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A Novel Prediction Tool for Indoor Wireless LAN under the Microwave Oven Interference

Wen-Ching Chang, Yang-Han Lee, Chih-Hui Ko, Chun-ku Chen Department of Electrical Engineering , Tamkang University Tamsui, Taipei, Hsien25137, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Abstract  In this paper, the coverage region of communication quality degradation would be indicated. The index of PER (UDP packet frame error rate) is employed to evaluate the communication quality and verify the prediction results. Moreover, by measuring the interference in terms of PER, the dependence of the microwave oven interference on the whole communication channels in the IEEE 802.11 DSSS wireless LAN card has been described. Particularly, the dependence of the UDP packet size on the communication quality under the microwave oven interference will be discussed. Index Terms  Indoor wireless communication, UDP packet frame error rate, coverage prediction, local area network, IEEE 802.11 DSSS wireless LAN card.

I. INTRODUCTION To maintain a high quality of communication in an Infrastructure network, the construction of one or more access points (AP) are necessary. For economic reasons and radio spectrum conversation, AP should be placed well to achieve the optimum coverage region for wireless communication. Nevertheless, optimum locations of AP are difficult to determine by the fact that indoor propagation losses are highly dependent on the architectural design of building, placement and composition of walls, and indoor partition and furniture arrangement. To obtain the suitable locations of AP, there have been the two methods of the ray-tracing technique [3] and the path loss model [1], [5] to compute the behavior of the radio wave in indoor surrounding. Recently. The investigation of the prediction techniques for wireless LAN under the interference of active sources, e.g. a microwave oven, have not been considered yet. In this paper, a simple and practical methodology to predict the coverage region under the microwave oven interference and compute the coverage region of the interference is proposed for the first time. The index of PER was employed to evaluate the communication quality and verify the prediction results. Moreover, by measuring the interference effect in terms of PER, the dependence of the microwave oven interference on the whole communication channels in the IEEE 802.11 DSSS wireless LAN card has been described. Particularly, the dependence of the UDP packet size on the communication quality under the microwave oven interference will be discussed. Furthermore, two experiments were designed to verify the performance of this tool and then the characteristics of short computation time and high prediction accuracy were demonstrated.
II. MODELING OF MICROWAVE OVEN INTERFERENCE In this paper, the effective interference radius model will be employed to predict the coverage region affected by the interference of microwave oven. The interference radius R under the interference of microwave oven can be expressed as
R = D −

∑ w o
i −1 i

n

i

(1)

where D is the maximum interference radius evaluated by the index of PER under the microwave oven interference, n is the index of a specific wall or obstructer composition, Wi represents the effective shrinking distance within the maximum interference radius D while the microwave signal passes through the ith wall or obstructer, and Oi is the number of a specific obstructer with the same composition along the radial direction between the microwave oven and the receiver. Because the microwave is obstructed by walls, the region interfered by the microwave oven will be changed consequently. Parameter of n、Wi and Oi are dependent on the surrounding environment factors , and D is determined by the microwave oven. However , the effective interference radius model is characterized by the parameters of D and Wi,

we proposed an effective interference radius model to calculate the coverage region affected by the microwave . The results are shown in Fig. In this measurement. The effective shrinking distance is defined as (2) Wi =D – di Therefore. For the cases of the cement wall and the wood wall. the performance of the DSSS wireless LAN communication under the microwave oven interference was investigated. this result demonstrates that the communication quality is barely affected by the microwave oven interference. the communication performance can be ameliorated by reducing the packet size. Thus.2m. the UDP packets were sent consecutively by the transmitter(Tx) and then PER was recorded at the receiver(Rx). On the other side. In view of the other channels. a wall was located between a microwave oven and the receiver. Among these channels. it means that the receiver is located out of the interference coverage region which is obtained from maximum interference radius D. The measurement result is shown in Table 2.and these parameters will be discussed later. while the packet size is smaller than 400 bytes. If the condition was reached. while that is larger than 400bytes. the maximum oven interference imposed on the IEEE 802. the walls made of cement (c) and wood (w) have been considered. By using channel 8 in the experiment. the channels in the DSSS system are separated each other by 5MHz from 2412MHz to 2462MHz . a normal residential microwave oven was utilized. Moreover.8m. the typical system by using the DSSS scheme is considered in this measurement. the microwave interference distance is reduced because of the wall obstruction effect. Following the similar experiment scheme. Therefore. respectively. As we know. Because of the burst impulsive characteristic of microwave oven interference. we used two notebook computers which were connected by IEEE 802. respectively. the UDP packet signals were measured in different communication channels. channel 8 was selected to proceed this experiment. In this section. Additionally.1 (a) and (b) show the background spectrum and the microwave leakage spectrum measured in the surrounding of the operating microwave oven. the interference region of an operating microwave oven would reach the maximum (D=23m). From this table. On the contrary. CONCLUSION In this paper. In other words. the unaffected communication quality while operating beyond the maximum interference radius would be obtained. although there are several kinds of ISM-band wireless LAN. it was expected that the microwave oven interference would degrade the communication performance seriously at these channels.8m and 1. at this case. it is easy to be affected in communication quality if a larger packet size is chosen to transmit.11 standard. the transmitted packet sizes were varied from 100 to 400bytes in different cases. the measured interference radius di are 17. In our experiments. and the PER was recorded at receiver. the maximum interference radius for the microwave oven under the condition of the packet size of 400 bytes were obtained. When the microwave oven was operating . Hence. While a microwave oven was operating. Wc and Ww are 5. This is resulted from the periodic high level burst interference characteristic of the microwave oven.11 wireless LAN card in terms of PER was characterized by determining the maximum interference radius D. it has been found that the communication quality in channel 1 to channel 4 ( 2412MHz-2427MHz ) are almost not affected by the micro-wave oven interference. From Table 1. Ⅳ. Comparing the values of D and di.11 DSSS wireless LAN cards and recorded the spectrum of the signal in different channels. considering the worst case. the phenomenon of interference becomes obvious. it was found that channel 1 to channel 4 were the unaffected communication channels under microwave oven interference. The UDP packet size was chosen as 400bytes. Moreover. the interference effect generated by the microwave oven could be ameliorated. the effect of packet size on communication quality was discussed. it can be found that the frequency bands of the microwave leakage and the DSSS wireless LAN cards are overlapping each other at some channels. we recorded the spectrums of an operating microwave oven and the radio wave signal transmitted from the DSSS wireless LAN cards by using a spectrum analyzer. which were generated from IEEE 802. Based on the index of PER. To investigate the distribution of the spectrum. we would observe whether the PER reaches to zero. and its oscillation frequency and rated microwave output power are 2450MHz and 750W.11 DSSS wireless LAN card. although a smaller packet size would degrade the throughput. In addition. as referred to Table . Fig. respectively. By increasing the length L which is the distance between the microwave oven and the receiver. when channel 8 (2447MHz) is utilized to communicate. based on the IEEE 802.2. because these composition are common partition stuff in the indoor environment.2m and 21.

Lin. C.” TaiwanTelecom. Furthermore. vol. [2] Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications . Y. 1996. Lee. C. Channel Ch1 Ch2 Ch3 Ch4 Ch5 Ch6 Ch7 Ch8 Ch9 Ch10 Ch11 D unaffected unaffected unaffected unaffected 9m 20.” IEEE Trans.oven interference. 1998 Table 1 The frequency distribution of IEEE 801. W. pp. “Site survey tool for wireless network based on auto-calibration. S.27-31. Sep. Veh. a novel prediction tool for wireless LAN under the microwave oven interference was proposed for the first time. it is believed that this prediction tool should be very helpful in the design of an indoor wireless LAN. [3] J.5 m 22 m 23 m 22. [5] Y. C. Channel Ch1 Ch2 Ch3 Ch4 Ch5 Ch6 Ch7 Ch8 Ch9 Ch10 Ch11 Frequency 2412 MHz 2417 MHz 2422 MHz 2427 MHz 2432 MHz 2437 MHz 2442 MHz 2447 MHz 2452 MHz 2457 MHz 2462 MHz Table 2 The maximum interference radiuses D measured at different communication channels. Sheu and C. T. the IEEE standards. Owing to the serious interference property of a microwave oven.5. 3.11 DSSS wireless LAN card. Chiu and S. Aug. . “Ray tracing as a design tool for radio networks. After a simple parameter setting process.. Cox. Conference.5 m 22 m 22 m . L.. E79B. W.” IEICE Trans.” IEEE Network Mag. vol. Hamilton. from the verification results. 1991. “Universal portable radio communications.117-121. McKown and R. Nov. VT-34. the coverage region subject to the microwave oven interference would be indicated by this prediction tool real time. According to this model. vol. pp. H. Zheng.9. REFERENCES [1] D. 1985. 1346-1350.“Coverage prediction in indoor wireless communication. Chiu.pp. no.no. [4] C. Technol. Commun. J. it is demonstrated that this tool offers the advantages of high prediction accuracy.

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 4m 8m 12m 16m 20m P S =100 P S =200 P S =300 P S =400 PER(%) D istance Fig.24 50M H z (a) 2450M H z Microwave Oven (b) Fig. (b) the microwave leakage spectrum. 1 Measured spectrum in the surrounding of the operating microwave oven. (a) the background spectrum. 2 The measurement results of PER under the different packet size(PS) ( ) .