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Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES

MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 1 education.ti.com
Math Objectives
- Students will compute the product of two complex numbers.
- Students will discover the pattern in powers of the imaginary
number . i
- Students will compute the product of complex conjugates and
relate this value to the absolute value of the original complex
number.
- Students will graph complex numbers in polar form.
- Students will compute the product of complex numbers in polar
form.
- Students will look for and express regularity in repeated
reasoning (CCSS Mathematical Practice).
- Students will look for and make use of structure (CCSS
Mathematical Practice).

Vocabulary
- complex conjugate - argument
- absolute value - polar form
- magnitude

About the Lesson
- This lesson involves the product of complex numbers, powers of
, i and complex conjugates.
- As a result students will:
- Compute the product of two complex numbers and write a
general symbolic result for the product.
- Discover the pattern in powers of i and simplify i raised to
any power.
- Compute the product of complex conjugates and relate this to
the absolute value of the original complex number.
- Visualize the product of complex numbers written in polar
form and write the product in polar form.

TI-Nspire™ Navigator™ System
- Transfer a File.
- Use Screen Capture to examine patterns that emerge.
- Use Live Presenter to demonstrate.
- Use Quick Poll to assess students’ understanding.


TI-Nspire™ Technology Skills:
- Download a TI-Nspire
document
- Open a document
- Move between pages
- Grab and drag a point

Tech Tips:
- Make sure the font size on
your TI-Nspire handhelds is
set to Medium.
- You can hide the function
entry line by pressing /
G.

Lesson Files:
Student Activity
Complex_Number_Multiplication
_Student.pdf
Complex_Number_Multiplication
_Student.doc
TI-Nspire document
Complex_Number_Multiplication
.tns

Visit www.mathnspired.com for
lesson updates and tech tip
videos.


Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES
MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 2 education.ti.com
Discussion Points and Possible Answers



Tech Tip: If students experience difficulty dragging a point, check to make
sure that they have moved the cursor until it becomes a hand (÷) getting
ready to grab the point. Also, be sure that the word point appears, not the
word text. Then press / x to grab the point and close the hand ({).
There are several interactive Math Boxes in this activity. Remember that if
you change a definition in one Math Box, the handheld will automatically
update all other interactive Math Boxes related to this change.


Move to page 1.2.

1. This Notes Page contains three interactive Math Boxes for the
complex numbers z and w and the product · . p z w =
a. Redefine z and/or w as necessary to complete the
following tables. Note: to redefine z or w, edit the Math
Box following the assignment characters, := .

Answer: Note: To access i on the handheld, press ¹ to obtain a list of special mathematical
symbols. Use the arrow keys to highlight i and press ·.

z
1 5i + 2 3i ÷ 2 4i ÷ + 3 4i ÷ ÷
w 2 3i + 3 7i ÷ 1 2i ÷ 2 6i ÷ ÷
· z w
13 13i ÷ + 15 23i ÷ ÷ 6 8i + 18 26i ÷ +

z
7 7i + 3 11i ÷ 2 3i + 2 3i ÷ ÷
w i i ÷ 2 3i + 2 3i ÷ ÷
· z w
7 7i ÷ + 11 3i ÷ ÷ 5 12i ÷ + 5 12i ÷ +



Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES
MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 3 education.ti.com
b. Let z a bi = + and . w c di = + Write the product, · , p z w = symbolically in terms of the
constants , a , b , c and . d

Answer:
2
· ( )(
( 1)
(
)
) ( )
w a bi c di
ac adi b
p z
ac bd
ci bdi
adi bci
ac bd ad bc i
=
=
= + +
= + + +
+ ÷ + +
= ÷ + +

Note: Students can check this computation using the CAS handheld.

TI-Nspire Navigator Opportunity: Screen Capture
See Note 1 at the end of this lesson.

Move to page 1.3.

2. This Notes Page contains two interactive Math Boxes to
produce a sequence of the powers of 1. i = ÷ That is, it
constructs a sequence of the form
2 3
, , , , .
end
i i i i . The variable
end is the largest value the sequence variable will assume, in
this case the last power of . i .
a. Change the value of the variable end as necessary to
complete the following tables. Note: the variable end is
defined in a Math Box. To redefine the value of end, edit the
Math Box following the assignment characters, := .




Answer:

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
i 1 ÷ i ÷ 1 i 1 ÷ i ÷ 1 i

n 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
n
i i 1 ÷ i ÷ 1 i 1 ÷ i ÷ 1



Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES
MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 4 education.ti.com
b. In words, describe the pattern in the powers of . i

Sample Answers: The powers of i repeat in a cycle of length 4 as suggested by the table above.
Every fourth power is the same. The cycle is , i 1, ÷ , i ÷ or 1.

c. Without using your calculator, use your answer in part 2b to find
25
i and
103
. i

Answer:
( )
6
25 24 1 4 1
· · 1· i i i i i i i = = = =
Or 25 4 6 ÷ = with remainder 1. Therefore,
25 1
i i i = = .

( )
25
103 100 3 4 3 3
· · 1· i i i i i i i = = = = ÷
Or 103 4 25 ÷ = with remainder 3. Therefore,
103 3
i i i = = ÷ .

TI-Nspire Navigator Opportunity: Quick Poll
See Note 2 at the end of this lesson.

Move to page 1.4.

3. This Notes Page contains three interactive Math Boxes for the
complex number , z its complex conjugate cz (denoted z ), and
the product · . z cz
a. Change the value of z as necessary to complete the
following table. To change the value of z , edit the Math
Box following the assignment characters, : . =



Answer:

z 1 2i + 2 3i ÷ 3 4i ÷ + 4 5i ÷ ÷
z 1 2i ÷ 2 3i + 3 4i ÷ ÷ 4 5i ÷ +
· z z
5 13 25
41




Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES
MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 5 education.ti.com
b. For z a bi = + , find · . z z

Answer:
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
· ( )( )
( 1)
z z a bi a bi a abi abi i
b b a
b
a
= + ÷ = + ÷
÷ ÷ = + =
÷


c. Recall that a complex number can be represented by a point in the complex plane.
For z a bi = + find · r z z = and interpret this value.

Answer:
2 2
· r z z a b = = +
This value is the absolute value, or magnitude, of the complex number . z The product of complex
conjugates z and z is the square of the distance from the origin to the point representing z in
the complex plane. Note: the product of a complex number and its conjugate is a real number.

Move to page 2.1.

For any complex number z a bi = + , the absolute value, or
magnitude, is
2 2
| | . r z a b = = + The absolute value is the
distance from the origin to the point representing z in the complex
plane. The argument of the complex number , z arg( ), z is the
angle u (in radians) formed between the positive real axis and the
position vector representing . z The angle is positive if measured
counterclockwise from the positive real axis.

4. On Page 2.1, the complex number z is represented by a point and a position vector. The value of
, z the absolute value, and the argument are given on this page. Drag and position z as necessary
to answer the following questions.
Describe the location of the point representing z in the complex plane if:
a. 2 r = and
4
t
u =

Sample Answers: The point representing z lies in the first quadrant, 2 units from the origin, and
on the ray from the origin that makes an angle
4
t
with the positive real axis.
Note: It might be difficult for students to move the point z in order to obtain the exact values of r
and . u Students will also have to convert the symbolic value of u to a decimal approximation.


Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES
MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 6 education.ti.com
b. 4 r = and
5
6
t
u =

Sample Answer: The point representing z lies in the second quadrant, 4 units from the
origin, and on the ray from the origin that makes an angle
5
6
t
with the positive real axis.

c. 1 r = and
4
3
t
u = ÷

Sample Answer: The point representing z lies in the third quadrant, 1 unit from the origin,
and on the ray from the origin that makes an angle
4
3
t
÷ with the positive real axis. Note: this
point lies on the unit circle.

d. 3 r = and
13
4
t
u =

Sample Answer: The point representing z lies in the third quadrant, 3 units from the origin,
and on the ray from the origin that makes an angle
13
4
t
or
5
4
t
with the positive real axis.

e. 3 r = and u t =

Sample Answer: The point representing z lies on the real axis and 3 units to the left of the
origin (on the ray from the origin that makes an angle t with the positive real axis).

f. 2 r =

Sample Answer: This equation describes infinitely many points in the complex plane that lie
on the circle of radius 2 which is centered at the origin.

g.
3
2
t
u =

Sample Answer: This equation describes infinitely many points in the complex plane that lie
on the ray from the origin that makes an angle
3
2
t
with the positive real axis.


Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES
MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 7 education.ti.com
TI-Nspire Navigator Opportunity: Screen Capture
See Note 3 at the end of this lesson.

Move to page 3.2.

Any complex number z a bi = + with | | r z = and arg( ) z u = can
be written in polar form as (cos sin ). z r i u u = + Page 3.2
illustrates the product of two complex numbers in polar form.
5. The complex numbers , z , w and p are represented by triangles.
When you drag either the point z or the point w, the product is
automatically computed, and the triangle representing p is
updated. Note that a copy of the triangle representing z is
rotated so that the vertex lies along the hypotenuse of the triangle
that represents . w Move z and w around the first quadrant, and
observe the absolute value and argument for the three complex
numbers.




a. Write an equation which seems to define
3
u in terms of
1
u and
2
. u

Sample Answers: The diagram suggests that
3 1 2
. u u u = +
Note: Students might need a hint to focus on the angles measurements.

b. Write an equation which seems to define
3
r in terms of
1
r and
2
. r

Answer: The diagram suggests that
3 1 2
· . r r r = That is, the absolute values are multiplied.

Move to page 4.1.

On Page 4.1, click on the arrows to step through the process of
multiplication. This figure might provide further insight about the
relationship among the absolute values and arguments. Right-click
in the slider box, and select option 3 to animate this figure.




Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES
MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 8 education.ti.com
Move to page 5.1.

6. Use this Lists and Spreadsheet page to test your hypotheses.
Consider various values for z and w (cells A1 and A2) in
polar form and try to prove your guess.




Sample Answers: Consider the product of two complex numbers in polar form.
1 1 1 2 2 2
2
1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
2
1 2
· ( (cos sin ))( (cos sin ))
(cos cos sin cos cos sin sin sin )
((cos cos sin sin ) (sin cos cos sin ))
(cos( ) (sin( ))
z w r i r i
rr i i i
rr i
rr i
u u u u
u u u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u
u u u u
= + +
= + + +
= ÷ + +
= + + +

To obtain the product in polar form, multiply the absolute values, and add the arguments.

Extensions

1. For a complex number z in polar form, ask students to write a formula for
n
z and
n
z in polar form.
2. For two complex numbers z and w in polar form, ask students to write a formula for
z
w
in polar
form.
3. Ask students to describe the point(s) representing z in the complex plane if 0 r < and/or 0. u <


Wrap Up
Upon completion of the lesson, the teacher should ensure that students are able to understand:
- How to multiply two complex numbers in a bi + form.
- How to multiply two complex numbers in polar form.
- The cyclic nature of powers of . i
- The relationship between the product of complex conjugates and the absolute value of the
original complex number.




Complex Number Multiplication TEACHER NOTES
MATH NSPIRED

©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 9 education.ti.com
TI-Nspire Navigator
Note 1
Question 1, Name of Feature: Screen Capture
Screen capture can be used to consider student answers for the product of two complex numbers.


Note 2
Question 2, Name of Feature: Quick Poll
Use a Quick Poll to test comprehension and to show a Class Analysis.


Note 3
Question 4, Name of Feature: Screen Capture
Ask students to position z on Page 2.1 to correspond with their descriptions. Use Screen Captures to
compare student responses.

Note: to redefine z or w . not the word text. edit the Math Box following the assignment characters. Then press / x to grab the point and close the hand ({).Complex Number Multiplication MATH NSPIRED Discussion Points and Possible Answers Tech Tip: If students experience difficulty dragging a point. Remember that if you change a definition in one Math Box. : . This Notes Page contains three interactive Math Boxes for the complex numbers z and w and the product p  z · w.2. There are several interactive Math Boxes in this activity.com . 1. Answer: Note: To access i on the handheld. TEACHER NOTES Move to page 1. Redefine z and/or w as necessary to complete the following tables.ti. z w 1  5i 2  3i 2  4i 3  4i 2  3i 13  13i 3  7i 15  23i 1  2i 6  8i 2  6i 18  26i z·w z w 7  7i i 3  11i i 2  3i 2  3i 2  3i 5  12i 2  3i 5  12i z·w 7  7i 11  3i ©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 2 education. a. check to make sure that they have moved the cursor until it becomes a hand (÷) getting ready to grab the point. Use the arrow keys to highlight i and press ·. the handheld will automatically update all other interactive Math Boxes related to this change. be sure that the word point appears. press ¹ to obtain a list of special mathematical symbols. Also.

.3. it 3 end constructs a sequence of the form i. in this case the last power of i. To redefine the value of end. i . Answer: p  z · w  (a  bi )(c  di )  ac  adi  bci  bdi 2  ac  bd (1)  adi  bci  (ac  bd )  (ad  bc)i Note: Students can check this computation using the CAS handheld. c. Write the product. b. and d . The variable produce a sequence of the powers of 2 end is the largest value the sequence variable will assume. edit the Math Box following the assignment characters. symbolically in terms of the constants a. That is. TI-Nspire Navigator Opportunity: Screen Capture See Note 1 at the end of this lesson..ti. Change the value of the variable end as necessary to complete the following tables. This Notes Page contains two interactive Math Boxes to i  1. i . p  z · w. a. 2.Complex Number Multiplication MATH NSPIRED b. Move to page 1. i . Let TEACHER NOTES z  a  bi and w  c  di.com . Note: the variable end is defined in a Math Box. : . Answer: n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 i n 1 9 i 1 11 i 1 13 i 1 15 i 10 12 14 16 in i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 ©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 3 education.

i 25  i1  i . Move to page 1. Without using your calculator. TEACHER NOTES Sample Answers: The powers of i repeat in a cycle of length 4 as suggested by the table above. or 1. Answer: z z 1  2i 1  2i 2  3i 2  3i 3  4i 3  4i 4  5i 4  5i 41 z·z 5 13 25 ©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 4 education. TI-Nspire Navigator Opportunity: Quick Poll See Note 2 at the end of this lesson. 3. Therefore. use your answer in part 2b to find i 25 and i103. its complex conjugate cz (denoted z ). i103  i3  i . : . i.com .ti. Therefore. Every fourth power is the same. i103  i100 · i3  i 4 Or   25 · i3  1· i3  i 103  4  25 with remainder 3. c. To change the value of z . This Notes Page contains three interactive Math Boxes for the complex number z . 1. Answer: i 25  i 24 ·i1  i 4 · i1  1· i  i Or   6 25  4  6 with remainder 1. and the product z · cz. edit the Math Box following the assignment characters.4.Complex Number Multiplication MATH NSPIRED b. In words. a. Change the value of z as necessary to complete the following table. The cycle is i . describe the pattern in the powers of i.

The argument of the complex number z . The value of z . 4. the absolute value. The absolute value is the distance from the origin to the point representing z in the complex plane. and on the ray from the origin that makes an angle  4 with the positive real axis. Answer: r  z · z  a 2  b2 This value is the absolute value. and the argument are given on this page. Describe the location of the point representing a. is z  a  bi . or magnitude.ti.1. Note: It might be difficult for students to move the point and  . Recall that a complex number can be represented by a point in the complex plane. For TEACHER NOTES z  a  bi .com . On Page 2. The angle is positive if measured counterclockwise from the positive real axis.Complex Number Multiplication MATH NSPIRED b. For any complex number magnitude. or r | z | a 2  b2 . Answer: z · z  (a  bi)(a  bi)  a 2  abi  abi  b2i 2  a 2  b2 (1)  a 2  b2 c. r  2 and    z in the complex plane if: 4 Sample Answers: The point representing z lies in the first quadrant.1. The product of complex conjugates z and z is the square of the distance from the origin to the point representing z in the complex plane. of the complex number z. Students will also have to convert the symbolic value of  z in order to obtain the exact values of to a decimal approximation. Note: the product of a complex number and its conjugate is a real number. Move to page 2. the absolute value. find z · z . For z  a  bi find r  z · z and interpret this value. r ©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 5 education. arg( z ). the complex number z is represented by a point and a position vector. 2 units from the origin. is the angle  (in radians) formed between the positive real axis and the position vector representing z. Drag and position z as necessary to answer the following questions.

Note: this 3 d. and on the ray from the origin that makes an angle point lies on the unit circle. r  3 and   13 4 Sample Answer: The point representing z lies in the third quadrant. r  1 and    4 3 Sample Answer: The point representing z lies in the third quadrant. 3 units from the origin.Complex Number Multiplication MATH NSPIRED b.com . and on the ray from the origin that makes an angle 5 13 or with the positive real axis. 4 4 e. TEACHER NOTES r  4 and   5 6 Sample Answer: The point representing z lies in the second quadrant. and on the ray from the origin that makes an angle 5 with the positive real axis. g. 1 unit from the origin.  3 2 Sample Answer: This equation describes infinitely many points in the complex plane that lie on the ray from the origin that makes an angle 3 with the positive real axis. 2 ©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 6 education. 4 units from the origin.ti. r2 Sample Answer: This equation describes infinitely many points in the complex plane that lie on the circle of radius 2 which is centered at the origin.  4 with the positive real axis. 6 c.  with the positive real axis). r  3 and    Sample Answer: The point representing z lies on the real axis and 3 units to the left of the origin (on the ray from the origin that makes an angle f.

and p are represented by triangles. 5.1. Page 3. When you drag either the point z or the point w .2.2 Any complex number illustrates the product of two complex numbers in polar form. Write an equation which seems to define Answer: The diagram suggests that r3 in terms of r1 and r2 .Complex Number Multiplication MATH NSPIRED TI-Nspire Navigator Opportunity: Screen Capture See Note 3 at the end of this lesson. Move to page 3. and select option 3 to animate this figure. TEACHER NOTES z  a  bi with r | z | and   arg( z ) can be written in polar form as z  r (cos  i sin  ). Sample Answers: The diagram suggests that 3  1  2 . Move to page 4. b. Move numbers. Right-click in the slider box. and the triangle representing p is updated. and observe the absolute value and argument for the three complex 3 in terms of 1 and 2.1. ©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 7 education. Note that a copy of the triangle representing that represents w. the absolute values are multiplied.com . On Page 4.ti. the product is automatically computed. click on the arrows to step through the process of multiplication. This figure might provide further insight about the relationship among the absolute values and arguments. Write an equation which seems to define z is rotated so that the vertex lies along the hypotenuse of the triangle z and w around the first quadrant. The complex numbers z . Note: Students might need a hint to focus on the angles measurements. w. r3  r1 · r2 . a. That is.

Consider various values for TEACHER NOTES z and w (cells A1 and A2) in polar form and try to prove your guess. 6. z 2. Sample Answers: Consider the product of two complex numbers in polar form.1. and add the arguments. The cyclic nature of powers of i. 3. For a complex number in polar form. ask students to write a formula for in polar w 1. Wrap Up Upon completion of the lesson.com .ti. Ask students to describe the point(s) representing z z n and n z in the complex plane if r  0 and/or   0. z · w  (r1 (cos 1  i sin 1 ))(r2 (cos  2  i sin  2 ))  r1r2 (cos1 cos 2  i sin 1 cos 2  i cos1 sin  2  i 2 sin 1 sin  2 )  r1r2 ((cos1 cos 2  sin 1 sin  2 )  i (sin 1 cos 2  cos1 sin  2 ))  r1r2 (cos(1   2 )  i (sin(1   2 )) To obtain the product in polar form. ask students to write a formula for form. How to multiply two complex numbers in polar form. For two complex numbers z and w in polar form. Use this Lists and Spreadsheet page to test your hypotheses. the teacher should ensure that students are able to understand:     How to multiply two complex numbers in a  bi form.Complex Number Multiplication MATH NSPIRED Move to page 5. ©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 8 education. Extensions z in polar form. multiply the absolute values. The relationship between the product of complex conjugates and the absolute value of the original complex number.

Name of Feature: Screen Capture Ask students to position z on Page 2.Complex Number Multiplication MATH NSPIRED TI-Nspire Navigator Note 1 Question 1.1 to correspond with their descriptions. Name of Feature: Screen Capture TEACHER NOTES Screen capture can be used to consider student answers for the product of two complex numbers. ©2011 Texas Instruments Incorporated 9 education.com . Name of Feature: Quick Poll Use a Quick Poll to test comprehension and to show a Class Analysis. Use Screen Captures to compare student responses. Note 2 Question 2. Note 3 Question 4.ti.