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The Glimpse of

On the auspicious occasion of opening of The Seema/Uposatha
Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara
G.T. Road, Village Kadian
P.O. Bhatian Bet,
Ludhiana, 141008
Punjab, India
– 8
October 2006
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Title: The Glimpse of Punjab Buddhist Society UK
and Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara, Ludhiana

Compiled by: Ven. Sujan Maharjan
Mr. Manohar Lal Birdi

Advisors: Ven. Chander Bodhi
Mrs. Parminder Sroy

First Edition 2006

Copy rights © Punjab Buddhist Society UK 2006

Published by
Punjab Buddhist Society UK
83 Lea Road, Pennfields,
Wolverhampton, UK
Tel: +44 1902 656665
Email: or

The Charity Registration no. 1108360

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Subject page
Part One in English
1. History of Buddhism 1
2. Rise and Fall of Buddhism 1
3. Revival of Buddhism in India 2
4. 14
October 1956 2
5. Buddhism in Punjab 3
6. Buddhism in modern Punjab 5
7. Punjab Buddhist Society UK 5
a. Establishment of PBS Punjab 7
b. Establishment of PBS UK 8
8. Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara 9
9. The Glimpse of Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara 11
10. Teachings of the Buddha 18
11. References 20

Part Two in Punjabi
¤ =·a a f¤na n n·feaì ¤ ¤ =· ¤fa=¤ ¤º

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(Founder Trustee PBS UK)
Glasgow, Scotland

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It gives me great pleasure, honour and privilege to bring-out this
booklet on the auspicious occasion of the opening ceremony of Takshila
Maha Buddha Vihara. This year marks the golden jubilee year of
Dhamma Diksha Divas (14
Oct. 1956-2006) by Dr. Bhim Rao
Ambedkar, when he embraced Buddhism at Nagpur along with
thousands of his followers. This year is also the 2550
year of the
Buddhist Era. On this remarkable occasion all the followers of Baba
Saheb are organizing different functions all over the world and at many
places in India throughout the year, mainly in Nagpur, especially this
month. The Punjab Buddhist Society UK and Punjab along with its
members and supporters under the leadership and spiritual guidance of
All India Bhikkhu Sangha is also celebrating this remarkable event by
opening Seema Hall/ Uposatha at Ludhiana in Punjab, India.
The formation of the ‘Punjab Buddhist Society U.K.’ has proved
to be a milestone in the revival of Buddhist movement in Punjab.
Although, there has been a great deal of work done by several
organisations and individuals, our significantly new contribution has
been to co-ordinate the efforts and the works of previous participants.
This has been successfully achieved by the Punjab Buddhist Society
U.K. & Pb. under the spiritual leadership of the ‘All India Bhikkhu
Sangha’. They have also undertaken to work in cooperation with the
sangha looking to them for spiritual and religious guidance at all times.
The attempt has been made in this small booklet to shed some light
on the rise, fall and revival of Buddhism in India. After the King
Ashoka the Great, another great Buddhist revivalist Dr. Baba Saheb
Bhim Rao Ambedkar came on the scene in the twentieth century. After
having completed his research, he came to the conclusion that
Buddhism has the answer for the Caste ridden inequality of Indian
society. He along with thousands of his followers converted to
Buddhism on 14
October 1956, on the very anniversary that Ashoka
the great embraced Buddhism, which is called ‘Vijaya
Dasami’(Dushehra). On this great day he declared that he wanted to see
once again India as a great Buddhist nation enjoying the same
admiration from the world at large as it did in its heyday. To
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commemorate this great day ‘The Punjab Buddhist Society (PB)’ and
‘Punjab Buddhist Society (U.K.)’ under the auspices of ‘All India
Bhikkhu Sangha’ have undertaken to inaugurate ‘Takshila Maha
Buddha Vihara’ at Ludhiana Punjab. It will be a landmark
achievement, which would prove to be a matter of pride for all
Buddhists everywhere.
I would like to acknowledge and offer special thanks to Ven. Sujan
Maharjan and Mr. Manohar Lal Birdi for compiling this booklet which
attempts to explore our history in a concise and comprehensive manner.
My sincere thanks also go to Mr. Arun Kumar for his Punjabi
translation. Further, I am grateful to Mr. Mehar Chand Jassal one of the
founder trustees for providing financial support and sponsorship to
publish this booklet.
On this occasion I, on behalf of all the members and supports of
Punjab Buddhist Society UK and Punjab would like to thank every
individual and organization for their continuous generous donations,
dedications and tireless support for the completion of Takshila Maha
Buddha Vihara and I do hope they will continue their support in future
for the propagation of Buddhism and mission of Baba Saheb.
With the protective power of The Triple Gem; the Buddha, the
Dhamma and the Sangha may all have good health, success and achieve
the highest blessings of Nibbana in this very life.

Bhavatu Sabba Mangalam !

Ven. Chander Bodhi
Founder & Patron
Punjab Buddhist Society

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The Prince Siddharth Gotama was born in 563 B.C. in Kapilvastu of modern
Nepal. At the age of 29 he renounced the palace and luxurious life in search of the way
to salvation of life. Prince Siddharth went to different teachers to practice different
ascetics methods for over six years but was unable to attain enlightenment. He
eventually discovered the middle way of life hence attained enlightenment at the age of
35 and was known as the Buddha. He introduced this middle path (majjimapatipada) for
the happiness and benefit of humanity.
The Buddha preached his doctrines for over 45
years in various ways and in different locations of ancient
India. His main message and teachings include “The Four
Noble Truths” (Catuariya Sacca), Dependent Origination
(Paticcasamuppada), and Three Characteristics
(Tilakkhana). However, the heart of Buddha’s teachings is
The Four Noble Truths. The Buddha explained in his
discourses the importance of his core teachings. In the
Hatthipadopama Sutta (the discourse of Elephant’s foot),
the Buddha says every animal’s feet are smaller then the
elephant’s foot.. In this way, the Four Noble Truths
includes all his doctrines. Therefore, all his teachings,
which is known as Buddha Dhamma, are based on this Four Noble Truths.
All his teachings were compiled and called Tipitaka (skt. Tripitaka), the three
baskets of doctrines. The first compilation of all the Buddha’s teachings were done at
the first Sangiti (Sanghayana), the first Buddhist council after three months of Buddha’s
Mahaparinibbana at the age of 80, in India. Sanghayana is performed in the history of
Buddhism to purify and understanding Buddha’s teachings. The Buddhist councils have
compiled and preserved his teachings as purely as possible and later known as Tipitaka.
The Tipitaka consists of Vinaya pitaka, a code of conduct; Sutta pitaka, a set of
discourses; and Abhidhamma pitaka, and a set of higher doctrines or Buddhist
psychology. Tripitaka is known as the Theravada Buddhist scripture/ Pali Buddhist
Rise and Fall of Buddhism
After the Mahaparinibana of the Buddha at Kushinagar, his Dhamma witnessed
many obstacles. Until at the time of King Ashoka, Buddhism was divided into several
sectors due to different interpretations of Buddha Dhamma and the practice of Vinaya.
Broadly, it was divided into two schools; Sthaviravada presently known as Theravada
school and Mahasangika now known as Mahayana school. The various schools with
different of opinions on the practice and understanding of Buddha Dhamma obviously
resulted in the loss of the popularity for the religion. Emperor King Ashoka, who
embraced Buddhism on Vijaya Dasami had supported and patronized third Buddhist
Council (Sanghayana) at Magada state currently Bihar State for the unification and
purification of the Buddha’s teachings. This Council sent nine groups of Buddhist
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missionaries’ (monks) to different countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, and
Nepal etc. He sent his own son; Prince Ven. Mahindra and daughter, Princess Ven.
Sanghamittra to Sri Lanka for spreading Buddhism. With the royal support of the King
Ashoka, Buddhism spread all over India and in the surrounding countries.
After the passing away of King Ashoka, Buddhism began to decline: there were
mainly two reasons; firstly due to deviations and establishment of different schools like
Stavirvada, Mahayana, Vajrayana, Tantrayan, Guhyeyana; and secondly, because of
Hindu oppression and their anti Buddhist campaigns, the Muslim invasions in India led
to Buddhist monasteries and institutions being destroyed, and Buddhist monks being
massacred. Buddhism almost disappeared at the end of the 11
century from the land of
its origin, India.
Revival of Buddhism in India
Buddhism remained disappeared from India for many centuries. It was given a
spark of light once again by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1860s. He discovered the
ancient places of Buddhism in India and promoted them all over the world. Following
the decades of discovery, Sir Devid Arnold wrote the book named ‘The Light of Asia’,
which became one of the most famous books around the world. ‘The Light of Asia’
inspired Mr. Don David Hewawitarana (1865-1933 C.A.), a Sri Lankan young man, to
become a strong Buddhist supporter and campaigner. He proclaimed himself as an
Anagarika, literary means a homeless wonderer and changed his name to Anagarika
Dharmapal which remained for the rest of his life. After visiting the Buddhist localities
in India he became a strong Buddhist devotee and established the Mahabodhi Society in
India for the formation of Buddhism and to free Buddhist places, particularly for the
restoration of Bodh Gaya into the Buddhist hands. He struggled for his whole life for
this cause, which is successively running to this day.
October 1956
The day of 14
October 1956 can be quoted as
the ‘Golden Day’ in the history of revival of Buddhism
in India. The history was created by Dr. B.R.
Ambedkar, who was the leader of depressed classes and
dalits of India. He had many qualifications, including;
eminent jurist, economist, political and social scientists,
member of Indian parliament, cabinate minister, the
chief architect of Indian constitution, Professor of Law
and so on. He, along with half a million of his
supporters embraced Buddhism at Nagpur on 14

October 1956, the day of Vijaya Dasami. Baba Saheb
chose the year 1956 for this great conversion because it
marked the 2500 years of Buddha era. The day of 14

October also marked that King Ashoka embraced
Buddhism on vijaya dasami, presently known as

On this day Dr. Ambedkar along with his supporters took refuge Tisaranam;
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The Buddha, The Dhamma and The Sangha and observed five precepts from the
Bhikkhu Sangha headed by a Burmese monk Most Ven. U Chandramani Mahasthavir,
who lived at Kusinagar Buddhist temple, U. P. India. This was the largest conversion on
the land of India in the history of Buddhism. On this day, Dr Ambedkar and thousands
of devotees chanted Buddham Saranam Gacchami, Dhammam Saranam Gacchami,
Sangham Saranam Gacchami. After this conversion Buddhism began to flourish in all
parts of India, especially in states like Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab.
From this day, the Mulnivasis (original inhabitants) of India got Dhamma of their
forefathers, who were Buddhists centuries ago.
If we see Punjab today, we can say that
it is a Sikh state. Before that many Muslim
kings had ruled here. However, if we go back
2000 years, the history tells us that Punjab was
once a Buddhist state in India. Besides Punjab,
other countries such as Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan
and Kashmir were Buddhist kingdoms. Lord
Buddha also visited Punjab at Kuru village,
formerly known as Kurukshetra in Haryana.
Here the Buddha gave one of the most
important discourses, which is known as
Satipatthana Sutta or the Discourse of

Since 3
century B.C. until the 11
century many Buddhist Kings ruled over
Punjab, for example, King Ashoka the great, Milind, Kanishka, Harsh Vardhan. They
ruled for many centuries. King Ashoka constructed 84000 stupas, built many Vihars,
and erected many pillars with inscriptions, which are known as Ashoka Pillars.
Furthermore, the third Buddhist Council was held during his reign. In the times of King
Ashoka the Buddhist Kingdom was established in Punjab. King Dhanbooti ruled over
Punjab from 240 to 310 A.D. His capital was known as Sug near Ambala. King Milind
ruled over Punjab from 145 to 130 A.D. His capital was Sialkot and his kingdom
included Ghandar, Sindh and Punjab. In the memory of King Milind, Dr. B.R.
Ambedkar built Milind College in Aurangabad. King Kanishka was another great
Buddhist king who ruled from 78 to 101 A.D. Under the support and patronization of
King Kanishka, the fourth Buddhist Council meeting was held in Jalandhar.
Many great Buddhist kings ruled in Punjab. At that time many cities and towns
of Punjab had became the main centres of Buddhism, like Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur,
Kangra, Chamba, Mandi and Kulu. Huen Sang one of the famous Chinese pilgrims
recorded that there were 2000 Monks and 50 Buddha Viharas around Jalandhar area
alone. The king of Jalandhar, King Udito, was also a Buddhist. During his reign Punjab
had a world-renowned educational centre opened, known as Takshasila now called
Very recently in Punjab, archeological excavations have been taking place and
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many discoveries have been made. The most important among them found in the
Village of Ucha Pind Sangol in district Fatehgarh Sahib on Ludhiana Chandigarh
Road. The remains of Stupas, monasteries
and more than 100 statutes of Kushaan
period were found. Today Sangol is the
most important Buddhist archeological
place in Punjab. Many Buddhist remains
have also been discovered in Ludhiana,
Hisar, Karnal Gurgaon, Kangra and Mandi

Excavation at Sangol

Ven. Chander Bodhi with
other monks at seema project

Ven. Chander Bodhi
Checking basement of Seema

View of Rooms from right side

View Rooms from Left side

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After the great conversion of 14

October 1956, the followers of Baba Saheb
showed their deep interest and faith in the
Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. On this
day Baba Saheb declared that he wanted to see
India as a Buddhist country. Keeping in mind
the desire of their beloved leader, many Indian
communities dedicated their efforts for the

Carving parts of Sanchi Gate
spread and development of Buddhism. Among them were many Punjabis living in
Punjab and in other countries like England, Canada, USA, other European and Middle
East countries. Since 1956 to year 2002, a lot of work had been done in spreading
Buddha Dhamma in Punjab. Many Buddha Viharas were built in towns named Nakodar,
Phillaur, Bootan Mandi, Maksudan, Talwan, Sofipind, Phagwara etc. These Buddha
Vihara were built with the special efforts of some dedicated devotees and organizations.
The prominent names are Mr. Sohan Lal Gindha, Mr. Tarsem Lal Chahal, Mr. Rattan
Lal Sampla, Mr. Harbans Lal Virdee, Mr. Balwant Singh Sroy and many more. The
main organizations working in Punjab for Dhamma were Buddha Dhamma Prachar
Samiti Punjab, Vishwa Boudh Sangha. Every year these upasaks and their respective
organizations are celebrating Buddha Jayanti, Ambedkar Jayati & Diksha Devas in
different Villages and Cities.


The year 2003 was the turning era in the history of Buddhism in Punjab. In the month of
April 2003 some devotees met Bhante Chander Bodhi in Wolverhampton UK and said
that they wish to organize Diksha Divas in October at Mohalla Ram Nagar Jalandhar
where a numbers of family were interested to embrace Buddhism. These members
requested Ven. Bhante Chander Bodhi to arrange Buddhist monks to conduct this
ceremony. Bhante Chander Bodhi accepted their proposal and promised to arrange
Buddhist monks for the Diksha ceremony. During this period, proposals came from
other devotees also that they were interested in organizing similar type of functions at
their villages. After giving consideration to people’s views and their dedication Bhante
Chander Bodhi decided to celebrate Buddhist functions on a large scale. He made a
request to the Chief Monk of All India Bhikkhu Sangha Most Ven. Bhadant Sadanand
Mahathero to preside over and to be in charge of these functions, which he happily
agreed. Many senior monks from other parts of India also agreed to participate in these
programmes. Following people’s request number of programmes were planned from 19
to 25 October 2003 in Punjab. The first function was held at Ram Nagar Jalandhar on 19
October. Followed by Phillaur, Nakodar, Talwan, Phagwara, Sofipind, Maksudan,
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Sangrur, Ludhiana and Sangol. Numbers of devotees embraced Buddhism in all these
functions. The celebration was a great success with the blessing of All India Bhikkhu
Sangha. It was Sanghanayaka’s very first visit to state of Punjab after many centuries
along with many other Buddhist monks. The following monks stayed in Punjab for
nearly10 days:
Ven. Sadanand Mahathero
Ven. Rahula Bodhi Mahathero
Ven. Bodhipalo Mahathero
Ven. Satyapala Thero
Ven. Jagtanand Thero
Ven. Sheelratan Thero
Bhikkhuni Purnima Thero

Ven. Bhikkhu Sangha at Punjab
All these monks visited different Viharas and other cities of Punjab. During
their visit they had an opportunity to meet various individuals and member of
organizations, who were undertaking Dhamma work either by themselves or
collectively. They observed that the people of Punjab had great devotion for the mission
of Baba Saheb and Buddha Dhamma. Presently, a lot of energy and money has been
provided for the propagation of Dhamma. Another matter that came to notice of
Bhikkhu Sangha was that many Punjabis were settled abroad in countries such as
England, USA, Canada and other European and Middle East Countries. They have
feelings for their own countrymen and community. The Ven. Bhikkhu Sangha also
noticed that although these individuals are working very hard but they lack
coordination. Therefore, spiritual guidance and support from Bhikkhu Sangha is
urgently needed. Ven. Sadanand Mahathero realized that if this work is done under the
supervision of Bhikkhu Sangha then excellent results can be achieved within a very
short time. The teachings of the Buddha and the Mission of the Baba Saheb can be
extended on a large scale.

Meeting at Anand Buddha Vihara

Bhikkhu Sangha at Punjab
After the above functions most Ven. Sadanand Mahathero discussed his
observation and experiences about his visit to Punjab with Bhante Chander Bodhi in
UK. Bhante Chander Bodhi called a meeting with devotees in Wolverhampton, UK in
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January 2004 for further discussions. This meeting was attended by over hundred
upasaka and upasikas. Bhante highlighted the need for a unified central body in Punjab.
All the participantss agreed that all organizations and individuals working in Punjab
should be united under the banner of All India Bhikkhu Sangha. For this purpose Bhante
visited Punjab in March 2003 for further discussions.
Establishment of Punjab Buddhist Society Punjab

On the full moon day of 6
March 2004, a historic meeting was held at
Sanghamittra Buddha Vihara Phagwara, Punjab, which was chaired by Ven. Sadanand
Mahathero. A new central body under the name Punjab Buddhist Society Pb. was
formed for promoting Buddha Dhamma and mission of Baba Saheb under the expert
guidance and presence of All India Bhikkhu Sangha. As a result of the above meeting
the Bhikkhu Sangha was dually established in Punjab. A decision was made to celebrate
this day as the Sangha Day in Punjab. All the participating organizations and individuals
agreed to work under this banner. The following members were nominated as board of
Ven. Sadanand Mahathero (Sanghanayaka)
Ven. Bodhipalo Mahathero
Ven. Mahapant Mahathero
Ven. Mahakasyapa Mahathero
Ven. Chander Bodhi Thero
Ven. Jagtanand Thero
Ven. Ratanabodhi Thero
Ven. Satyapala Thero

An executive body of Upasaka was also nominated
Advisor Mr. Krishan Kumar Bodhi
President Mr. Gurbachan Lal
Vice President Mr. Vijay Disavar
Gen. Secretary Mr. Baldev Raj
Joint Secretary Mr. Harmesh Jassal
Cashier Mr. Harbhajan Sampla
The special feature of this body is that all the members of board of directors
(Trustees) are Buddhist monks, who are the members of the All India Bhikkhu Sangha.

Under construction of Seema Project
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After the establishment of Punjab Buddhist Society in Punjab Most Ven.
Sadanand along with Ven. Bodhipalo visited England. Similarly, an organization of
NRI’s was established in UK on 28 March 2004 under the name as Punjab Buddhist
Society UK (PBS UK). Five trustees were nominated namely: Ven. Dr. W. Kassapa
from Birmingham, Ven. Chander Bodhi from Wolverhampton, Ven. Nagasena from
Birmingham, Mr. Mehar Chand Jassal and Mrs. Vidya Kumari Midha.
This Punjab Buddhist Society UK, referred as ‘Buddhist Society’, shall
establish a Buddhist monastery (Seema/Vihara) under the patronage and control of the
Bhikkhu Sangha and provide necessary financial and upasak/upasika support to
facilitate the Bhikkhu Sangha to be independent and self sufficient to propagate the
Dhamma as admonished by the Buddha for the happiness and welfare of the society at
On the very same day an executive Committee was also formed as:
President Ven. Chander Bodhi
Vice President Mr. Chanan Chahal
Gen. Secretary Mr. Manohar Birdi
Assist. Secretary Mrs. Vidya Midha
Treasurer Mr. Chaman Lal Chahal
Assist. Treasurer Mr. Sohan Lal Gindha

With the efforts and hard work of Mrs. Parminder Sroy from Wolverhampton,
Punjab Buddhist Society UK acquired a charitable status registered with Charity
Commission of England and Wales to work at local, national with international level.
The charity number of the society is 1108360. She has also drafted the constitution of
Punjab Buddhist Society UK. The main feature of Punjab Buddhist Society UK is that
Buddhist monks will be leading the society.
The Charity’s objectives are to:
“To advance the Buddhist faith throughout the world, particularly by the
establishment and support of Buddhist monasteries”
Head office
Presently, Punjab Buddhist Society UK
is situated at 83 Lea Road, Pennfields,
Wolverhampton WV3 0LN, England. This
building is a three-bedroom semi-detached house
bought for the residence of monks and Buddhist
activities with the help of devotees namely; Mr.
Sohan Lal Gindha, Mr. Hans Raj Sampla, Mr.
Rattan Lal Sampla, Mr. Chanan Chahal, Mr.
Malkit Singh Bahal, Mr. Bihari Lal Midha, Mr.
Balwant Singh Sroy and Mr. Harbans Virdee.
Presently, Ven. Chander Bodhi and Ven. Sujan
Maharjan are resident monks at the property.

Shrine Room at the Head office
Wolverhampton, UK
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Bhikkhu Sangha is one of the main channels for the spread and development of
Buddhism. The members of All India Bhikkhu Sangha after visiting Punjab in October
2003 observed that all the monks visiting Punjab are basically non-Punjabis. They came
from Maharashtra, UP and Bihar states of India. However, there are very few monks
who are from Punjab. The Bhikkhu Sangha felt the need to ordain new monks from
Punjab. For this purpose Seema/ uposatha is required as new monks are to be ordained
inside the Seema. Literary Seema is a boundary area, within which official Sangha
activities take place. The main use of seema is for upasampada, the ceremony of
acceptance into the Bhikkhu Sangha (ordination). It was decided in the meeting of
Punjab Buddhist Society UK to build a Seema in Punjab. This would be the only Seema
in Northern India. The first Seema is situated at Amaravati in Maharashtra. After
deciding that Punjab Buddhist Society UK should build a Seema in Punjab one acre of
land in District Ludhiana was donated to the All India Bhikkhu Sangha by Buddha
Dhamma Prachar Samiti Punjab, whose convener is Mr. Sohan Lal Gindha along
with Mr. Chaman Virdee and Mr. Mulakh Raj Gindha. This is the first time in the
history of modern Punjab that a piece of land has been donated to All India Bhikkhu
Sangha by the lay devotees.
On 6
of June 2004 in the history of Punjab Buddhist Society UK when Anand
Buddha Vihara was donated to the All India Bhikkhu Sangha. Mr. Balwant Singh Sroy
from wolverhampton collected donation from home and abroad for the completion of
Anand Buddha Vihara and initially laid down its foundation witnessed by Mr. Tarsem
Chahal, Mr. Gurnam Mall and upasak/upasikas from Phagwara and Jalandhar.
Secondly, with the dedication and hard
work of Mr. Gurnam Mall and his family from
India, devotees from England and India played an
important role for the development of Anand
Buddha Vihara. At present, this is the residence
of Bhikkhu Sangha and Head office of Punjab
Buddhist Society Punjab.
Anand Buddha Vihara
Sidharth Nagar, Nurmahal Road.
Phillaur, 144410
+91 1826 285392

Anand Buddha Vihara
Which was donated to Ven.
Bhikkhu Sangha

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Why Named Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara?

The Name of Seema was decided as
‘Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara’ in the
memory of ancient educational centre Takshila.
Takshila has a great significance in the Buddhist
history related to Punjab. Takshila was a great
city and educational centre even at the time of the
Buddha. Takshila University in ancient India is
considered by some to have been the world’s first
university dated back to around 700 B.C. It was
well known as an institution of higher learning in
ancient India. Princes and other scholars received

Ancient Takshila

their education at Takshila in Punjab. Great supporter and disciple of the Buddha, King
Pasendi of Kosala, Chief of Licchavis Mahali, and Prince of Mallas Bandula were all
classmates at the university of Takshila. Jivaka one of the foremost physicians of those
days and a disciple of Buddha had also studied at Takshila. Many students from foreign
countries come to study here. Takshila continued to be a great Buddhist centre for more
than 800 years, from the time of king Ashoka until Takshila met its tragic fate at the
hands of the Savages Huns, who ransacked and devastated the city in the 5
B.C. Keeping in mind the historic importance of this great ancient learning centre of
India, the new Seema has been given the name as ‘Takshila Maha Buddha Vihar’,
where new ordination ceremonies will be organized along with other Buddhist activities.
Newly ordained monks can learn the teachings of the Buddha and practice them in daily
life. It is envisaged that the newly trained monks will enhance Buddhist teaching and
mission of Baba Saheb, in the state of Punjab, across all over India and throughout the

Ludhiana, Punjab
Where the Uposatha Seema
Project is situated

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The Glimpse of Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara

This seema Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara is located in district Ludhiana,
Punjab, which is in the Northern Part of India. The project is being built over land of
one acre at G.T. Road, village Kadian, P.O. Bhatian Bet, Ludhiana, 141008, Punjab. A
renowned architect of Punjab Mr. Harbhajan Singh, assisted by Mr. Kamal and Mr.
Balvinder designed this project. On behalf of All India Bhikkhu Sangha Ven.
Mahapanth Mahathero laid down the foundation stone along with members of Bhikkhu
Sangha on the full moon day of Baisakh in 2004. The Sangha performed religious
ceremony and Bhumi Puja. The project includes the main Seema/Uposathagara, 20
rooms, multipurpose hall, dining room, Kitchen, Guest room, and Sanchi Gate.
The structure of Seema is depicted from
Ancient Buddhist sites like Ajanta and Elora
Caves. It has a U Shape ceiling without pillar in
the middle. The main hall is 100ft long, 40ft.
wide and 45ft. high with three entrance gates
10x4ft. 12x6ft. and 10x4ft in size. There are two
other gates on the left and right hand side. At the
entrance there is a half Pagoda (Chetiya) with a
Buddha statue donated from Thailand on the top.
The main Buddha Murti inside the Seema hall is
donated by Phra Acharn Mahapricha the abbot of
Wat Thongniam, Phetchkasem from Thailand
along with the help of Ven. Phra Vipassi
Dhammaramo. The Buddha Murti was built on
the 60
year of coronation of Thai King
Bhumibala. On the right side there is Buddhist
flag around 40ft. in height, which is donated by
Mr. Balwant Singh Sroy and his family.

One of the front door of
Ajanta Cave, India
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On the first floor, at the rear of
Uposathagara there are 20 rooms for monk’s
residence. All rooms are 12x11ft. in size with
attached bathroom and all rooms have a gallery
and veranda. There are two dharmacakras on the
front side. On the ground floor there is a car park.

On the left side of the Seema hall, there
is a Kitchen, Dining hall and Guest room.
Kitchen is 20x15ft wide and Dining hall is
65x15ft. wide with marble floor and lotus
decoration on the ceilings. The Guest room is
also built next to the dining hall with the same
decoration, and are 65x20ft. wide. There is a
multipurpose Hall at the backside of the rooms,
with a dimension of 60x40ft is currently under
There is a main gate of the project, which is called SANCHI GATE. This is the
model of original gate of famous Sanchi Stupa built by king Ashoka in Madhya
Pardesh. This is one of the finest pieces of Buddhist architect in India. This Sanchi Gate
is 25x12ft. with wonderful ancient decoration, that tells us about the Buddha’s life and
the Jataka stories. Sanchi Stupa is related to the time of the Buddha and his main
disciples was enlarged and re-decorated at the time of King Ashoka. This stupa is
unique not only because of having the most perfect and well-preserved stupas but
offering a wide and educative field for the study of the genesis, efflorescence and decay
of Buddhism and Buddhist art. From 14
century onwards Sanchi was left deserted and
unnoticed, until 1818 when General Taylor publicized it. The original structure of these
four gates of this Sanchi stupa was damaged after the break-up of the Maurya Empire.
Keeping in view the historic importance
of this great monument Punjab Buddhist Society
UK decided to build Sanchi Gate as the main
gate in the project. This gate is combination of
art-work from four gates of Sanchi Stupa. The
gate is made of Red-Stone and carved in the
village of Kunar, U.P., India, and will be
enshrined in the Seema. This is the second time
that this Sanchi gate has been built after King
Ashoka the Great, which is historic and
proclaims new history of Buddhism in Punjab.
Mr. Ram Pal Rahi and his family from Bedford,
UK has sponsored this gate.

One of the Sanchi Gates
A beautifully designed boundary wall surrounds the whole building. The
important Buddhist verses will be carved on these walls.
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Name of devotees/families, who donated Rooms
Sr. No.
Number of
1. Mr. Shekhar Bagul, Manchester 2
2. Mr. Mehar Chand Jassal, Scotland 1
3. Mrs. Vidya Birdi, Wolverhampton 1
4. Mr. Shadhi Lal Sallan, Wolverhampton 1
5. Mr. Sohan Lal Gindha, Scotland 1
6. Vipassana Student, Wolverhampton 1
7. Mr. Som Nath Birdi, Wolverhampton 1
8. Mr. Rattan Lal Sampla, Birmingham 1
9. Mr. Chanan Ram Chahal, Wales 1
10. Mr. Ram Moorti Summan, Letchworth 1
11. Mr. Harbans Lal Virdee, Southall 1
12. Mrs. Satya Bahal, London 1
13. Mr. Chaman Lal Chahal, Telford 1
14. Mr. Mohinder Sallan, Canada 1
15. Mr. Gian Chand Kaura, Canada 1
16. Mr. Ram Parkash Maman, Wolverhampton 1
17. Mr. Hans Raj Gindha, Scotland 1
18. Mr. Madan Lal Chauhan, Wolverhampton 1
19. Mr. Sucha Ram Bagha, Scotland 1
Total Rooms 20
Name of Devotees/families who donated other parts of the project
Sr. No. Name Subject
1. Mr. Hans Raj Sampla, Kent Kitchen
2. Mr. Bihari Lal Midha, Wolverhampton, Dinning Hall
3. Mr. Balbir Chand, New York Guest Room
4. Mr. Ram Pal Rahi, Bedford Main Sanchi gate
5. Mr. Raj Kumar and Mr. Gurbax Rai
Toronto Canada
Seema Entrance Gate
6. Mr. Balwant Singh Sroy, Wolverhampton Buddhist flag
7. Mr. Roop Lal Dhanda and family, Birmingham Paint for Seema
8. Mr. Bakshi Birdi, London Pagoda in the middle of
In addition to the above-mentioned
sponsors a large number of individual devotees,
societies and organizations from all over the
world helped in different ways for the completion
of ‘Takshila Maha Buddha Vihara’. Bhante
Chander Bodhi, on behalf of Punjab Buddhist
Society UK visited different countries such as
Canada, USA, Australia, Taiwan, Korea,
Thailand, Vietnam, countries of Middle East like
Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, and Behrain and
many European countries for the collection of
donation. In all these countries Bhante Chander
Bodhi was given warm welcome and assured full

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support for the establishment of the monks training centre in Punjab. All communities
Indians and non-Indians, Punjabis and non-Punjabis, Buddhists and non-Buddhists have
given generous donation for the commencement of this project.

Prominent supporters:
(names mentioned above are not included here)
Buddhist monasteries and Monks:

India: Ven. Nandvardan Bodhi, Dharmapal, Pragyakirti, Upanand, Devend, Bodhiratna,
Bisuddhi, Vappa
Canada: Most ven. Ratna Siri (Toronto Maha Buddha Vihara), Most Ven. Upanand
(Calgary Buddha Vihara), Ven. Thich Chon Minh (Quan The am Thien Tu
Buddha Bihara Canada), Rev. Yatinuwara Sankichcha (Great Lakes Buddhist
Vihara Canada), Ven. Miao Lien ( Lingyen Mountain Temple, Namo Amitabha
Buddha), Ven. Saranatissa (Buddhist Vihara Society, Surry), Most Ven. Thien
Quang (Vietnamese Buddhist congregation, Calgary), Most Ven. Thien Tam
(Edmonton Buddhist Research Institute, Truc Lam Monastery, Canada),
Vietnamese Unified Buddhist (Hoa-Nehiem) Congregation of B.C., Long Hoa
Buddhist Community Temple of Ontario.
USA: Ven. Pandit K. Piyatissa (New York Buddhist Vihara), Ven. Bounleva Inthacack
(Wat Lao Jaophuth Buddhist Temple, CA), Bhikkhuni Chua Pho Minh
(Association Buddhist Temple, CA), Ven. A. Punyasiri (Maithri vihara Buddhist
Meditation Centre, CA)
Taiwan: Ven. Hung Chia Nan (Chia Nan Buddhist Artifact Co., Ltd. Taipei), Bhikkhuni
Hung An (Ching Liang Mountain Nation-Protection Miao-Chiung Temple,
Kaohsiung), Ven. Hue Shou (Fo Guang Shan, Kaohsiung), Ven. Shih Tei Hui
(Tz’u Kuang Temple, Nantau), Nun Elizabeth Hsu (Lin Yuan Ching Shui Temple,
Lin Yuan), Ven. Terry Yang (B.M.Z.A. Foundation for Culture & Education),
Ven. Dr. B. Chandima (Theravada Samadhi Education Association, Taipei), Ven.
Mangala, Taipei.
England: Most Ven. Phramaha Somboon Siddhinano (Wolverhampton), Most Ven. Dr.
Vajiranana and Members (London Buddhist Vihara, London), Most Ven. G.
Piyadassi and Members (Sri Saddatissa Int’l Buddhist Centre, Kingsbury), Most
Ven. Dr. W. Kassapa (I.B.R.O. Birmingham Buddha Vihara), Ven. Phra Acharn
Sumedho (Amaravati, London), Phra Dr. Laow Pannasiri (Birmingham), Ven.
Nagasena (Birmingham Buddhist Vihara), Ven. N. Suman Kingsbury, Ven.
Anomadarshi Leicester, Ven. Kumud London.
Other Ven. Monks; Ven. Bodhi Dhamma Japan, Ven. IL-Bo, (Buddhadatta Bhikkhu),
Lotus Lantern Int’l Buddhist Centre Korea. Ven. Thich Thin German, Ven. Phra
Chatree Hemapandha Russia. Organizations and Venerables from India, UK,
France, Norway, Denmark, Austria, Japan, Asia and Austrialia.

The prominent societies and organizations among them are;
England: Dr. Ambedkar Mission Society Bedford, Buddha Dhamma Association
Southall, Ambedkar Mission Society Glasgow, Federation of Ambedkarites and
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Buddhist Organizations (FABO) U.K., Dr. Ambedkar Education Society
Birmingham, Dr. Ambedkar International Mission London.
Canada: Ambedkar Mission Canada Scarborough Toronto, Chetna Association of
Canada Vancouver, Indian Buddhist Society Vancouver, Dr. Ambedkar
Association of Canada, Dr. Ambedkar Societies of Calgary and Golden, Buddhist
Vihara Society Surrey, Shri Guru Ravi Dass Sabhas of Vancouver, Toronto,
Calgary, Surrey.
Other organizations & individuals: Dr. Ambedkar Mission Society Europe
(Germany), Mr. Sohan Lal Sampla, Mr. Banarsi Dass Sunder Norway. Mr. Satpal
France, Bangladeshi Buddhist Community of France. Mr. Keshav Dhanda &
Jatinder Dhanda Austria. Barua Buddhist Community of France
Prominent Individual devotees and families:
UK: Mr. Malkit Singh Bahal, Ram Moorti Summan, Balram Sampla, Kapoor Chand
Sampla, Ashok Sampla, Sarwan Dass, Bakshi Birdi, Chaman Virdee, Ramesh
Klair, Mehar Singh Dhariwal, Dhanpat Rattu, Arun Kumar, Hukum Chand
Mahami, Mrs. Usha Hira, Resham Mahay, Bishan Dass Mahay, Dharam Chand
Mahay, Kundal Lal Jummat, Dial Chouhan, Gurdevinder Kumar, Devinder
Chander, Sansari Lal, Satnam Maman, Diwan Mohindra, Martin, Cllr. D.D. Ahir
JP, Raj Kumar Chouhan, Mulakh Raj Gindha
CANADA: Mr. Anand Balley, Mr.&Mrs. Malkiat Heer, Darshan Chaudary, Mohan
Virdi, Banta Ram Jakhu, Jagiri Bains, Raj Kumar, Jit Lal Jhumat, Parkash Rahul,
Hardev Banger, Piara Lal, Kuldip Birdi, Jai Birdi, Raju Kamble, Major Mall,
Khushi Ram, Mrs. Kamlesh Ahir, Mr. Satish Aujla, Mohan Banga, Yash Paul
USA: Mr. Prithi Paul, Sita Ram Mahay, Pinder Paul, V.K. Choudary, Dr. K. P.Singh,
Dr. L.N. Berwa, Manohar Premi Hira
DUBAI/UAE: Mr. Ratnakar J. Dandavate, P.K. Mohan, B.D. Gawai, Yash Paul, Pradip
R. Sonavane, Ramesh Dhas. Manic Barua. Sri Lankan Buddhsit Community of
INDIA: Mr. Krishan Kumar Bodhi, L.R. Balley, D.C. Ahir, Dr. Surinder Ajnat, Sohan
Sehjal, Gurnam Mall, Baldev Raj Jassal, Harbhajan Sampla, Vijay Disavar, Sham
Lal Jassal, Naresh Kumar, Harmesh Jassal, Chaman Lal Sampla, Bittu,

Every single act of generosity,
donation and support is immensely valuable
for the completion of Takshila Maha
Buddha Vihara. We also are looking
forward for your kind generosity for further
planning. A Large number of devotees and
various organizations helped in different
ways. However, we are not in a position to
mention the names of each and everyone who
has been involved. Nevertheless, our sincere
thanks go out to every organization and
individual for their contribution.

Bhikkhu Sangha at Seema
Meeting for further planning
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Bhante Chander Bodhi inspecting area

PBS UK meeting at its Centre

Progress of Seema Construction

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Seema Hall construction work in progress
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Teaching of Buddha
Verse 49. The Monk In The Village
Just as a bee in a flower harming neither hue nor scent
gathers nectar, flies away, so in towns a Wise One fares.
Explanation: The bee extracts honey from flowers without damaging either
the colour or the fragrance of the flower and in so doing helps the tree bear more
fruit. Similarly, the silent sage goes about the village collecting alms without harming
anyone, and in doing so helps people gain much merit and happiness.
Verse 54. Fragrance of Virtue Spreads Everywhere
The fragrance of flowers drifts with the wind as sandalwood, jasmine of lavender.
The fragrance of virtue o’ersweeps the wind, all pervasive is virtue of the good.
Explanation: The world knows, many a sweet smelling flower and fragrant
object. But, the fragrance of these moves only leeward. None of these, however
strong their fragrance may be, spread their sweet smell against the wind. But, in
contrast, the sweet smell of virtue of a spiritually evolved individual spreads in all
directions and is universally experienced.
Verse 56. Fragrance Of Virtue Wafts To Heaven
Faint is this fragrance of lavender and sandalwood,
but fragrance of the virtuous soars sublime amongst the gods.
Explanation: The fragrance of lavender and sandalwood is quite slight.
Why? Because it is limited in this world. Such a fragrance can spread only on earth.
This way it is a very slight fragrance. But, the sweet smell of virtue is, in contrast,
supreme, because it spreads not only throughout the earth; it rises even to the highest
Verse 72. The Knowledge Of The Wicked Splits His Head
Truly to his detriment skill is born to the fool;
ruined is his better nature and scattered are his wits.
Explanation: Whatever is learned by the ignorant is conducive to harm. It
brings about his own downfall. Misplaced learning destroys whatever potential the
learner possesses and renders him useless in terms of real knowledge.
Verse 74. The Ignorant are Ego-Centred
Both monks and laymen, let them think 'This was done by me,
whatever the works, both great and small, let them depend on me'.
Such the intention of a fool, swollen his greed and conceit.
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Explanation: The ignorant has this attitude of mind: "Let everybody know
that this was done by me alone. In whatever activity small or big my leadership shall
prevail. Everybody must follow me." This conceit of the ignorant leads to craving,
uncontrolled desire and to a groundless pride, to a false sense of superiority. These
begin to grow.
Verse 78. In The Company Of The Virtuous
Don’t go around with evil friends, with rogues do not resort.
Spend your time with noble friends, and worthy ones consort.
Explanation: Do not associate with people who have evil ways. Avoid the
company of wicked, evil people who are mean and bad. Associate with worthy
friends. Keep the company of noble persons who are superior in quality and virtue
and who will be able to elevate you.
Verse 79. Living Happily In The Dhamma
Happy is he who Dhamma drinks with heart that’s clear and cool.
One so wise e’er delights in Dhamma declared by the Noble.
Explanation: One who delights in "The Teaching" lives happily with a pure
mind. The experience of the "Sublime Ones" the wise always enjoy.
Verse 102. A Dhamma-Word Is Noble
Though a thousand verses chant composed of meaningless lines,
better the single Dhamma-line one hears, then comes to calm.
Explanation: One may recite hundreds of verses replete with meaningless
expressions. If one recites one line of verse pregnant with wisdom, which is
pacifying, it will be more valuable and nobler.
Verse 112. The Person Of Effort Is Worthy
Though one should live a hundred years lazy, of little effort,
yet better is life for a single day strongly making effort.
Explanation: A single day’s life of a wise person who is capable of
strenuous effort, is nobler than even a hundred years of life of an individual who is
lazy, incapable of making an effort and is wanting in initiative.

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References & Further Readings
Ahir, D.C., Buddhism in Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh
Ahir, D. C., Dr. Ambadekar and the Punjab, Catalog no. EPB-052
Ambedkar, B.R. Dr., Buddha and his Dhamma, Taiwan : Free Printed by CBBEF,
Bapat, P.V., 2500 Years of Buddhism, Delhi : Government of India, 1956 and
Bhadant Anand Kauslyan, Buddha Dhammaka Sar, Taiwan : Free Printed by
CBBEF, (IN020).
Bhagwan Das. Revival of Buddhism in India and Role of Dr. Baba Saheb B.R.
Ambedkar, Lucknow: Dalit Today Prakashan, 1998.
Narada, The Buddha and His Teachings, Taiwan : Free Printed by CBBEF,
Sangharakshita, Ambedkar and Buddhism, Glasgow : Windhorse Publications,
Saddhatissa, Bhikkhu, The Life of the Buddha, UK : Mandal Book publications,
U Tha Dow Hla, The life Story of Sri Bhaddanta Chandramani Mahathera,
Varanasi: U Chandramani Foundation, 1975.
Van Hien (ed.), The Seeker’s Glossary of Buddhism, Taiwan : Free Printed by
CBBEF, (EN176).
Walpola Rahula, What the Buddha Taught, Taiwan : Free Printed by CBBEF,
Minutes of Meetings Punjab Buddhist Society UK

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¤ =·a a f¤na n n·feaì ¤ ¤
=· ¤fa=¤

o ¤¤ ¤ =¤ s·s n =·a, na oa o·o faa=ì
«a ¤·=¤ «a a ¤ n·a

“a ¤ ¤ n =ì¤n· f=¤n”
=ì u=¤ì ¤a a = =ì ¤·= f¤=
s¤fno· no· a ¤ f¤o·a
(nìn· , ê ¤ n¤)

= ê s¤·sa


ç-v «¤s aa ¤==ç

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a ¤ ¤ n =· ¤fa=¤
a·= ¤ n·a fn¤·a¤ a sn =· =an a ¤·o f¤= ¤f¤o¤ns a s
o aaì f¤= 563 eìn· ¤ a¤ o fe«·i ê n a 29 ¤fa w =ì ê na f¤=
=ì¤a =ì n ¤sì =ì s·o f¤= nfoo· =· n·oì a·a a·a fswa f=s·i
fawa ¤¸·¤sì ¤·ns c n·o s¤ ¤eì a a w «s fanì n aì«· s¤ ¤o =
¤ìsì «s naìa a ¤na = z ¤·o n·¤ n s· = ¤eì ans «¤a·e ¤a
ns a «a¤ ae i « s f¤= 35 n·o =ì ê na ê n a fawa ¤¸·¤sì o eì
f¤ n¤ n·aa ê ¤a =o ¤ oì =ì¤a = a = a a·o =ìf¤w =· n¤=· o i
n¤ n·aa oì na ¤s· =ì so·eì «s ¤ nì =· n·¤a az n¤=· o i fen
n¤ n·aa a oì a·= f¤= a ¤ ¤an a·o ¤ ¤·faw =·z oa·i
¤ a·sa s·as f¤= fs a 2 =a · =· ¤ a ¤ a 45 n·o s¤ n¤
n·aa =ana =· ¤¸=·a ¤ìs·i ê n = n ¤ ê ¤= n na, =·a «·a¤
n=·eìw, ê s¤sì =· ¤·az s faasa o z· «·f= na ¤a =·a «·a¤
n=·eìw (Four Noble Truths) a ¤ ¤ n =ì =·a oai a ¤ a ¤¤ 2
w¤z ¤¸¤=a· a·oì fen =ì noss· =an·eì o i o·¤ì¤= ¤·n· =· o·¤ì
= ¤ a· ¤·o ¤¸¤=a· f¤= ê n a f¤o· f¤ f=¤ ¤o·¤s o f¤ ‘o·¤ì ¤
¤·¤ n ns ¤· ¤·¤’ fen sa · a ¤ ¤an = fn¤·s =·a «·a¤ n=·eìw
¤·o fn¤·s f¤= oì nn·e o e oai s·¤ a ¤ = n·a ê ¤= n f=a · a
a ¤ ¤ n f¤o· =·=· o , ns fen fn¤·s s oì ¤s oai
a ¤ = n·a ¤¸¤=a· = a¸ ¤ a fs¤ìa¤· (sfa¤ìa·¤·) = f¤ fs a
a¸ ¤·, f¤a·fe f¤s·¤·, n s· f¤s·¤· «s «sì¤ n· f¤s·¤· =· n aafo o ,
= a· a·o =·fzw =·=· o i sa¤·a a ¤ =ì v= ¤a =ì ê na f¤=
no·¤¸ìfaa¤·a ¤¸·¤sì = fs a noìa a·= fea · ¤¸¤=a· a ê ¤¸ ¤s a ¸¤·
f¤= fe¤sa ¤ìs· fawi a ¤ì fefso·n f¤= nn nn a ¤ì ¤ no·
a o·eìw aeìw s· f¤ a ¤ = ê ¤= n· a n ¤ a ¤ f¤= oì af¤w =·
n¤ i fen sfa¤ìa·¤· a ¤ a·¤·= a ¤ì a¸ ¤ =· ¤·oì a ¤ì a¸ ¤ = a· a·o
¤ì ¤ ¤·few =·=· o i
a ¤ ¤an f¤= ê sa· =s ·
sa¤·a a ¤ = no·¤¸ìfaa¤·a s a·= a ¤ ¤an f¤= ¤eì
ê sa· =s · we i a ¤ ¤an «s na ¤ì =ì¤a f¤= wn f¤¤o·a ¤·a
fs a 2 o ¤· = fs a 2 f=¸naì¤ z o z ¤·az, feo ¤eì faaf¤w f¤=
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¤ fsw fawi n¤·f¤a·¤·=· f=n a «·n ¤a¤ ¤ a·¤·=· ¤ì f¤o· =·=· o
«s no·nf¤ ¤· =· no·¤·a· f¤=·a· = «¤·a s = n ¤ faa¤ o = f¤=
we i ¤¤ 2 f¤=·a· =ì fs as· «s a ¤ ¤an ¤·a ¤¤ 2 f=¸naì¤ z
o z ¤·az o ¤· f¤= fen =ì o ¤f¤¸«s· ¤azì n a o aeìi nna·a
«n ¤ a ¤fo a· =ì os·eì s a·= f¤= =nnì ¤·o f=a a ¤ ¤an
a¸foz ¤a fow «s fen = ¤¸=·a «s ¤¸n·a f¤= = a fawi n·a
a ¤ì faaf¤«· a fe¤ osì f¤= ¤¸ z oeì «s sa¤·a a ¤ = ê ¤= n·
a n ¤ ¤aa oeì na¤ (n = =· fao·a) f¤= a ¤ì ¤ fno «¤ f=s ¤ìsìi
fen nìfa a s a·= ¤ n = ¤¸=·a oeì ê n a a ¤ìw = a aa ¤ az· ¤
n¸ì o ¤·, ¤·eìo s, aan·, a ¤·o «·f= = n· a s = i fe¤ s¤ f¤ ê n a
w¤z ¤ sa a·=¤ n·a nfo =a· «s ¤ saì a·= ¤ n·aì n ¤fnsa· a
a ¤ ¤an = ¤¸=·a oeì n¸ì o ¤· s f=wi fen sa · nna·a «n ¤ =ì
«a¤·eì «s no·fes· a·o a ¤ ¤an ¤ ¤o s·as f¤= oì aoì na
o·ao = n· f¤= ¤ì a o fawi
nna·a «n ¤ =ì n s s a·= a ¤ ¤an =· ¤sa n a o fa«·i
fen = ¤eì ¤·az o n¤= oa ¤a n ¤ = ¤·az na - « =a aì «s
a·oaìi f¤ê f¤ a ¤ ¤an faa s ¤eì faaf¤w n¤·f¤a,
no·¤·a·,¤ a·¤·a·, s sa·¤·a «·f= f¤= ¤ fsw fa«·, fen a « =a aì
¤·az f¤o· =· n¤=· o i a·oao ¤·az oa a ¤ ¤an a n·oì ¤·a=·a
=ì na¤ansì «s no·fes· =· ¤sn o z·i a¸·onz n a·¤sì ¤ nfnsa
n ¤ a n aìw n·na·= = w¤aì a·=· «s «n ¤ = ¤ sa fa¸oa¤ =ì
¤ ¤ a·o ofsw ¤a f=sì ê n a a ¤ ¤an = f¤a ¤ ofoa =o·eì
«s a ¤ì fs¤n w a n·aa· n a ¤a f=s·i a·= f¤= n non·a· a ¤ì
a ¤ì f¤o·a· «s n n¤·¤· a o a ¤ sa·o ¤aa· n a ¤a f=s· «s
fs¤n w a snìo = ¤ n s = ¤·a ê s·a= ao i fen sa · fawa¤ì
n=ì = « s s¤ a ¤ ¤an s·as f¤= o oì 2 «o ¤ o fawi
a ¤ ¤an =ì ¤ aa-n a=ìsì
na «o a= sa ¤fa¤ n a 1860 s·as f¤= ¤eì n n·o «o ¤
o e «s fefso·n = oa a f¤= a w= a ¤ ¤an =ì = s a =a·fewi
s ¤ì ¤ = ê ¤a s ê n a fen a·o na ¤s ¤eì n¤·a os «s = aì«
sa f¤= ¤ a ¤¸=·a ¤ìs·i faa na s f¤s «aa os a ‘e nìw =·
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=·az’ (The Light of Asia) a·nì ¤ ns¤ fo¤ì = = aì«· f¤= ¤·aì
¤¸fn¤ o eìi n¸ì o ¤· = fe¤ a = wa n¸ì s a s f¤s fo¤·¤ìs·a·a·
(1865-1933) a fen ¤ ns¤ s ¤¸ as o ¤ a ¤ ¤an «¤z· fow «s
w¤z w¤ a «a·afa¤· s·¤ fe¤a ê ¤a ¤ nz ¤·o· a ¤a f¤«¤sì,
¤ fns ¤a f=s·i w¤z· a· «a·afa¤· ¤an¤·o a¤ fow = =ì¤a
sa ê n a·o fao·i ê n a s·as f¤= a ¤ì sìa¤ «n¤·a· =ì ¤·sa·
¤ìsì «s a ¤ =· ¤as «a «·eì az fa«i ê n a a ¤ ¤¸=·a oeì «s
a ¤ì «n¤·a· a fo = w = fn ¤= f¤= cs¤·ê z oeì s·as f¤= no·
a ¤ì a·n =ì n n¤· ¤ ooìi ê n a a ¤ a¤· f=¤ sa¤·a a ¤ a fawa
¤¸·¤sì o eì nì, a cs¤· ¤ fen =· ¤¸a ¤ a ¤ì«· = o¤ n ¤z =ì ==
=fo= «a sì = f¤ o·o ¤ì =·aì o i
14 «¤s aa 1956
a ¤ ¤an =ì ¤ aa-n a=ìsì = fefso·n f¤= 14 «¤s aa
1956 a fe¤ n a foa· f=a «·f¤w =· n¤=· o i fen f=a =a ¤ =o
o ¤· «s =fos· = «·a , ê n nn =· ¤¸fn¤ ¤¤ìo, «a¤, nn·=,
a·=aìfs¤ n·nsaì, s·as = nf¤¤·a =· faan·s· «s ¤·a a n saì,
s·· aì· wa· « a s¤a a f¤= =nnì = f=¤n s ¤ = o¤ na¤·o w
nn s a ¤ ¤an f¤= =ì¤n· oeìi f¤ê f¤ fen f=a nna·a «n ¤ a
¤an ¤¸¤asa ¤ìs· nì «s a·o a ¤ì n=ì n a o few 2500 ¤a o e
na, s·· « a s¤a a fen f=a =ì noss· a n ¤ a¤f=w feo f=a
= fzwi fs¤ n ¤ =ì «a¤·eì ¤af=w aan· = w=azì¤ fs¤ ¤ ·
= =a·naì no·¤ a· = ê sa ¤¸= n f¤= ¤ nìaaa f¤¤ fa¤·n ¤a=
na, ¤o a·a· n·foa s·· « a s¤a a s¸ìnaz =ì =ì¤n· oeì «s ¤ =
nìo ¤·oz =ì ¤¸fsfaw ¤ìsìi fe¤ f=a f¤= fe¤ nn feo a ¤ì
fefso·n f¤= feo ns s ¤s· ¤an ¤¸¤asa nìi fen ¤an
¤¸¤asa = a·= a ¤ ¤ n n·a s·as f¤= a oz· n a o fa«· «s fen
=· ¤¸s·¤ no·a·naa, ê sa ¤¸= n, fao·a «s ¤ =·a f¤= n·a f=¤·eì
f= =· o i fen f=a ê ¤a s·asì n ofa¤·fnw a w¤z ¤ af¤w =·
¤an faa s a¸foz ¤a fowi

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¤ =·a f¤= a ¤ ¤an
= ¤a «nì «= = ¤ =·a s a=a n·aìe s· fe¤ fn¤ ¤an =·
a oa·o· o i fen s ¤foo· fe¤ n non·a· =· a·= fao·i ¤a = ¤a
«nì 2000 n·o f¤c =·eìe s· fefso·n =an·ê =· o f¤ s·as f¤=
¤ =·a fe¤ a ¤ì a·= nìi fe¤o· ¤ =·a oì aoì ao f¤ n = =· fea·a,
fea·¤, «aa·fans·a «s ¤nnìa «·f= ns a ¤ì = n nai sa¤·a a ¤
a ¤ =·a f¤= ¤ a (n = =· ¤ a ¤n sa ) =ì ¤·sa· ¤ìsìi fe¤ ê n a
ao s oì ê sn ¤¸¤=a ê =·a f=a · a ns줤·a· n s· a·o ¤ ¤·faw
=·=· o i
sìnaì n=ì eìn· ¤ a¤ s fawa¤ì n=ì s¤ nna·a «n ¤,
nfo =, ¤fan¤, oan ¤a¤a ¤aa a·= no·a·f=w a ¤ =·a s a·=
¤ìs·i no·a·=· «n ¤ a 84000 s ¤¤ ns ¤· =ì ê n·aì ¤ìsìi nn =
a·= f¤= ê n a ns ¤·, ns s· «s o a fno·o ¤· =· =·o f¤c· f=s·
f=a · ê ¤a a ¤ ¤an =ìw fn¤n·¤· =· ê o ¤ ¤ìs· fawi =ìaì
¤·saì foê an·a a s·as =ì ¤·sa· = a·a nfs=a ( nao = a s n = =·
n ¤ o ), n¤·a n¤a (ofawz· f¤= n = =· ¤·a na), naa a ( ofawz
f¤= =a·¤aì a s n = =· n a, ¤o s(¤ o ) «s s·nn¤a (fon·=o f¤=
n = =· n os·a¤ a ) f¤= «n ¤ ns s =· ns ¤ = ¤ i ¤ =·a f¤= «n ¤ =
a « s fno·o ¤· f¤= fe¤ « a·o· o·a s ¤a· f¤= nì f=n a fca =n·o
s ao¤ = ¤¤· ¤ n a 1356 f¤= f=oì o fa«· = f¤ fca =n·o ¤ ao·
= ¤ sa·s· f¤= o·o ¤ì ¤s s· o i ¤ =·a f¤= ê n·aìw ¤·=a·a· f¤=
s¤fno· (o z ¤·f¤ns·a) f¤= ê n·faw ¤an af=¤ ns ¤ nfe= ns
s nos¤ ¤ az ¤·=a·a o f=¤ no·sn· a ¤ = naìa = «f¤n n
¤¸·¤s o e oai nna·a «n ¤ s oì ¤¸s·f¤s o ¤ n¸a a (n a) =
n¤·a¤ a·= ¤as sì a w¤z a·= f¤= ¤eì ns ¤ az·e i «= o oì
f e¤ ns ¤ = a= ¤ = fan·a =a·¤aì a s f¤ s =a sì f¤= ê ¤os=
o e oai
n aìw n·na·= = w¤aì a·=· fa¸oa¤ =ì ê n= a¸·onz
n a·¤sì ¤ nfnsa n ¤ a ¤ ¤ a·o ofsw ¤a ¤ ¤·aoì¤ sa s ¤a=·
¤a fowi ê n a a ¤ì fs¤n w a n·aa· n a ¤a f=s· «s na
nfn¸sì = w¤·a s n·na ¤aa· «afs wi f=n a·o a·= f¤= «n·sì
a o aeìi fen n ¤ s o·s ê a·ê = o e ¤ a·aìw a ¤·¤· a o f=s·i
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fea · f¤= fe¤ ¤n·sa n a sa (nfo =) a ¤ =·a s ¤a=· ¤a fo«·i
nfo = fe¤ ¤·ao fn¤·oì «s ¤ ¤· oì aoì nì na fe¤ f¤=¤·a ¤ì
nì f=n a ¤¸=os ¤an· =· ¤·aì «f¤«a ¤ìs·i fen = a·a nfo = =ì
n o·¤·s ¤ =·aì a ¤ì fs¤n a·an a a·o o eì «s w¤n f¤= ¤an s
=a=· o eì f=n a ‘nfo = ¤ao ’ ¤a¤ =·fzw =·=· o i fen a¸ ¤ =·
a ¤ì n·fos f¤= ¤·aì ê =· n¤·a o i fs¤n a·an a a·o o eì n o·¤·s
s a·= nfo = a ¤ì az faw «s a ¤ ¤an = ¤¸=·a f¤= ¤·aì
¤ a=·a ¤·fewi ê o= ¤sì fazsì f¤= ¤eì fn¤ fno oa f=a· s
a ¤ì ¤ n =¤a =ì n = =aì o i
¤ a·aì a·= = ¤sa a·o ¤ =·a c aìw 2 fawns· w=naa·n
(«= aa), fs¸aas·n, ¤ fa =·n, ¤ f¤wn «s «a= fawn f¤= ¤ fsw
fa«·i «= aa· =· a·= a a=·n¤ a «s o fnwa ¤ a f=fow f¤=·o
«¤a fawn = feo·¤ s nì «s a·=¤·aì n·fe= ¤a·a¤ a o·a nìi
a·¤ì «s nfso = = f¤=o feo·¤ s fs¸aas· =· a·= nì «s n ¤
¤ =a =o ¤a nìi nfso = «s ¤n a· = f¤=o feo·¤ (o f¤wz· «s
no·aa¤ a ) ê ¤a ¤ fa =· =· a·= nì «s a·=¤·aì « a·o o·a n a nìi
¤ f¤wn =· a·= ¤ fa =· = =¤z ¤o nì «s a·=¤·aì n aì¤si «= aa
«s ¤ fa = = ¤ a ¤ì a·= na f=a · =· f=¤a a ¤ì n·fos f¤=
ê ¤oa¤ o i a ¤s f¤= «= aa· = ¤ s fn¤ ¤¸·¤s o e oa f=a · s
a ¤ì ns ¤· = f=sa ê ¤a o e oai
n¤ ¤ n = na=·a n ê = =· fnê ¤n ¤ =·a «s a ¤·a s ¤a=·
¤aa s c sì a·= a ¤ ¤an =· «a weì az fawi s·asì fefso·n
f¤= n·fe= feo ¤foo· a·=· nì f=n a no·sn· a ¤ =ì n as ¤·o
fn¤ =·aì ¤ìs i n¤· s a·= ¤ n·a n ¤ì ¤sa·eìnn-1 = f¤ ¤fan¤
=· a·a· nì a ¤ n·a n·na·= =ì aìo a¤ì f=n a ¤fan¤ a n=a s
¤ìs·i ¤fan¤ a «n ¤ ¤·a oì a ¤ ¤an = ¤¸=·a «s ¤¸n·a f¤=
ê ¤· ¤ a=·a ¤·fewi ¤fan¤ a 100eìn¤ì f¤= a ¤ì ¤¸=·a¤· =ì
=o ¤a o·a ¤ ¤a a ¤ì na f¤= fe¤ a a¤ a o·eì f=n f¤= 500 s
ê ¤a a ¤ì fs¤n w a s·a fo«· «s a ¤ ¤an =ìw fo¤s· «s
fnf¤w¤· a n == = a a·o fe¤sa ¤a ¤ n·sz =· ¤ n ¤ìs·i fea·
fnf¤w¤· a n nf¤¸s f¤= fo¤ì¤¤ ¤ìs· faw f=n a f¤s·n n·nsa
a·o =·fzw =·=· o i =o ¤a = a=a «a n·a fen =· n =o· fefso·n¤
f=¤a ¤fan¤ = a·= f¤= fno=· o i ¤fan¤ a «n ¤ ¤·a oì ¤eì
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ns ¤ «s na az¤·e i ¤fan¤ = a·= ¤·o f¤= a ¤·a ¤o· = ¤¸s·¤
o a a ¤ =ìw n asìw o = f¤= weì«i
320 eìn¤ì f¤= = =aa ¤s a a ¤s n·na·= n¤·¤s ¤ìs·i
= =aa ¤s a n¤ a a a ¤ì a·=· nì ¤a ê n a ¤ =·aì a ¤ì fs¤n
¤n a ¤ a w¤z· no·o¤·a fa¤ ¤s ¤ìs·i ¤n a ¤ «s ê n =· ¤s· sa·
«n a ê n ¤ o = ê = ¤ aì = f¤=¤·a na f=a · a a ¤ì n·fos f¤=
sas a ¤ a=·a ¤·fewi ¤¸sìs o =· o f¤ fea · = ¤ sa·¤· = ¤¸s·¤
¤·az a ¤s n·na·= = w¤aì = a·= ¤as a ¤ì az ae nai =ìaì
¤·saì a·e줷a = s·as f¤= 399 s 414 eì s¤ fao·, fo¤=· o f¤
ê n ¤ o ¤ =·a f¤= ¤ o =n o=·a a ¤ì fs¤n nai
a ¤neì fefso·n =· w¤aì a·=· nna·a oan¤a¤a ¤ =·a =·
= n ¤o nìi fen =· =·=· ¤¸s·¤a ¤a¤a ¤·a na (ofawz = ¤aa·o
f=o =ì sfonìo) =· c a· n a· n ¤ì nì = a·o oa= feo·f¤w s f=s
¤¸·¤s ¤a ¤ fe¤ n¤sì n·oì a·=· az fawi a·= f¤= oan ¤a¤a
a ¤·a n¤a a·= =ì nìn· n·a s·as f¤= a o· f=sìi n¤ aa =ì ê ¤aì
o eì fo¤s f¤= oan¤a¤a «s ê n =ì s z a·=fnaì a n as ( a ¤
= ¤as «a weì ) =fn«· faw o i oan¤a¤a = a·= f¤= a ¤ ¤an
a·a f=w=· =·z¤·aì =ìaì ¤·saì foê an·a f=n a oan¤a¤a =
a·= ¤·o f¤= 630 eì· s 644 eì· s¤ s·as =· = a· ¤ìs·, =ì fo¤ì
s·feaì s fno=ì o i ¤fa¤ n «a n·a foê an·a a ¤ =·a = ¤eì
nfoa· s¤fno·, fnw·o¤ a, oo a =· ¤n a, f= a ¤aì («fn¸sna f¤=
n = =· ¤aì), =o ¤a, ¤ o , ns=a (nao = o·a n ¤ o), n¤·a n¤a
(¤·a na) «s n¸a a (n a) wf= =ì ¤·sa· = a·a fe¤ ¤eì ¤a a =·a i
fnw·o¤ a s oo a a·oì o =· o few ê o «fn¸sna f¤= n = =· ¤aì
nfoa f¤= wfew f=¤ ê n a ê n nn = ¤¸fn¤ a ¤ì fs¤n n·¤ s
f¤aìs¤¸s s «s ¤an n·nsa =· «f¤«a ¤aa oeì 14 noìa =· nn·
asìs ¤ìs· «s =n a ¤ì n ¤· =ì =a=· ¤ìsìi =o ¤a ¤·a ê n a
fof¤w o f¤ =o ¤a a·= f¤= o fnwa¤ a, ¤·as· f=o , = a· n sì «s
n ¤ s =ìw fawns· fen f¤= n·no na fen a·= =ì a·=¤·aì n = =·
=o ¤a nì f=n a fs¸as = a· a·o ¤ì =·fzw =·=· nìi fe¤ =· a·=·
¤ sìs (¤ ¤ì =· ê f=s ) a·=· oan¤a¤a =· fe¤ ¤·n fnsa nì f=n
a oan¤a¤a a fe¤ =· n ¤ì ¤·f¤w nìi fen a·= a foê an·a a
n·oì nfon·a ¤= w=a n·z f=s·i ¤·f¤nì nn == foê an·a = a·a·
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=o ¤a ¤·zì o f¤w s· oan¤a¤a a ê n a nao= s¤ n af¤«s
¤o =·ê z =ì f=n ¤·aì ê f=s =ì oì oa·eì nìi foê an·a ê n ¤ o =
ê ¤ a ¤ì f¤=¤·a = =a¤an· = a ¤ f¤o·a f¤= =·a noìa afofawi
=o ¤a a·= f¤= foê an·a «a n·a 50 a ¤ f¤o·a «s 2000 fs¤n
ns=a =faw nso = =faw =· oì = =· a· o «s ns¤ì n=ì
f¤= fen a· =ì oì fe¤ fawns nì f=n =ì a·=¤·aì nao = o·a
n ¤ o nì f=¤ foê an·a a =n n ¤ = ¤ i n ¤ o =ì ¤ =·eì = a·a fe¤
«n ¤ ns ¤ fnfow o i fen= ¤ =aì fon s no·sn· a ¤ = = = «s ,
«n¤ì«· «s ¤ s osìw osìw oa f=n s n¤na o f¤ feo feo·¤·
a ¤ ¤an =· as fao· o i n¤·a n¤a (¤·a na) oan¤a¤a =ì
a·=¤·aì nì n s·¤¤ o f¤ feo a ¤ ¤an =· ¤ =a nìi fe¤ ¤ì «n ¤
ns ¤ f¤= a ¤ =ìw ¤eì fan·aì«· a¤ìw aeìw nai =a·¤aì a s
n¸a a =· n a f¤= foê an·a a ¤ì f¤=¤·a = a ¤s ¤ o =·a noìa
648 eìn¤ì f¤= oan¤a¤a =ì n s s a·= 42 n·o = n·a=·a
a·= = ¤·sn a·o oì a ¤ ¤an =· ¤sa n a o fawi ¤ =·a faa
c aìw 2 fawns· f¤= ¤ fsw fawi f=n =· o·s ê a· ¤ n o n= a aì
«s nfon = a=a¤ì ¤aa o a faw a fo = «s a ¤ì n =a· a o az·
n a ¤a f=s·i «a ¤· a ¤ f¤o·a =fo = aì ¤a ¤ a ¤ ¤an =ìw
fan·aì«· a on n· oeì sa·o ¤a f=s·i ¤ =·a f¤= n non·a· =· a·=
n¤·¤s o z a·o a ¤ ¤an o oì 2 ¤ =·a f¤= «o ¤ o fawi

n = =· ¤ =·a f¤= a ¤ ¤an
14 «¤s aa 1956 = no·a ¤an ¤¸¤asa s a·= a·a· n·foa
s· « a s¤a = na¤·o w a a ¤, ê n = ¤ n «s n ¤ f¤= ¤·aì
f¤n¤·n ¤¸aa ¤aa· n a ¤a f=s·i a·a· n·foa a fen f=a s feo
¤ fns ¤ìs· f¤ ê o s·as a fe¤ a ¤ neì = n = ¤z· =·o =· o i
w¤z wa =ì fec· a n ¤ a¤= o e ¤eì s·asìw a a ¤ ¤an a
¤¸a os ¤aa oeì ¤ fnn· ¤aaìw n a ¤a f=sìwi fea · f¤= ¤eì
s·as f¤= afo = «s ¤eì s·as s a·oa ¤ ¤ , «na줷,
¤ a s·, fnso eìna «s a·¤ì ¤ a¤ = = n· f¤= afo = ¤ =·aìw a ¤ì
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fen f=n· f¤= ¤ n ¤aa =· a no· ¤ìs·i 1956 s 2003 s¤ a ¤
¤an = ¤¸=·a «s ¤¸n·a ¤¸sì ¤ =·a f¤= ¤·aì ¤ n o fewi ¤ s ¤
fnasì ê ¤·n¤· f=¤ f¤ n¸ì n oa o·o fa =·, san n o·o =·oo, asa
o·o n·¤o·, oaa n o·o f¤a=ì, ao¤ s na e wf= = nfo¤ a a·o
a¤ =a, fao a, a a· n sì, n¤n =·, so¤z, n aìf¤ s «s aa¤·s·
n¤·a· s ¤eì a ¤ f¤o·a· =ì ê n·aì ¤ìsì aeìi ¤ =·a f¤= a ¤· ¤·n·
¤¸=·a nfnsì «s f¤n¤ a ¤ n ¤ n n¤·¤· fen ¤·a= f¤= naaan
aoìwi « a s¤a = « sì, a ¤· = « sì «s =ì¤n· f=¤n ê ¤·n¤· «s
¤¤ 2 n n¤·¤· ¤o oa n·o na·fe«· =·=· o i

¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì ¤ =·a
f¤c ¤s
n·o 2003 f¤= ¤ =·a = a ¤ì fefso·n a fe¤ a¤· n s fowi
fen n·o = «¤¸ o noìa f¤= ¤ s ê ¤·n¤ «·=azì¤ s·s = =a·a ¤ì a
¤ o¤ao ¤aa f¤¤ fno «s «¤s aa f¤= =ì¤n· f=¤n ê ¤a noo·
a·n aaa, =o ¤a f¤¤ ¤ n ¤¸¤asa =ì fec· ¤¸aa ¤ìsìi ê a · a
«·=azì¤ s·s = =a·a ¤ì a fs¤n w =· ¤¸a ¤ ¤aa =ì a asì ¤ìsìi
ê a· a ê ¤·fn¤· =ì a asì a n¤ì¤·af=w ¤·fe=· ¤ìs· f¤ ê o
fs¤n w =· ¤ =·a f¤= ¤¸a ¤ ¤aaa = ê ¤·fn¤· a a ¤ =ì¤n· = za i
¤ s o a ê ¤·fn¤· ¤o n s·¤ wfew f¤ ê o ¤ì w¤z f¤ s· f¤=
=ì¤n· nn·a o ¤aa· =·o = oai fea· n s·¤· a n ¤ a¤= o e
«·=azì¤ s·s = =a·a ¤ì a a no· ¤ìs· f¤ nn·an· a ¤sì ¤¤a s
na·few =·¤ i s·s = =a·a ¤ì a «·o fe sìw fs¤ n ¤ = n ¤ì
«·=azì¤ s= s n=·a = no·¤ a a fea · nn·an· =ì «a¤·eì ¤aa =ì
¤¸·a¤a· ¤ìsì f=n a ê a · ¤ nì 2 n a fowi s·as = ¤¤a s·a· f¤=
o a ¤eì fs¤n w a ¤ì fea · nn·an· f¤= n·fno o z =ì nfonsì
¤¸aa ¤ìsìi
¤ =·a f¤= =ì¤n· f=¤n na·ê z oeì 19 «¤s aa s 25
w¤s aa 2003 s¤ n¤s·fo¤ ¤¸ aa·n ê fof¤w fawi ¤foo· ¤¸ aa·n
19 «¤s aa a a·n aaa, =o ¤a f¤¤ n ¤a o fewi ê n s a·=
fao a, a¤ =a, so¤a, aa¤·s·, n aìf¤ s, n¤n =·, n aa a, o f¤wz·
«s n ¤ o f¤¤ =ì¤n· nn·a o o e i fea · ns nn·an· f¤= ¤eì
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ê ¤·fn¤· a a ¤ =ì¤n· a¸foz ¤ìsìi fs¤ n ¤ =ì «nìa¤·= a·o feo
n·a nn·a o ao s ¤·n¤·a o e i ¤an = ¤¸=·a = ê = n a·o a·¤ì
fs¤n w nn s fs¤ n ¤ = n ¤ì =ì ¤ =·a f¤= n=ìw a·= feo
¤fooì a aì nìi fea · nn·an· f¤= ¤ =¤ s·s n=·a = no·¤ a , ¤ =¤
s·s a·o oa ¤ì no·¤ a , ¤ =¤ s·s a ¤ì¤·o no·¤ a , ¤ =¤ s·s
nfsw¤·o, no·¤ a ¤ =¤ s·s =as·a = no·¤ a , ¤ =¤ s·s nìoasa
no·¤ a «s fs¤ aì ¤ afzn· a s·a fowi

fs¤ n ¤ = n ¤ì ¤ =¤ s·s n=·a = no·¤ a «s = na s·s
¤ =·a f¤= =n f=a afoa i ê a· a ¤ =·a = ¤eì ¤¤ 2 a ¤ f¤o·a·
=ì ¤·sa· ¤ìsì «s ¤eì f¤«¤sìw a·o fa=ì s a s «s ¤eì
«= oìw n n¤·¤· = ¤ n ¤¸=·a f¤= naaan na,= a n·fef=w a·o
n o·¤·s ¤ìsìi ê a· a «a s¤ ¤ìs· f¤ ¤ =·a = o ¤ a·a· n·foa s·
« a s¤a «s ê n = fnna «s a ¤ ¤an f¤= ¤·aì na¤· a¤= oai
¤ =·aì ¤ ¤ , «na줷, ¤ a s·, ¤ a ¤ «s ¤eì fnso eìna = n· f¤=
¤n o z ¤·az fea · =ì waf¤¤ f¤¤n¤· aì¤ o i n·oì o·os ¤·aì
= aì o z ¤·az ê a · ¤·n n·¤a ¤ì oai a·a· n·foa = fnna «s a ¤
¤an =ì ¤ asì oeì ê o nn· ¤ì fa¤·o= oa «s = a n·a ¤ n ¤ì
¤a== oai ¤a ê o fa=ì s a s w¤z 2 foo·= a·o a ¤ ¤an =·
¤¸=·a ¤a ao oai w¤n f¤= n o = o «s aì¤ «a¤·eì =ì ¤nì o i
= ¤a fea· a ê f=s «a¤·eì fno «s feo n f¤«¤ =·= f¤= afo ¤
¤ n ¤aa s· ¤ s oì nn f¤= = a asì= fa¤o n¤= oa «s a·a·
n·foa =· fnna «s a ¤ ¤an =· ê ¤= n «·n o ¤· f¤= a o n¤=· o i

nn·an· s a·= ¤ =¤ s·s n=·a = no·¤ a a ¤ =·a a aì = a·a
w¤z s=afaw «s ¤ n = ¤·a¤· a «a s aa a·a ê n = =¸fnaì¤ z
na ¤ì ¤ ¤ nf¤s s·s = =a·a ¤ì a·o f¤=·a ¤a·=a· ¤ìs·i s·s
= =a·a ¤ì a =a¤aì 2004 f¤= ¤ o¤ao ¤aa f¤¤ fe¤ nìfa a
a o·eì f=n f¤= s¤aìaa 100 s ¤¤ ê ¤·fn¤, ê ¤·fn¤·¤· a s·a
fowi s·s a ¤ =a f¤= fe¤ n·sì n n¤· =ì =a as s = a f=s·i
nìfa a f¤= o·=a ns a fen ao s nfonsì ¤¸aa ¤ìsì f¤ ¤ =·a
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¤ n ¤a ao ns f¤«¤sìw «s n n¤·¤· a fs¤ n ¤ = s s
¤o fe¤a o z· =·oì=· o i fen n s¤ oeì s·s a n·a= 2003 f¤=
¤ =·a =· = a· ¤ìs·i

¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì ¤ =·a =ì n¤·¤a·

¤ fa«· ¤·o f=a fnsì 6n·a= 2004 a n ¤fnsa· a ¤ f¤o·a,
aa¤·s f¤¤ fs¤ n ¤ = n ¤ì ¤ =¤ s·s n=·a = no·¤ a =ì ¤¸¤·aaì
o a fe¤ fefso·n¤ nìfa a o eìi fen nìfa a f¤= a·a· n·foa =
fnna «s a ¤ ¤an = ¤¸=·a = ¤·ns fs¤ n ¤ =ì «a¤·eì o a
¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤ =·a =ì n¤·¤a· ¤ìsì aeìi fen nìfa a
f¤= fs¤ n ¤ =ì ¤ì n¤·¤a· o aeìi fen f=a a ¤ =·a f¤= n ¤
f=¤n na·ê z =· a no· ¤ìs· fawi s·a o ao ns f¤«¤sì «s
n n¤·¤· fen a¤ì azì n n¤· o a· ¤ n ¤aa oeì nfons o ae i o a·
fo¤ n aa· a a as = s·fea ¤aa· ¤= a·n== ¤ìs· faw·-

¤ =¤ s·s n=·a = no·¤ a (n ¤·a·¤·¤·)
¤ =¤ s·s a ¤ì¤·o no·¤ a
¤ =¤ s·s no·¤ s no·¤·fn¤·
¤ =¤ s·s = =a·a ¤ì
¤ =¤ s·s s·s =as·a = no·¤ a
¤ =¤ s·s asa·a ¤ì
¤ =¤ s·s nfsw¤·o,

o a fo¤ ê ¤·n¤· =ì ¤·a=¤aì ¤n aì ¤ì a·n== ¤ìsì aeì

no·o¤·a n¸ì ¤fana ¤ n·a a ¤ì
¤¸¤·a n¸ì a aa=a o·o
ê ¤ ¤¸¤·a n¸ì f¤= f=n·¤a
=aao n¤sa n¸ì ao= ¤ a·=
= fe a n¤sa n¸ì oan n =no
¤=·a=ì n¸ì oas=a n·¤o·

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fen n n¤· =ì ¤·n ao feo o f¤ fen = a as = n·a
s·fea ¤aa a ¤ì fs¤n oa = «·o fe sìw fs¤ n ¤ = n aa oai

¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì ¤ ¤

¤ =·a f¤= ¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì =ì n¤·¤a· s a·= ¤ =¤
s·s n=·a = no·¤ a a w¤z n·¤ì ¤ =¤ s·s a ¤ì¤·o no·¤ a a·o
¤ ·¤ · =· = a· ¤ìs·i ¤ =·a =ì sa · oì ¤ ¤ f¤= ¤n= s·asìw ¤o
fnsì 18 n·a= 2004 a ¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤ ¤ =ì n¤·¤a· o
aeìi aanìa n s ¤ =¤ s·s s·· s¤o¤ · ¤n¤· «s ¤ =¤ s·s a·an a,
¤ o¤ao ¤aa s ¤ =¤ s·s = =a·a ¤ì, n¤ ao s s n¸ì n oa = = =no
«s ¤ o¤ao ¤aa s n¸ìnsì f¤f=w ¤ n·aì fn=· n n·feaì = ¤ =
aanaì a·n== ¤ìs ae i o a fof¤w a ¤·a= ¤·aì ¤n aì =· ¤ n
n s·fow faw·
¤¸¤·a ¤ =¤ s·s = =a·a ¤ì
ê ¤ ¤¸¤·a n¸ì =·az =·oo
=aao n¤sa n¸ì na oa faa=ì
no·fe¤ n¤sa n¸nsì f¤f=w ¤ n·aì fn=·
¤=·a=ì n¸ì =na o·o =·oo
no·fe¤ ¤=·a=ì n¸ì n oa o·o fa =·
¤ o¤ao ¤aa s n¸ìnsì ¤afn =a na e =ìw «z¤¤ ¤ fnn·
n=¤ ¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤ ¤ a fe ao s = = faaì ¤fnna
a·o = afa ao n n¤· ¤= =a= ¤a ¤a¤·few faw o i fen n n·feaì
=· af=naas a aa 1108360 o i
n¸ìnsì ¤afn =a na e a oì fen n n¤· = nf¤¤·a =· ¤as·
fswa ¤ìs·i feo nf¤¤·a n¤·a¤, a·naaì «s « sa a·naaì ¤¤a
s n·aìw a ¤ì n n¤·¤· ¤o na= a ¤ìs· =·¤ a·i fen n n¤· =ì n ¤
f¤n ns· feo o f¤ fs¤ fen =ì «a¤·eì ¤a ao oai
= faaì = ê = n
¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤ ¤ fe¤ ¤·afn¤ n n¤· o f=n =·
n ¤ ê = n fs¤ n ¤ =ì «a¤·eì o a ¤ n =· ¤¸=·a «s ¤¸n·a ¤aa·,
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a ¤ f¤o·a· =ì n¤·¤a· ¤aa· «s ê a · a nfo¤ a = z· o i fen aì= a
¤ a· ¤aa oeì ¤ =·a f¤= nìn· (fs¤ fn¤o·eì ¤ =a) =ì ê n·aì
¤ìsì =· aoì o i

n ¤ =asa
¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤ ¤ =· n ¤ =asa 83 oì« a s,
¤ aaìos=, ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, fe ao s f¤= o i feo fen·as fs a a sa n
n¤·a o f=n a fs¤ fa¤·n n¤·a «s ¤ n =ìw a =·a· asìf¤¤ìw
¤= ¤afsw =·=· o i fen nn fe¤ s·s = =a·a ¤ì «s s·s n =·a
fa¤·n ¤a ao oai
fen fen·as =ì ¤aì= na¤n¸ì n oa o·o fa =·, o n a·=
n·¤o·, asa o·o n·¤o·, n¸ì =·az =·oo, no¤ìs fn ¤ a·oo, fao·aì
o·o fn=·, ao¤ s na e «s oaa n f¤a=ì =ì n·oì no·fes· a·o
n s¤ o n¤ì o i

nìn· , ê ¤ n¤·
a ¤ ¤ n = ¤¸=·a «s ¤¸n·a ¤·ns fs¤ n ¤ fe¤ n ¤ n·¤a
oai «¤s aa 2003 a w¤z ¤ =·a a aì = a·a fs¤ n ¤ = n ¤ì ¤ =¤
s·s n=·a = no·¤ a a «a s¤ ¤ìs· f¤ ao s fs¤n ¤ =·a s a·oao
a·=· =· faa n¸ì o ¤·, ¤·eìo s, aan·, =¤·a «·f= = n· s wê = oa
fen ¤a¤ ¤ =·aì nfs«s· a nnsz s «nna¤ afo = oa «s
¤ =·aìw a·o a ss· aoì az· n¤ i fen ¤a¤ ¤ =·aì fs¤n w =ì
=a as nfon n ¤ìsì aeìi ê a· a ¤ =·aì fs¤n w =ì =a as a
nfon n ¤a= o e a no· ¤ìs· f¤ a¤ fs¤n ¤ =·a f¤= az·e =·zi
f¤ê f¤ fs¤ n ¤ f¤= ¤¸¤ n fe¤ f¤n n n¤·a s f¤n n f¤¤ì a·oì
¤ìs· =·=· o , fen ¤a¤ ¤ =·a = feo·¤ f¤= nìn· =· o z· =a aì o i
nìn· =· na=ì «a¤ =·fea· o i nìn· fe¤ «= o· =·fea· o f=n f¤=
f¤n n a ¤ aìsì a·oì a¤ az ao fs¤n a fs¤ n ¤ f¤= ¤¸¤ n
¤aa =ì «·faw f=sì =·=ì f=n a ê ¤n ¤=· ¤ì f¤o· =·=· o i nìn·
=ì n ¤ ¤as ê ¤n ¤=· ¤·ns ¤ìsì =·=ì o i fen =a as a n ¤ a¤=
o e , ¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤ ¤ a ¤ =·a f¤= nìn· =ì ê n·aì =·
a no· ¤ìs·i n·a ê saì s·as f¤= feo ¤ ¤o fe¤ oì nìn· o ¤ aì
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«s s·as f¤= = naì «= oì nìn· o = «·o fe sìw fs¤ n ¤ = wa·
=o·eì =·¤ aìi ¤fooì nìn· «na·¤sì, no·a·naa f¤= nf¤s o i
nìn· a·a a no· o z s a·= n¸ì n oa o·o fa =· =ì na¤ansì o a ¤ n
¤a aoì a ¤· ¤·n· ¤¸=·a nfnsì ¤o =na f¤a=ì «s n o¤ a·=
fa =· = nfo¤ a a·o ¤aì=ì aeì fe¤ e ¤s =a · «·o fe sìw fs¤
n ¤ a nìn· =ì ê n·aì ¤·ns =·a f¤= = f=sìi n = =· ¤ =·a =
fefso·n f¤= ¤fooì ¤·a o few o f¤ ê ¤·fn¤· a ¤ n = ¤¸=·a
¤·ns fs¤ n ¤ a =a · =·a f=sì o ¤ i
fnsì 6 = a 2004 a ¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì = fefso·n f¤=
fe¤ o a «a ¤ì ¤aa· ¤·¤aì == n¸ì ao¤ s na e «s n¸ì a aa·n
no, ê a· = ¤fa¤·a· «s o a nfo¤ aìw ¤o ê n·aì «a = a ¤
f¤o·a, fao a =ì fen·as «·o fe sìw fs¤ n ¤ a =·a f¤= = f=sì
aeìi fen a·o fs¤ w = afoz =ì nnfnw oo o aeìi o·o =ì ¤sì
fen a ¤ f¤o·a a ¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤ =·a = n ¤ =asa «s
fs¤ n ¤ = fa¤·n ¤= ¤afsw =·=· o i fen a·o o a fo¤ ¤s s
n ¤a¤ ¤ìs· =· n¤=· o ·
«a = a ¤ f¤o·a
fn¤·a¤ aaa,
a anfoo a s
fao a 144410
f=o· =o ¤a, ¤ =·a
a oì· +91 1826 285392

s¤fno· no· a ¤ f¤o·a, o f¤wz·
(fs¤ fn¤o·eì ¤ =a)
n n·a ¤¸fn¤ fnf¤w = no·a ¤ =a s¤fno· no·f¤f=wfow (
o z ¤·f¤ns·a f¤=) = ¤ a·sa fefso·n =ì no·as· a n ¤ a¤= o e
fs¤ aa fa a n aa, o f¤wz· (nìn·) =· a· s¤fno· no· a ¤ f¤o·a
af¤w fawi ¤ =·a = a ¤ì f¤c ¤s f¤= s¤fno· =· fe¤ ao s oì
nos¤ ¤ aa n¤·a o i s·as = ¤ a·sa nn (oasa ns¤ì n=ì eìn·
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¤ a¤) f¤= s¤fno· no·f¤f=wfow a = aìw =· ns s ¤foo·
no·f¤f=wfow fafzw =·=· o i ê = fn¤n· = ¤ =a ¤= = a = a·s
= n· ¤¸= n· s¤ fen =· a· nì «s o ¤ fe¤ ¤s a wê = nai sa¤·a
a ¤ = nn ¤¤ 2 a·=· s n·oì ¤a·z = o ¤ «s o a f¤=¤·a fe¤
fn¤n· ¤¸·¤s ¤aa «·ê = nai ¤ n·o· =· a·=· ¤n =ì, foc¤ìw =·
na=·a, no·oì «s no· =· a·=¤ n·a a = o· s¤fno· no·f¤f=wo
f¤= nfo¤·aì nai sa¤·a a ¤ =· na¤·o «s ê n nn =· ¤¸fn¤
s·¤aa, =ìf¤¤ ¤ì s¤fno· f¤= oì ¤fs wi «n ¤ = nn s
s¤aìaa «a n=ìw s¤ s¤fno· no·f¤f=wfow fe¤ no·a a ¤ì
¤ =a afzw fao·i ¤a ¤ =¤ì n=ì f¤= o z· (Huns) a fen nfoa
=ì o a ¤n a ¤a¤ fen a sa·o ¤a f=s·i
s¤fno· no·f¤f=wfow o z ¤ aì sa · =fo = aì o = f¤w o
«s fen= ¤ sa· s feo·¤· ¤ s aoì af=wi fen no·a f¤f=w =
¤ =a s ¤¸ aa· o ¤ , f¤f=w ¤¸sì a ¤ì a¤·fes a =·o a¤z «s
n = =· ¤ =·a a «·¤z s o f¤na a ¤ì fefso·n a·o = sa oeì nìn·
(fs¤ fn¤o·eì ¤ =a) =· a· s¤fno· no· a ¤ f¤o·a af¤w faw o i
fe¤ ¤¤ ¤ a ¤ì asìf¤¤ì«· s feo·¤· a¤ az fs¤n a ¤ ¤ n =·
«f¤«a ¤aaa i ê o a ¤ ¤ n «s a·a· n·foa s·· « a s¤a = fnna
a ¤¸a os ¤a ¤ ¤ ¤o ¤ =·a f¤= oì aoì na n·aì = aì«· f¤= o ¤
=·za i

s¤fno· no· a ¤ f¤o·a, o f¤wz· s fe¤ s·s
s¤fno· no· a ¤ f¤o·a ê saì s·as f¤= ¤ =·a = f=o·
o f¤wz· f¤¤ nf¤s o i feo =ì aì a s s ¤ = f¤ s ¤·=ìw s·¤¤·a·
saìw a a f¤= fe¤ e ¤s =ì s nì s o i ¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤
¤ = ¤¸¤·a, ¤ =¤ s·s = =a·a ¤ì =ì «a¤·eì o a fen n n¤· = n aa·,
ê ¤·fn¤· «s nfo¤ aìw =ì fno¤asz a·o feo ¤¸ = ¤a n a ¤ìs·
faw f=a · a f=o ¤ oo ¤ w¤z· ¤sn o· nn· = ¤ «s n·oì no·fes·
¤a ¤ fen a fna =·fs wi ¤ =·a = ¤¸fn¤ wa¤ìa ¤a, n¸ì oas=a
fn ¤ a n¸ì ¤no «s aof¤ =a = nfo¤ a a·o nìn· =· a¤n· fswa
¤ìs·i 2004 =ì ¤ n·¤ =ì ¤ fa w ¤·o f=a, s nì ¤ =a s a·= fs¤
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n ¤ nn s ¤ =¤ s·s no·¤ s no·¤ a a s¤fno· no· a ¤ f¤o·a =·
aìo ¤¤a af¤wi
fen f¤o·a· f¤= n ¤ nìn· o·o (ê ¤ n¤·aa·), 20 ¤na , wn
¤as ¤·ns o·o, s·feaìa a n, an eì, a na a n, n ¤ ¤¸¤ n ¤·o· a a
«s n·=ì a a oai
«= s· «s «o a· =ì sa · ¤ a·sa a ¤ì n¤·a· = «¤·a s fen =·
=·=· fswa ¤ìs· faw o i fen =ì cs « aa =ì = «¤a ‘U’ ¤·a o
«s fen = f¤=¤·a ¤ eì ¤no· aoì o i n ¤ o·o 100 a a o a·, 40
a a = s· «s 45 a a ê =· o i fen = 10X4 a a, 12X6 a a «s 10X4
a a «·¤·a = fs a ¤¸¤ n a a oai ¤a «s n= = o a a a oai ¤¸¤ n
¤af=w oì fe¤ «a¤-¤a s·(= fsw) o f=n ê ¤a sa¤·a a ¤ =ì
n asì oaì o eì o = ¤·eìo s ¤o =·a f¤= f=sì aeì o i = sa¤·a
a ¤ =ì ¤¸n ¤ n asì o ê n a ¤ =¤ s·s aa· f¤¤·nì ¤ n·a·n =
nfo¤ a a·o ¤·eìo s = ¤·a ¤ afawn, a a=¤·n n f¤= nf¤s a ¤
f¤o·a = n ¤ì ¤ =¤ s·s «=·aa no·¤aì=· a nìn· ¤·ns =·a ¤ìsì
o i feo n asì no·a=· s nìa·o· =ì s¤s¤ nì =ì 60¤ì ¤a a = s
az·eì aeì nìi
nìn· = f¤co ¤·n ¤fooì n f=o s fs¤ w = fa¤·n ¤·ns 20
¤na oai feo n·a ¤na 12X11 a a = w¤·a = oai oa ¤ ¤na
a·o a no¤·a· o «s fea· a·o a oaì «s ¤a·s· ¤ì o i «ao ¤·n =
¤ n =¤a oai ¤a· ¤·n· «= s· = an a f¤= az·few faw o i fen
n·aì fen·as o a· asìw ¤sìw ¤aa =ì =a· o i
nìn· o·o = ¤a ¤·n an eì, s·feaìa o·o, a na a n o i an eì
20X15 a a «s
s·feaìa o·o 65X15 a a o i fea· = o· =ì aan s n anana
¤eì o eì o «s cs· a ¤no = a o· = f=sa· a·o n=·few faw o i
s·feaìa o·o = a·o oì 65X20 a a a na a n o f=n f¤= ¤ì «= oì
oì n=·¤a ¤ìsì aeì o i ¤nfaw = f¤c «·n ¤as ¤·ns fe¤ o a
60X40 a a o·o o = o·o ê n·aì «¤ìa o i
fen fen·as = n ¤ =a¤·= =· a· n·=ì a a af¤w faw o i
feo n¤ ¤¸= n f¤= nna·a «n ¤ ¤o az·e ae n·=ì ns ¤ = a a =
an a =· az·few faw o i s·as f¤= ns n =a a ¤ì ¤·=a·a· f¤=
n·=ì ns ¤ fe¤ o i n·=ì a a 25X12 a a = w¤·a =· o i fen f¤=
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¤ a·z nn =ì sa· sa·n ¤ fen sa· n=·¤a ¤ìsì aeì o f¤ feo
a ¤ = =ì¤a «s =·s¤· ¤o·zìw fawa ¤a=ì o i n·=ì ns ¤ sa¤·a
a ¤ = nn «s n ¤ «a weìw a·o na ¤s o i nna·a «n ¤ a fen =
w¤·a a ¤s· ¤a¤ n s s n=·fewi feo ns ¤ fen ¤a¤ oì «a a·
aoì o f¤ = aì sa· n s·o ¤ n ¤ no af¤w faw o na fen ¤a¤
¤ì «a a· o f¤ feo a ¤ ¤an «s ê n =ì ¤o· =ì ê s¤sì, ¤¸a os·
«s ¤sa = «f¤«a = ¤ sa f¤= ¤ì ¤·aì no·eì o =· o i == s¤
1818 f¤= =aao a oa a fen a oana f¤wa· aoì ¤ìs· ê = s¤
14¤ì n=ì s a·= n·=ì a ê =sì o eì =a· nns ¤ «za fow ¤aì
af¤wi n aì« n·na·= = ¤sa s n·=ì = =·a f=n·¤· ¤·o a a a a
s= ae i fen no·a ¤·=a·a =ì fefso·n¤ noss· a n ¤ a¤= o e
¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì a fen =· a· n·=ì a a a¤z =· a no· ¤ìs·i
feo a a n·=ì ns ¤ = =·a a a· =ì fno¤ ¤o· a fno· ¤ az·few
faw o i feo a a o·o ¤¤a =· afzw o few o f=n a ê sa ¤¸= n
= f¤ s ¤ a·a f¤= sa·n ¤ fswa ¤ìs· faw o i «n ¤ s ê ¤ as
fefso·n f¤= feo = na· «= o· nn· o == n·=ì a a = ¤·a· ê n·faw
faw o i fen a a =ì fna=a· a·o a ¤ ¤an =· ¤ =·a f¤= fe¤ a¤·
fefso·n af=w faw o i fen a a s wê z ¤·o· n·a =· n·a· ¤a=·
n¸ì a·n ¤·o a·oì «s ê n= ¤fa¤·a a =·a ¤= f=s· o i
feo n·aì =ì n·aì fen·as ao s oì n =a =·a f=¤·aì a·o
f¤aì o eì o «s fen ê ¤a sa¤·a a ¤ = ¤¸¤=a fo¤z =· fea·=·
o i
=·a «s nfo¤ a
o a fo¤ ê ¤·n¤· a s¤fno· no· a ¤ f¤o·a, o f¤wz· =ì
fen·as = ¤¤ 2 fofnw =ì ê n·aì f¤= we ¤a= a =·a ¤= = ¤
¤sn o· ¤ a=·a ¤·few o ·
n¸ì n ¤a a·a o, n·a= aa, ¤ ¤ 2 ¤na
n¸ì n oa = = =no, ao·na , n¤ ao s 1 ¤na·
n¸ìnsì f¤f=w faa=ì, ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì n·=ì o·o noz, ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì n oa o·o fa =·, ao·na , n¤ ao s 1 ¤na·
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f¤¤·na· f¤f=wa¤ì, ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì n n a·¤ f¤a=ì, ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì asa o·o n·¤o·, aanìa n, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì =·az a·n =·oo, a a¤ ¤ o=, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì a·n n asì n na, o =¤a¤, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì oaa n o·o f¤a=ì, n·ê¤·o, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ìnsì nfsw a·oo, o sa, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì =na o·o =·oo, a oa as, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì nfo =a noz, ¤ a s· 1 ¤na·
n¸ì fawa = = ¤ a·, ¤ a s· 1 ¤na·
n¸ì a·n ¤¸¤·n nnz, ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì o n a·= fa =·, ao·na , n¤ ao s 1 ¤na·
n¸ì n=a o·o = o·a, ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, ¤ ¤ 1 ¤na·
n¸ì n =· a·n a·¤·, ao·na , n¤ ao s 1 ¤na·
n¸ì o n a·= n·¤o·, ¤ a, ¤ ¤ an eì
n¸ì fao·aì o·o fn=·, ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, ¤ ¤ s·feaìa o·o
n¸ì aoaìa = =, faê ¤ a¤, ¤ « n e a na a n
n¸ì a·n ¤·o a·oì, a sa as, ¤ ¤ n ¤ n·=ì a a
n¸ì a·= ¤ n·a «s a aa¤n a·e , a a a , ¤ a s· nìn· =
¤¸¤ n =· a a
n¸ì ao¤ s fn ¤ na e , ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, ¤ ¤ a ¤ì s s·
n¸ì a ¤ o·o = s·, « naaìw n·a ¤ a =· ¤a=·

ê ¤¸ ¤s =·aì«· s feo·¤· = aì«· sa f¤= ao s «f=o
f¤«¤sì «s n n¤·¤· oa f=a· a f¤n a· f¤n = a a·o s¤fno· no·
a ¤ f¤o·a =ì ê n·aì f¤= ¤ a=·a ¤·fe«· o i ¤ =·a a f¤fna
n n·feaì ¤ ¤ ¤o s·s = =a·a ¤ì ¤ a s·, ¤ « n e , « na¸ oìw,
sfe¤·a, ¤ aìw, ¤·eìo s, ¤ aa·n, =anaì, aa·n, a a¤ , « naaìw,
s aeì, n·a=·o, a oaìa «·f= ¤eì = n· =· = a· ¤ìs·i n·a = n· f¤=
ê n =· fa¤· n was ¤ìs· faw «s fs¤ fn¤o·eì ¤ =a =ì n¤·¤a·
f¤= nfo¤ a = z =· ¤ a· sa n· f=¤·fewi s·asì, a a s·asì, ¤ =·aì
a a ¤ =·aì, a ¤ì «s a a a ¤ì ns a ¤ o f=o a·o fen ¤¸ = ¤a ¤·ns
=·a f=s·i
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¤¸n ¤ a ¤ f¤o·a «s fs¤ f=a · =· ¤ =·a a f¤fna n n·feaì
¤ ¤ a nfo¤ a ¤¸·¤s o i
s·as· s·s a =¤a¤a a ¤ì, ¤an¤·o, ¤¸faw¤ìasì, ê ¤·a =, = ¤fe =,
a ¤ìasa·, fan =ì
¤ a s·· ¤ =¤ s·s asa· n¸ì, a a a no· a ¤· f¤o·a·, s·s ê ¤·a =,
¤ oaaì a ¤· f¤o·a·, f¤= = a fna, ¤ « a ¤ ¤ìe s a ¤·
f¤o·a·, ¤ a s·, s·s ¤fsa ¤·a· n¤ìc·, aa a o ¤n a ¤· f¤o·a·,
¤ a s·, s·s fnwê foe a, fo a¤ a n·ê aa a a ¤o, an «fns·a·
a ¤·, s·s naa·fsn·, a ¤ f¤o·a· n n·feaì, na , s·s f¤e a
¤ « a, ¤ oaaì f¤= ¤ aa·nì a ¤ì ¤ n faaì, s·s f¤e a s·n,
« sn aaa a f¤fna aìna= fe anaìf=ê a, aa = o n
n a·naaì, ¤ a s·, ¤ aa·nì= ¤ aìa·eìs a f¤fna (o w-a oì n)
¤ aaìa na «·a aì nì, o a o w a f¤fna ¤ n faaì a ¤o «·a
ê aa·aìê i
¤ « n e · s·s ¤fs s ¤ f¤wfsn·, faê ¤ a¤ a ¤· f¤o·a·, s·s
a·ê ao ¤· fe¤·¤ ¤, ¤·a o·ê =·ê a ¤ a f¤fna a ¤o,
¤ oìa aaìw, fs¤ aì = w a fna, a f¤fna a ¤o «n nìe na,
¤ oìa aaìw, s·s e ¤ fawfnaì, n saì f¤o·a· a f¤fna
n sìa na n aa, ¤ oìa aaìwi
s·fe¤·a· ¤ =¤ s·s o a =ìw a·a, =ìw a·a a f¤fna «·aaìa ¤a
¤ ¤aì fonfas, s ¤eì, fs¤ aì o a «a, f= a fowa n·ê aa a
a na ¤a a ¤na fnwê f=ê a a ¤o, ¤·ê ofnê a, s·s foê n ,
a a « a n·a, ¤·ê ofnê a, s·s fno s eì o eì, s= ¤ « a a ¤o,
a as , fs¤naì feo=·fa¤ on , foa ¤ « a f= a n eì a ¤o,
foa ¤ « a, s·s a aì ¤·a, aì « n = s e a·ê s na a·a ¤o=a
« s « = ¤ na, s·s s· aì =·=ìn·, ¤ a·¤·= nn·¤ì « = ¤ na
«n nìe na, s ¤eì, s·s n ao·, s ¤eìi
fe ao s· ¤ =¤ s·s aa·n·o· n a a fn¤fa·a , ¤ o¤ao ¤aa, s·s s·
¤=ìa·a·a· «s o sa a ¤· f¤o·a·, o sa = n aa, s·s f¤w=·nì
«s n=·fsn· fe aaa nao
a f¤fna n aa, f¤ a=aaì, s·s s· s¤o¤ ¤n¤· weì aì wa « ,
aanìa n a ¤· f¤o·a·, s·s aa· «=·aa n n ¤ , «na·¤sì
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a f¤fna n aa, aa·n·o· s· o·ê ¤, aanìa n, s·s a·an a,
aanìa n a f¤fna f¤o·a·, s·s « a n na f¤ a=aaì, s·s «
a n·=anì o naa, s·s ¤ n =i
o a s·s · ¤ =¤ s·s ¤ n·, =·¤·a, s·s feo a (a ¤·=s· fs¤n ) o sn
o aaa fe aaa nao a f¤fna n aa ¤ aìw, s·s f¤= f¤a,
= naì, s·s =saì o n·¤·=· anìw, s·as, fe ao s, ¤ a ¤,
aa·n, a a¤ , s an·a¤, « naaìw, ¤·eìo s, s·fe¤·a, ¤ aìw,
=·¤·a, « na ¸oìw «·f= = n· = ¤¤ ¤ s·s «s n n¤·¤·i

nfo¤ aì n n¤·¤·
¤ ¤ · s· « a s¤a fnna n n·feaì, a sa as, a ¤· ¤·n· «n nìe na,
n·ê ¤·o, « a s¤a fnna n n·feaì, ao·na , n¤ ao s, a sa na
«·a « a s¤a·eìan « s a f¤fna « aa a·eì= na (a a ), o sa,
s· « a s¤a « = ¤ na n n·feaì, aanìa n, s· « a s¤a
fe aaa nao fnna, o sa, s· « a s¤a « = ¤ na aana,
o sai
¤ a s·· « a s¤a fnna ¤ a s·,n¤·aa a a a a , = sa· «n nìe na «·a
¤ a s·, ¤ oaaì «s a osa =ìw « a s¤aì n n¤·¤·, fe sì«a
a f¤fna n n·feaì, ¤ a¤ ¤a, a f¤fna f¤o·a· n n·feaì na ,
a a a , ¤ oaaì, ¤ a¤ ¤a «s na =ìw n¸ì a a af¤=·n ns·¤·i

fen s feo·¤· s· « a s¤a fnna n n·feaì ¤ a ¤ (=anaì),
n oz o·o n·¤o·, aa·anì =·n n =a, a a¤ , ns¤·o, aa·n, aa·n =ì
a ao·= nì a f¤fna ¤ n faaì, « na¸ìw s ¤ n¤ =·s· «s =fs =a =·s·,
aa w a f¤fna ¤ n faaì, aa·ni

¤¸n ¤ f¤«¤sì «s ê a· = ¤fa¤·a·

¤ ¤ · no¤ìs fn ¤ a·oo, a·n n asì n na, aoa·n n·¤o·, ¤¤ a = =
n·¤o·, «n ¤ n·¤o·, na¤a =·n, a¤nì f¤a=ì, an n ¤o a,
n oa fn ¤ ¤·a줷o, ¤a¤s as , «a a ¤ n·a, o ¤n = = n onì,
n¸ìnsì ê n· oìa·, a nn no , fana =·n no , ¤an = = no ,
¤ =a o·o s na, f=wo = o·a, a a=f¤ =a ¤ n·a, = f¤ =a
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¤ n·a, n n·aì o·o, nsa·n nna, f=¤·a nfo =a·, n·afaa,
¤·ê noa = aa· =·n «oìa = ¤ì, a·= ¤ n·a = o·a, n o¤ a·=
fa =·i
¤ a s·· «a = a·oì, n¸ì «s n¸ìnsì no¤ì«s oìa, =ana = ¤aì, n oa
f¤a=ì, a s· a·n =¤ , =aìaì a n, a·= ¤ n·a, =ìs o·o s na,
¤¸¤·n a·o o, oa= ¤ a as, f¤wa· o·o, ¤ o=ì¤ faa=ì, =
faa=ì, a·= ¤·ao , n =a no, ¤ nì a·n, ¤no n «oìa, nsìn
« =o·, n oz a a·, ¤n¤·o no i
¤ « n e · ¤fa¤ì ¤ o, nìs· a·n no , f¤ =a ¤ o, ¤ì ¤ = ¤aì, s· ¤
¤ì fn ¤, s· o¤nnì aa·fea a a¤·, na oa ¤a nì oìa·i
s aeì,¤ e eì · asa·¤a = s s·¤s , ¤ì ¤ n oa, aì sì a¤eì, ¤n
¤ o, ¤¸=ì¤ wa n a·¤a , an n ¤n, n·fa¤ aa w, a oa·fea
f¤= n¸ì o ¤a a f¤fna ¤ n faaìi
s·as· ¤fana ¤ n·a a ¤ì, oo aì a·n a·oì, sì nì «oìa, s· n fa =a
«=a·s, n oz n o=o, a aa·n no, ao= ¤ a·= =no, oas=a
n·¤o·, f¤= f=n·¤a, n·n o·o =no, aa n ¤ n·a, oan n
=no, =na o·o n·¤o·, faa i
=few, =·a «s nfo¤ a =· c a s c a· ¤·a= fen ¤¸ = ¤a =ì
=ì ¤ asì ¤·ns ¤sno· o i ao s n·a ê ¤·fn¤· «s n n¤·¤· a ¤¤ 2
saì¤ a·o nfo¤ a f=s· o i fea · ns n n¤·¤· «s f¤«¤sìw = «nì
sfo f=o ¤a¤·=ì o·i oa ¤ =· a· fo¤z· «ns ¤ o i «nì fen ¤¤
n waì = =·=¤ o·i

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o¤·o «s ¤¤ a =·z¤·aì oeì ¤s

sì nì «oìa, a ¤fe=n fea ¤ =·a, ofawz· «s fon·=o ¤¸= n
s· aì wa « a s¤a, a ¤· « s fo= ¤·n·, a·eì nì aì aì eì « a
¤ì ¤ì a·¤a, 2500 f¤«a= wa a ¤fe=n, f=oì, s·as
sa¤·a =·n, fa¤·eì¤o wa a ¤fe=n fea fe sìw « s a o
wa s·
a·a· n·foa « a s¤a, o¤aê , =fos a s ¤¸¤·na,1968
n ¤·a¤fns· « a s¤a « s a ¤fe=n, ao·na , f¤ so an, ¤aoì¤ na=,
fs¤ n=·fsn· =· o·eìa wa a ¤·, ¤ ¤ n so a ¤ ¤aoì¤ na=, 1976
¤ ¤· sê oo· =· o·eìa wa n¸ì s·= s = =a·naì no·¤ a·, ¤·a·anì
¤ = =a·naì a·ê s na, 1975
¤a foe a =· nì¤a= ao naì wa a ¤fe=n, s·fe¤·a, aaì
¤fa as
a·eì nì aì aì eì « a

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