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C. Charbonnel, F. Combes and R. Samadi (eds)

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

Galtier, S. 1

Abstract. A short review is given on MHD turbulence for strong and wave turbulence, and for incompressible as well as compressible ﬂuids. The role of anisotropy versus isotropy is discussed and important issues are raised.

1

Turbulence in Navier-Stokes ﬂuids

Turbulence is one of the main problems in theoretical physics. For that reason, any exact results appear almost as a miracle. In his third 1941 turbulence paper, Kolmogorov found that an exact and nontrivial relation may be derived from Navier-Stokes equations – which can be seen as the archetype equations for describing turbulence – for the third-order longitudinal structure function (Kolmogorov, 1941). Because of the rarity of such results, the Kolmogorov’s four-ﬁfth’s law is considered as one of the most important results in turbulence (Frisch, 1995). Basically, the four-ﬁfth’s theorem makes the following link between a two-point measurement, separated by a distance r, and the distance itself (in 3D): 4 − εv r = (v ′ − v )3 , 5 (1.1)

where denotes an ensemble average, the parallel direction is the one along the vector separation r, v is the velocity and εv is the mean (kinetic) energy dissipation rate per unit mass. To obtain this exact result the assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy are made (Batchelor, 1953). The former assumption is satisﬁed as long as we are at the heart of the ﬂuid (far from the boundaries) and the latter is also satisﬁed if no external agent (like, for example, rotation or stratiﬁcation) are present. Additionally, we need to consider the long time limit for which a stationary state is reached with a ﬁnite εv and we take the inﬁnite Reynolds number limit (ν → 0) for which the mean energy dissipation rate per unit mass tends to a ﬁnite positive limit. Therefore, the exact prediction is valid, at ﬁrst order, in a wide inertial range. This prediction is well supported by the experimental data (Frisch, 1995). Note that this type of law has been extended by Yaglom (Yaglom, 1949) to scalar passively advected (by still an incompressible ﬂuid), such as the temperature or a pollutant in the atmosphere. The four-ﬁfth’s law is a fundamental result used to develop scaling law models like the famous – but not exact – 5/3-Kolmogorov spectrum. For higher-order correlation functions, signiﬁcant deviation from a linear law deduced directly from the four-ﬁfth’s law is found in experiments and direct numerical simulations: this deviation which has led to the development of several models is called intermittency. 2 Incompressible MHD Turbulence

2.1 Homogeneity and isotropy assumptions For astrophysical ﬂuids, the Navier-Stokes description is a rather poor model and we generally prefer to use the magnetohydrodynamics approximation which describes quite well the large-scale plasma dynamics. The question of the existence of an exact relation between a two-point measurement, separated by a distance r, and the distance itself is naturally addressed. A positive answer was given by Politano & Pouquet only in 1998 (see

1

Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Bˆt. 121, Universit´ Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay, France; Institut Universitaire de France a e c Soci´t´ Francaise d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique (SF2A) 2008 e e

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SF2A 2008

also Chandrasekhar (1951)) for incompressible MHD turbulence. The addition in the analysis of the magnetic ﬁeld and its coupling with the velocity ﬁeld renders the problem more diﬃcult and, in practice, we are dealing with a couple of equations. In this case, the possible formulation in 3D is: 4 − − ε± r = (z ′ − z − ) 3

+ ′ (zi − zi )2 , i +

(2.1)

where the parallel direction is still the one along the vector separation r, z± = v ± b is the Els¨sser ﬁelds a (with b normalized to a velocity ﬁeld) and ε± is the mean energy dissipation rate per unit mass associated to the Els¨sser energies. To obtain these exact results the assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy are still made, a and we also consider the long time limit for which a stationary state is reached with a ﬁnite ε± and we take the inﬁnite (magnetic) Reynolds number limit (ν → 0 and η → 0) for which the mean energy dissipation rates per unit mass tend to a ﬁnite positive limit. Therefore, the exact prediction is again valid, at ﬁrst order, in a wide inertial range. Some comments have to be made on these 4/3’s law. First, we do not really make a distinction between the viscosity ν and the magnetic resistivity η in the treatment which means that we basically assume a unit magnetic Prandtl number. Second, the isotropy assumption, which mainly appears in the development of the kinematics (Batchelor, 1953), is stronger for magnetized ﬂuids since most of the situations found in astrophysics is far from isotropy. A good example is the solar wind where in situ measurements demonstrate the anisotropic nature of turbulence. Nevertheless, the use the 4/3’s law gives interesting results (Sorriso-Valvo, 2007; MacBride et al., 2008). Another example is given by the Sun where many thin coronal loops are well observed which are considered as a signature of anisotropy (see e.g. Bigot et al., 2008). Note ﬁnally that an extension of this 4/3’s theorem to 3D Hall-MHD has been obtained recently (Galtier, 2008) which provides a relevant tool to investigate the non-linear nature of the high frequency magnetic ﬁeld ﬂuctuations in the solar wind (see, e.g. , Goldstein et al., 1994; Markovskii et al., 2006; Galtier & Buchlin, 2007). The four-third’s law is a fundamental result which may be used to develop scaling law models for diﬀerentorder correlation functions. However, the situation is not as clear as for neutral ﬂuids since there are two time-scales in MHD: the eddy-turnover time and the Alfv´n time. The former time is associated to the transfer e time for Navier-Stokes turbulence; the latter time has to be seen as the time of interaction between two counterpropagating Alfv´n wave packets (see Fig.1) During a collision, there is a deformation of the wave packets in such e

Fig. 1. Alfv´n wave packets propagating along a magnetic ﬁeld line. e

a way that energy is transferred mainly at smaller scales. The multiplicity of collisions leads to the formation of a well extended power law energy spectrum whose index lies between −5/3 (Kolmogorov’s prediction) or −3/2 (Iroshnikov-Kraichnan’s (1964-1965) prediction). The precise value is still the subject of many discussions. 2.2 Beyond isotropy The weakness of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan (IK) phenomenology is the apparent contradiction between the presence of Alfv´n waves and the absence of an external uniform magnetic ﬁeld. The external ﬁeld is supposed to e be played by the large-scale magnetic ﬁeld but its main eﬀect, i.e. anisotropy, is not included in the description. One of the most important diﬀerence between neutral and magnetized ﬂuids is the possibility in the latter case to have a large-scale ﬁeld which cannot be removed by a galilean transform. This large-scale component corresponds to a large-scale magnetic ﬁeld B0 (see Fig. 1). The role of a uniform magnetic ﬁeld has been widely discussed in the literature and, in particular, during the last two decades (see, e.g. , Montgomery & Turner, 1981; Shebalin et al., 1983; Ng & Bhattacharjee, 1996; Verma, 2004). At strong B0 intensity, one of the most clearly established results is the bi-dimensionalization of MHD turbulent ﬂows with a strong reduction of nonlinear transfers along B0 . In the early eighties, it was shown that a strong B0 leads to anisotropic turbulence with

MHD Turbulence

315

an energy concentration near the plane k · B0 = 0, a result conﬁrmed later on by direct numerical simulations in two and three space dimensions. From an observational point of view, we have also several evidences that astrophysical (and laboratory) plasmas are mostly in anisotropic states like in the solar wind (Bruno & Carbone, 2005) or in the interstellar medium (Elmegreen & Scalo, 2004; Scalo & Elmergreen, 2004). The eﬀects of a strong uniform magnetic ﬁeld may be handled through an analysis of resonant triadic interactions (Shebalin et al., 1983) between the wavevectors (k, p, q) which satisfy the relation k = p + q, whereas the associated wave frequencies satisfy, for example, ω(k) = ω(p) − ω(q). The Alfv´n frequency is e ω(k) = k · B0 = k B0 , where deﬁnes the direction along B0 (⊥ will be the perpendicular direction to B0 ). The solution of these three-wave resonant conditions directly gives, q = 0, which implies a spectral transfer only in the perpendicular direction. For a strength of B0 well above the r.m.s. level of the kinetic and magnetic ﬂuctuations, the nonlinear interactions of Alfv´n waves may dominate the dynamics of the MHD ﬂow e leading to the regime of (weak) wave turbulence where the energy transfer, stemming from three-wave resonant interactions, can only increase the perpendicular component of the wavevectors, while the nonlinear transfers is completely inhibited along B0 (Galtier et al., 2000). Another important issue discussed in the literature is the relationship between perpendicular and parallel scales in anisotropic MHD turbulence (see Higdon, 1984; Goldreich & Sridhar, 1995; Boldyrev, 2006). In order to take into account the anisotropy, Goldreich & Shridar (1995) proposed a heuristic model based on a critical balance between linear wave periods and nonlinear turnover time scales, respectively τA ∼ ℓ /B0 and τN L ∼ ℓ⊥ /uℓ (where ℓ and ℓ⊥ are the typical length scales parallel and perpendicular to B0 ), with τA = τN L at all inertial scales. Following the Kolmogorov arguments, one ends up with a E(k⊥ , k ) ∼ k⊥ (where k ≡ (k⊥ ,k ) and k⊥ ≡ |k⊥ |) with the anisotropic scaling law k ∼ k⊥ .

2/3 −5/3

energy spectrum

(2.2)

A generalization of this result has been proposed recently (Galtier et al., 2005) in an attempt to model MHD ﬂows in both the weak and strong turbulent regimes, as well as in the transition between them. In this heuristic model, the time-scale ratio χ = τA /τN L is supposed to be constant at all scales but not necessarily equal to unity. The relaxation of this constraint enables to still recover the anisotropic scaling law (2.2) and to ﬁnd a universal −α prediction for the total energy spectrum E(k⊥ , k ) ∼ k⊥ k −β , with 3α + 2β = 7. According to direct numerical simulations (see, e.g. Cho et al., 2000; Maron & Goldreich, 2001; Shaikh & Zank, 2007), the anisotropic scaling law between parallel and perpendicular scales (2.2) seems to be a robust result and an approximately constant ratio χ, generally smaller than one, is found between the Alfv´n and the nonlinear times. This sub-critical value e of χ implies therefore a dynamics mainly driven by Alfv´n waves interactions. e In the weak turbulence limit, the time-scale separation, χ ≪ 1, leads to the destruction of some nonlinear terms, including the fourth-order cumulants, and only the resonance terms survive (Zakharov et al., 1992; Galtier et al., 2000) which allows to obtain a natural asymptotic closure for the wave kinetic equations. In absence of helicities and for k⊥ ≫ k , the dynamics is then entirely governed by shear-Alfv´n waves, the pseudo-Alfv´n e e waves being passively advected by the previous one. In the case of an axisymmetric turbulence, and in the absence of cross-correlation between velocity and magnetic ﬁeld ﬂuctuations, the exact power law solution is −2 E(k⊥ , k ) ∼ k⊥ f (k ), where f is an arbitrary function taking into account the transfer inhibition along B0 . First evidences of this regimes by direct numerical simulations are now obtained (Perez & Boldyrev, 2008; Bigot et al., 2008). 3 Compressible MHD Turbulence

Compressible turbulence has many applications in astrophysics and, in particular, in the interstellar medium where the plasma is thought to be highly compressible. For example, radio wave scintillation observations reveal a nearly Kolmogorov spectrum of density ﬂuctuations in the ionized interstellar medium. Unfortunately, the previous exact results – the 4/5’s law – has no equivalent even for compressible neutral ﬂuids. It is therefore more diﬃcult to predict the scaling-laws for intermittency although astrophysical data are available (see e.g. Burlaga, 1991). Under some restricted conditions (β ≪ 1), wave turbulence may apply to compressible MHD and give some exact results (Kuznetsov, 2001, Chandran, 2005). It is shown that three-wave interactions transfer energy to high-frequency fast waves and, to a lesser extend, high-frequency Alfv´n waves with a strong anisotropy. In e strong turbulence, one has also to make the distinction between Alfv´n waves, fast and slow magneto-acoustic e

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waves. In this regime, direct numerical simulations are the best way to extract any scaling laws (see e.g. Kowal et al., 2007). Basically, a diﬀerent behavior is found for sub and supersonic ﬂows with in the latter case a strong dependence in the sonic Mach number. 4 Conclusion

Many questions are still opened in astrophysical turbulence but super-computers can now reveal some new features which, conjointly with theoretical eﬀorts, will certainly help to deeper understand the complex dynamics of MHD ﬂuids and , in particular, in the compressible case. Aknowledgments This work was supported by the ANR project no. 06-BLAN-0363-01 “HiSpeedPIV”. References

Batchelor, G.K. 1953, The theory of homogeneous turbulence, Cambridge Univ. Press Bigot, B., Galtier, S., & Politano, H., 2008, Astron. Astrophys., in press Boldyrev, S., 2006, Phys. Rev. Lett., 96, 115002 Burlaga, L.F., 1991, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 5847 Bruno, R., & Carbone, V., 2005, Living Rev. Solar Phys., 2, 1 Chandran, B.D.G., 2005, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, 265004 Chandrasekhar, S., 1951, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 204, 435 Cho, J., & Vishniac, E.T., 2000, ApJ, 539, 273 Elmegreen, B.G., & Scalo, J., 2004, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 42, 211 Frisch, U. 1995, Turbulence: the legacy of A.N. Kolmogorov, Cambridge Univ. Press Galtier, S., Nazarenko, S.V., Newell, A.C., & Pouquet, A., 2000, J. Plasma Phys., 63, 447 Galtier, S., Pouquet, A., & Mangeney, A., 2005, Phys. Plasmas, 12, 092310 Galtier, S., & Buchlin, E., 2007, ApJ, 656, 560 Galtier, S., 2008, Phys. Rev. E, 77, 015302(R) Goldreich, P., & Sridhar, S., 1995, ApJ, 438, 763 Goldstein, M.L., Roberts, D.A., and Fitch, C.A., 1994, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 11519 Higdon, J.C., 1984, ApJ, 285, 109 Iroshnikov, P.S., 1964, Soviet Astron., 7, 566 Kolmogorov, A.N., 1941, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 32, 16 Kowal, G., Lazarian, A., & Beresnyak, A., 2007, ApJ, 658, 423 Kraichnan, R.H., 1965, Phys. Fluids, 8, 1385 Kuznetsov, E.A., 2001, JETP, 93, 1052 MacBride, B.T., Smith, C.W., & Forman, M.A., 2008, ApJ, 679, 1644 Markovskii, S.A., Vasquez, B.J., Smith, C.W., & Hollweg, J.V., 2006, ApJ, 639, 1177 Maron, J., & Goldreich, P., 2001, ApJ, 554, 1175 Montgomery, D., &Turner, L., 1981, Phys. Fluids, 24, 825 Ng, C.S., & Bhattacharjee, A., 1996, ApJ, 465, 845 Perez, J.C. & Boldyrev, S., 2008, ApJ, 672, L61 Politano, H., & Pouquet, A., 1998, Phys. Rev. E, 57, R21 Scalo, J., & Elmegreen, B.J., 2004, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 42, 275 Shaikh, D., & Zank, G., 2007, ApJ, 656, L17 Shebalin, J.V., Matthaeus, W.H., & Montgomery, D., 1983, J. Plasma Phys., 29, 525 Sorriso-Valvo, L., Marino, R., Carbone, V., Noullez, A., Lepreti, L., Veltri, P., Bruno, R., Bavassano, B., & Pietropaolo, E., 2007, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 115001 Verma, M.K., 2004, Phys. Rep., 401, 229 Yaglom, A.M., 1949, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 69, 743 Zakharov, V.E., L’vov, V., & Falkovich, G.E. 1992, Kolmogorov Spectra of Turbulence I: Wave Turbulence, SpringerVerlag, Berlin

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