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Welcome to Tool 18: FLEET INVENTORY & OPTIONS TOOL

Learn about the options for developing a cleaner fleet
The Inventory & Options Tool is divided into fifteen sheets. These sheets will allow you to assess the environmental impacts of your fleet and to look at the potential benefits of these actions. Start with entering your fleet data in the white fields of the Fleet Inventory sheet, replacing the default Example Fleet figures. This basic data will then allow you to estimate your impacts and review possible actions described in the subsequent Impacts, Actions, and Monitoring sheets below. If you don¶t know your fleet data, you can use the 'Example Fleet' figures already provided to browse through the tool.

Step 1 - Fill in Your Fleet Data
Fleet Inventory In this orange sheet you will fill in your fleet data in the white data fields.

Step 2 - Review Your Impacts
Impacts - Your Emissions Impacts - Air Pollution Impacts - Climate Change These yellow sheets will indicate your fleet's air pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions and impacts.

Step 3 - View Your Options
Action - Overview Action - Drivers Action - Clean diesel Action - Biofuels Action - Retrofitting trucks Action - Changing to diesel Action - Replacing 2 strokes Action - Hybrid Passenger cars Action - New Trucks Action - Summary The blue sheets in this section will give you examples of some of the possible corrective actions for your fleet.

Step 4 - Develop Indicators
Monitoring This green sheet gives examples of indicators to help track your progress.

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Inventory - Your fleet
Fill in only the white cells in this sheet with your fleet data, replacing the default Example Fleet data. In following sheets you will read about your impact and cleaner fleet options, tailored to the fleet specifications you provide here. The default Example Fleet data is provided only as a guide.
Fill in your fleet name: Notes are at the bottom of this sheet Number of (2) vehicles Vehicle category Petrol - without catalyst Passenger Petrol - with 3-way catalyst cars: Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter Diesel - with PM filter Light duty Light duty - pre Euro trucks & buses Light duty - Euro I+II (2.2 - 4.5 tonnes): Light duty - III+IV Light duty - Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Medium duty Medium duty - pre Euro trucks & buses Medium duty - Euro I+II (4.5 -15 tonnes): Medium duty - Euro III+IV Medium duty - Euro V Heavy duty Heavy duty - pre-Euro trucks & buses Heavy duty - Euro I+II (15 - 22 tonnes): Heavy duty - Euro III+IV Heavy duty - Euro V Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines Motorcycles: Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines
(1)

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Example Fleet Total annual (3) mileage (km/yr) 195,000 960,000 120,000 0 2,214,000 6,586,000 42,000 17,356 336,000 562,500 14,000 0 327,500 372,765 68,096 14,236 45,000 1,020,000 Total annual fuel (3) consumption (L/yr) 22,000 81,600 8,400 0 298,890 723,736 5,040 1,607 63,840 104,063 2,545 0 144,780 157,951 26,394 4,809 900 23,460 Average annual (4) mileage per vehicle (km/yr) 19,500 15,000 10,000 18,000 18,500 21,000 17,356 12,000 12,500 14,000 23,393 24,851 17,024 14,236 9,000 8,500 Average fuel (4) efficiency (km/L) 8.9 11.8 14.3 7.4 9.1 8.3 10.8 5.3 5.4 5.5 2.3 2.4 2.6 3.0 50.0 43.5

10 64 12 0 123 356 2 1 28 45 1 0 14 15 4 1 5 120

Total:

801

12,894,453
5,000 1.56 1.38

1,670,016
ppm EUR EUR (fill in your local currency)

Your diesel sulphur level (5): (6) Your petrol fuel price per liter : Your diesel fuel price per liter (6):

Notes (1) If you don¶t know the categories for your vehicles, you can use the guidelines in the 'Vehicle categories' sheet:««««««« CLICK HERE (2) The number of vehicles is good to fill in but not necessary if you don't have it. (3) If you don't have the exact fuel and km numbers you can use estimates. If you only have km or fuel consumption you can easily estimate the other by using the 'fuel to kilometers converter':«««««««««««««« CLICK HERE (4) You can use the average annual mileage and the average fuel economy to check your data for errors. (5) The diesel sulphur level is used to estimate your fleet's emission of sulphur oxides (Sox). Furthermore it determines which emission control technologies can be applied. Actual diesel sulphur levels can be obtained from www.unep.org/pcfv/resources/sulphur.asp (6) Fuel prices are used to estimate the savings from fuel efficiency improvements. (1 US Gallon equals 3.8 liters)

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Impacts - Estimating your emissions
Your annual emissions are estimated below

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Air Pollution
CO 10.3 17.3 0.4 0.0 8.0 23.7 0.2 0.1 2.9 4.8 0.1 0.0 4.4 4.4 0.4 0.1 0.7 28.1 VOC 1.7 0.7 0.2 0.0 4.2 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.2 14.7 (in tonnes/yr) NOx 0.5 1.1 0.2 0.0 3.7 10.8 0.1 0.0 5.2 8.4 0.1 0.0 7.8 7.6 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.2 SOx 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 PM10 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4

The yearly emissions of Example Fleet
Numbers 10 Petrol - without catalyst Petrol - with 3-way catalyst 64 Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter 12 Diesel - with PM filter 0 123 Light duty - pre Euro Light duty - Euro I+II 356 Light duty - III+IV 2 Light duty - HEV 1 28 Medium duty - pre Euro Medium duty - Euro I+II 45 Medium duty - Euro III+IV 1 Medium duty - Euro V 0 Heavy duty - pre-Euro 14 Heavy duty - Euro I+II 15 Heavy duty - Euro III+IV 4 Heavy duty - Euro V 1 5 Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines 120 801 Total km/year 195,000 960,000 120,000 0 2,214,000 6,586,000 42,000 17,356 336,000 562,500 14,000 0 327,500 372,765 68,096 14,236 45,000 1,020,000 12,894,453

Climate Change
(in tonnes/yr) CO2 52 192 22 0 777 1,882 13 4 166 271 7 0 376 411 69 13 2 55

105.7

26.4

46.5

3.9

3.7

3,925

Disclaimer - This tool is used to estimate your emissions and only gives indicative numbers (especially with regard to air pollutants).
Local conditions influence emissions, including driving conditions, fuel quality, vehicle standards, maintenance and altitude. However, the emission of CO2 is not influenced by local conditions and can thus be taken as your actual emissions. The calculations are based on vehicle emission factors based on a Nairobi study by University of California, Riverside and UNEP (IVE model 1.1.1a). More information, including the emission factors used in this model, can be found in the 'Emission factors' sheet:«««««««lick C

here
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2/9/2012 5:14 PM

Impacts: Air Pollution and Health Impacts
Health effects of Particulate Matter (PM) pollution are explained in this sheet.
Your current fleetwide PM emissions are: 3.73 tonnes of PM per year.

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As a guiding estimate, if this amount would be emitted in the Netherlands it is estimated to cause: 1.5 premature deaths/year. In addition, many more people are affected with other diseases such as non-fatal cancers, bronchitis, and cardio-vascular diseases (heart and lung). The effects of your vehicle emissions are strongly dependent on where the emissions occur. Emissions in a city center have more health impacts than similar emissions in rural areas as more people are exposed in cities. As an example, emissions in Paris are estimated to have 10 times more health impacts than emissions occuring in the rural parts of France. Particulate matter (PM) is often used as a proxy for all air pollutants when estimating health impacts. This is because PM is a key pollutant with many different impacts. PM also often includes other pollutants such as SOx, Lead, etc. The World Health Organisation has estimated that 800,000 people die prematurely worldwide each year due to outdoor air pollution.

Read more on Health Effects and Air Pollution in Tool 3 and Tool 4

Example: Impact of Netherlands TNT fleet
In the Netherlands TNT vehicles drive 134 millions km annually, emitting approximately 31 tons of PM10. The total estimated PM10 emissions in the Netherlands are 12,000 tons - estimated to result in at least 5,000 premature deaths. The TNT fleet¶s share of these premature deaths can thus roughly be estimated at 13 persons each year. Disclaimer - It is difficult to estimate the precise health impacts for specific sources and locations. Therefore the impact data in this sheet is only to give an indication of the general health impacts of vehicle emissions.

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Impacts - Climate Change: your carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can be calculated on the basis of your fuel consumption.
The indicative cost of your CO2 emissions is explained below.
Remember, with every liter of petrol fuel burned 2.35 kg of CO2 is emitted. With every liter of diesel fuel burned 2.60 kg of CO2 is emitted. Your current fleetwide fuel consumption: and your current fleetwide CO2 emissions: 1,670,016 3,925 L/yr of petrol + diesel tonnes/yr of CO2

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Offsetting your CO2 emissions can be done by planting trees. It is estimated that 1 up to 7 trees offset 1 tonne CO2 over the lifetime of the tree(s). The actual number of trees per tonne of CO2 offset varies depending on factors such as climate, rainfall, species and soil type. For example, in the UK you can offset 1 ton CO2 by planting 1 leaf tree and let it grow during 100 years.
1 tree offsets 1 ton CO2 7 trees offset 1 ton CO2

To offset your CO2 emissions you need to plant between This requires between approximately which equals a square area with sides of respectively

3,925 18 0.4

and and and

27,472 36 0.6

trees every year* hectares km.

* When the CO2 emissions of your fleet increase, additional trees have to be planted to offset the difference. «or offset your CO2 emissions by buying CO2 Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) certificates Assuming a CER price of: 15 EUR per ton CO2 (you can update this value! **) Offsetting 100% of your CO2 emissions would cost you 58,868 EUR per year.

** The price for CERs varies and depends on the details of the programme used. In January 2008, the price level for Certified Emission Reductions Futures for emissions in 2008, was 15 EUR/ton CO2. In November 2008 the same product was worth 18 EUR/ton. Actual prices can be found on various websites, for example on www.eex.de

Read more about carbon dioxide and climate change in Tool 6

Example: TNT Dutch and UK fleets
TNT¶s Dutch and UK fleets produce 258,000 tonnes of CO2 every year. To absorb these CO2 emissions it would require planting between 258,000 and 1,806,000 trees every year. This covers between 1,173 and 2,345 hectares, equalling a square area with sides of respectively 3.4 and 4.8km.

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Actions - Overview of options and their effects
Overview of various options to improve your environmental impact

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Fuel savings
2 - 4% up to 7% 5 - 10% none none none 0 - 5% none none none compared to diesel, 20% comp. to petrol 25 -35% 10% INCREASE ~ 50%

Options Drivers & Maintenance
Optimal tyre pressure & alignment Improved maintenance Eco-driving Use unleaded petrol

Air pollutant reduction CO2 emissions reduction
2 - 4% up to 20% 5 - 10% Eliminating lead particles Reduces SOx and ultra fine particles Eliminating SOx 0 - 5% depending on vehicle technology 20-60% depending on which pollutants 50-90% depending on which pollutants 2 - 4% up to 7% 5 - 10% none none ~60% (life cycle emissions) ~60- 65% (life cycle emissions) none none none compared to diesel, 15% comp. to petrol 25 -35% 5 -10% 100% possible

Fuel

Use ultra low sulfur diesel Biodiesel (max blending) Bioethanol (max blending)

In-use Vehicles

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Diesel Particulate Filter

New Vehicles

Euro V Diesel trucks Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) with emission controls CNG with emission controls Fuel Cell with renewable hydrogen

~90% compared with pre-euro >90% compared with pre-euro >90% compared with pre-euro 99% compared with pre-euro

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2/9/2012 5:14 PM

Action - Eco-driving and improved maintenance
Two options that are easy to implement to improve your environmental impact
Your current fleetwide fuel consumption is: L/yr of petrol fuel, costing you approximately 127,960 L/yr of diesel fuel, costing you approximately 1,542,056

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, and

199,618 EUR 2,128,037 EUR

Eco-driving

low scenario*

high scenario*

L/yr of fuel (diesel+petrol) can save you between 83,501 167,002 translating into Fuel cost reduction EUR/yr 116,383 232,765 or CO2 emission reduction of tonnes/yr of CO2 216 431 * The low estimate for Eco-driving assumes a 5% fuel saving, the high estimate a 10% fuel saving

Read more about Eco-driving programmes in Tool 8.

Better Maintenance

low scenario**

high scenario**

can save you between L/yr of fuel (diesel+petrol) 66,801 116,901 translating into EUR/yr fuel cost reduction 93,106 162,936 or CO2 emission reduction of tonnes/yr of CO2 172 302 ** The low estimate assumes a 4% fuel saving, the high estimate a 7% fuel saving

Read more about Better Vehicle Maintenance programmes in Tool 7.

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2/9/2012 5:14 PM

Action - Switch to low-sulphur diesel
Reduce your SOx emissions by switching to lower sulphur fuels

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Sulphur oxides (SOx) are gaseous emissions formed by the oxidation of fuel sulphur during the combustion process. They have various respiratory impacts and contribute to the formation of acid rain. The Sox emission depends entirely on the level of sulphur in the fuel. Now your diesel sulphur level is 5,000 ppm When the diesel sulphur level changes to: 500 ppm, When the diesel sulphur level changes to: 50 ppm,

and your current fleetwide SOx emissions: 3.9 tonnes of SOx per year

Your fleetwide emissions become: 0.39 tonnes SOx/yr, and so you save: 3.47 tonnes SOx/yr, which is a reduction of 90% of your current fleetwide SOx emissions

Your fleetwide emissions become: 0.04 tonnes SOx/yr, and you save: 3.82 tonnes SOx/yr, which is a reduction of 99% of your current fleetwide SOx emissions

Your SOx emissions with various diesel sulphur levels
4.5 4.0 5000 ppm (curren 3.5 3.0 500 ppm 2.5 50 ppm 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 5000 ppm (currently)

tonnes/yr

3.9 0.4 0.0

Choosing low sulphur diesel also reduces emissions of fine and ultra fine particles (PM10 and PM 2.5) Read more about low-sulphur diesel in Tool 10 and about sulphur oxides in the Pollutants dropdown menu

500 ppm

50 ppm

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2/9/2012 5:14 PM

Action - Using a biofuel mix
Reduce your CO2 emissions by filling up with biofuel blends
If you use low-level blends (e.g. 10% biodiesel or 10% bioethanol) Your current fleetwide CO2 emissions: 3,925 tonnes/yr of CO2 you will emit between
Low savings scenario* High savings scenario**

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If you use high-level blends (e.g. 100% biodiesel or 85% bioethanol) you will emit between:
Low savings scenario* High savings scenario**

3,728 196 5%

-

3,532 392 10%

tonnes/yr of CO2 tonnes/yr of CO2

1,766 2,158 55%

-

0 3,925 100%

tonnes/yr of CO2 tonnes/yr of CO2

You will save: which is a savings of of your current fleetwide CO2 emissions

You will save: which is a savings of of your current fleetwide CO2 emissions

Choosing biodiesel or bioethanol also reduces the emission of SOx and ultra fine particles Every petrol vehicle can drive on up to 20% bioethanol, and every diesel vehicle can drive on up to 20% biodiesel. For higher biofuel blends vehicles may require some minor engine and vehicle component modifications. * The low savings scenario assumes a 50% reduction of CO2 emissions on a life cycle basis. This CO2 reduction is typical for biodiesel produced in Europe from rape seed or bio-ethanol produced from sugar beet. Using bioethanol from sugar cane (Brazilian ethanol) reduces CO2 by 50-90% and using ethanol from grain reduces CO2 by 30-40% on a life cycle basis. ** The high savings scenario assumes a 100% reduction of CO2 emissions on a life cycle basis. The high scenario assumes that all energy used under the production and refining process is renewable. This is a very long-term assumption.

Read more about bioethanol and biodiesel in Tool 14

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2/9/2012 5:14 PM

Action - Retrofitting emission control technologies
Reduce your PM emissions by retrofitting with catalysts and/or filters
Your current PM emissions from your trucks and buses: pre-Euro: 1.5 tonnes PM/yr Euro I, II: 1.7 tonnes PM/yr Euro III, IV: 0.1 tonnes PM/yr Euro V and Hybrids: 0.0 tonnes PM/yr + Total: 3.3 tonnes PM/yr

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Your current fleetwide annual PM emissions: 3.7 tonnes PM/yr

If you retrofit all your Euro I - V trucks and buses* with Diesel Oxdiation Catalysts ( DOCs)
You will emit between 20% less - 40% less 1.44 1.08 tonnes PM/yr So, you will save: 0.36 0.72

If you retrofit all your Euro III - V trucks and buses ** with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs)
You will emit between 60% less - 90% less 0.02 0.01 tonnes PM/yr So, you will save: 0.04 0.06

tonnes PM/yr

tonnes PM/yr

which is equal to a reduction of 10% 19% of your current fleetwide PM emissions. Besides, DOCs reduce the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) with 60-90%. For DOCs a diesel sulphur level of 500 ppm or less is required. At this time, is not recommended as your current diesel sulphur level is 5000 ppm, this Price indications for DOCs range from 350 EUR to 1500 EUR, depending on the system. * Pre-Euro trucks and buses can be retrofitted with DOCs, but it is generally considered more cost effective to replace them with newer vehicles

which is equal to a reduction of 1% 1% of your current fleetwide PM emissions. For DPFs a diesel sulphur level of 50 ppm or less is required. At this time, as your current diesel sulphur level is 5000 ppm, this is not recommended Price indications for DPFs range from 2300 EUR to 7000 EUR, depending on the system. ** Pre-Euro III trucks and buses cannot be retrofitted with DPFs because it requires an electronic injection system

Read more about retrofitting in-use diesel vehicles in Tool 11

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2/9/2012 5:14 PM

Action: Switch your petrol vehicles to diesel vehicles
Possible CO2 reductions by replacing light petrol vehicles with light diesel vehicles
Your currently consuming costing you and emitting If you switch to diesel passenger vehicles instead, you will consume approximately costing you and emitting Your savings in CO2 emissions will be which equals Savings in fuel cost which equals 74 103,600 161,616 243

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77,700 121,212 202 41 1.1% 40,404 546

petrol passenger vehicles L/yr of petrol fuel Your savings when switching to diesel vehicles EUR/yr tonnes/yr of CO2 fuel costs CO2 emissions petrol passenger vehicles petrol passediesel passenger vehicles 100% 100% 100% diesel passe 75% 83% 80% 60% L/yr of diesel fuel 40% EUR/yr 20% tonnes/yr of CO2 0% tonnes/yr of CO2 reduction over your current fleetwide CO2 emissions EUR/yr EUR/yr per vehicle
fuel costs CO2 emissions

Note that one liter of diesel emits 11% more CO2 per liter than petrol fuel (2.6 kg/L CO2 for diesel vs. 2.35 kg/L for petrol). However, diesel vehicles generally consume 25% less than similar petrol vehicles. So when switching to diesel, on balance you reduce your CO2 emissions by approximately 17%. Note: Older diesel vehicles emit significantly more particulate matter when compared to petrol vehicles of similar size and age. If you consider changing to diesel vehicles then make sure to use modern, low particle emissions diesel vehicles (Euro IV, Euro V or diesels equipped with a particulate filter). For these models you will need low sulphur diesel fuel (at least <500 ppm). is not recommended at this time. As your current diesel sulphur level is 5000 ppm, this

Read more on diesel and petrol vehicles in Tool 2

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2/9/2012 5:14 PM

Action - Switch from 2-stroke to 4-stroke motorcycles
How to reduce emissions by using 4-stroke motor cycles instead of 2-strokes
Today your fleet of 2-stroke motorcycles, has a total annual mileage of 1,020,000 and emits 14,688 plus 357

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km/yr kg/yr of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) kg/yr of particulate matter (PM)

Your current fleetwide VOC and PM emissions are 26,434 kg/yr of VOCs 3,726 kg/yr of PM

If you replace these with 4-stroke motorcycles, you will emit: 5,100 kg/yr of VOCs and 214 kg/yr of PM and thus reduce your emissions by: and 9,588 143 kg/yr of VOCs (which equals kg/yr of PM (which equals 36% 4% of your current fleetwide VOC emissions) of your current fleetwide PM emissions).
Your savings when switching to 4-strokes

2-stroke motorcycles emit more volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) than 4-strokes, mainly due to high emissions of unburned fuel. That is also one of the reasons why 4-stroke engines will consume 10%-15% less fuel than 2-strokes. The above estimates assume motorcycles that can meet basic emission regulations when new (post 1995 US models) and that are well maintained. However, 2-stroke motorcycles can have much higher emissions than indicated above when the wrong type or amount of lubricating oil is used and maintenance is poor. This is the case in many developing countries.

2-stroke
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% VOCs

4-stroke

VOCs PM 2-stroke ### 4-stroke ##

100% 60%

PM

Read more on 2-stroke motorcyles in Tool 2 and about VOCs in the Pollutants dropdown menu

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2/9/2012 5:14 PM

Action - Switch conventional vehicles to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)
Read about the better fuel economy of hybrid electric passenger vehicles
Fuel economy of current HEV technologies can reach up to 19.6 km/L, according to US EPA data and depending on vehicle drive cycle (e.g. Toyota Prius). With a fuel economy for petrol hybrid vehicles of: km/L*, and 19.6 the hybrid being EUR* more expensive, 1,500 * you can update these values with your estimations and/or equivalent of 2000 USD average. Switching to hybrid passenger vehicles would get you the following results ( *: please update) Your current petrol & After switching to hybrid diesel passenger cars: electric passenger cars: # of passenger vehicles 86 cars 86 cars total mileage 1,275,000 km/yr 1,275,000 km/yr fuel consumption petrol 103,600 L/yr petrol 65,051 L/yr petrol fuel consumption diesel 8,400 L/yr diesel L/yr passenger vehicles fuel cost 173,208 EUR/yr 101,480 EUR/yr passenger vehicles CO2 emissions 265 tonnes/yr 153 tonnes/yr Your savings will be as follows: Fuel cost savings which is 71,728 41% EUR/yr of your current fuel cost for passenger vehicles
300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 Fuel costs (EUR/yr)

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Your savings when switching to HEVs
Current pass.cars With HEVs

Fuel costs O2 (kg/yr) C Current ##### 265,300 With HE##### 152,870

CO2 (kg/yr)

CO2 emission savings tonnes/yr of CO2 112 which is of your current CO2 emissions for passenger vehicles 42% which translates into CO2 savings per vehicle: tonnes/yr per passenger vehicle 1.31 Fuel costs savings per vehicle: EUR/yr per passenger vehicle 834 So, the payback time of the extra investment of the hybrid technology (instead of a conventional vehicle) will be approximately years 1.8 In addition, HEVs emit less PM and other air pollutants than conventional passenger vehicles Hybrid vehicles are a bit more expensive to buy, but the pay back time of the extra investment can be very short, depending on your annual mileage and fuel prices.

Read more about Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Tool 13

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Action - Reducing particulate matter (PM) and CO2 emissions by replacing your existing trucks and buses
The benefits of new technology

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After replacing your pre-Euro-III trucks and buses 120%
in relative pre-Euro-IIIterms (%) CNG
Euro-V HEVs

Replace all Pre-Euro-III trucks and buses
All your current pre-Euro-III trucks and buses # of trucks and buses mileage (km/yr) diesel fuel consumption (L/yr) fuel costs (EUR/yr) fuel cost savings per vehicle (EUR/yr) CO2 emissions (tonnes/yr) PM emissions (tonnes/yr) 581 10,398,765 1,493,261 2,060,700 n/a 3,882 3.26 Replaced with Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)* 581 10,398,765 1,045,282 1,442,490 1,064 2,718 0.20 Replaced with CNG vehicles** 581 10,398,765 n/a unknown unknown 3,688 0.20 Replaced with Euro-V trucks and buses*** 581 10,398,765 1,343,934 1,854,630 355 3,494 0.20

100%

pre-Euro HEVs CNG Euro-V diesel fu 100% 70% #VALUE! 90% fuel cost 00% 70% 1 #VALUE! 90% 80%CO2 em 100% 70% 95% 90% PM emis00% 1 6% 6% 6%

60%

Replace all your trucks and buses
All your current trucks and buses # of trucks and buses mileage (km/yr) diesel fuel consumption (L/yr) fuel costs (EUR/yr) fuel cost savings per vehicle (EUR/yr) CO2 emissions (tonnes/yr) PM emissions (tonnes/yr) 590 10,554,453 1,533,656 2,116,445 n/a 3,988 3.32 Replaced with Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)* 590 10,554,453 1,073,559 1,481,512 1,076 2,791 0.20 Replaced with CNG vehicles** 590 10,554,453 n/a unknown unknown 3,788 0.20 Replaced with Euro-V trucks and buses*** 590 10,554,453 1,384,330 1,910,375 349 3,599 0.20

40%

20%
100% 100% 100% 100% 70% 70% 70% 6% #VALUE! #VALUE! 90% 90%

0%

diesel fuel consumptioncostsCO2 emissions emissions fuel PM

95% 6%

90% 6%

* for HEV trucks and buses a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions is assumed. Fuel requirements: In principle hybrid vehicles only need unleaded fuels, although emission control technologies can be installed that require low sulphur fuels. Ask for the requirements to ensure you keep your warrantee. ** for CNG trucks and buses a 5% reduction of CO2 emissions is assumed. Fuel cost savings are not estimated as CNG prices can vary widely. Fuel requirements: Check the availability and the price level of CNG fuel in your country. *** Replacing your fleet with Euro V trucks and buses does in principle not reduce your fuel consumption. However, new trucks are generally more fuel-efficient. Here it is assumed Euro-V trucks are 10% more fuel efficient than pre-Euro-III trucks. Fuel requirements: For Euro V trucks low sulphur diesel must be available . The estimates assume that both HEVs and CNG vehicles meet stringent Euro V standards

Read more about environmental friendly vehicles and alternative fuels in Tool 13 and 14

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Clean Fleet Management Summary for Example Fleet
For more information and the full results, see previous sheets and the information tools 1-17 of the Clean Fleet Management Toolkit

Your current fleet data:
Vehicle category Petrol - without catalyst Petrol - with 3-way catalyst Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter Diesel - with PM filter Light duty - pre Euro Light duty - Euro I+II Light duty - III+IV Light duty - HEV Medium duty - pre Euro Medium duty - Euro I+II Medium duty - Euro III+IV Medium duty - Euro V Heavy duty - pre-Euro Heavy duty - Euro I+II Heavy duty - Euro III+IV Heavy duty - Euro V Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines Total Petrol fuel price: Diesel fuel price: Diesel sulphur level: 1.56 1.38 5000 Total annual Total annual fuel Number of mileage consumption vehicles (km/yr) (L/yr) 10 195,000 22,000 64 960,000 81,600 12 120,000 8,400 0 123 2,214,000 298,890 356 6,586,000 723,736 2 42,000 5,040 1 17,356 1,607 28 336,000 63,840 45 562,500 104,063 1 14,000 2,545 0 14 327,500 144,780 15 372,765 157,951 4 68,096 26,394 1 14,236 4,809 5 45,000 900 120 1,020,000 23,460 801 12,894,453 1,670,016 EUR/L EUR/L ppm

Your fleet's current emissions:
Climate Change: Air Pollutants: Carbon Dioxide: Particulate Matter: sulphur Oxides: Nitrogen Oxides: Carbon Monoxide: Volatile Organic Compounds: CO2 PM10 SOx NOx CO VOCs 3,925 3.7 3.9 47 106 26 ton/yr ton/yr ton/yr ton/yr ton/yr ton/yr

Your CO2 emissions can be offset by planting trees. You would need to plant between 3,925 and This involves about 18 and You can also off-set by buying CO2 emission certificates.

27,472 36

trees each year hectares of trees

Your emissions of Particulate Matter are harmful for both public health and the environment. In the Netherlands, your emission of 3.7 tonnes/yr of Particulate Matter would cause about 1.5 premature deaths/yr, plus many more people being affected with other diseases like non-fatal cancers, bronchitis, etc.

Some of your options for potential savings: > Ecodriving & Maintenance
Ecodriving can reduce your fuel consumption by 5 to 10% (7.5% on average), reducing your fuel cost by approximately 174574 EUR/yr (on average) and your CO2 emissions by 323 tonnes/yr of CO2. Better maintenance can help reduce your fuel consumption by 4 to 7% (5.5% on average), depending on your maintenance level now. It can reduce your fuel cost by appr. 128021 EUR/yr, and your CO2 emissions by 237 tonnes/yr of CO2 (on average).

> Fuels
You can reduce your SOx emissions by switching to cleaner diesel. Currently you are using diesel with a sulphur level of 5000 ppm. If you switch to 500 ppm diesel, your fleetwide SOx emissions will reduce by 90%. If you switch to 50 ppm diesel, your fleetwide SOx emissions will even reduce by 99%. If you would use 10% blended biofuels your fleetwide CO2 emissions would be reduced by 5% to 10%, depending on the type of biofuel you use. You can even decide to use high blended biofuels to reduce your emissions even more.

> In-use vehicles
Retrofitting some of your trucks is possible if you have low sulphur diesel available. If you retrofit all your Euro I - V trucks and buses with Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs), you will save the emission of approximately 538 kg/yr of Particulate Matter, which equals 14% of your current fleetwide PM emissions. For DOCs a diesel sulphur level of 500 ppm or less is required, therefore it is not recommended

at this time

If you retrofit all your Euro III - V trucks and buses with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), you will save the emission of approximately 47 kg/yr of Particulate Matter, which equals 1.2% of your current fleetwide PM emissions. For DPFs diesel with 50 ppm or less sulphur is required (<15 recommended), therefore it is not recommended at this time.

> New vehicles
Switching your petrol passenger vehicles to diesel vehicles, will reduce your fuel Z:\opt\scribd\conversion\tmp\scratch6268\84206579.xls

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consumption, fuel costs and CO2 emissions. The reduction in CO2 emissions will be 41 tonnes/yr of CO2, which is about 1.1% of your current fleetwide CO2 emissions. In addition, fuel cost will be reduced by 40404 EUR/yr. Replacing your 2-stroke motorcycles with 4-strokes, will reduce the emission of VOC's by 9588 kg/yr -which equals 36% of your current fleetwide VOC emissions, and PM by 143 kg/yr, which is 4% of your current fleetwide PM emissions. Replacing your conventional passenger vehicles with hybrid electric passenger vehicles, can reduce your fuel cost by 71728 EUR/yr. This equals an annual fuel cost saving of 834 EUR per passenger vehicle for each year it is driving, resulting in a payback time of the investment for the hybrid technology of approximately 1.8 years. Furthermore it reduces your fleetwide CO2 emissions by 112 tonnes/yr of CO2. By replacing all pre-Euro-III trucks and buses with Hybrid Electric Trucks and Buses, you save 447978 L/yr of diesel, worth 618210 EUR/yr. Besides, it reduces your annual emissions of CO2 by 1165 tonnes/yr of CO2, and 3.1 tonnes/yr of PM. By replacing all pre-Euro-III trucks and buses with Euro-V Trucks and Buses, you save 149326 L/yr of diesel, worth 206070 EUR/yr. Besides, it reduces your annual emissions of CO2 by 388 tonnes/yr of CO2, and 3.1 tonnes/yr of PM. By replacing all pre-Euro-III trucks and buses with CNG Trucks and Buses, you reduce your annual emissions by 194 tonnes/yr of CO2 and 3.1 tonnes/yr of PM. This is not an exhaustive list of options to reduce your fleet's environmental impact. Depending on your fleet's specifications, there can be many other options that you may consider.

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Monitoring: Developing indicators
Different options to measure the improvement of your fleet's environmental performance

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Example indicators for CO2 reductions
Based on your current fuel use and CO2 emissions a possible baseline indicator number can be: Average CO2 emission per km: or Average fuel consumption per km: 304 0.130 g/km L/km

Read more on monitoring in Tool 17

Improving your fleet's environmental impact will be represented by improving indicator-numbers. However, these indicators are not very useful if you are operating trucks of various sizes (transport companies) or buses of various sizes (public transport companies). You should redefine your indicator so that it best represents your situation. For delivery companies possible indicators are: Average fuel consumption per ton-km* or Average CO2 emission per ton-km* 0.072 168 L/ton-km g/ton-km For public transport companies possible indicators are: Fuel use per passenger-km** or CO2 emission per passenger-km** 0.103 243 L/passenger-km g/passenger-km

* The number of ton-kilometers is the weight of transported materials in tons multiplied by the kilometers driven. For an example: CLICK HERE

** Passenger-kilometers is the number of persons transported multiplied by the number of kilometers driven. For an example: CLICK HERE

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Emission factors used in the tool
Estimating your emissions using emission factors
According to the GreenHouseGas protocol (www.ghgprotocol.org), with every liter of petrol fuel burned, 2.35 kg of CO2 is emitted, and with every liter of diesel fuel burned, 2.60 kg of CO2 is emitted. The emission factors below provide the amount of air pollutant emitted per kilometer. For example, at the sheet called "Impacts - Your Emissions" you will note that the cells contain formulas and links like the next one: (53*D6/1000000). Here "53" is the emission factor indicating that per kilometer driven 53 grams will be emitted of this specific pollutant. If you have the emission factors for your specific situation you can change this emission factor table, or change the spreadsheet with your own emissions factors. To do so go to the "Impacts - Your Emissions" sheet, unprotect it, and replace the link by your emission factor. CO
(*)

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VOC

NOx

SOx

PM10

(g/km) (g/km) (g/km) (g/km) (g/km) Vehicle category Petrol - without catalyst 53.00 8.84 2.52 0.05 0.01 Petrol - with 3-way catalyst 18.00 0.78 1.17 0.05 0.01 Passenger Diesel - without Particulate Matter filt 3.61 1.88 1.67 0.22 0.22 cars: Diesel - with PM filter 3.61 0.30 0.89 0.16 0.08 Light duty Light duty - pre Euro 3.61 1.88 1.67 0.29 0.27 Light duty - Euro I+II 3.60 0.19 1.64 0.26 0.13 trucks & buses 3.60 0.19 1.64 0.25 0.13 (2,2 - 4,5 tonnes): Light duty - III+IV Light duty - HEV 3.60 0.13 0.87 0.26 0.06 Medium duty Medium duty - pre Euro 8.59 1.65 15.33 0.69 0.67 Medium duty - Euro I+II 8.59 1.65 15.01 0.69 0.67 trucks & buses 5.35 1.15 9.20 0.69 0.29 (4,5 -15 tonnes): Medium duty - Euro III+IV Medium duty - Euro V 2.45 0.89 4.41 0.69 0.07 Heavy duty Heavy duty - pre-Euro 13.29 2.53 23.80 0.98 2.15 Heavy duty - Euro I+II 11.80 2.53 20.40 0.97 1.34 trucks & buses 5.79 1.59 10.00 0.97 0.66 (15 - 22 tonnes): Heavy duty - Euro III+IV Heavy duty - Euro V 4.05 1.43 7.00 0.97 0.46 Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines 16.00 5.00 0.99 0.02 0.21 Motorcycles: Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines 27.50 14.40 0.16 0.01 0.35 (*) If you don¶t know the categories for your vehicles, you can use the guidelines in the 'Vehicle categories' sheet:««« CLICK HERE

What do these emission factors tell you ?
The emission factors (average emissions per km measured in g/km) used in this tool represent emissions from real-life driving conditions in Nairobi, Kenya. The emission factors are calculated using the IVE model 1.1.1a, based on a Nairobi study by California University at Riverside and UNEP.

How were these emission factors calculated in the IVE model ?
The emission factors in the IVE model are dependent on (i) driving patterns, (ii) vehicle standards, (iii) fuel quality and (iv) road conditions (incl. geographical setting). The emission factors used in this this tool are calculated assuming that driving patterns and road conditions are similar to those in Nairobi. These conditions are similar to most cities in developing countries. The different vehicle types and standards in the list above and the fuel quality (5000 ppm used as default) were selected in the model. The IVE model emissions factors are quite high, higher than those used for legislated purposes like the EU or US standards, because they are based on real life driving conditions rather than an ideal and predefined "regulatory" driving pattern.

Why do we use these emission factors ?
There are two major reasons we did not use existing regulatory emissions standards like Euro 1- 5 or US Tier 1 and Tier II. 1. The "Nairobi Overall Driving Cycle" used in the IVE model resembles real life driving conditions that are similar in most developing country cities. 2. The IVE model provides us with having a solid baseline because it includes all types of vehicles found on the road, from very clean to very old and dirty. This minimizes the risk of the emission factors being biased in any particular way. For more information about these emissions factors and the model used to develop them, please visit the following website: http://www.gssr.net/ive/index.html

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Vehicle Categories
Guidelines on categorization of your vehicles

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Vehicle categories
Categorization of trucks and buses is based on weight as the engines and emissions of buses and trucks are similar Petrol passenger vehicles with a 3 way catalyst require unleaded petrol fuel Diesel passenger vehicles with PM filters are only applicable where diesel with 50 ppm or less sulphur is available. As an example, almost all passenger cars sold in the EU today have PM filters. Light duty trucks & buses = Any van, truck or bus between 2.2 - 4.5 tonnes, typical city delivering truck or small passenger car (<12 persons) Medium duty trucks or buses = Any truck or bus between 4.5 - 15 tonnes, typically mid-sized lorry, very large pickups and vans, mid size passenger bus (12-40pers.) Heavy duty trucks & buses = Any truck or bus between 15 - 27 tonnes, typically large city buses (>40 persons), large truck-tractors and dump trucks Motorcycles typically are 100 to 300 cc

Euro categories
Use the tabel and instructions text below to approximate the Euro category with the age of the vehicle. Emission Standard Year of introduction in the EU (Similar in the US and Japan) Pre Euro <1992 Euro I 1992 - 1995, Euro II 1996 ± 1999, 2005 in China Euro III 2000 ± 2004, 2007 in China Euro IV 2005 ± 2008 Euro V 2009 ± 2013 Euro VI 2014 Corresponding fuel requirements Unleaded petrol 500 ppm diesel & petrol 350 ppm diesel, 150 ppm petrol 50 ppm diesel & petrol

Most developing countries in Africa and parts of Asia rely on a mix of imported vehicles and locally assembled vehicles. Locally assembled are usually pre-Euro or Euro I standard due to lack of national emission standards. Imported vehicles have the standard from the country they were imported. Emission standards in Asia are generally lagging behind EU, US and Japanese standards with 10 years (except China). However, even if imported with a high emission standard, this standard soon deteriorates due to lack of effective inspection & maintenance programmes and high sulphur levels in diesel. Anything beyond Euro I requires <500 ppm of sulphur in diesel which is currently not available in many developing countries. Examples: 1. Any vehicle bought and driven in an EU country year 2000 = Euro III 2. A truck assembled in Kenya the year 2000 = Euro I 3. Any truck made in EU year 2000 and imported to Kenya = Euro I due to high sulphur levels in diesel

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Typical fuel consumption for vehicles
Estimating your fuel consumption based on your mileage, or vice versa
If no fuel or km information is available, you can estimate the other using this table with typical fuel consumptions. However, as fuel economies can vary a lot between vehicles within one category, it is recommended to use your own data or estimations if available. Example: The average diesel passenger car with PM filter, drives 16.7 km on every liter of diesel. So when driving 100 km, 100 / 16.7 = 6.0 liter of diesel is consumed. Fuel Consumption 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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OR
km 11.8 11.8 13.3 16.7 8.3 9.1 9.1 11.1 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 33.3 25.6 km 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Petrol - without catalyst Petrol - with 3-way catalyst Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter Diesel - with PM filter Light duty - pre Euro Light duty - Euro I+II Light duty - III+IV Light duty - HEV Medium duty - pre Euro Medium duty - Euro I+II Medium duty - Euro III+IV Medium duty - Euro V Heavy duty - pre-Euro Heavy duty - Euro I+II Heavy duty - Euro III+IV Heavy duty - Euro V Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines

Fuel Consumption 0.085 0.085 0.075 0.060 0.120 0.110 0.110 0.090 0.260 0.260 0.260 0.260 0.370 0.360 0.360 0.360 0.030 0.039

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Example of ton-kms and passenger kms calculations
--> Fill in the white cells: average load (in tons) or average number of passengers
The ton-kilometer is a unit of measurement often used for the work done in transport. The number of ton-kilometers is the weight in tons of material transported multiplied by the number of kilometers driven. The passenger-kilometer is a unit of measurement often used for the work done in public transport. The number of passenger-kilometers is the number of passengers transported multiplied by the number of kilometers driven. Delivery companies Average Total load (tons) Ton-kms

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Vehicle category Petrol - without catalyst Petrol - with 3-way catalyst Diesel - without Particulate Matter filter Diesel - with PM filter Light duty - pre Euro Light duty - Euro I+II Light duty - III+IV Light duty - HEV Medium duty - pre Euro Medium duty - Euro I+II Medium duty - Euro III+IV Medium duty - Euro V Heavy duty - pre-Euro Heavy duty - Euro I+II Heavy duty - Euro III+IV Heavy duty - Euro V Motorcycles with 4-stroke engines Motorcycles with 2-stroke engines

Total km per year 195,000 960,000 120,000 2,214,000 6,586,000 42,000 17,356 336,000 562,500 14,000 327,500 372,765 68,096 14,236 45,000 1,020,000

Public transport companies Average Total load (passengers) Ton-kms 0.8 156,000 1.1 1,056,000 1.0 120,000 0.9 -

1.7 1.8 1.8 1.6 8.2 8.4 8.7 0.0

3,763,800 11,854,800 75,600 28,117 2,755,200 4,725,000 121,800 19.1 18.4 20.4 21.2 0.3 0.3 6,255,250 6,858,876 1,389,158 301,803 149 3,672

0.011 0.012

495 12,240

Total km driven:

12,894,453

Ton-kms delivered:

23,337,052

Passenger-km serviced:

16,140,908

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