodynamic forces generate. Continuity principle is a conservation of mass within system. incompressible..steady. Bernoulis theorem considers about inviscous...

.............. 27 ........ Application of Bernoulis equation to airfoil is decrease in pressure over upper surface of an airfoil as speed of airflow over upper surface increases and for lower surface pressure is increased achieved with speed of airflow decreased. Static pressure is the pressure energy per unit volume which due to random motion in fluid represented by symbol p.(4) Aerodynamic Moments and Forces :- Force is driven cause for every movement or state of body (Anderson. Shear stress distribution on surface of body........ 2006)....(2) v2 + p = pt ..(3) Bernoulis principle says that velocity of fluid flow is achieved with decreased static pressure in a streamline and increase in static pressure incorporated with decrease in velocity.. There is cause of aerodynamic force and moments due to following reason – Pressure distribution on surface of body.............. Bernoulis equation can be reduced by total pressure pt which is constant energy per unit volume...... q is Dynamic pressure which is kinetic energy per unit volume and can be found by v at that point. F = P· S... Dynamic pressure + Static pressure = total pressure ...Lift and Drag both are consider as aerodynamic forces and other forces act on aircraft are thrust and weight.....The differnce in pressure creates the aerodynamic lift which is related to below equation 4. It is achieved as one increases while other decreases it means if speed has increased static pressure must decrease so dynamic pressure get increase as the term speed increase. Their is a relation between static and dynamic pressure such as their total remains constant.To express Bernoulis equation in terms of pressure if energy per unit volume is considered. When aircraft flying there are different force exert on it ...

2006) As shown in above figure (13) it can be said that p acts through perpendicular and t is tangent to surface. The flow which is away from body is known as free stream so Valso called as free stream velocity.Figure 13 Pressure distribution over surface pressure and shear stress distribution over aerodynamic surface. • L ≡ lift component of resultant R normal to V • D ≡ drag component of R parallel to V • The chord c is the straight line joining from leading edge to trailing edge of the airfoil or wing • N ≡ normal force component of R perpendicular to c • A ≡ axial force component of R parallel to c • The definition of angle attack is the angle made between chord c and the free stream V. Shear stress on the surface is friction caused by “tugging action” between body and air. moment M on body are consider as resultant as shown in figure (14)below where Vis the relative wind consider as the speed of flow ahead of the body. 2006) . Figure 14 Net Aerodynamic force & moment on body (Anderson. 28 . (Anderson. Integration of p and t distributions over complete body are aerodynamic force R.

. In order to consider above figure as cross section of infinite long cylinder of same cross section we have to see below figure to clear the concept.. The equation given below are of force per unit span and for respective lower surface represented by sub index l 29 .......Figure 15 Resultant aerodynamic force and the components into which it splits (Anderson.... 2006) We get the realationship from above figure (Anderson.... 2006)..... L = N cos−Asin.(5) D = N sin+Acos Figure 16 Integrated pressure & shear stress distribution over surface of 2D body The above figure shown is about the nomenclature of integration of shear stress and pressure distribution over two dimensional surface body.. By considering the elemental surface dS the generation of total normal N and total axial force A are due to pressure and shear stress on elemental surface area of dS......

.(13) 30 .............dN′u = −pudsu cos−udsu sin dA′u = −pudsu sin+udsu cos dN′l = −pldsl cos−ldsl sin dA′l = −pldsl sin+ldsl cos Figure 17 Aerodynamic force on an element of the body surface (Anderson.................... CL = CD = ..(12) ..................8 for all edge of airfoil the result obtained is given below. N′u = − + ……………...................... 2006)..(10) Momentum equation can be obtained from above equation M′LE = .........(9) A′u = + ......... The following equations obtained by integration of Equation 5.....7...(11) Aerodynamic Coefficients:There are some coefficients which are rudimentary to aerodynamics these are as follows and referred to reference length l and reference area S....6.

...... 2006)..... The lift-drag curve shows how an airplane is aerodynamically efficient.......... Lift-drag curve is a function of angle of attack.... Cl & Cd these coefficients divided by we get the equation of relationship between these two coefficients ....(17) Control & Stability:- Control means efforts done to sustain or initiate a change in angle of attack or side slip or bank (Philips.............. This ratio reaches at highest point where angle of attack is maximum................ Liftdrag curve for different airplane is different not by shape of curve but by the values...(15) CM = .....CN = .................... 2009).(16) S and l are reference area and reference length respectively for given shape they can be different if shape of body is different ..... Then there is angle of attack for lowest glide angle and for long.....(14) CA = ...... = = f ()...... An Aircraft has following three axis Longitudinal Lateral Normal An Aircraft has respective three axis of rotation about these three axis which are given below 31 .......Some specific area given below Figure 18 Reference area & reference length (Anderson....

A much contribution towards the static 32 . Directional Stability:. • Yaw ≡ motion about the directional axis. • Pitch ≡ motion about the lateral axis. Positive stability referred as once disturbance has remove object or airplane come back to its original state . Stability :-Stability of aircraft is related to ability of an aircraft to return to its specific position after being applied a small disturbance to aircraft without control by pilot (Malcolm j. And finally neutral stability of object is referred as it stops doing any movement after removing a force of disturbance . Figure 19 Stability Axis (Parts of an Aircraft. Pitching of the aircraft is created by elevator . 2007).• Roll ≡ motion about the longitudinal axis. negative and neutral for an ease . As the downward deflection of aileron increases the camber of that wing which give rise to lift for that wing and upward deflection of aileron of other side of wing decreases the lift of respective wing which overall produces the asymmetric lift between these two wings (Philips. Rudder controls the directional stability or yawing of the aircraft. 2009). Negative stability referred as once disturbance has remove but object or airplane continue to move away from its original position.Higher static directional stability of aircraft is decide from how quickly aircraft takes turn in wind which is not aligned to longitudinal axis.Static directional stability of aircraft is how it resist to side slipping.Different types of stability are categorize like positive .Abzug. 2002). It neither come to its original state nor further move away. Aileron controls the rolling moment of an aircraft. 2011). Neutral stability is its initial response to disturbance for that angle of attack and its attitude (Carlos P´erez Arroyo.

This rolling moment will increase as we keep on increasing the camber of respective wing and aircraft will roll faster untill one wing produces more lift than other wing. 2007) (BUONANNO. Lateral Stability :.Ability of aircraft to recover from roll which is not control by pilot. Size and arm of fin decide the directional stability of airplane. Figure 20 Sideslip (Carlos P´erez Arroyo.directional stability given by fin . If aircraft is in straight level flight with no slip with both ailerons at neutral position then wing create same lift. In this case if airplane is turned it tends to side slipping towards lowered wing. 2009). This could be true because of aircraft is flying at same angle of attack and with the same velocity. A gust of wind cause one wing to rise and make other wing downwards. Deflection in aileron create a more lift on relevant wing due to its camber shape and that causes an aircraft to roll about longitudinal axis (Malcolm J. 2007). 1997). 33 . Increase in the lateral stability of aircraft is achieved by implementing dihedral design. Dihedral wing allow air to strike for lower wing at higher angle of attack which give rise to lift for that wing and ultimately restore to its original position (lateral attitude) making wings at same level as well as lift equal on both wing. Roll damping is the tendency of roll to establish a constant rate .E Eugene. In order to have more static directional stability the vertical fin should have furthe behind the centre of gravity (Carlos P´erez Arroyo.

Small increase in angle of attack makes nose pitching up of aircraft and if aircraft is longitudinally stable there will be a decrease in angle of attack and vice-a-versa. Most of the aircraft might unstable due to absense of stabilizer (Carlos P´erez Arroyo. This chractristic is helpful to predict whether aircraft intended to fly or not. It is depend on position of centre of gravity. to stop yaw aircraft begin to start roll and by the time it also start with zero slip. As increment of angle of attack followed by pitch up tends aircraft to go back to its original position. Based on centre of gravity position main wing can be unstable or stable. It happens due to combination of strong lateral stability and weak directional stability.Aircraft has developed considerate roll rate and slip angle and it continues to roll eventhough the nose has started to come back to its original position. 34 . This happens at large motions or at small motion.Figure 21 Dihedral – Lateral Stability(Handbook). Dynamic instability also known as Dutch Roll.At high altitude Dutch roll will be worst where air is less. Aircraft yaw due to gust or any other input. 2007). At last yaw overshoots the zero slip angle which ultimately causes roll back to its opposite direction.Function of stabilizer is similar to function of fin in directional stability. Below figures given are the a good set of examples of positive .It is a stability about lateral axis also known as pitch stability. Longitudinal Stabilitty :. negative and neutral stabilities . Position of centre of gravity with reference to aerodynamic centre affect a lot to longitudinal stability.

G affect the longitudinal stability (Carlos P´erez Arroyo.Figure 22 Various Position of C. 2007) 35 . 2007) Figure 23 Movements of different stabilities (Carlos P´erez Arroyo.

Lift.e. This model is of 1/200 of full scale model. Figure 24 Wind tunnel model inside working section. Appendix B & Appendix C gives the forces and moments with the help of these forces and moment graphs of lift coefficient . . Appendix A provides the force balance data and moments so with the help of this data plotted graph which gives its behaviour for that configuration Then same configuration model with the outboard elevon installed on it have been tested. 36 . Purpose of this experiment is to provide familiarization to wind tunnel operation and its force balance calibrations. yawing moment.85 × 1. Drag and Pitching moment.15 m dimensions of close loop wind tunnel and maximum flow speed in working section 36 m/s at Salford University Labaratory.This makes the model at the center of close working section of 0. In this experiment a model of generic UCAV have been tested to study the aerodynamic characteristics i. pitching moment. side force.Chapter 5 Wind Tunnel Operation :The wind tunnel model 40 degree Generic UCAV suspended with the help of strut which runs from overhead six-component force balance of the wind tunnel working section. rolling moment and drag have plotted against Angle of Incidence.

Next step taken to complete the test turn the wind on. 300 installed on 400 UCAV Model for various a range of angle of incidence. Flow visualization technique is very helpful to predict the flow pattern and study about it. Wind causes the paraffin to gets evaporate and it gives a flow pattern of band of clay powder. The purpose of this test to study the flow pattern flowing near the solid object. 1982).Flow visualization technique used here is same as China clay powder. Experiment carried out with same dimensions keeping for all outboard elevons of 100. 200 . This technique at University of Salford No-1 Low speed wind tunnel and some advantage and disadvantage about method is given below (Laboratory) Advantage :37 .Figure 25 Outboard trailing edge Elevon It has dimension of 10cm X 4cm and 2 mm thick. Flow Visualization Test :Flow visualization test for Forward Swept Wing experimentally done in Low speed wind tunnel at University of Salford. There are various techniques present to visualize the flow pattern over the solid surface (BOYLE. Once a model was ready for testing it was installed in wind tunnel carefully. A mixture of paraffin and clay powder is applied with the help of brush over a surface of forward swept which is going to give a flow pattern and the application of a mixture to a model done with the wind off.

38 .pathline.  Separation of flow showed by method is satisfactory.It is a flow of fluid particularly spiral with streamlines closed . More turbulent flow means more vortices created by it (Mary. Angle range is from Zero degree to twenty degree and of increment of Five degree for 1/20th of full scale model. It is turbulent flow and swirling about centre known as vortex.It is a locus of flow particle which have past fixed points Pathline:-It is a line traced by given fluid particle.eng.uk accessed on 20/10/2011). Vortex Flow :.cam.streakline follow same position but in unsteady flow they can be different. Disadvantage:-  It does not allow to change the position of model during flow visualization test.These are the tangential to velocity vector at any given instance. Streaklines:. Fluid Flow Charactristics :- In order to understand what the flow pattern says there are some concept should be understand these are given below (http://www-mdp. Streamlines :.  Flow pattern is clear and can read easily.  Model must be dark contrast preferably used flat black in order to get best results. 2003).ac. Timeline:-It is a line connecting adjacent fluid particle of flow at any instantanious time. In steady or smooth flow streamline. Discussion On Flow Visualization Test:-  Photographs of Flow visualization test of a Forward Swept is given below for different angles.  Continuing for a long time gives a much time to take photograph when wind is off. To setup and apply a mixture is easy.

And at the wing section there are also vortex core with small sub vortex flow.There is no formation of vortex or separation of flow around wing .pathline and streakline coincide to each other. Figure 27 Five degree If we look at nose of forward swept wing there is formation of small vortex core. Streamlin . It is clearly seen that flow direction is constant which is in the direction of red arrow shown.flow is smooth so we can say that flow is steady . red circle marked on wing shows the formation of bubble which has high pressure due to swirling effect. Fore-body 39 . Above photo shows the flow pattern of forward swept from this picture we can describe about the flow pattern .Figure 26 Zero degree University of Salford Flow visualization test is carried on forward swept wing 1/20th of full scale model for Zero degree angle of Incidence in No-1 low speed wind tunnel.

voretex generated at the nose at small extent. Figure 29 Fifteen Degree 40 . Figure 28 Ten Degree At an angle of 10 degree we can see fore-body vortex core generated at centre and also formation of vortex core at each wing section we can see .Red lines marked on figure makes a vortex core of flow.

41 .At an angle of 150 a complete formation of vortex generated near it surface. Figure 30 Twenty Degree As we increase the angle of incidence then leading edge vortex undergo sudden expansion it is known as vortex breakdown.At high angle of attack flow becomes disturbed there is a reversal of flow we can see .It has swirling pattern clearly seen. There is separation of flow from the leading edge of wing to form a curved shear layer near suction surface side of the wing which rolls up into a core.

Air supplied to blowing system is compressed to deliver more work done by air.0001 of m2 which emit air at high velocity. It has the small reactanngular slot of area 0.Chapter 6:. The amount of air blown out from slot is control by pressure valve these are circular knob in black.An Overview on Test Rig Blowing System Figure 31 Test Rig Blowing System University of Salford Lab. The test rig blowing system have been tested at university of salford in the labaratory. Air gets compressed by means of compressor. Dimensions of test rig blowing :68 cm 42 .

2. A * Vj * ρ = 0.00044408 kg/s) *(3.22 =(0.001616 N 43 . Velocity of air blown out from slot determined with the help of TMA10 Wavtek Anemometer Thermometer. roll.0001 * 3.2cm 50 mm 2mm Schematic of slot area Main Pressure Valve Compressor Figure 32 Schematic of Test Rig A various test have been carried out on test rig in order to implement it as trailing edge blowing as an alternative to conventionally control surface to pitch. Deflection produced in test rig when one slot blowing out air determined with the help of pulley and string balance .64* 1. yaw.64m/s) = 0. Graphical representation of deflection produced by blown out air against blowing coefficient plotted. Mass flow rate for respective velocity .

Figure 33 Arrangement of Pulley & spring Balance Keeping main pressure at 60 psi and by opening the knob of pressure which allow compressed air to blow out from slot to produce moment. 44 .

2 Table 7.3 45 .59 10 0.0012919 12 12.18 14 0.07 22 0.0016079 14 0.001839 16 0.064931 6 Table 7.001616 4 0.7 6 0.003894 6 0.0015298 12 0.0011199 10 10.03 20 0.0028145 22 0.54 12 0.58 18 0.0006893 Pressure MFR(N) 2 0.Appendix & Graphs :- Pressure psi Velocity m/s 2 4 Pressure psi Mass Flow rateKg/sec 3.037704 20 20.65 4 0.6433 2 0.048946 22 23.08 16 0. 1 Table 7.01918 14 13.027743 18 17.01028 10 0.021192 16 15.000444 5.007233 8 0.013682 7.002144 18 0.0009394 8 9.0024436 20 0.18 8 0.

By allowing more air to blown out from slot produce deflection according to Newton’s third law of motion .25506 12 0.32373 18 0.36297 Table 7. Pressure Deflection (gram) Pressure 2 3 4 7 6 11 8 15 10 26 12 30 14 32 16 33 18 35.This deflection is measured using Spring balance and pulley.10791 8 0.as air is emited from one slot .5 46 .4 Deflection N 0.othe slots gets deflected .14715 10 0. Multiplying deflection (N) by 0.63 m which is moment arm ie distance from one slot to another slot.2943 14 0.06867 6 0.34825 20 0.5 20 37 2 Table 7.02943 4 0.31392 16 0.

Graphs:- 47 .

Typically relationship between lift coefficient of UCAVmodel with angle of incidence is familirised. which tells us that positive change in α result in negative change ie nose down change in pitching moment in CM as shown in figure.side force.200.300 for portside facing down & starboard facing up outboard elevons and rest of three experiment of 100. There is a increase in lift for more camber shape for symmetric outboard elevons as these are facing down and for outboard elevons facing up gives less values for lift it is becuase reduce lift on model due to implementation of outboard elevons which are facing up.200.pitching moment. The overall or net effect would not be consider as sum of all the contributions because of mutual interference within the flow field . 200 . By observing graph for asymmetric one for yawing moment there is positive and negative moment for it 48 . main body and control surface behave at some extent as airfoils and each one will have its own lift against angle of incidence. All surface of the model that is wing. For Asymmetric elevons installed on model also shows a drastic change for different configuration of same model . A change in angle of incidence of model gives change in lift on model in fact model is normally intended to provide moment that tend to encounter the changes in angle of incidence to give rise to static stability in pitch. For lift against incidence graph with the outboard elevon facing down gives higher value of lift as compare to elevons facing up. Yawing moment for asymmetric elevons gives a change in its graph . If we see graphical representation for Symmetric Elevon of generic UCAV there is change in graph at small extent for each configuration so we can say that the implementation of symmetric elevon have been succesful. six configuration have been tested for same model out of three experiment 100.300 portside facing up & starboard facing down outboard elevon configuration. rolling moment and yawing moment . This can be seen from typical CM vs α relationship which shows that slope is negative .Chapter 7 :-Conclusion & Recommendation Conclusion:- Outboard elevons installed on Generic 400UCAV model have been tested at an angle of 100. but net effect will be a similar shape to that of single airfoil. 300 which gives an estimation of control charactristics for lift.drag.

The increase in mass air flow rate required for test rig blowing in order to implement on model trial and error neccessary. The angle of blowing out air should be corrected. 49 .Recommendation:To increase the span of outboard elevon may provide more associated data regarding control characteristics of UCAV model.

Chapter 8 :Graphical Representation 40 Deg UCAV Model:- Figure No- 50 .

Figure NO- Figure No- Figure No51 .

Symmetric Elevon Drag vs Incidence:- 52 .

Side force vs Incidence:- Pitching Moment vs Incidence:- 53 .

Yawing Moment vs Incidence:- Rolling Moment vs Incidence:- 54 .

Generic UCAV with Asymmetric Elevon:Lift vs Incidence:- 55 .

Drag vs Incidence:- Side Force vs Incidence:56 .

Pitching Moment vs Incidence:- Yawing moment vs Incidence:57 .

Rolling moment vs Incience:- 58 .

151 5.310 5.390 5.315 5.42 oC End = 34.1 59 .320 5.080 5.APPENDIX TABLE APPENDIX A :.40 Deg UCAV Model LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .410 5.280 5.398 5.425 5.178 5.030 Tunnel Temperature Start = 27.430 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) -200 5.10.152 5.429 5.120 5.332 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 5.12 oC 766mmHg L (mV) -387 D (mV) 520 PM (mV) -75 -356 -325 -314 -255 -193 -130 -63 5 80 155 230 274 310 330 356 373 378 362 345 340 349 340 336 432 330 272 187 115 71 56 41 68 80 136 215 290 375 425 489 553 621 637 713 787 837 911 -95 -87 -30 -33 -13 -5 -1 8 24 21 55 70 75 63 33 -15 -65 -115 -130 -160 -162 -179 -187 Table No.410 5.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .Chapter 9 :.210 5.350 5.363 5.390 5.140 5.250 5.

5 -17.3 60 .944 based on MAC Table N0 – 10.644 m/s Reynolds Number 470.2859 mbar Air Density 1.2 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 27.LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 α (deg) -19.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION 400 .8 0 2.4 -10 -7.1 21.5 24 26 28.2 -2.1 4.9 7 9.6 12 14.8 -5.3 17 19.87E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.47deg C Betz Reading 5.1657 kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.5 31 33 35.2 -15 -12.4 Lo (mV) Do (mV) -6 -6 PMo (mV) -12 -14 -16 -15 -14 -13 -43 -37 -19 -20 -23 -19 -23 -27 -26 -26 -31 -33 -33 -40 -37 -45 -42 -50 Table No -10.

34070 0.71052 0.89484 0.02636 0.39921 -0.31716 -0.475 0.92466 0.017348 32.80715 0.427 0.018555 22.247 0.002626 -2.077 0.92306 0.47599 0.91387 0.015922 15.4 61 .017049 27.59476 -0.48055 Table No.41465 0.008668 -8.32891 0.34036 -0.663 1.02753 0.017252 18.03493 -0.01252 0.015003 -15.10.59442 0.29747 0.003963 2.40402 0.013095 10.850 -0.010955 7.016842 29.07072 0.71020 -0.094 0.26363 -0.15584 -0.31117 0.000507 0.014875 12.00680 0.312 0.46710 0.045 -0.97008 0.21506 0.016492 -18.018201 20.98758 0.123 -0.017012 36.076 0.92510 0.15343 -0.08111 0.45700 0.51642 -0.02277 -0.45357 0.007446 5.197 -0.52868 -0.12708 0.94130 0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM -0.017871 25.25281 0.22023 0.34698 -0.93610 0.62717 0.017878 -20.088 0.48048 0.42221 0.424 -0.124 0.129 0.00000 0.00219 0.38962 -0.81405 0.14251 0.33227 -0.76506 -0.20181 0.77968 0.088457 -0.5655 0.47031 0.15310 0.29410 -0.014369 -13.45708 -0.728 0.06478 0.20524 -0.760 -0.37644 0.017041 34.243 0.952 0.26046 0.562 -0.011558 -10.450 0.005735 -5.429 -0.66193 -0.46860 0.96971 0.86393 0.21964 -0.

24 5.28 5.5 62 18 17 17 14 16 22 18 13 19 16 23 20 17 21 20 24 14 28 25 19 23 19 21 30 43 35 23 16 21 -5 -8 -7 -7 -4 -4 -6 -2 2 5 1 8 12 16 18 17 21 24 25 .06 5.4 5.415 5.25 5.26 5.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .12 oC SF YM (mV) (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 5.41 5.35 5.32 5.02 766mmHg L D (mV) (mV) PM (mV) RM (mV) -392 -367 -357 -320 -261 -197 -123 -30 50 145 214 260 295 327 346 360 361 353 323 315 318 316 316 320 30 -27 -33 -12 -9 4 25 31 31 31 37 59 66 47 33 3 -29 -71 -114 -144 -154 -188 -226 -287 -35 -39 -51 -68 -52 -47 -50 -21 -41 -41 -28 -34 -7 -8 -3 7 15 31 27 42 38 51 45 40 496 414 358 261 177 122 81 61 61 85 137 209 284 360 433 472 536 566 586 657 706 758 822 886 Table N0 – 10.32 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Tunnel Temperature Start = 27.38 5.41 5.27 5.14 5.09 5.29 5.39 5.42 oC Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) End = 34.2 5.27 5.APPENDIX B :.355 5.SYMMETRIC OUTBOARD ELEVONS 300 Facing Upward Outboard Elevons:LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .21 5.04 5.

5 30 32 34.5 Lo (mV) Do (mV) -3 -2 Table N0 – 10.1706 kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.77 deg C Betz Reading 5.5 -9 -6.7 63 PMo (mV) 31 -17 -18 -21 -23 -27 -29 -29 -31 -28 -34 -35 -31 -41 -48 -58 -67 -78 -92 -74 -122 -142 -91 -194 .6 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 30.LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .5 23 25.8 -4 -1.466 based on MAC Table N0 – 10.2 27.87E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.2 15.3 -14 -11.2 6 8.2654 mbar Air Density 1.5 1 3.513 m/s Reynolds Number 466.Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 α (deg) -18 -16.7 18.3 36.5 11 13.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION 40 0 .2 20.

000386 0.19483 -0.313515 -0.01513 0.006159 0.85617 0.820 -0.79511 0.36056 0.13095 0.009064 -6.93948 0.009678 0.12919 -0.85111 0.39157 0.39945 0.01562 0.23115 0.67668 0.66243 0.687 0.015479 28.027499 -0.01485 0.002451 1.00076 0.03745 0.1067 -0.016647 0.02180 -0.27826 0.298 0.562 -1.40540 0.156551 -0.036526 0.589 0.38350 0.232177 -0.72504 -0.68374 -0.018539 -18.37505 0.02525 0.49183 0.00091 0.01521 -0.463 -0.025824 -0.37140 0.861 -0.033419 0.007117 0.579098 0.512628 0.03166 0.18043 0.30281 0.002122 0.017380 21.54404 0.011927 0.45142 0.00263 0.38984 0.84212 0.015773 33.34717 0.038561 0.000764 0.012134 -9.06788 -0.026686 0.010122 0.01211 -0.016099 37.051744 -0.006788 0.819 -0.014264 0.39086 0.480 0.00000 -0.377864 -0.015779 31.26177 -0.32030 0.051598 -0.413249 0.922 0.01008 -0.013054 0.008435 0.004573 0.180934 -0.012208 9.074 0.004681 0.028484 0.016807 -14.8 64 C RM C YM C SF .599 0.01184 0.029761 0.01211 -0.030613 0.887 0.05496 0.316947 -0.83992 0.627673 0.57593 -0.031702 0.43407 0.001251 -1.461634 0.75620 0.23931 0.025922 -0.792 -0.026835 -0.009506 0.41798 -0.365468 -0.006845 4.031105 0.00592 0.0015 0.16079 0.44549 -0.006254 0.81507 0.017096 24.017234 19.005581 -3.017314 -16.85588 0.016102 0.118795 -0.10481 0.40099 0.640 0.38574 0.092 0.06705 -0.52735 -0.00209 -0.001921 0.072 -0.29483 0.015686 26.40456 0.87352 0.008023 0.030324 0.437479 -0.404 0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag -0.31372 0.00826 -0.20000 0.43844 0.497229 0.06133 0.029956 -0.32612 -0.93512 0.92765 0.195 -0.146 0.073547 -0.735488 0.996 0.46088 -0.015520 14.01273 0.94307 0.0019 0.036242 0.01806 0.0015 0.008295 0.246576 -0.85927 0.707 0.00015 0.404 0.36151 -0.069808 -0.91194 0.023721 0.043105 0.00226 0.13300 0.02534 0.62494 -0.00302 0.89566 0.003103 0.015836 35.016507 17.043139 Table N0 – 10.01485 -0.010026 7.00263 0.015021 -11.65839 0.024122 -0.0145 -0.013524 0.699 0.01065 0.00887 0.26520 0.025873 -0.013936 12.0024 0.

25 361 488 -1 11 23 4 200 5.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .405 -39 64 23 -42 16 -13 0 5.276 345 419 31 8 22 8 175 5.395 -122 80 2 -52 15 -10 -25 5.35 -257 166 -26 -89 17 12 -75 5.37 -190 114 -14 -77 16 -11 -50 5.25 366 541 -30 29 19 10 225 5.33 304 294 63 -12 18 3 125 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) 766 mmHg L D (mV) (mV) PM (mV) RM (mV) Tunnel Temperature Start = 25.283 -359 421 -57 -74 12 33 -150 5.22 361 574 -76 48 20 11 250 5.36 261 214 60 -7 18 -6 100 5.13 324 733 -138 39 24 16 325 5.82 oC End = 33.3 -353 341 -46 -87 18 16 -125 5.15 321 665 -117 38 23 13 300 5.39 213 139 36 -3 20 -11 75 5.305 326 364 46 -2 21 4 150 5.42 51 63 33 -44 18 -13 25 5.285 -382 465 33 -64 15 38 -175 5.325 -314 256 -25 -85 16 11 -100 5.9 65 .04 328 949 -355 49 25 44 Table N0 – 10.20 0 Outboard Elevon Facing Upward:LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .07 328 879 -214 43 25 28 375 5.1 323 781 -159 44 27 26 350 5.02oC SF YM (mV) (mV) -200 5.43 142 90 33 -12 20 -14 50 5.21 329 611 -117 45 21 15 275 5.

5 11 13.5 Lo (mV) -3 Do (mV) PMo (mV) 12 -19 -25 -28 -26 -29 -30 -30 -32 -32 -34 -33 -40 -42 -44 -49 -47 -60 -67 -80 -88 -106 -105 -266 4 Table N0 – 10.10 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 29.6 -16.5 -14 -11.2 34.LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .3 27.6 -9 -6.5 36.2769mbar Air Density 1.7 6 8.2 16 18.1 20.8 -4 -1.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α (mV) α (deg) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -18.5 23 25.476m/s Reynolds Number 469.5 1 3.873based on MAC Table N0 – 10.42deg C Betz Reading 5.1758kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.11 66 .5 30 32.86E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.

54405 0.43948 0.094 0.008825 0.00513 0.947 -0.015517 14.172592 0.14761 0.005852 0.12 67 .12405 0.126673 0.181231 0.104288 -0.004559 -0.53176 -0.097317 -0.016503 16.04616 0.79289 0.089 0.017585 21.34762 0.24229 0.010361 0.20036 0.47276 0.468411 0.29945 0.141356 0.02395 -0.251506 0.01297 -0.42001 -0.40492 0.004283 0.129876 -0.00089 -0.06744 0.000 0.003871 0.00487 0.013783 0.016335 35.02480 0.423385 0.28610 0.003082 0.015532 0.436 0.00377 -0.006681 4.17214 0.013549 0.06764 -0.00076 0.441 0.015948 30.00489 0.001532 0.011879 -9.163751 0.362083 0.063853 0.0036 0.0006 0.86511 0.116242 -0.508 0.083 0.31368 -0.010027 6.13283 -0.580157 0.37856 0.138555 -0.011224 0.141082 0.35421 0.94127 0.13526 0.316 -0.38468 0.97357 0.012323 9.628 -0.00000 -0.094565 0.95420 0.914 0.09042 0.008713 -7.91449 0.017743 Table N0 – 10.206 0.01545 0.072353 0.842535 0.143 0.295565 0.02658 0.64454 0.214 0.43620 0.66867 0.88632 0.11122 -0.35021 0.01469 0.00353 -0.015741 28.016523 -14.117543 -0.134106 0.22054 0.105169 -0.00209 -0.005519 -4.099343 -0.466 -0.363797 0.0154 -0.39323 0.012145 0.006339 0.049165 0.498656 0.85410 0.048401 0.36253 0.44814 0.004198 -0.32008 0.528215 0.02291 -0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag C SF C RM C YM -0.312694 0.84194 0.63817 -0.574 0.77700 -0.01935 0.89546 0.20310 -0.17362 0.40836 0.89653 0.00524 0.118205 -0.156318 0.003347 0.00416 -0.94668 0.017447 24.016432 37.24716 0.681 -0.00415 0.079474 -0.59285 -0.402613 0.103613 -0.016854 -17.45025 -0.40546 0.42188 0.002422 0.014613 -0.686576 0.145951 0.00228 0.118874 -0.001144 0.02237 0.002493 1.013798 0.12892 -0.31540 0.89160 0.014613 -12.26429 -0.402 0.012691 -0.40717 0.153341 0.0255 0.946 0.21428 0.01241 -0.001666 -1.116 0.02622 0.72810 -0.37498 -0.017942 -19.299 -0.28128 0.015944 26.437 -0.776502 0.37940 0.014411 11.86780 0.826 0.09295 0.116044 0.185303 0.001549 0.47981 -0.641251 0.017347 19.015993 33.011788 0.006136 -0.78196 0.595 -0.86537 0.

19 340 691 -194 -4 20 17 300 5.3 -358 425 -78 -58 13 28 -150 5.35 -309 258 -57 -57 14 7 -100 5.41 -188 113 -49 -53 21 4 -50 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) 766 mmHg L D (mV) (mV) PM (mV) RM (mV) Tunnel Temperature Start = 22.39 -249 173 -63 -55 15 8 -75 5.13 68 .22 oC End = 31.13 329 813 -225 -7 21 25 350 5.47 125 83 1 -33 23 1 50 5.31 -346 346 -67 -63 12 11 -125 5.45 -116 86 -33 -40 23 2 -25 5.10 0 Outboard Elevon Facing Upward:LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .08 340 959 -388 -7 25 27 Table N0 – 10.43 259 216 35 -36 21 2 100 5.36 329 362 31 -29 18 -2 150 5.11 335 887 -286 -10 20 24 375 5.49 34 63 -3 -31 15 2 25 5.29 365 477 -24 -28 17 4 200 5.462 201 130 20 -32 22 3 75 5.39 295 280 41 -26 19 -6 125 5.17 346 742 -213 -6 23 20 325 5.24 366 593 -121 -12 16 13 250 5.82oC SF YM (mV) (mV) -200 5.27 376 548 -76 -26 18 7 225 5.455 -42 66 -18 -37 20 3 0 5.33 343 411 16 -28 17 3 175 5.37 -394 487 15 -50 11 40 -175 5.23 342 633 -168 -8 18 15 275 5.

85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.1 27.5 23 25.5 18 20.5 -9 -6.4 Lo (mV) Do (mV) -2 PMo (mV) 28 -31 -38 -44 -43 -49 -47 -54 -60 -61 -63 -69 -57 -68 -75 -85 -95 -107 -118 -129 -145 -158 -185 -282 7 Table N0 – 10.4 36.5 1 3.8 -4 -1.2 15.4 -16 -14 -11.15 69 .LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .14 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 27.040based on MAC Table N0 – 10.1 5.6 30 32 34.Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α (mV) α (deg) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -17.32mbar Air Density 1.9 13.9 8.478m/s Reynolds Number 477.02deg C Betz Reading 5.1852kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATI .4 10.

528 0.25096 0.37812 0.019673 -0.00964 0.026935 -0.08902 0.001116 0.17683 0.016806 -15.09955 0.72997 -0.408642 0.00788 0.10521 0.00244 0.031392 -0.00864 -0.090527 0.17315 0.412771 0.00771 -0.605 -0.02030 0.643109 0.065489 0.029406 -0.0163 0.89295 0.345 0.775153 0.707864 0.91382 0.37264 0.016195 17.010802 Table N0 – 10.01643 -0.010737 -0.005809 4.039471 -0.27457 0.003017 -0.025582 -0.46535 -0.000749 0.55148 -0.011466 -8.01799 -0.035682 -0.047938 0.87596 0.510534 0.00123 0.030908 -0.01487 0.41954 0.012026 10.016500 36.027395 -0.013787 12.28398 0.01173 0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag C SF C RM C YM -0.45840 0.99102 0.002659 -0.001537 0.30372 -0.33303 0.0022 0.23395 0.49801 -0.433 0.42370 0.018264 -17.000746 -0.87875 0.965 0.022321 -0.016457 27.43632 0.089 0.00936 0.009905 0.104123 0.963 -0.13261 -0.18876 -0.001641 2.41696 0.13126 0.014357 -11.30539 0.018126 -0.296142 0.04534 0.62213 0.015139 -0.31315 0.01059 0.016487 29.016144 33.94185 0.995 0.143117 0.020989 -0.00076 0.218336 0.74807 0.027604 -0.007 0.017571 25.929 -0.00000 -0.015451 15.00421 -0.01565 0.016844 38.016841 31.001144 0.01895 0.31520 0.66268 -0.031134 -0.032306 -0.83837 0.008602 -6.54319 0.925 0.009546 0.348906 0.00074 0.42556 -0.025775 -0.0027 0.00185 0.91190 0.000372 0.36346 -0.017946 22.89460 0.26091 0.005829 0.00226 0.021914 -0.77971 -0.031019 -0.31837 0.42614 0.50456 0.063178 0.842845 0.006657 0.00313 0.00366 0.177795 0.20369 0.033725 -0.33476 0.043 0.033848 -0.09793 0.300 -0.87950 0.045185 0.01748 0.596661 0.363557 0.433 0.00922 0.446 -0.59792 -0.05894 -0.41466 0.094 0.26021 -0.16 70 .01084 0.293 -0.02449 -0.00846 0.00839 0.97376 0.470743 0.00275 0.36823 0.323 -0.46675 0.44712 0.428 0.009299 7.06228 0.016209 -13.01702 0.365 0.65255 0.95343 0.001503 -0.23011 0.032833 -0.005042 0.42557 0.001118 0.00218 0.001835 -0.00902 0.545 0.005234 -3.017358 19.77903 0.91398 0.085 0.657 -0.36759 0.690 0.007862 0.028273 -0.89533 0.

02 347 920 -435 76 24 37 375 4.378 264 192 4 29 22 -11 100 5.36 -334 373 -128 -64 12 22 -150 5.9 356 991 -429 69 28 32 Table No-10.437 148 78 -50 8 16 -18 50 5.435 -77 55 -109 -68 19 -17 -25 5.42 -212 139 -104 -77 17 -5 -75 5.17 391 651 -239 67 20 23 250 5.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .41 217 123 -37 13 21 -16 75 5.31 338 339 15 39 16 0 150 5.35 -363 457 -80 -59 11 41 -175 5.39 -275 216 -106 -74 15 12 -100 5.44 70 53 -75 -7 13 -17 25 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) 760.25 365 425 4 53 18 2 175 5.43 -147 101 -117 -65 21 -14 -50 5.23 386 505 -68 58 17 14 200 5.04 354 870 -394 63 23 27 350 5.92 oC SF YM (mV) (mV) -200 5.82 oC End = 32.100 Outboard Elevon Facing Down:LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .1 359 724 -270 66 23 25 300 5.19 392 600 -162 65 19 17 225 5.43 -6 45 -94 -32 13 -18 0 5.07 356 779 -342 67 22 26 325 5.34 304 270 20 38 21 -5 125 5.17 71 .379 -325 314 -120 -72 13 11 -125 5.15 364 642 -295 75 19 20 275 5.50 mmHg L (mV) D (mV) PM (mV) RM (mV) Tunnel Temperature Start = 21.

85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 33.5 -12.19 72 .8 21.3 10 12 14.5 5 7.18 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 27.1753kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.4 16.8 24.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .9 19.1 -10 -7.146m/s Reynolds Number 482.4949mbar Air Density 1.5 26 28.5 -5 -2.8 0 2.292based on MAC Table N0 – 10.5 30 33 35 37 -4 -4 -4 -5 -4 -3 -2 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -5 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -4 -4 -5 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -4 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 31 -31 -65 -67 -68 -70 -56 -47 -37 -76 -79 -56 -71 -67 -82 -45 -134 -82 -175 -193 -200 -242 -266 -295 Table N0 – 10.37deg C Betz Reading 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α (mV) α (deg) Lo (mV) Do (mV) PMo (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -17 -14.

48984 0.004525 -0.024186 0.014431 12.024168 0.000774 0.045269 0.32438 0.853 0.236203 0.010221 7.67653 0.87439 0.495 0.01236 0.52421 -0.019167 -0.201 0.68258 0.006657 0.011368 -0.019202 -0.91099 0.578 -0.73580 -0.020703 0.802 0.321787 0.694 1.95420 0.027499 0.06242 -0.162 -0.645751 0.00206 -0.00187 -0.017878 26.017717 0.48666 -0.08611 0.023265 0.19093 -0.45434 0.320 0.12244 -0.53225 -0.824 0.07460 0.006589 -5.005441 0.85319 -0.514 0.009602 -8.017585 17.94924 0.446918 0.27652 0.016789 -18.83584 0.003839 -0.00416 0.119868 0.375898 0.627 0.25237 -0.52100 0.016115 15.00500 -0.250 -0.395 1.107687 0.10052 0.577515 0.18235 0.019116 25.271487 0.53931 0.37954 0.55458 0.97009 0.025157 -0.03586 0.0019 0.05175 0.023603 0.031542 0.019384 -0.008342 -0.26340 0.193 -0.017772 33.00674 0.818 0.018382 37.913126 0.00601 0.038346 0.00000 -0.02193 0.33835 0.017494 35.50689 0.028039 -0.036602 0.012580 -10.017766 30.003403 2.818 0.51331 0.669 1.006995 5.13132 0.29308 0.99742 0.00673 0.03281 0.33751 0.013273 Table N0 – 10.65202 -0.038218 0.022321 -0.031134 0.20841 0.010888 0.022496 0.029363 0.019090 22.00705 -0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag C SF C RM C YM -0.96629 0.045832 0.003361 -3.155 -0.78304 0.14190 0.036171 0.014931 -13.708 0.015576 -0.50060 0.78229 -0.011733 0 0.187168 0.96398 0.016128 0.009042 0.686 0.017957 -0.827559 0.01498 0.81017 0.20 73 .034803 0.00635 0.002351 -0.00941 -0.921 -0.697286 0.015404 -15.167711 0.020674 0.031019 -0.583 -0.067623 0.018657 20.51032 0.01999 -0.31311 0.205 -0.34884 0.02235 -0.60048 -0.04084 0.000092 -0.29764 0.18467 0.017808 29.46477 0.004156 -0.39411 0.40165 -0.019969 0.96433 0.031027 0.35753 0.010423 0.046919 0.78107 0.27723 0.026071 0.21986 0.01912 -0.020008 0.123 0.46744 0.33063 -0.021112 0.016491 -0.569481 0.009963 0.01908 0.531925 0.02252 0.03724 0.008615 -0.0227 -0.15198 0.029591 0.36966 0.01762 0.02138 0.00165 0.007893 0.00636 -0.012468 10.22622 0.00524 -0.

97 357 999 -402 65 25 39 Table N0 – 10.200 Outboard Elevon Facing Down:LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .07 360 870 -271 71 19 33 350 5.418 158 71 -6 26 23 -11 50 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = 760.37 -144 95 -75 -70 19 -3 -50 5.425 78 43 -34 -5 20 -7 25 5.24 -358 467 -128 -64 11 37 -175 5.4 226 133 2 34 24 -10 75 5.22 392 509 -37 55 18 14 200 5.16 387 656 -149 69 23 24 250 5.04 360 940 -306 65 23 37 375 4.25 -325 363 -115 -74 12 26 -150 5.25 oC mmHg α (mV) Betz (mbar) L (mV) D (mV) PM (mV) RM (mV) SF (mV) YM (mV) -200 5.19 391 591 -87 63 24 17 225 5.4 2 48 -51 -33 16 -8 0 5.1 362 817 -267 77 20 31 325 5.265 -314 299 -101 -79 14 14 -125 5.29 355 369 29 27 17 10 150 5.62 oC End = 33.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .35 -213 141 -85 -81 15 6 -75 5.384 -72 51 -62 -64 15 -6 -25 5.13 358 729 -160 86 21 28 300 5.37 280 201 31 26 20 -4 100 5.50 Tunnel Temperature Start = 26.26 371 439 3 38 19 15 175 5.31 -275 213 -66 -100 11 9 -100 5.33 324 299 32 35 19 7 125 5.14 359 666 -206 80 16 26 275 5.21 74 .

7 -11 -8.85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.1654kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.2 26 28 30.8 21 23.9 35 37 -4 .5 4 6.8 -1 1.2534mbar Air Density 1.5 16 18.3 9 11 13.Incidence Sweep Do (mV) PMo (mV) -17 -18 -19 -16 -19 -20 -20 -21 -22 -26 -24 -27 -28 -29 -37 -45 -45 -43 -80 -89 -112 -131 -150 -229 -6 Table N0 – 10.22 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 29.037based on MAC Table N0 – 10.9 -6 -3.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α α Lo (mV) (deg) (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -18.5 -16 -13.93deg C Betz Reading 5.LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .548m/s Reynolds Number 466.23 75 .3 32.

73975 -0.28251 0.28238 0.85539 -0.48692 -0.015949 Table N0 – 10.00151 0.007735 -0.00376 0.028378 -0.028972 0.016615 -0.126504 0.03709 0.95799 0.006523 -6.023765 -0.71799 0.83545 0.016837 -0.018959 24.019392 0.017963 33.229 0.016832 0.00147 -0.012354 0.13905 -0.017655 28.35015 -0.28799 -0.034048 0.37341 0.50415 0.03324 0.03009 0.02419 0.014921 0.014351 -0.017670 26.129 0.013229 0.010065 -0.029872 0.022346 -0.668 -0.660 -0.00301 0.030057 0.02990 0.003445 -0.015397 11.002279 -0.16661 0.841 0.17147 0.024865 0.835 0.007481 4.01951 0.44507 0.016980 14.12523 0.008154 0.017956 31.005796 0.35394 0.02872 0.007666 -0.846478 0.003160 -4.30439 0.23860 0.54532 -0.730015 0.006657 0.021327 -0.01508 0.031453 0.98049 0.00350 -0.37465 0.086 1.010281 0.574 -0.08585 0.003782 1.05257 0.414067 0.68936 -0.19624 0.48836 0.79935 0.55355 -0.022372 0.003842 0.032833 0.33246 0.011093 0.891 1.265526 0.04470 0.24 76 .558 0.273 0.57824 0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag C SF C RM C YM -0.018981 19.00413 0.20520 0.91077 0.14946 0.02244 0.40593 0.323037 0.80582 -0.00663 0.065788 0.025775 0.37077 0.036602 0.044158 0.016903 -19.51621 0.711 0.729 0.60887 -0.190119 0.019042 21.012769 -11.011541 0.40068 0.022488 -0.682 0.27549 0.585973 0.000278 -1.744 -0.028591 0.00262 0.00114 -0.017837 16.029569 -0.010657 6.009453 0.035751 0.22690 0.92132 0.30952 0.085354 0.932 -0.009774 -9.22487 -0.181 -0.02513 -0.020603 0.040657 0.040345 0.020894 0.047287 0.00226 0.01899 -0.018070 35.91716 0.02082 -0.390809 0.53035 0.013232 9.024967 0.015298 -17.41451 -0.45756 0.09586 0.119817 0.95877 0.51190 0.649527 0.035647 0.812 0.02252 0.018333 -0.021363 0.179702 0.01049 0.00976 -0.688 1.527572 0.594205 0.02397 0.47400 0.780403 0.328643 0.018173 37.026782 0.002669 0.184 0.027657 0.52967 0.97469 0.96787 0.00000 -0.010059 -0.07916 -0.83008 0.98610 0.267558 0.02412 0.812 0.517 0.50755 0.077 -0.69286 0.005404 -0.014732 -14.822 0.005451 0.455166 0.97428 0.

35 5.29 5.42 oC SF YM (mV) (mV) 11 13 14 14 15 19 18 15 34 22 16 19 27 28 23 26 28 22 20 24 26 22 23 24 45 30 18 17 -1 0 -2 -3 -4 -10 -4 3 7 13 17 19 25 20 26 28 31 37 24 55 .02 4.72 oC End = 35.10 5.2 5.07 5.300 Outboard Elevon Facing Down:LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .32 5.29 5.36 5.4 5.25 77 Tunnel Temperature Start = 27.99 760.174 5.32 5.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .4 5.15 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 5.4 5.3 5.50 mmHg L (mV) D (mV) PM (mV) RM (mV) -347 -325 -312 -264 -200 -130 -61 9 82 160 234 279 320 351 372 397 401 396 382 364 358 356 363 354 438 351 291 201 124 92 56 41 48 71 131 194 277 351 433 506 602 646 681 729 808 886 925 1038 -81 -113 -104 -89 -113 -112 -90 -84 -74 -54 -25 15 32 29 -9 -70 -128 -170 -211 -243 -228 -307 -345 -439 -73 -88 -93 -99 -80 -70 -41 -27 5 12 56 37 36 53 45 55 59 81 65 70 69 64 61 74 Table N0 – 10.04 5.39 5.39 5.23 5.265 5.28 5.4 5.

1591kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.7 6 8.27 78 .641m/s Reynolds Number 462.635based on MAC Table N0 – 10.5 -4 -1.26 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 31.5 16 18.2 20.57deg C Betz Reading 5.3 28 30 32 35 37 -4 PMo (mV) 32 -18 -19 -29 -41 -50 -28 -38 -35 -39 -40 -46 -60 -55 -72 -31 -88 -100 -114 -120 -149 -123 -197 -291 -11 Table N0 – 10.5 -16 -14 -11 -9 -6.4 25.LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.255mbar Air Density 1.9 22.5 1 3.Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α α Lo Do (mV) (deg) (mV) (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -17.8 11 13.

54111 0.11575 0.02209 0.71813 0.012228 -11.817 1.021107 -0.59946 0.724 -0.017322 -0.730571 0.00151 0.358 0.013654 0.012427 0.60925 -0.01671 -0.78895 0.40734 -0.00799 -0.03268 -0.02384 -0.00000 -0.032677 0.019184 19.46748 0.011048 0.004995 0.016006 0.014540 -15.31736 0.389675 0.023691 0.015238 11.001479 -0.007856 0.05736 0.014921 0.68147 -0.308 1.099 1.49780 0.06665 0.016254 -18.009717 0.29853 0.26834 -0.006495 -0.021927 0.015182 -17.34057 -0.028484 0.841421 0.01971 -0.009149 -9.01754 0.035038 0.02973 0.91106 0.673 0.020286 0.017950 37.035 -0.66349 0.28 79 .017868 16.21396 0.25736 0.14330 0.02501 0.82380 0.011526 -0.00657 -0.049104 0.023809 0.828 0.00376 0.96953 0.02977 0.038576 0.02108 -0.043188 0.02658 0.019412 0.00355 -0.021742 0.00075 0.002674 0.031148 0.96971 0.803163 0.88193 0.824 0.028273 -0.022279 -0.612372 0.12959 -0.018054 28.022401 Table N0 – 10.49632 0.52736 0.017864 30.665 0.17831 0.122946 0.53187 -0.901 -0.580972 0.003985 1.00038 -0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag C SF C RM C YM -0.824 0.658349 0.020163 0.433 0.34071 0.07384 -0.96933 0.50968 0.00606 0.007384 0.010261 0.019343 23.021187 -0.017871 32.26555 0.49201 -0.007599 3.75406 -0.48338 0.317446 0.070 -0.631 -0.178692 0.006562 0.028 0.000602 -1.00038 -0.013235 9.02075 -0.184064 0.016790 14.79232 -0.82681 0.97399 0.41231 0.009771 0.018126 0.011158 0.041131 0.018292 35.51726 0.035011 0.945687 0.56327 -0.02803 0.834 0.30826 0.13496 0.034104 0.848 0.070181 0.039873 0.006903 -0.49644 0.011048 6.32380 0.11496 0.00151 0.042538 0.262 0.251627 0.03713 0.97960 0.00114 0.022446 -0.28085 0.389809 0.086232 0.49663 0.033 -0.88311 -0.47553 0.10567 0.040706 0.99251 0.25366 0.002641 -4.314656 0.042453 0.824 0.018753 26.055162 0.456441 0.037744 0.010811 0.03857 0.35227 0.036748 0.21621 0.174 1.31147 0.029706 0.351 -0.0168 0.016598 -0.019487 21.18786 0.01213 -0.005849 -7.263065 0.04091 0.38895 0.00113 0.04956 0.20252 -0.935 0.026735 -0.

21 -290 229 -45 80 10 74 -100 5.06 oC SF YM (mV) (mV) -200 5.265 267 200 40 265 23 -38 100 5.17 -344 389 -74 72 13 107 -150 5.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .3 209 123 29 271 18 -40 75 5.25 mmHg L D (mV) (mV) PM (mV) RM (mV) Tunnel Temperature Start = 31.32 138 70 20 276 15 -18 50 5.22 305 274 47 249 19 -45 125 5.93 330 937 -366 213 24 -58 Table N0 – 10.13 370 488 -18 254 26 -49 200 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) 758.185 -331 318 -71 72 11 91 -125 5.985 331 801 -217 208 21 -61 350 4.04 340 670 -177 225 27 -58 300 5.ASYMMETRIC OUTBOARD ELEVONS 300 Outboard Elevon > Port Facing Down & Starboard Facing UP LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .APPENDIX C :.19 -369 485 -85 69 12 136 -175 5.33 -25 58 -7 257 18 17 0 5.2 336 356 37 253 18 -44 150 5.07 340 622 -155 235 27 -56 275 5.31 -98 67 -23 207 19 33 -25 5.11 366 550 -65 242 27 -51 225 5.25 -233 147 -46 103 17 68 -75 5.29 80 .96 333 865 -252 216 26 -64 375 4.09 367 595 -88 249 28 -54 250 5.32 50 42 12 288 17 1 25 5.22 oC End = 36.015 337 741 -194 218 24 -62 325 4.165 352 415 29 246 24 -45 175 5.28 -168 90 -38 151 20 36 -50 5.

LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .1685mbar Air Density 1.1 8.1 25.2 32.8 28 30.843based on MAC Table N0 – 10.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α α Lo (mV) (deg) (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -18.64deg C Betz Reading 5.31 81 .5 21 23.8 -11 -8.5 16 18.m/s Reynolds Number 453.85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.1479kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.529.Incidence Sweep Do (mV) -2 PMo (mV) 21 -18 -32 -36 -37 -37 -37 -20 -29 -32 -33 -27 -48 -52 -56 -50 -68 -77 -49 -103 -118 -134 -156 -282 -3 Table N0 – 10.30 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 33.5 35 36.8 11 13.1 -16 -13.8 .3 4 6.9 -6 -4 -1 1.

037673 0.24936 0.88244 0.32 82 .11463 0.432 0.02563 0.075657 -0.016713 33.45538 0.63289 -0.076205 -0.050596 0.080409 -0.011009 -9.39448 0.044121 0.053258 -0.44760 0.96000 0.93048 0.018018 22.18572 0.42498 0.03567 -0.016913 31.076089 -0.788187 0.89806 0.021239 0.670565 0.013857 -0.09506 0.25579 0.45777 -0.016849 37.018138 24.44392 0.75051 -0.91578 0.059317 0.33625 0.042379 0.03592 0.012631 -0.002446 1.98446 0.246052 0.28151 -0.710 -0.030381 0.458 0.04346 0.968 0.37329 0.24544 0.605234 0.531 -0.022614 0.20248 0.086484 0.01534 0.536594 0.018545 0.000382 0.69363 0.001080 -1.016263 14.022184 0.35726 0.02724 0.017016 0.006584 4.015876 -14.07268 -0.33562 -0.028699 0.79844 0.110353 0.02245 0.54048 0.86143 0.039046 0.081128 0.038384 0.559759 0.016899 35.20838 -0.081686 -0.006482 0.319182 0.857283 0.016551 -16.020168 0.29650 0.0172 0.114 -0.062277 0.042968 0.440464 0.31197 0.02622 0.12802 0.025971 0.016877 26.00000 -0.92123 0.14144 -0.56756 -0.017148 16.44373 0.13270 0.026325 -0.792 -0.495445 0.07703 0.014715 11.767 0.671 0.75046 0.069022 -0.042713 0.377 0.01941 0.062 -0.179109 0.451 -0.04065 0.077727 -0.031342 0.43215 0.90688 0.015395 0.024531 0.022248 0.35446 0.36066 0.009961 6.80295 -0.045688 0.078151 -0.016978 28.91425 0.032 0.35909 0.02527 -0.169 0.02164 0.074048 -0.91770 0.98419 0.40279 -0.43567 0.037269 0.029194 0.00688 0.02391 Table N0 – 10.16932 0.017692 -19.765 0.68961 -0.91693 0.02513 0.97768 0.035038 0.028867 -0.45931 0.540 0.973 0.02156 0.41181 0.02487 0.13273 0.042043 0.033788 0.983 0.027764 0.532 0.843 0.139 0.062939 0.004523 -4.02339 0.069571 -0.069445 -0.259 -0.32257 0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag SF RM YM -0.042064 -0.01292 0.349647 0.42682 0.52209 -0.59734 0.066658 -0.079099 -0.071319 -0.02028 0.03253 0.440 0.01752 0.36100 0.01771 0.01467 0.727287 0.013831 -11.49892 -0.05858 0.027086 0.26638 0.206995 0.082881 -0.948 -0.012783 9.287029 0.018143 19.44327 0.007866 -6.

24 358 415 31 -167 16 84 175 5.300 Outboard Elevon > Portside Facing UP .215 -326 311 -63 -268 15 -53 -125 5.1 339 672 -142 -110 16 126 300 5.135 341 632 -146 -112 13 112 275 5.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .32 274 211 43 -219 14 49 100 5.25 oC End = 35.25 mmHg L (mV) D (mV) PM (mV) RM (mV) Tunnel Temperature Start = 30.36 143 76 18 -268 16 11 50 5.26 338 361 41 -180 14 75 150 5.235 -292 231 -36 -297 17 -36 -100 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) 758.07 342 762 -169 -96 13 129 325 5.18 382 556 -56 -145 16 94 225 5.33 -97 78 -18 -317 17 -24 -25 5. Starboard Down:LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .345 221 126 34 -241 17 34 75 5.35 -22 57 -2 -310 17 -22 0 5.285 -231 150 -36 -308 16 -22 -75 5.31 -163 104 -9 -310 13 -22 -50 5.195 -370 472 -83 -219 13 -23 -175 5.29 308 277 47 -213 18 65 125 5.2 -344 390 -82 -215 13 -27 -150 5.12 oC SF YM (mV) (mV) -200 5.04 346 823 -86 -100 14 135 83 .15 382 613 -100 -119 12 101 250 5.21 375 483 -6 -154 14 92 200 5.35 54 52 16 -300 18 -9 25 5.

01 341 893 -224 -109 15 146 375 4.350 5.96 337 974 -331 -101 17 151 Table N0 – 10.33 84 .

LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET - 2 of 2
UCAV CONFIGURATION - Incidence Sweep
Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros

α
(mV)

α
(deg)

-200
-175
-150
-125
-100
-75
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375

-18.8
-16
-14
-11.4
-9
-6.5
-4
-1.2
1
3.8
6
8.6
11
13.5
16
18.2
21
23
25.5
28
30
32.5
35
37

Lo
(mV)

Do
(mV)

-1

PMo
(mV)
-12
-17
-18
-21
-24
-22
-25
-26
-26
-31
-36
-38
-39
-42
-44`
-42
-49
-59
-47
-78
-91
-97
-127
-241

-2

Table N0 – 10.34

Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run
T tunnel

32.685deg C

Betz Reading

5.2141mbar

Air Density

1.1515kg/m3

Air Viscosity

1.85E-05 kg/ms

Air Speed

32.621m/s

Reynolds Number

457,822based on
MAC

Table N0 – 10.35

85

epsilon

alf (deg)

CL

CD

CM

Drag

SF

RM

YM

-0.017772

-19.818

-0.96430

0.37508

0.38182

0.420004

0.020071

-0.06735

-0.009

-0.016504

-16.946

-0.89549

0.30271

0.35512

0.347631

0.020052

-0.06605

-0.01055

-0.015593

-14.893

-0.84606

0.23327

0.34459

0.2782

0.02307

-0.0821

-0.02066

-0.013908

-12.197

-0.75465

0.16209

0.32115

0.207016

0.026046

-0.09063

-0.01398

-0.010889

-9.624

-0.59082

0.08850

0.25135

0.133422

0.024282

-0.0931

-0.00846

-0.007633

-6.937

-0.41418

0.04638

0.18773

0.091303

0.019636

-0.09327

-0.00842

-0.004506

-4.258

-0.24452

0.02245

0.11046

0.067374

0.025582

-0.09501

-0.00915

-0.000982

-1.256

-0.05329

0.00382

0.03606

0.048745

0.025486

-0.09257

-0.00836

0.002572

1.147

0.13957

0.00000

-0.03850

0.044925

0.026985

-0.08958

-0.00342

0.006722

4.185

0.36473

0.02178

-0.13308

0.066705

0.023942

-0.07988

0.004171

0.010392

6.595

0.56387

0.06667

-0.20870

0.111598

0.02551

-0.07203

0.012928

0.012933

9.341

0.70177

0.14093

-0.26280

0.185857

0.021107

-0.06576

0.01872

0.014615

11.837

0.79300

0.19954

-0.29967

0.244461

0.027291

-0.06432

0.024973

0.016125

14.424

0.87496

0.27390

-0.33680

0.318821

0.021348

-0.05467

0.028979

0.017142

16.982

0.93011

0.32240

-0.36505

0.367321

0.02449

-0.05091

0.032581

0.018057

19.235

0.97977

0.38379

-0.40785

0.42872

0.021552

-0.04722

0.035889

0.018499

22.060

1.00379

0.44928

-0.44191

0.494203

0.024774

-0.04472

0.036882

0.018607

24.066

1.00963

0.50113

-0.46332

0.54606

0.018689

-0.03691

0.039859

0.016664

26.455

0.90419

0.51529

-0.44960

0.560219

0.020305

-0.03484

0.044329

0.016680

28.956

0.90507

0.55369

-0.43078

0.59862

0.025163

-0.03446

0.050213

0.016927

30.970

0.91846

0.63598

-0.44471

0.680902

0.020566

-0.03025

0.051713

0.017226

33.487

0.93470

0.69393

-0.44357

0.738857

0.022279

-0.0317

0.05444

0.017080

35.979

0.92675

0.75968

-0.45968

0.804605

0.024014

-0.03476

0.059228

0.017050

37.977

0.92514

0.82290

-0.45551

0.884607

0.02749

-0.03253

0.061874

Table N0 – 10.36

86

200 Outboard Elevon > Port facing Downward, Starboard Facing UP.
LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET - 1 of 2
UCAV CONFIGURATION
- Incidence Sweep
Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting =
Atmospheric Pressure =

Tunnel Temperature
Start = 27.72 oC
End = 35.12 oC

761 mmHg

α
(mV)

Betz
(mbar)

L
(mV)

D
(mV)

PM
(mV)

RM
(mV)

SF
(mV)

YM (mV)

-200

5.23

-376

491

-68

91

16

111

-175

5.25

-345

401

-110

84

18

89

-150

5.28

-335

332

-91

74

20

67

-125

5.29

-296

221

-62

69

20

54

-100

5.34

-237

155

-69

114

21

47

-75

5.36

-177

101

-65

201

15

17

-50

5.4

-104

62

-51

213

16

15

-25

5.415

-29

55

-38

222

14

2

0

5.423

44

41

-24

212

17

-9

25

5.43

128

62

-12

210

28

-17

50

5.41

204

112

2

188

25

-29

75

5.37

266

195

31

176

32

-34

100

5.35

301

287

35

199

19

-32

125

5.31

339

369

33

191

22

-39

150

5.29

360

420

16

205

18

-36

175

5.25

373

500

-27

186

19

-44

200

5.23

379

549

-79

184

20

-42

225

5.2

377

603

-128

209

27

-41

250

5.18

359

644

-169

179

30

-47

275

5.15

348

702

-202

172

32

-43

300

5.12

352

749

-217

173

30

-38

325

5.09

342

831

-243

188

31

-49

350

5.05

341

901

-254

162

30

-49

375

5.01

343

958

-346

171

29

-52

Table N0 – 10.37

87

1 20.5 23 25.5 -4 -1.3 1 3.1 27.662m/s Reynolds Number 463.Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α (mV) α (deg) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -18 -16 -13.8 -11 -9 -6.669based on MAC Table N0 – 10.85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.4 36.5 30 32 34.5 6 8.2678mbar Air Density 1.39 88 .1604kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .5 16 18.5 Lo (mV) -4 Do (mV) PMo (mV) 26 -19 -39 -43 -23 -51 -59 -64 -67 -74 -76 -82 -64 -91 -49 -109 -118 -110 -135 -144 -151 -156 -144 -263 -4 Table N0 – 10.42deg C Betz Reading 5.2 11 13.LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .38 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 31.

76381 0.673 -0.49626 -0.054527 -0.80928 -0.006446 -0.91672 0.11833 0.34779 0.020838 0.96454 0.024537 0.11015 0.37635 0.016489 -16.016895 35.715 0.31840 0.005646 -0.017027 17.134853 0.91218 0.016907 28.839 0.002030 1.030381 0.437659 0.051955 0.018131 21.97602 0.01844 0.041645 0.53165 -0.011104 -9.661977 0.02239 0.063015 0.064209 -0.86136 0.046427 0.58377 -0.01508 0.18226 0.93335 0.096239 0.001340 -1.025561 0.06263 -0.055205 -0.210 0.42933 0.44831 0.98426 0.015973 14.051248 -0.02579 -0.016811 33.03323 0.053355 -0.291308 0.01216 0.062453 -0.91737 0.195096 0.94089 0.75964 0.059423 -0.31159 0.366291 0.339 0.107 0.86672 0.70259 -0.0211 Table N0 – 10.065495 0.017888 -0.769 0.027291 0.418 0.057464 -0.059908 0.061784 -0.008262 -6.052359 -0.51192 0.037064 0.21401 -0.086904 0.10125 0.336 -0.37464 0.020747 -0.01493 0.033606 0.01835 0.00000 -0.059006 -0.39847 0.01697 0.286 0.86022 0.029027 0.394 0.046996 0.01383 0.44410 0.16149 0.67248 0.030324 0.005898 4.247615 0.02544 0.23342 0.00337 0.40 89 .76966 -0.10707 0.781 0.041359 0.014000 -11.017988 -18.34099 0.015874 -14.44772 -0.030672 0.047647 0.45289 0.33269 -0.36812 0.44685 0.077 -0.000751 0.01703 0.60253 0.07271 0.46221 0.352005 0.529869 0.004819 -3.668 0.89472 0.034105 0.009435 6.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag SF RM YM -0.01870 -0.044944 0.92945 0.01632 0.263 0.018139 24.031542 0.98381 0.017776 19.034454 -0.01134 0.00636 0.014077 12.276 0.23836 0.01089 0.731 -0.18819 0.020737 0.43248 0.027797 0.502 -0.046451 0.40805 0.056599 -0.976 -0.047795 0.025143 0.43941 0.056205 -0.022446 0.027499 0.28052 0.138 0.62837 -0.803262 0.481326 0.052303 0.01287 0.049837 0.28707 -0.017201 31.043136 -0.017340 26.617374 0.32126 0.061909 -0.012394 9.023765 0.410 -0.736196 0.320676 0.645 -0.048848 0.13506 -0.92389 0.16867 0.028484 0.01602 0.01972 0.25770 0.04543 0.565255 0.055516 -0.32002 0.841 0.40405 -0.432079 0.416 0.05330 0.017129 37.01957 0.26146 0.05398 -0.

1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .06 337 813 -275 -55 29 108 350 5.18 373 553 -107 -79 27 76 225 5.72oC End = 34.15 345 617 -211 -29 25 89 275 5.3 330 351 31 -86 24 60 150 5.72 oC SF YM (mV) (mV) 9 -13 -175 5.035 338 888 -309 -50 35 111 375 4.38 -98 77 -47 -245 22 -31 -25 5.37 257 178 30 -90 25 27 100 5. Starboard Facing Down:- LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .41 121 82 -22 -135 23 -4 50 5.24 352 407 6 -90 28 63 175 5.15 369 592 -164 -52 24 83 250 5.34 -237 153 -64 -255 22 -25 -75 5.4 45 58 -23 -215 22 -15 25 5.200 Outboard Elevon > Portside Facing UP .37 -172 94 -56 -250 23 -36 -50 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) -200 5.19 369 479 -55 -92 29 68 200 5.39 -27 66 -34 -249 25 -25 0 5.22 -338 384 -95 -191 15 -23 -150 5.12 347 679 -229 -34 25 94 300 5.09 349 748 -249 -47 27 101 325 5.29 -298 262 -55 -265 19 -33 -100 5.41 90 .99 346 959 -380 -50 33 125 Table N0 – 10.33 303 275 28 -92 24 39 125 5.4 202 107 -8 -87 23 15 75 5.24 mmHg L (mV) -374 D (mV) 485 PM (mV) -69 RM (mV) -169 Tunnel Temperature Start = 28.26 -334 328 -83 -230 17 -47 -125 5.

LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .1 15.2460mbar Air Density 1.5 29.8 -4 -1.5 -9 -6.1593kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.8 32 34 36.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .2 10.3 22.Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α α Lo Do (mV) (deg) (mV) (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -18 -16.43 91 .42 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 31.85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.2 -14 -11.8 1 3 6 8.8 25 27.072based on MAC PMo (mV) Table N0 – 10.4 -5 21 -37 -41 -50 -53 -56 -58 -59 -63 -70 -75 -64 -81 -72 -93 -104 -110 -120 -134 -146 -158 -174 -198 -266 0 Table N0 – 10.72deg C Betz Reading 5.610m/s Reynolds Number 462.5 18 20.9 13.

601158 0.44 92 .94134 0.35341 0.036115 -0.43484 0.004558 -3.96897 0.03632 -0.01601 0.372 -0.036 0.014871 0.033044 -0.026629 0.005596 3.07629 -0.31343 0.042545 -0.91198 0.01171 -0.018016 21.06361 -0.03734 -0.339051 0.44888 0.74637 -0.037378 -0.25792 -0.023048 -0.67683 -0.08003 -0.017858 -18.154137 0.91136 0.87906 0.02677 0.08554 0.04338 0.35191 0.035123 0.0015 0.30364 0.96523 0.358279 0.01586 0.33105 0.460 0.00504 -0.032798 -0.01061 0.017789 19.24137 0.011974 9.015578 14.064321 0.29139 0.034162 -0.24730 0.305584 0.016957 28.972 0.64973 0.86205 0.283 0.11375 0.832 0.037201 -0.664831 0.01736 0.039163 -0.001253 -1.90946 0.01816 -0.808 -0.02096 -0.39428 0.080774 0.016761 26.97273 0.386 0.053042 -0.215 0.010219 0.041806 -0.015887 -14.47599 0.037314 0.04458 -0.45724 0.038935 -0.016664 33.84530 0.18180 0.34407 0.054151 0.05845 -0.90417 0.00000 -0.77177 0.017155 31.02744 0.10648 -0.37384 0.029819 0.44779 0.43955 0.02758 0.005646 0.06986 -0.37832 0.18976 0.07275 -0.050912 Table N0 – 10.024436 0.04291 0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag SF RM YM -0.01268 -0.133199 0.05152 -0.017349 37.068624 0.136 -0.493 0.009359 7.44132 -0.02574 0.034099 -0.60253 0.044806 0.034353 -0.42496 0.013776 -0.008014 -6.01475 0.46063 0.19113 -0.00649 0.519 0.044816 -0.45154 0.02823 0.016807 16.03311 0.040329 0.04766 0.524993 0.028807 -0.794028 0.017927 24.963 0.045968 -0.02832 0.07437 -0.00952 -0.55350 -0.462 0.10719 0.02436 0.009 0.31062 -0.055754 -0.410 -0.289028 0.864899 0.01666 0.00896 -0.014094 -11.544232 0.11313 0.01613 0.06801 0.27844 0.0738 -0.424679 0.47733 -0.00943 0.628 -0.50784 0.016201 -16.894 0.523 -0.619 0.032677 -0.229462 0.032756 0.759 -0.821 0.61717 -0.92009 0.761 -0.455 0.97758 0.023009 0.93085 0.092243 0.002085 1.016796 35.02592 0.76477 0.00565 0.80017 -0.49657 -0.025922 -0.724495 0.25706 0.03987 -0.37702 -0.327 0.23359 0.488984 0.01363 -0.011104 -9.042858 -0.42598 0.238788 0.014223 12.18621 0.

39 -100 52 -47 92 23 12 -25 5.227 L (mV) -371 D (mV) 464 PM (mV) -33 RM (mV) 3 SF (mV) 11 YM (mV) -175 5.Starboard Facing UP.04 346 892 -256 147 27 -15 375 5.26 372 476 -23 147 27 -26 200 5.33 -235 143 -60 31 21 41 -75 5.42 45 42 -15 106 15 7 25 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = Tunnel Temperature Start = 28. LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .100 Outboard Elevon > Portside Facing Down .29 -297 220 -64 9 17 45 -100 5.16 348 650 -156 140 24 -23 275 5.12 346 711 -194 143 26 -21 300 5.36 -172 93 -61 92 20 14 -50 5.07 345 829 -178 151 29 -23 350 5.26 -336 305 -94 -5 12 58 -125 5.09 347 744 -221 136 21 -16 325 5.33 341 358 35 142 28 -22 150 5.0 340 953 -345 145 28 -13 Table N0 – 10.355 307 271 42 137 27 -20 125 5.19 379 614 -122 149 24 -27 250 5.24 -344 381 -100 -2 13 70 -150 5.45 93 77 .1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .38 266 195 36 125 28 -19 100 5.425 134 68 -3 114 22 -16 50 5.41 -27 47 -33 115 16 10 0 5.22 381 553 -65 145 25 -19 225 5.415 211 117 17 119 27 -23 75 5.62 oC 762 mmHg α (mV) -200 Betz (mbar) 5.32oC End = 35.29 358 405 21 143 26 -23 175 5.

7 -4 -1.1599kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.47 94 .2613mbar Air Density 1.3 10.1 15.85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .5 30 32 34.9 13.46 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 31.5 -4 33 -15 -42 -42 -31 -56 -54 -54 -52 -59 -62 -57 -71 -76 -80 -88 -96 -96 -117 -128 -139 -86 -171 -258 -4 Table N0 – 10.97deg C Betz Reading 5.526based on MAC PMo (mV) Table N0 – 10.2 27.8 -16.5 1 3.5 36.2 -14 -11.7 -9 -6.5 6 8.5 23 25.8 18 20.Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α α Lo Do (mV) (deg) (mV) (mV) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -17.649m/s Reynolds Number 462.LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .

13412 -0.31628 0.038444 0.24180 0.45955 0.018453 22.015792 -13.05772 0.031244 0.42572 0.080108 0.561 -0.09040 0.017567 -17.38824 0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag C SF C RM C YM -0.53903 0.023721 0.58838 0.27636 -0.00185 0.010844 -8.88089 0.044646 -0.007398 0.02994 -0.45452 0.013858 -11.130 -0.031601 0.058 1.005994 0.00000 -0.017121 17.004456 -3.95320 0.00393 0.92805 0.255 -0.37433 0.97045 0.039992 0.007178 0.44178 0.621 -0.006049 0.865 0.022197 0.80696 -0.037118 -0.04758 -0.19360 0.04117 0.94278 0.044619 -0.009292 0.50651 -0.989 0.040871 -0.480 0.353596 0.046595 -0.034225 0.335681 0.025775 0.45961 0.00130 0.018298 -0.038413 0.02305 -0.70379 -0.042968 0.15963 0.781 0.005309 -0.194333 0.737691 0.03626 0.59472 -0.03709 0.019 0.12274 0.93452 0.100559 0.003757 0.557 1.571651 0.014531 12.015634 -0.18303 0.012557 10.000917 0.00061 0.043767 0.008633 0.807 -0.017214 38.62726 -0.93618 0.04044 0.019898 -0.92902 0.016879 0.37994 0.149 -0.037305 0.041743 0.007591 0.540473 0.569 0.043344 -0.002262 2.039421 0.00922 0.017289 -0.234613 0.12125 0.42552 0.042135 0.85689 0.75194 0.485855 0.76359 -0.905 -0.06627 -0.04073 0.043185 -0.409065 0.24124 0.010573 0.028 0.002718 0.008336 0.857279 0.027268 0.797461 0.009059 0.017253 31.034449 0.008389 0.48 95 .32405 0.45726 0.045877 0.017223 33.018464 25.20045 -0.057417 0.025 0.35094 0.733 0.38253 -0.029866 -0.45187 -0.30096 0.03408 0.269885 0.027421 0.017375 36.68132 0.496 0.006389 0.87875 0.002625 0.017104 29.34534 0.168341 0.661178 0.010046 0.016195 15.42002 0.53768 -0.046329 -0.34573 0.00920 0.005284 Table N0 – 10.032526 0.987 0.007842 -6.042561 -0.31953 -0.033571 -0.628664 0.001519 0.044376 -0.23516 0.92611 0.029928 0.178 0.28386 0.035108 -0.310471 0.045864 -0.24800 0.017885 20.130 0.022411 -0.017068 27.93403 0.33813 0.486 0.001064 -0.10923 0.008837 0.033959 0.04549 0.494 -0.033091 0.009934 7.004525 -0.45150 0.416556 0.78845 0.006365 4.016234 -16.042685 -0.044915 0.125065 0.

2 762 mmHg L (mV) -374 D (mV) 465 PM (mV) -33 RM (mV) -186 Tunnel Temperature Start =29.375 -174 95 -62 -198 13 -17 -50 5.20 380 550 -87 -98 19 61 225 5.27 -333 312 -81 -244 11 8 -125 5. Starboard Facing Down.35 -237 151 -67 -209 8 -3 -75 5.0 10 Outboard Elevon > Port Facing Up.41 129 52 -17 -161 19 -3 50 5.08 351 846 -266 -66 18 89 350 5.41 -27 38 -41 -198 10 -15 0 5.41 40 46 -26 -186 20 -9 25 5.24 372 465 -31 -98 25 59 200 5.17 351 625 -184 -76 23 75 275 5.02oC End = 35.265 354 405 15 -104 19 54 175 5.72oC SF YM (mV) (mV) 3 6 -175 5.27 335 346 33 -103 18 45 150 5.1 344 751 -237 -59 18 81 325 5.23 -344 378 -92 -190 9 3 -150 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-On Readings for Tunnel Speed Setting = 70% Atmospheric Pressure = α Betz (mV) (mbar) -200 5.17 368 619 -151 -73 18 69 250 5. LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .32 302 265 39 -119 17 35 125 5.14 352 699 -223 -58 20 75 300 5.02 343 952 -387 -65 23 107 96 .05 344 877 -296 -59 21 96 375 5.365 260 193 37 -132 18 26 100 5.4 203 105 3 -146 16 14 75 5.1 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .3 -295 221 -55 -214 10 -11 -100 5.4 -102 52 -54 -199 11 -15 -25 5.

2 27.37deg C Betz Reading 5.Incidence Sweep Wind-Off Readings for Balance Zeros α (mV) α (deg) -200 -175 -150 -125 -100 -75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 -18 -16.8 18 20.1 11 13 15.85E-05 kg/ms Air Speed 32.8 -9 -7 -4.1 -14 -11.4 22.3 6 8.2 of 2 UCAV CONFIGURATION .51 97 .450based on MAC Table N0 – 10.654m/s Reynolds Number 461.1 -1.Table N0 – 10.2 36.8 1 3.49 LOW-SPEED WIND TUNNEL TEST SHEET .256mbar Air Density 1.50 Wind Tunnel Conditions For Average Run T tunnel 32.8 25.7 30 32 34.1584kg/m3 Air Viscosity 1.5 Lo (mV) Do (mV) -4 PMo (mV) 35 -15 -33 -38 -43 -51 -60 -55 -67 -68 -67 -77 -78 -80 -89 -99 -102 -93 -50 -141 -157 -171 -193 -285 -9 Table N0 – 10.

016338 -0.45586 0.362897 0.029 0.038266 -0.18154 0.831 0.92312 0.00643 -0.861486 0.00000 -0.013371 0.04754 -0.05309 -0.04372 0.002035 2.23707 0.05714 0.03011 0.12936 -0.44903 0.015133 -0.029656 0.016741 -0.03931 0.84753 0.05847 -0.01848 0.52041 0.416896 0.34648 0.027925 -0.94872 0.033353 -0.360 -0.014391 12.50881 -0.624483 0.001166 -0.37178 -0.017355 0.013802 -0.018003 24.029651 -0.08883 0.014826 -0.03156 0.03573 0.31778 -0.02076 0.31614 0.24638 0.011993 -0.87330 0.17447 0.493177 0.07397 0.004627 -0.002345 -0.15674 0.023842 0.00564 0.825 0.03228 0.895 -0.028944 -0.00422 -0.29596 0.04319 0.48077 0.016094 14.023765 -0.022884 0.978 0.098205 0.59125 0.027125 0.01866 0.93220 0.02069 0.673794 0.94028 0.805 0.97684 0.341077 0.019399 -0.11875 0.31991 0.74540 0.553923 0.02691 -0.03257 0.02656 0.652 0.282183 0.03122 0.00254 0.017803 -18.018476 22.006151 4.922 0.27801 0.238647 0.017242 36.017484 34.005269 0.38424 0.05804 0.33375 0.035682 -0.587 -0.775 0.028168 -0.34314 0.19353 -0.57937 -0.419676 0.71462 -0.38809 0.028308 -0.117 0.0645 -0.01803 0.043321 Table No-10.184 0.045113 0.02348 0.624 -0.11069 0.003085 -0.311486 0.97416 0.790789 0.015620 -13.052632 0.038421 0.491 0.66805 0.74568 -0.027395 -0.34387 0.550 0.epsilon alf (deg) CL CD CM Drag C SF C RM C YM -0.017180 27.05885 -0.92636 0.051838 0.05493 -0.693 0.029484 0.23090 0.188 0.036748 -0.016265 -16.88257 0.26637 -0.05772 -0.46647 0.46738 0.017013 17.007913 -6.06241 -0.013737 -11.004541 -3.52 98 .029306 -0.19011 0.62868 -0.00985 0.96598 0.038636 0.00113 0.017329 29.00338 0.00752 0.035607 0.002 0.45831 0.028419 -0.453 -0.51236 -0.138492 0.017072 31.44806 -0.37456 0.79940 -0.42938 0.00565 -0.459 1.93553 0.759728 0.020845 0.09338 0.78088 0.557476 0.05887 -0.012312 9.02256 0.861 -0.020 -0.24522 0.00673 -0.93842 0.42927 0.001064 -0.00669 0.46751 0.017295 38.00114 -0.11041 0.009591 7.017953 20.02563 -0.031209 -0.201851 0.02988 0.032 -0.010897 -8.

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101 .