You are on page 1of 12

Interviewing Introduction: What is an Interview?

Interviewing is a process of obtaining information from an individual or a group of people (Interviewee(s)) by an interviewer or interviewers through mode of conversation. Interview is a method used by almost every type of organizations and professionals. It may be used for hiring a candidate or to find a suitable position for him/her or to get a feedback from the candidate or to gain some information from the candidate, etc. Thus, this method is an important tool used by the organizations and the professionals. Hence, interviews can be of various types according to their purpose like job interviews or media interviews or informal interviews etc. In my term paper, I will be concentrating on Job interviews. Purpose of carrying out a job Interview: For any organization its work force constitutes the main part in terms of its activities and the cost. When a company hires a person it is usually carried out as a long term investment based on which a company incurs huge amount of its revenues on its work force. If we typically look what all costs a company has to incur on a person then it includes his/her’s salary, cost incurred on various training and development programs, benefits, resources that an employee uses for his work. All this amount to a huge cost without the surety of the employee continuing with his job in the near future. Hence, it becomes highly imperative for a company to hire the most suitable candidate for the job. For selecting this candidate, a method used is interview method. An interview allows the interviewer to know the candidate’s technical knowledge, personal characteristics, communication skills (if required), level of motivation and inspiration in him/her, other attributes and skills. This knowledge about the candidate in turn helps the interviewer in determining whether the candidate is right person for the job?, Will he/she be able to fit in the role?, Will he/she be able to carry out the job?, Will he/she be able to fit in the organization and the other team members?, etc. Hence, interview is a selection method which helps an organization in selecting the best candidate suitable for the job. Types of selection interviews: There are many ways in which a interview can be conducted depending on the requirements and the costs of the interview. Different types of selection interviews are: 1. Human Resources Interview:

Second Interview (And subsequent interviews): These interviews are conducted to know the other aspects of the candidate which was not covered in the first stage or these stages of interview may be conducted to get in depth knowledge of the candidate’s competency. 4. knowledge. This type of interview focuses on questions to assess your skills. to know how an interviewee reacts when he finds a group of people taking interview. Group Interview: In this type of interview there are more than one interviewees who are interviewed by a single panel of interviewer(s) at a time. and abilities that are required in the job. communication and interpersonal ability. Some organizations prefer taking only one interview while some conduct multiple rounds of interview. other types of behaviors that can be observed by such interviews include the ability to analyze and solve problem. The types of questions asked in this interview relate to the personality. to observe certain skills in the interviewees like persuasiveness and the ability to influence others. This type of interview can be conducted to save time. 5. 3. The objective of this interview is to find whether the candidate will be able to fit in the organization or not. to handle stress and to deal with feedback and give feedback. Panel Interview: A panel interview is the one which consists of more than one interviewer. 2. One-on-One Interview: One –on-one interview is the most common type of interview format and is usually conducted on site by the interviewer.This is an interview where the interviewer(s) is from Human Resources Department. leadership and delegation and the ability to work and contribute as a team-member. some organizations can conduct a technical interview etc. 7. previous work experience. organizational and planning skills. HR interview can be used in the early stages of selection or even as the last stage. Like some organizations conduct an HR based interview. Also. 6. Stress Interview: . expectations of the candidate from the job/organization. First Interview: The first interview that organizations conduct can differ widely based on their strategy. It can be carried out for various reasons like: to increase the time efficiency (each interviewer is asked to evaluate a different part of candidate’s attributes).

e. It is a variation of structured interview. This type of interview is usually carried out when the job in question is highly demanding and may have situations where the candidate will have to face lots of stress.. Here the interviewer believes that the past performance is the best indicator of evaluating a person. However reliability and validity of such an interview is minimal. This type of interview helps in bringing out the hidden attitude and information of the candidate. Behavioral Interview: In this type of interview the candidate is accessed by asking questions elated to his past. Non-Directive Interview: Here the candidate is given full freedom in determining the course of the discussion. 10. worker requirements and job sample/simulation questions. In this type of interview the interviewer deliberately tries to put the interviewee in a defensive position by unsettling him. 11. It is mostly used for screening purpose.Stress interview is a tactic used by some companies or individual hiring managers to gauge how the candidate handles stress and deal with tough situations. This saves time and cost of interviewing a large group of people. a set of standardized questions having an established set of answers is used. i. 13. It is also time consuming. It uses four types of questions: job knowledge. Telephonic Interview: This type of interview is carried over telephone. This is done to see how the interviewee reacts in such situations. This interview is carried out to maximize the validity and reliability of the interview. when a wide group is available for selection then to narrow down on the candidates a telephonic interview is carried out. Situational Interview: This is an interview where the candidate is given a hypothetical incident and asked his/her response to the situation. 8. The interviewer in this case refrains from influencing the candidate’s remarks or replies. Video Interview: . situational. The interview process is based exclusively on job duties and requirements critical to performance in job. Typical types of questions asked in this interview are like Tell me a time when… or Describe a situation when … or Give me an example of… 9. Structured Interview: In this type of interview. 12.

the term 'employment exchange' means "any office or place established and maintained by the Government for the collection and furnishing of information. The employer in every establishment in public sector in any State or area shall furnish such information or return as may be prescribed in relation to vacancies that have occurred or are about to occur in that establishment. The total duration of which is less than three months. To do unskilled office work. respecting:. (ii) persons who seek employment. to such employment exchanges as may be prescribed. Lunch/Dinner Interview: In this type of interview. The Act applies to all establishments in the public sector and such establishments in the private sector as are engaged in non-agricultural activities and employing 25 or more workers. either by keeping of registers or otherwise. the main activities of the employment exchanges are registration.    In domestic service. . According to the Act. But. placement of job seekers. and vocational guidance and collection of employment market information. the interviewee is invited over lunch or dinner in a restaurant and there he is interviewed. It is usually done when the interviewer and the interviewee are separated by a long distance and they cannot meet a common place. This type of interview is carried out to evaluate social skills of the candidate and to see if he can carry himself gracefully under pressure. Planning the Interview: Legal and ethical aspects of interview: The Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act.and (iii) vacancies to which persons seeking employment may be appointed". 14. career counselling. Thus. Internal Interview: In this interview the interviewee is a current employer and is interviewed to get him shift to another job/position within the firm. it shall not apply in relation to the vacancies in any employment: In agriculture (including horticulture) in any establishment in private sector other than employment as agricultural or farm machinery operatives.(i) persons who seek to engage employees.This type of interview is carried out using video conferencing technology. 1959 provides for compulsory notification of vacancies and submission of employment returns (ER-I and ER-II) by the employers to the employment exchanges. 15.

what level of interaction will the job require. Connected with the staff of Parliament. such as the Union or a State Public Service Commission and the like. Keeping the legal and ethical aspects of the interview in mind. what responsibilities he has to fulfill. what tasks must be done.. Unless the Central Government otherwise directs by notification in the Official Gazette in this behalf. The next part of the job analysis requires one to establish what experience.e. Job description should be made as full and precise as it can be made. is it interviewer’s right to ask the interviewee whether his/her marriage is successful? The interviewer should know what he can ask and how deep he can go in an issue. Also under the Act. this saves time. Stage3: Advertise Though this part comes under recruitment but the interviewer has to be involved in this part of process also because formulating the advertisement is going to . any independent agency. the interviewer should now plan the interview in the following stages: Stage1: Conduct job analysis First task to give job appointment is to conduct job analysis. if any employer fails to notify to the employment exchanges any vacancy in contravention of the Act.(i) vacancies which are proposed to be filled through promotion or by absorption of surplus staff of any branch or department of the same establishment or on the result of any examination conducted or interview held by. with whom he will have to interact? Next. based on the job analysis the interviewer should outline the features of the job and the applicant. and (ii) vacancies in an employment which carries a remuneration of less than sixty rupees in a month. qualifications and experience one would need in order to successfully and effectively do the job. he/ she shall be punishable for the offence. i. This entails breaking down the job into its constituent parts: what role must the candidate perform. For example. Stage2: Describe the Job Describing the job involves results from the job analysis. In the long run. The interviewer also should establish at this stage the personal characteristics that will be desirable in the candidate so that he is able to fit in his role and in the organization. Also while interviewing one has to take care of ethical aspects like one has to be careful while asking questions related to sensitive issues or personal issues. or on the recommendation of. the relative importance of each of these job components has to be determined. this Act shall not also apply in relation to:.

All the pros and cons of various types of interviews should be kept in mind while formulating the above strategy. This can be done by allocating some points to each criteria out of a total of 100. Stage 9: Schedule Interview . Example: Work Experience 20 points Graduation Marks 20 points Class 12th Marks 10 points Class 10th Marks 10 points Communication Skills 20 points Personality Attributes 20 points Stage6: Information required from the candidate At this stage a set of questions are developed pertaining to essential duties and responsibilities of the job which will help in getting the required information about the candidate to predict his success in the job. Then the interview might involve the interviewer and interviewee to be professionals working at high position in different countries. job requirements the interviewer decides what type of interview he is going to conduct.require information derived from the two stages of conducting the interview. Stage5: Set a weightage for the selection criteria A relative analysis of the selection criteria has to be performed at this stage. For example if the job demands that the applicant should have good technical knowledge then a criteria can be set where the applicant should have his graduation percentage above 70. certain situations. Stage8: Record and summarize the information gathered about each candidate The interviewer should prepare a spreadsheet about each candidate so that he is ready with the preliminary information given by the candidate till this stage. Based on job description appropriate information is mentioned in the job advertisement to avoid unsuitable people applying for the job. Stage7: Determine the Interview Structure At this stage the interviewer starts making plan on how he is going to conduct the interview. Also appropriate advertising media has to be selected which will target the required job applicants. For example an interview has to be conducted for a very high position job in the company. Stage4: Formulate the essential selection criteria Based on job analysis one has to determine the essential criteria that the applicant must satisfy in order to make him qualify for a call for the interview. In such a situation the interviewer may decide on conducting a video interview. Based on the company policies.

 Co-workers must be notified to not interrupt for matters that can wait until after the interview.  A schedule should be developed that does not adversely affect other office responsibilities.  If according to company’s policy.. it should not run for some weeks. Stage10: Notify the Candidate The Human Resources office notifies the candidate of the schedule of the interview through appropriate means by telephone or e-mail. Appropriate arrangements should be made like booking a meeting room for conducting the interviews. It is the responsibility of the interviewer that the interview process is carried out in time whether or not a personnel office is there to assist him. Resume or Other Related Material This job is done by the Human Resources Department. For this purpose the interviewer should take care of the below mentioned guidelines:  For each candidate devote enough time to allow for an unhurried and relaxed interview. should get over within few days.  Days of religious observance. arrangement for accommodation of the candidate has to be done by the company (if he / she requests) then take the requests and book the rooms beforehand. Stage11: Review the Candidate's Application. if required. .The interview has to be scheduled properly so that it is conducted in appropriate time and cost.  Determine an appropriate location of the interview site depending upon its accessibility to candidates with disabilities and the distance a candidate will have to travel and cost that the company will have to incur. Determine an appropriate number of interviews that can or should be conducted in the day.  The interview process should not follow long schedule.e. national holidays that might affect a candidate's availability should be checked beforehand.  Too many interviews should not be conducted in a single day. i. It reviews all the candidates before the interview and provides interview forms to the candidates before the interview (if necessary).

The nature. he is not only selecting the appropriate person for the job but is also creating an image of his company in the minds of interviewees. So. Describe the Job – Interviewer can provide a written job description (or class standard) to the candidate (if essential). what the candidate finds interesting or challenging. Unsettle the candidate – After the second stage. 3. Conducting the Interview: The interviewer should keep in mind that by conducting the interview.Stage12: Schedule the Interview Questions: In case of panel interviews it is a good idea to define the roles and the questions that each panel member will be asking. and summarize or review the major job responsibilities. the interviewer should be in positive mind of frame and conduct interview appropriately without being discourteous to anyone. This is done so that all . direction and enthusiasm of the candidate's responses provide the interviewer with valuable insight into the candidate's communication skills. Review the Application – To begin with the interview the interviewer can ask questions like introduce yourself or questions related to the information supplied on the application and/or resume. For conducting the interview a seven step plan is mentioned below 1. and ask the candidate to elaborate on his/her previous job responsibilities or special projects. when the interviewee has been put at complete ease. The interviewer should describe the position in terms of the organization's structure. This can be done by offering the candidate a glass of water before beginning the interview or by using "small talk" to break the ice and reduce his nervousness. 2. Introduction – Interviewer should introduce himself and greet the candidate with a friendly smile and (or) a handshake. It is very important that the interviewer puts the candidate at ease so that he is able to answer the interview questions effectively. a brief description of their positions and also mentioning the individuals he/she will be working with. 4. now is the time to unsettle the candidate and if required (according to the interview strategy) ask stressful question for conducting a stressful interview. and how he or she is likely to fit into the particular job.

working conditions. The interviewer should avoid stating any type of appointment commitment. job offers may be conditioned on favorable results of any necessary professional and/or physical examinations or results. even when he/she is in a position to guarantee it. rate the candidate or give some points to the candidate on predetermined selection criteria. If the candidate indicates that . For example. Candidate Clarification – The interviewer should ask the candidate if he or she has any questions about the job requirements.candidates are left with basically the same impression of what the job is and requires and are clear about the same. etc. 8.. subordinates or other issues. the interviewer should explain that if hired. The interviewer can ask open-ended questions such as. Closing – A good way to close the interview can be by explaining what happens next in the hiring process and by thanking the candidate for his or her time. 6. For some candidates this may be a hardship while for others it may be a benefit. It clarifies their doubt about the job and the organization. The interviewer should avoid asking a candidate. "How do you see yourself in relation to this job?" or "What contributions do you think you can make to the work of this agency?" as they help in obtaining information regarding the candidate in relation to his/her previous job. The description of the requirement should be avoided in subjective terms such as "extensive" or "occasional" or "long distance". "Do you think you can do the job?" Open-ended assessment of this type provide interviewer with feedback on how well he / she has described the job and its requirements. prospective co-workers. a certain job might require lot of travelling. 5. Rating the candidate: After the interview. supervisors. Also the interviewer can let the candidate know that someone will be available to answer any questions of the interviewee that might arise after the interview process is finished. when the interviewee has left the room. This requirement should be described as precisely as possible in terms of how often the prospective employee is likely to travel and what all places he will have to visit. Candidate Self-Assessment – The interviewer should encourage the candidate to assess him or herself against the job. 7. If appropriate.

In case of a candidate evading an important question.  Level of Language – The language used during the interviewing should be appropriate and not above or below the candidate’s comprehension level. In this case. It is very useful as it allows one to get additional information without asking any direct or probing questions to the interviewee. though it cannot be stressed enough.he or she has already received another job offer and will be forced to accept that offer unless you make a decision immediately. suppose the candidate has just said. The interviewer should also note down any information about the candidate that will be required later for final selection and which was not known earlier. Techniques of Interviewing: The following techniques can help the interviewer conduct a successful interview:  Pay Attention/Listen . It also avoids the appearance of a cross-examination.  Handling "Problem" Candidates . expressions and body language. For example. The echo technique prods the candidate into disclosing more specific information without creating any stress on him/her. "I didn't like the work. For example. a talkative applicant should not be allowed to waste time.Sometimes a candidate can present problems during the interview. the interviewer should again ask the question elicit an appropriate response. The interviewer should not let any negative reactions become obvious to the candidate. The language should be appropriate for the position for which the interview is being carried out.  Echoing ." Then the interviewer can echo with the words "didn't like the work?" and the candidate will know that more information on this matter is desired by the interviewer. However. in such a case the interviewer has to keep the candidate on track.Echoing is a technique that can be used by the interviewer to encourage a candidate to elaborate on a topic. the candidate can be informed about when the final decision can be expected.Listening effectively is important. If some candidates appear . the interviewer should be aware that he/she may be revealing his/her immediate impression of the candidate through his/her gestures. then the interviewer should explain to the candidate that he/she will be unable to make a commitment until all the interviews are completed.

7. Using Leading Questions: Interviewer should not ask questions in such a way that an expected answer is implied by the question. Standard Trap for Interviewers: 1. 5. Talking too much: when the interviewer does not allow the candidate to complete his answer. 4. he/she jumps in. Indicating Boredom or impatience: by interrupting too quickly or riling through papers or not answering questions adequately or sitting in a laid back position with facial expressions that indicate boredom. Example: ‘ I . Making instant global evaluations: Some interviewers make snap decisions about candidates which they will never change. Failing to notice candidate’s difficulties: this can include difficulties like problems with understanding interviewer’s accent. reminiscences. The interviewer should restrain from selfdisclosure. Failing to concentrate upon the other person: interviewer trying to make a good impression on the candidate and constantly worrying about what the candidate thinks of him/her hinders in the task of getting information from the candidate. etc. (Sometimes this is also used to create stress on candidate.overly prepared or confident and have rehearsed responses to most of the interview questions then the interview can try direct. 8. etc. Introducing irrelevances: this can include – giving personal examples. probing questions to obtain more information from such candidates. Failing to be consistent: in the pattern of questions asked across candidates so that information collected is not comparable. 6. 3. problems because of cultural differences. slight hearing deficits. in that case this can be done otherwise if it is habitual on part of interviewer then he should try avoiding it). 2. this is sheer self – aggrandizement. pursuing something the candidate says because it is personally relevant to the interviewer. whenever there is a pause.

The interviewer should be at vigil and intervene directly when such diversions from interview occur. This style of questioning should be avoided. It can also result because of deliberate attempt of candidate to divulge from the topic. 11. This results in rating the candidate on one or two non-central criteria as justification thereby directing away from the whole objective of the interview. Losing control of the interview: This happens when a candidate rambles from one topic to another without there being an obvious connection. instinct or feelings. Failing to arrange the best physical environment for the interview: The environment and conditions of the interview room must be proper. . like. For such a question the candidate will straight away reply ‘No’. 10. Ignoring the selection criteria and following intuition. The candidate might do this because of fear or anxiety or the candidate does not know what answers are expected of him.suppose you never handle the situation that way?’. chairs set near a table at a 45 degree angle encourage relaxed interaction as long as they are not close to each other. 9.