You are on page 1of 9


Title no. 96-M43


Workability, Testing, and Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete
by K. H. Khayat
Self-consolidating concrete is a new category of high-performance concrete that exhibits a low resistance to flow to insure high flowability, and a moderate viscosity to maintain a homogeneous deformation through restricted sections, such as closely spaced reinforcement. Self-consolidating concrete is used to improve the productivity of casting congested sections and to insure the proper filling of restricted areas with minimum or no consolidation. Such concrete can improve the homogeneity of highly flowable concrete that is necessary to insure good bond development with reinforcing steel, adequate structural performance, and proper durability. This paper reviews the benefits of using self-consolidating concrete to facilitate the casting of densely reinforced sections and improve productivity and on-site working conditions. Workability requirements necessary to secure self-consolidation and the principles involved in proportioning such highly flowable concrete are discussed. Field-oriented tests useful in evaluating the deformability, filling capacity, and stability of self-consolidating concrete are presented. The performance of concrete mixes proportioned according to two main approaches needed to insure high deformability, low risk of blockage during flow, and proper stability are compared. Such approaches involved the proportioning of concrete with a moderate water-to-cementitious material ratio (w/cm) of 0.41 and using a viscosityenhancing admixture to increase stability, as well as mixes without any viscosity-enhancing admixture, but with lower w/ cm of 0.35 to 0.38 to reduce free water content and provide stability. Mixes with both moderate and high contents of ternary cementitious materials were evaluated. The performance of each concrete was compared to that of a flowable concrete with 250-mm slump.
Keywords: bleeding (concrete); consolidation; high-performance concrete; rheological properties; segregation; stability; viscosity; workability.

The required workability for casting concrete depends on the type of construction, selected placement and consolidation methods, the complex shape of the formwork, and structural design details that affect the degree of congestion of the reinforcement. With the increasing use of congested reinforced concrete members to enhance structural performance, such as in mat foundations and moment-resisting frames, there is a growing need to use highly flowable concrete to insure proper filling of the formwork. Providing adequate consolidation of such congested elements can be difficult, given the restricted access to the poker vibrators and the high compaction energy required to insure proper filling of the section. Because of the highly fluid nature of such concrete, excessive vibration can lead to segregation, bleeding, and blockage of the concrete deformation when flowing across narrow spaces between reinforcement. Skilled labor and strict quality control are required to insure sufficient compaction and adequate homogeneity of the cast concrete. Such characteristics are essential to insure proper bond to the re-

inforcing steel and adequate mechanical performance and durability. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is a highly flowable concrete that can spread into place under its own weight and achieve good consolidation in the absence of vibration without exhibiting defects due to segregation and bleeding. Self-consolidating concrete is a product of technological advancements in the area of underwater concrete technology where the mix is proportioned to insure high fluidity as well as high resistance to water dilution and segregation. The use of SCC has gained wide acceptance in Japan since the late 1980s for casting congested members, as well as the placement of concrete in restricted areas where consolidation may not be practical.1-12 For example, the repair of the bottom sides of beams, girders, and slabs often necessitates filling narrow and difficult to access areas. Other areas where SCC can be employed to facilitate concrete placement and assure durability can involve the filling of complex formwork and the casting of tunnel lining sections with restricted access to consolidation. Self-consolidating concrete can also be used in casting noncongested structures where limitation of concrete consolidation or the required duration of intervention can reduce construction costs as well as noise, which can be important in some urban areas. This can contribute to an improvement in working conditions and overall productivity of the construction site. Because of the highly stable nature of SCC, its use can enable the casting of deep sections in fewer lifts without greater risk of settlement, segregation, or bleeding. This can reduce the number of lifts in deep sections, hence decreasing construction time and labor requirements. Self-consolidating concrete can also be used for filling noncongested sections to accelerate the progress of construction without mitigating mechanical properties and durability that can result from segregation and bleeding. For example, relatively lean concrete is sometimes used to construct basement walls in residential construction. The lack of strict performance criteria for basement construction and the need for speedy construction often result in the placement of highly fluid concrete so that the discharge of concrete can proceed quickly with minimum need for consolidation. Often, such concrete is proportioned with a high water content to be self-leveling and self-consolidating. However, such structures often exhibit low in situ impermeability and resistance to cracking. As a result, basements can be damp and have poor visual quality to be used as permanent surfaces. The use of properly designed SCC can maintain the high workability necessary for the ease of placement (constructability criteria) while insuring adequate stability and homogeneous distribution of in situ engineering properties and durability.

ACI Materials Journal , V. 96, No. 3, May-June 1999. Received September 27, 1997, and reviewed under Institute publication policies. Copyright © 1999, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion will be published in the March-April 2000 ACI Materials Journal if received by December 1, 1999.



filling capacity. such as limestone filler. however. simple test methods to assess deformability. The reduction of the water-to-powder ratio ( w/p) can limit the deformability of the cement paste. The objective of this paper is to highlight the workability requirements needed to secure self-consolidation and present some field-oriented tests that can be used to evaluate deformability. but results in a limited drop in viscosity. Deformability of concrete is defined as the ability of the concrete to undergo a change in its shape under its own weight. Discussion provided in this paper concerning mix proportioning alternatives. rheology. This increases viscosity. The deformability of concrete is closely related to that of the cement paste that increases with the incorporation of high-range water reducer (HRWR). should be useful to engineers considering the use of SCC. stability. Québec. Another important parameter that affects deformability is the interparticle friction between the various solids (coarse aggregate. and VEA. w/cm. Such solid-to-solid friction increases the internal resistance to flow. As shown in Fig. thus limiting the deformability and speed of flow of the fresh concrete. ACI Materials Journal/May-June1999 347 . hence causing blockage of the flow. a highly flowable concrete can be obtained without significant reduction in cohesiveness. Powder materials include cementitious materials and various fillers. With the increasing use of SCC.ACI member K. even in the vicinity of obstacles that can interfere with its flow. Khayat is a professor of civil engineering at the Université de Sherbrooke. The incorporation of continuously graded cementitious materials Fig. Therefore. 1—Basic workability requirements for successful casting of SCC. Basic workability requirements for successful casting of SCC are summarized in Fig. while speed of deformability takes into account the rate of deformation. of course. and concrete repair. H. and powder materials). and stability of SCC. it can also reduce the cohesiveness of the paste and mortar and lead to segregation of fine and coarse aggregate particles. WORKABILITY REQUIREMENTS OF SELFCONSOLIDATING CONCRETE The successful use of SCC to fill congested structural sections and restricted elements requires that the concrete can flow readily under its own weight around various obstructions without exhibiting segregation and blockage of the flow. 1. They consist of tailoring the concrete mix to insure good balance between deformability and stability and preventing the blockage of concrete flow. Therefore. Unlike water addition that reduces both the yield value and viscosity. as well as performance of various SCC mixes prepared with different contents of cementitious materials. compared with an SCC proportioned with a higher water content to fill a restricted section that can attain the same deformability after only 5 sec (high deformability speed). a highly viscous concrete designed for underwater placement can attain a slump flow of 570 mm (high deformability) after 15 sec. and increase the paste volume to enhance deformability. 1. The extent of interparticle friction increases when the concrete spreads through restricted spacing because of the greater collision between the various solids. The cast concrete should self-consolidate and meet strength and durability criteria. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE Self-consolidating concrete is a new class of high-performance concrete used to facilitate and accelerate concrete placement without mitigating in situ properties and durability. sand. it is important to insure both high flowability (low-yield value) and a high resistance to segregation (moderate viscosity) to secure an SCC that can flow readily around various obstacles and achieve good filling capacity. a balance is needed to increase the w/p to enhance deformability without a substantial reduction in cohesiveness. Therefore. Maximum deformability refers to the maximum flow value. The use of HRWR can disperse cement grains and reduce interparticle friction and enable the reduction in water content while maintaining the required levels of flowability and viscosity. related to the yield value and the viscosity of the concrete. These flow notions are. Such viscosity can be provided either by incorporating a viscosity-enhancing admixture (VEA) or by reducing the water-to-cementitious material ratio (w/cm) to limit free water content. For example. The paper also reviews the principals involved in proportioning SCC that consist of reducing the coarse aggregate volume and providing excellent deformability and adequate viscosity. thus requiring greater shear stresses to maintain a given capacity and speed of deformation. it is important to provide guidelines for the proportioning and characterization of such concrete. His research interests include self-consolidating concrete. Fresh concrete characteristics of seven SCC mixes made with either low w/cm and no VEA. an increase in w/p can secure high deformability. the incorporation of HRWR lowers mostly the yield value (better flowability). and filling capacity. It is also essential to reduce the coarse aggregate and sand volumes. Canada. or higher w/cm and VEA are compared for mixes made with relatively medium and high contents of cementitious materials.

higher stability can be assured for a given slump flow. including deformability (consistency). can reduce the effective projection of concrete lugs and further contribute to the reduction in bond strength. It is important to note that a highly flowable concrete that exhibits adequate stability once cast in place may undergo some segregation during the pumping or spread into place. and increase the tendency to develop local microcracking that can increase permeability and reduce mechanical properties. filling capacity. which results in a high flow time (Point A1). The previously described workability requirements necessary to secure adequate filling capacity of the congested and restricted sections are illustrated in Fig. The surface settlement of fresh concrete. when the concrete flows through restricted areas. bleeding. 3. When the concrete is proportioned with a low w/cm and a fixed dosage of HRWR. can maintain good suspension of coarse aggregate. ASSESSMENT OF SELF-COMPACTIBILITY A number of tests can be used to evaluate the self-compactability of concrete. Flow time and filling capacity tests are used to assess the flowability through restricted areas that combines deformability and resistance to blockage during the flow. and hence. it is important to insure that it has sufficient viscosity to maintain uniform suspension of solid particles. because of the local coagulation of coarse aggregate that can cause blockage. through the use of fine powder or a VEA. and surface settlement that reduce strength. and reduce interparticle collision and coagulation of coarse aggregate. stiffness. 1. Therefore. as well as on the development of engineering properties and durability. The facility of aggregate and mortar to change their flowing paths and spread through a restricted area without blockage can 348 ACIMaterialsJournal/May-June1999 . The lack of stability can weaken the interface between the aggregate and cement paste. hence securing low flow times at higher slump flow values (Point B2). This is important to secure homogeneous properties of the hardened concrete.16 Insuring adequate stability is especially critical in deep structural elements where highly flowable concrete can exhibit segregation. This can then reduce interparticle friction and limit deformability and the ability to properly fill the formwork. once in a stationary state. 2—Trade-off between fluidity and stability of concrete. However. enhancement of stability involves the reduction in coarse aggregate content and the lowering of the maximum size aggregate (MSA). As concrete deforms around a restricted section. The risk of blockage is reduced by providing adequate viscosity. such as between closely spaced reinforcement. and durability. This is because the apparent viscosity at such shear rates can be significantly lower than that at rest because of the pseudo-plastic nature of the concrete. Monitoring the surface settlement can be used to evaluate stability of the concrete after the casting and until the onset of hardening. It is also important to increase cohesion of the mix to enhance bond between the mortar and coarse aggregate. An optimum point (A2) exists where a balance between the deformability and stability can lead to the lowest flow time out for a particular mix. hence providing enough cohesion to insure uniform flow of both phases. which can result in an increase in aggregate density leading to coagulation and arching of the aggregate. as shown in Fig. It is important to note that the selection of proper combinations of binary or ternary binder should take into account the effect of such powder on the adsorption of water and admixtures. Such shear rates can be high locally as the concrete flows around various obstacles. In addition to assessing the deformability capacity under low shear rate (self weight). and use of VEA and/or high volume of cementitious materials and fillers to bind some of the free water. Another primary parameter necessary to provide self-consolidating properties is the stability of the concrete. In addition to providing adequate stability during placement. resulting in a net reduction in flow time. With the increase in w/cm. It is important to minimize fluidity loss until the end of casting since loss in deformability can substantially limit the filling capacity and self-consolidation of the concrete. the viscosity and segregation resistance decrease and the deformability increases. the concrete should have proper stability. The decrease of bleeding can involve the reduction of water content through the reduction of w/p and incorporation of HRWR. blockage of the flow. the coarse aggregate volume and MSA should be reduced to limit interparticle collision in the vicinity of reinforcement and hence the risk of blockage. it can exhibit a relatively low slump and high viscosity. As a result. As the clear spacing between the obstacles in the congested section decreases. The third property essential to enhancing self-consolidation is a reduction in the risk of blockage resulting from the flow in narrow spaces. until it hardens to minimize any migration of free water and segregation of suspended solid particles. Slump flow is determined by measuring the mean of two orthogonal diameters of the concrete base following the removal of the slump cone. and fillers can also reduce interparticle friction. Concrete with low cohesiveness can segregate since it cannot maintain proper suspension of aggregate to insure uniform deformation around obstacles. An increase in mortar viscosity. the lack of material separation does not guarantee good stability during and after casting. It is important to note that the slump measurement is not as sensitive as that of the slump flow value in reflecting small changes in the consistency of SCC. and stability. thus insuring good suspension of solid particles during flow. since highly flowable concrete may not possess enough cohesion between the mortar and coarse aggregate to insure uniform deformation through the tapered outlet. The tests presented herein include the slump flow test to evaluate free deformability in the absence of obstructions. To prevent blockage of concrete flow among closely spaced obstacles. segregation of aggregate near the edges of the spread-out concrete can be observed. for mixes with slump values greater than 250 mm for stable mixes. a portion of the coarse aggregate can begin to segregate. A short flow out of concrete under its own weight from the funnel outlet reflects high deformability and good stability and resistance to blockage. Therefore. concrete should have adequate cohesiveness by reducing the w/p and/or incorporating an adequate dosage of a VEA.Fig. bond to reinforcing steel. 2 using the V-funnel test presented later in this paper. which is related to the segregation of concrete. the flow time can increase despite the higher nonrestrained deformability. on workability loss and temperature rise.13-15 As shown in Fig. Further increase in deformability does not necessarily secure constant reduction in flow time. Bleeding can also result in some accumulation of porous cement paste under the lower half of horizontally embedded reinforcement and under the ribs of vertically positioned bars.

fixed on top of an acrylic transparent thin plate positioned at the top surface of the concrete ACI Materials Journal/May-June1999 349 .20 Fig. a slow flow time (for example. The concrete is poured at a constant rate of approximately 0. The latter case occurs when the concrete is either too viscous to spread readily into place under its own weight.18 The test consists of casting concrete in a box with dimensions of 300 x 500 x 300 mm. or when it is highly flowable but not stable. allowing the concrete to flow out. A simple test that can be used to evaluate the stability of concrete and its ability to insure proper suspension of aggregate and fines is shown in Fig. The concrete flows under its own weight among the closely spaced bars. or LVDT. 6. The maximum theoretical filling capacity is approximately 73 percent. The funnel is filled completely with concrete and the bottom outlet is opened. 3—Variations between slump and slump flow measureFig. 5—Schematic of filling capacity apparatus. 4—V-funnel test used to evaluate flowability through restricted section.19. When the concrete is both fluid and cohesive. change the aggregate shape. It is important to point out that B can be taken as the area corresponding to a height of 220 mm. 6—Setup to measure surface settlement of concrete. This is continued until the concrete height reaches 220 mm in the nonreinforced section following proper flow among the obstacles. A number of closely spaced smooth horizontal bars are used to evaluate the filling capacity of the concrete through the restricted section. or a blockage of the flow. 4. where A is the area of the region filled by concrete in the reinforced section. In the case of a highly flowable concrete (slump flow of 630 mm). or that where the concrete reaches a stable state after some settlement where the maximum filling capacity can reach 100 percent. and B is equal to 300 x 50 mm. The flow of the concrete is noted as the lapse of time between the removal of the outlet and the seizure of the flow. 20 percent) of a concrete that exhibits excellent deformability (for example. This can lead to arching of aggregate that interferes with the rate deformability. The concrete is introduced from a tremie pipe equipped with a hopper at a constant rate until the concrete reaches a height of 220 mm in the nonreinforced section. slump flow of 650 mm) indicates the need to reduce the volume of coarse aggregate or the MSA.19. which is similar to that suggested in Reference 17. The filling capacity is calculated as the ratio of A/(A + B). A low filling capacity value (for example. Another test that can be used to determine the facility of concrete to deform readily among closely spaced reinforcement is the filling capacity test shown in Fig. or until an abrupt backup takes place in the nonreinforced section. 18 Fig. 5.20 An 800-mm-high PVC column measuring 200 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height is filled with approximately 700 mm of concrete to monitor surface settlement.Fig. leading to aggregate collision and blockage. 20 sec) indicates that the concrete does not possess enough stability to insure uniform deformation of coarse aggregate along with the mortar. A high flow time can be associated with either a low deformability due to a high paste viscosity. be evaluated using the V-funnel flow test shown in Fig. The lack of cohesion of the mortar can cause coagulation of coarse aggregate particles in the tapered outlet.7 l/sec. A linear deflectomer. or enhance the viscosity of the mix to reduce the risk of segregation and blockage. An alternative way to perform this test is to observe the flow from the top side of the funnel and report the flow time as the time between the removal of the outlet gate and the time when the light becomes visible from the bottom. a high flow time indicates that the volume of coarse aggregate or MSA should be reduced to decrease the risk of blockage. a high interparticle friction.

For example.33).06). Because of the partial replacements of cement by supplementary cementitious materials. Surface settlement measurements carried out on fluid and SCC mixes show that surface settlement is closely related to segregation. It is important to note that the VEA type and content can be selected to provide higher thixotropy to increase viscosity build-up after casting and further enhance stability.e. limestone filler. The incorporation of a VEA at small dosages can improve the robustness of the SCC and make it less sensitive to changes in material properties and placement conditions. which affects stability and blockage.50 w/cm and VEA) are also evaluated. the increase in w/cm enables the increase in water content and reduction of coarse aggregate volume and S/ Pt. Once in place.22 In general. The reduction in aggregate content necessitates the use of a higher volume of cement that increases cost and temperature. the final w/p can be specified. for each SCC type with a fixed content of cementitious materials. by mass of cementitious materials. and stability. by volume. Three SCC mixes made with low w/cm and no VEA and three others incorporating moderate contents of welan gum VEA and higher w/cm were prepared (Table 1). A fluid conventional concrete made with 340 kg/ m 3 of cementitious materials and 0. These rheological parameters were determined using a IBB rheometer (modified two-point workability rheometer) that measures torque values required to maintain a given speed of a four-finger impeller rotating in planetary motion. 0.90 to 1. The plate is anchored to the concrete through three 75-mm-long screws cast into the concrete.23 One approach to enhance cohesiveness of the paste is to lower the free water content by reducing the w/cm (i. Mixes made with lower cementitious materials of 425 kg/m3 and w/cm of 0. This may require a relatively high content of HRWR to obtain the required deformability. 0.. especially when the MSA is high or when the aggregate incorporates some elongated and flat particles. This can facilitate the deformability of the concrete during placement.0.41 and moderate VEA content. including the reduction in coarse aggregate volume.20 All mixes were made with crushed limestone aggregate with an MSA of 20 mm.38 mix. is kept low. The resulting combination can then secure a mix with relatively low yield value and moderate viscosity necessary for the successful casting of SCC. the g value of the conventional concrete was higher than those of the SCC.08 to 3. Higher resistance to segregation over a wide range of fluidity levels can be obtained when a suitable dosage of VEA is incorporated . while the HRWR primarily reduces the yield value. thus enhancing viscosity of the paste. For example. These principals needed to limit the interparticle friction among coarse aggregate. As shown in Table 1.45) and to incorporate a VEA to enhance the rheological parameters. The slump flow values of the SCC and conventional mixes were approximately 650 and 440 mm. and powder materials are taken into consideration in proportioning SCC.26. one general mix proportioning method recommends limiting the coarse aggregate volume to 50 percent of the bulk unit weight of coarse aggregate and the sand volume to 40 percent of the mortar volume. The initial flow resistance g and relative plastic viscosity h values are compared in Fig. the g value decreased with the increase in cementitious material content (555 versus 425 kg/m 3) despite the similar slump flow values. hence improving deformability.21 TYPICAL SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE MIXES As previously discussed. which reflect internal resistance to flow. All concretes were prepared with ternary cementitious materials made with Type 10 cement and either 3 percent silica fume and 20 percent Class F fly ash or 3 percent silica fume and 40 percent blast furnace slag replacements. respectively. and no VEA. These values were similar to the h value obtained with the conventional concrete with a slump of 350 ACIMaterialsJournal/May-June1999 . and concrete temperature (10 to 30 C).38 (compared to 0. the 425 SF-FA 0. and hence.38 concrete had a high g value of 1. This is accompanied by an increase in the paste volume and a reduction in the sand-to-paste volume ratio (S/Pt). the coarse aggregate volume of SCC. Unlike the other SCC mixes. An alternative approach is to maintain the w/cm needed to secure strength and durability (i. Commonly used VEA in concrete include cellulose derivatives and polysaccharides of microbial sources—in particular. the use of low dosage of welan gum was reported to reduce the degree of variability in slump flow due to variations of Blaine fineness of the cement (318 to 342 m2 /kg). Slightly higher values were obtained with SCC made with silica fume and slag (SF-SG). on filling capacity of the highly flowable SCC. fineness modulus of the sand (2.19. self-compactability. are compared to two other mixes containing similar cementitious material contents but a higher w/cm of 0. free water content. an SCC often contains high-volume replacements of fly ash.35.20. are shown to be relatively high. considering the highly flowable nature of the SCC mixes. a low w/cm of 0.12 The dosage of the HRWR and final w/p can then be determined by trial batches to insure high fluidity (slump flow) and deformability through restricted area (V-funnel test or others).24 The VEA increases both the yield value and viscosity. compared to an SCC made without any VEA. blast furnace slag. The use of a VEA along with an HRWR can insure both high deformability and adequate stability that can insure high filling capacity and uniformity of in situ mechanical properties and bond to reinforcement. sand. etc. Except for the 425 silica fume-fly ash (SFFA) 0. The incorporation of one or more powder materials having different morphology and grain-size distribution can improve particle packing density and reduce interparticle friction and viscosity. 25 This can improve the capacity of the paste to suspend solid particles that can lower the risk of flow blockage. The g and h parameters were derived by linear regression of the torque speed data to fit a Bingham flow model. the shear rate decreases. the cement contents of the optimized rich mixes were approximately 310 and 410 kg/m3 . and the apparent viscosity increases. Given the required fluidity and mechanical properties. the w/p can be initially taken as 0. Therefore. welan gum. 7 and 8. respectively. The incorporation of VEA affects the aqueous phase of the cement paste where chains of the water-soluble polymer can imbibe some of the free water in the system.50 w/cm was also prepared. Two SCC mixes made with high content of cementitious materials (555 kg/ m 3 ). The reduction in coarse aggregate volume decreases with the increase in w/cm and content of fines.e. The h values. resulting in greater stability at rest and better capability to retain water and suspend solid particles.19.35 Nm that can be due to the low water content of the mix and the high interparticle friction resulting from a relatively high coarse aggregate volume of 455 L/m 3.16. Such materials are generally less reactive than cement and can reduce problems resulting from fluidity loss of the rich concrete. 1. Such contradicting properties involve various measures. the design of an SCC involves tailoring the selection of materials and mix proportioning to secure excellent deformability and adequate resistance to segregation to insure high filling capacity and flow around obstructions without blockage. Depending on the cement properties. paste and aggregate volumes.column is used to monitor surface settlement. or stone dust to enhance fluidity and cohesiveness and limit heat generation. Previous studies prove that such combinations provide high flowability and stability of SCC.27 Mixes containing VEA exhibit shear thinning behavior whereby the apparent viscosity decreases with the increase in shear rate.59 Nm.22. The two main approaches for enhancing stability of SCC are evaluated here. For SF-FA mixes. This was carried out to determine the effect of cementitious material content.

46 0. kg/m 3 Slag. kg/m3 Fly ash.5 327 13 85 0 425 0.2 Note: SF-SG = silica fume-slag.41/WG 0. kg/m w/cm Total water.50 170 960 634 272 906 2.16 143 257 375 369 626 0. This mix had the highest g value.8 0.60 1.46 0.48 0.41 0.1 417 18 118 0 553 0.35 194 700 629 269 898 4. kg/m 3 Sand. VEA Cement.43 0.44 0. kg/m 5 to 14 mm CA.42 0. The filling capacity of the conventional concrete.1 0 0 186 260 330 394 654 0. SF-FA = silica fume-fly ash.41 0.Fig.1 0. CM = cementious materials.40 0.1 262 10 68 — 340 0. kg/m 3 Total CA. The filling capacity values are compared in Fig.55 0.41 0.41 230 690 570 247 817 5. kg/m 3 Percent of water Total CM.49 0.37 0.50-CONV 307 18 0 235 560 0.40 0.40 0. 7—Comparison of relative flow resistance values of tested Fig.17 186 257 300 428 685 0.41 0.50 213 690 714 306 1020 3.38 concrete that had a filling capacity of 19 percent. which had a high g value and a relatively high coarse aggregate content of 333 L/m3. This is mainly due to the slightly higher volume of coarse aggregate that was 330 L/m 3 compared to 300 L/m3 for the 0.0 327 13 85 0 425 0. CM content. WG = welan gum. mm. Table 1—Mix proportions of seven evaluated concretes Slump flow. L/m 3 Sand volume. despite the high deformability of the concrete. The higher torque viscosity is due to the low w/cm in some mixes and moderate concentration of VEA in others.41 227 690 568 247 815 4. Slightly lower values of 56 and 58 percent were obtained with the rich SCC mixes made with lower w/cm and no VEA. L/m CA/solid volume Sand/mortar volume Sand/aggregate volume Sand/paste volume w/cm by volume 3 3 689 0.43 0. and S/Pt value of 0. L/m 3 Welan gum VEA.32 0.5 Total CM.38 162 730 771 330 1102 5 0 0 143 271 405 320 591 0. The filling capacity considerably decreased in the case of SCC mixes containing 425 kg/m 3 of cementitious materials.38 0.44 0. The filling capacity of the ACI Materials Journal/May-June1999 351 .46 0. 250 mm (slump flow of 440 mm).40 0.52 1.2 417 18 118 0 553 0. kg/m 3 Silica fume.7 0 0 186 260 330 396 656 0.40 0. L/m 3 Paste volume. L/m 3 CA volume.85 1.1 0 0 115 357 333 297 654 0.38 0.35 196 700 629 269 898 3.41 w/cm mixes. was limited to 30 percent. 8—Comparison of relative viscosity of SCC and conventional concrete mixes.66 1.41/WG 0. and CA = coarse aggregate.35 0.85.9 0.35 0. L/m 3 Mortar volume. The highest values of 63 percent were obtained with the rich SCC mixes containing 0.66 1. This was especially the case for the 425 SF-FA 0. The h value decreases with the increase in paste volume because of the reduction in coarse aggregate content that reduces internal friction among aggregate particles. 9 and show striking differences between values obtained for the various mixes. kg/m 3 kg/m 3 5 to 20 mm CA. high coarse aggregate volume of 405 L/m3 .60 1.17 186 257 300 432 307 18 0 235 560 0. 3 3 650 ± 10 440 560 SF-SG 560 SF-SG 555 SF-FA 555 SF-FA 425 SF-FA 425 SF-FA 340 SF-FA 0. kg/m HRWR.70 1.41 w/cm and low contents of coarse aggregate (300 L/m3 ).20 1.50/WG 0. combination w/cm.

s.70. A low settlement value reflects the high stability of the concrete while in a plastic state that is essential to secure homogeneous properties of the hardened concrete. in part.1 mm.1 Nm-sec and flow time of 10.5 to 10. the settlement sharply decreased from 19 CONCLUSION The workability requirements for successful placement of SCC necessitate that the concrete exhibits excellent deformability and proper stability to flow under its own weight through closely spaced reinforcement without segregation and blockage. Again. The incorporation of a VEA.1 mm (2. 425 SF-FA 0. respectively. The increase of w/cm from 0. the concrete exhibited high stability with a settlement value of 3. DICUSSION The previously described results demonstrated that the reduction of cementitious material content and increase in coarse aggregate volume can cause some interference with concrete deformability in narrow areas. with the decrease in aggregate content and incorporation of VEA.Fig. and surface settlement of concrete after placement and secure uniform properties of the hardened concrete.5 Nm-sec.9 sec were lower than those of the 425 SF-FA 0. especially in the case of the lower w/cm mix made without any VEA. On the other hand. and despite the higher w/cm. As was the case for the filling capacity test.50 and the incorporation of a moderate concentration of VEA resulted in a net decrease of settlement from 19 to 3. Such mix had a lower g value than the 425 SF-FA 0. 10 show that the flow time of the conventional concrete was 7 sec and varied between 2. Insuring high stability is important to limit bleeding.35 mix that had a settlement value of 10 mm. 11—Comparison of surface settlement values of SCC and conventional concrete mixes. as was the case for the deformability between closely spaced reinforcement (filling capacity test) and in the restricted tapered outlet (V-funnel flow test).4 percent of the 700-mm-high sample. to the reduction in coarse aggregate volume (405 to 375 l/ m 3 ) and S/Pt value (0. The g and h values decreased from 1. 10—Comparison of flow time values of SCC and conventional concrete mixes. respectively. In addition to the slump flow test used to evaluate deform- 352 ACIMaterialsJournal/May-June1999 . Despite the increase in w/ cm from 0. Fig. except for the 560 SF-SG 0. Such SCC contained 405 L/m 3 of coarse aggregate compared to 375 L/m3 for the mix made with 0.7 to 0.35 to 0.29 Nm and from 12.38 concrete and a coarse aggregate content and S/Pt value of 375 L/m3 and 0.44 percent) with the use of a moderate dosage of a VEA.38 to 0. In general. the resistance to blockage and ease of flow through restricted spacing were evaluated using the V-funnel test. 9—Comparison of filling capacity values of SCC and conventional concrete mixes. the SCC exhibits low yield value and adequate cohesiveness (moderate viscosity). which corresponds to 1. 12. The 425 SF-FA 0.50. The 425 SF-FA 0. despite the greater w/cm. In both SCC systems made with 555 and 425 kg/m3 of binder.85 to 0.5 to 10. the incorporation of a VEA at a moderate dosage was shown to enhance deformability and stability.2 mm. The 425 SF-FA 0.38 to 0. including bond to embedded reinforcement. to 3.50/WG mix had lower volume of coarse aggregate and higher water content.9 sec.38 concrete exhibited high settlement that can be due to a lack of cohesiveness of the mix and the high coarse aggregate volume that can increase the extent of segregation.4 sec for the SCC mixes containing 555 and 560 kg/m 3 of cementitious materials.50/WG improved to 42 percent. increase in filling capacity from 19 to 42 percent. The settlement of the conventional concrete was 10 mm. Its h value of 10.38 mix.5 sec and exhibited the highest h value among the other SCC mixes. and decrease in flow time from 15. The maximum surface settlement values are compared in Fig. segregation. The settlement values of the four SCC mixes with 555 and 560 kg/m3 of cementitious material contents were low. 11. Such improvement in performance is attributed. Fig.1 Nm.70). despite the higher w/cm. This was especially beneficial in the moderate cement factor concrete made with 425 kg/m3 of cementitious materials.38 mix had a flow time of 15. Such reduction in aggregate volume can decrease the extent of collision of coarse aggregate and sand particles in the vicinity of various obstruction that can increase internal resistance to flow (increase in g and h values and flow-out time) and lead to interference with the flow of the concrete (higher flow time and lower filling capacity). the two SCC mixes made with 425 kg/m3 of cementious materials had relatively high flow times. hence providing more uniform flow of concrete through restricted sections. The results presented in Fig. can increase cohesion and reduce the interparticle collision and friction.50 w/cm.7 and 6.

N. pp. 555 kg/m 3 of cementitious materials. Mich. E. 995-1004. 237-253. “Role of Powder Materials on the Filling Capacity of Fresh Concrete.” Advances in Concrete Technology. Trudel. Ushijima.. Sakata. 490. Slag. Mich. K. V. No.. K. et al. SP-140.. 25.. ed. SP-154. 198 pp. Sakata. V. London.” master’s thesis... V. 4. 335-356. S. “Development of Superworkable Concrete for MultiFunctional Port Structures. Silica Fume. Fourth CANMET/ACI International Symposium on Fly Ash. 164-171. 50-54. Farmington Hills.. et al. V. V.. SP-154.. RILEM International Workshop on Special Concretes: Workability and Mixing. Ozawa.ability. K. Khayat. 163-186. H. High-Performance Concrete in Severe Environments.. No. SP-140. K. V.. Québec. American Concrete Institute. 491-500. and Sakata. L. and Ozawa. Hayakawa. “Flow and Segregation of Fresh Concrete in Tapered Pipes. H. K.” Proceedings. and Okamura. pp.0394 in. July 1997.” Advances in Concrete Technology. 92. 1994..” Concrete International. 39/1992-11. 9.85 S/Pt volumes. One approach to enhance viscosity is to lower the w/cm to maintain adequate cohesion friction between the mortar and coarse aggregate and insure uniform flow of SCC through restricted sections. 1994. Sherbrooke. 1997. Malhotra. Miura. 121137. No. 95... A. and D. pp. 147-161. 27. Fukute.” Annual Report of Kajima Research Institute. Manai. Khayat. “Evaluation of the Effect of Chemical and Mineral Admixtures on the Workability. Farmington Hills. K.. Khayat. 1996... SP-154. Matsuoka.. 1995. 6. Marruyama. K. 381-397.” Journal of the Faculty of Engineering.. ASME. Ozawa. “Development of HighPerformance Concrete. Ozawa. and Taniguchi. H.-Dec. Ukaji. “Application of ‘Flowable’ Concrete in a Tunnel Lining.. K.” HighPerformance Concrete in Severe Environments. K. Istanbul. K.. “Use of Viscosity-Modifying Admixtures to Enhance Stability of Fluid Concrete.” Proceedings. J. G. 139-144. 1996.. pp. and O... CONVERSION FACTORS 1 mm 1 mL 1 kg/m3 1 MPa = = = = 0.” ACI Materials Journal. Ozawa. “High-Performance Concrete Based on the Durability of Concrete Structures. Tanaka. and shrinkage. No. M. M.60 to 0. V. Sakai. 7.” ACI Materials Journal . pp. Z.. pp. 332-340. (in French) 21. pp. and Manai. Third International Symposium on Liquid-Solid Flows. and Maekawa. SP-140. 158-167.. 2.” High-Performance Concrete in Severe Environments. No. H. 19. 1995.” Advances in Concrete Technology. Production Methods and Workability of Concrete. pp. H. 22. Sapporo. 0. E&FN Spon. 3. No. 4. P. Farmington Hills. 13. eds. 2. Université de Sherbrooke... Québec. H. A.” ACI International Workshop on High-Performance Concrete . 8 pp. 24. H.-Apr.. M. such as limestone powder. M. N. American Concrete Institute. “Development and Utilization of High-Performance Concrete for the Construction of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge. Takeuchi.” ACI Materials Journal . Khayat. 1994. “Workability. American Concrete Institute.. Nanayakkara. S. Tangtermsirikul. Uniformity. Marrs. ed. T. 1995. V. “In Situ Mechanical Properties of Wall Elements Cast Using Self-Consolidating Concrete. Japan Society of Civil Engineering. H. Environment and Loadings. 1997. and Trudel.. K.. N. Farmington Hills. Farmington Hills. Higuchi. A.. 1995.” master’s thesis.. 8. pp. 1992. K.” Proceedings. and Yokota.. 25-51.. H. and Okamura.. and Nanni. Kuroiwa. ed...” Proceedings. Izumi. Mich. 14. An SCC with a slump flow of 650 mm containing 300 to 330 l/m 3 of 20-mm MSA. 1992. 94.061 in. Mich. Yurugi. pp. Chiang-Mai. 1988. M. Hayakawa. “Self-Leveling Concrete—Properties and Applications.685 lb/yd3 145 psi REFERENCES 1. 1993. Mich. Maekawa. “Fundamental Study on the Practical Use of High-Performance Concrete. ed.. the filling capacity or V-funnel flow test should be used to evaluate the ability to achieve smooth flow through restricted spacing without blockage. K. and Minami. Stability. heat of hydration..” Proceedings. No. 1993. pp. (in French) 20. S. A. Université de Sherbrooke. “Placing 10. Khayat. Zia. Binary or ternary binders containing high volumes of pozzolanic or nonpozzolanic fillers. 1993.. 12. K.3 1. 17. Workshop on Self-Leveling Concrete. “Improvement of Ductility and Liquid-Tightness of Prestressed Concrete for LNG Containment.-Apr. pp.. “Self-Compacting High-Performance Concrete. 2. 1995. 10. 1998. (in French) 11. pp. Malhotra. V. pp. Banthia.. Y. Zia. 15. et al. 1996.. ed.” Supplementary Papers...” RILEM Proceedings 32. et al. 469479. V. “Basic Properties and Effects of Welan Gum on Self-Consolidating Concrete. eds..” Proceedings . P. 1996. “Use of Viscosity-Modifying Admixture to Reduce Top-Bar of Anchored Bars Cast with Fluid Concrete. Farmington Hills. N. pp.. 5. 1-30. 23. 16. XLI. and Performance of Self-Compacting Concrete. Second East Asia Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction. Canada. ed. Matsuoka.” ACI Materials Journal. Kitamura. V.000 m3 Super Workable Concrete for Guide Track Structure of Retractable Roof of Fukuoka Dome.. K. V. Mar. 6. 182 pp. “Viscosity Agent and Mineral Admixtures for Highly Fluidized Concrete.. Farmington Hills. Okamura. H. K. Paisely. V. and Guizani.66 S/Pt volumes. H. “Development of Self-Consolidating Concrete. Nov. N. K. No. P. Khayat. M. et al. “Development and Application of Super Workable Concrete.. M. can be used to reduce the cement content. Bartos. J. M. Mar. H. 94. American Concrete Institute. H. Malhotra. 16 pp.” Concrete for Infrastructure and Utilities.. 1993. 1992. Mich. 4. American Concrete Institute. “Application of Super Workable Concrete to Reinforced Concrete Structures with Difficult Construction Conditions. K. “Effects of Anti-Washout Admixtures on Fresh Concrete Properties.70 to 0. Mich. Sakai. H. 425 kg/m 3 of cementitious materials and 0.” Concrete International... K. can be more suitable for casting highly congested structural sections than a mix containing 375 to 400 l/m3 of coarse aggregate. et al.. pp. Manai... K. 7. pp. 26-29. K. 381-439.. This can enable the reduction of coarse aggregate volume and reduce the risk of blockage.. Ozawa.. Yurugi. and Maekawa. et al. American Concrete Institute.. Y. and Shindoh. July-Aug. T. and 0. M. University of Paisley.. 18. Con- ACI Materials Journal/May-June1999 353 .. and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete. “Evaluation of Self-Compactability of Fresh Concrete Using the Funnel Test. Concrete under Severe Conditions. 26.” Proceedings V. Okamura. Apr. University of Tokyo (B). 16. Gjørv. I. FED-75. Harada. “Self-Compactable High-Performance Concrete in Japan. 1995. 3. “Application of Super Workable Concrete in the Construction of 70-Story Building in Japan.. 1989. 19.. K. and Structural Behavior of High-Performance Self-Compacting Concrete. and Okamura. Japan.. Zia. 2. Another way is to incorporate a low to moderate dosage of a VEA without lowering the w/cm. 23.. P.” Proceedings.. K. American Concrete Institute. pp. M. which is especially useful in mixtures containing moderate content of cementitious materials and fine fillers. 171-185. Cleland. D. “Application of Super Workable Concrete to Construction of a 20-Story Building. 2. K. ed.. Canada. pp.

Environment and Loadings. and O. Japan. Sapporo. E. 1005-1014. N. 354 ACI Materials Journal/May-June 1999 ..crete under Severe Conditions. Banthia. eds. pp. Sakai. K. Gjørv. 1995.