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Fall 2000 Number 11

Letter from the Executive Director, Walter Hook

Is Globalization the Enemy of

Sustainable Transport?
M any people have been asking
what we thought of the World Trade
Organization protests in Seattle and the
tainable suburban sprawl. Investors are
trying to grab what they can now, fear-
ing the implementation of tighter,
dards, ambient air quality standards,
fuel quality standards (particularly the
global phase out of lead), and road safe-
World Bank protests in Washington this German-style land use regulations. ITDP ty standards. ITDP, SUSTRAN, and oth-
past April, and whether we were is working with NGOs there to demand ers will work to build a global political
involved. We did not participate in a better regulation of this process. We consensus around minimum global stan-
Seattle, and we were not at the World are also working to strengthen the dards at the Commission on Sustainable
Bank demonstrations, but at the World enforcement of increasingly tough EU Development meeting in New York in
Bank’s Transport Sector retreat in nearby directives on tailpipe and ambient emis- 2001, which will focus on energy and
Virginia. We have prepared an NGO sion standards. The EU shot down some transport issues. We will then take these
statement on transport for the IMF’s and ecological taxes on trucking in Hungary, issues to the regional and international
World Bank’s annual meeting in Prague but it was because they were only trade forums. But clearly, it is the
this year, and we met last year with their imposed on foreign trucks. They could absence of these standards and their
Board of Directors to protest the have been structured in a non-discrimi- enforcement that are the problem, not
International Finance Corporation’s natory way. Free trade takes advantage free trade itself.
funding of the Corredor Sur highway in of weak environmental regulation but,

Panama. Some anti-globalization rarely causes it. oes free trade make poverty worse
activists have told us these efforts are a In Asia, Asia Pacific Economic or alleviate it? Again, from the per-
waste of time. We obviously don’t agree. Cooperation’s (APEC) Road Transport spective of the transport sector, the
We prioritize our advocacy efforts in Harmonization Project has been more evidence is ambiguous. In Africa, when
dialogue with environmental groups visible on transport issues than the tariff barriers were imposed on bicycles,
from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) WTO. While the oil companies blame it dramatically increased their cost and
and developing countries. The World weak motor vehicle emission standards, decreased their quality. This imposed
Bank remains an important influence in and the motor vehicle manufacturers very high travel costs on the poor. Infant
some regions. For transport, the WTO is blame weak fuel standards, there industry tariff protection in Africa has
overshadowed by the regional trade is openness to strengthening and har- not led to a competitive bicycle manufac-
associations. Like governments, interna- monizing these standards. Weaker regu- turing industry. In Hungary, the city of
tional institutions are vulnerable to cor- lations in Indonesia, for example, have Debrecen was planning to buy some
porate pressure at the expense of the created an opening for Chinese two- very good quality used trams from
stroke-engine Germany. Instead, they were pressured
motorbike to buy some untested new trams by a
Free Trade takes advantage of manufacturers Hungarian producer that were more
to sweep into expensive. The new trams were over one
weak environmental regulation, the market, year late in delivery and had a host of
undercutting mechanical problems. Thus, transit ser-
but rarely causes it. Honda and vices for the poor suffered. Public transit
others trying operators face stiff competition from pri-
to phase out vate transport, and allowing them to
public good, and are a legitimate arena two-stroke engines. India’s entrance into shop around for the cheapest, best quali-
of political struggle. They are not, how- the WTO led to an influx of international ty vehicles can only help these systems
ever, the problem itself. motor vehicle manufacturers into the compete.
Environmental groups in Central and Indian market, taking market share Reducing tariffs and restrictions on
Eastern Europe are divided on the away from Hundustani Motors (makers the importation of used cars into devel-
process of accession to the EU. Aided by of the old Ambassadors), Vikram and oping countries has clearly had a nega-
lending from international financial Bajaj. While these companies were tive impact on overall emissions by
institutions, the EU accession process is indigenously owned, their vehicles were increasing the number of polluting vehi-
facilitating a Western takeover of Central also heavily polluting. There is a clear cles on the road. But the tariff barrier is
European banks and real estate, which is need to develop health-based minimal rarely in place to protect the environ-
rapidly accelerating a process of unsus- international tailpipe emission stan- ment, and it's a clumsy instrument. It

2 SustainableTransport 11
c o n t e n t s
Fall 1999 Number 10 is a publication of:
The Institute for
Articles Features Transportation and Development Policy
115 W.30th St., Suite 1205
8 2 New York, NY 10001
Fighting Sprawl: Letter from ITDP's Tel. (212)629-8001•Fax (212)629-8033
Prague on the Edge Executive Director
12 4 Editors: Walter Hook, Paul S.White, Noah Budnick,
An Afribike Update Sarah Donaldson, Deike Peters
News Briefs
Art Direction: Cliff Harris
South Africans Swept Off Their Feet
20 Board of Directors:
15 Opinion: Jon Orcutt, President
Manila Makes Way for Bikeways, Oil Running Out, Tri-State Transportation Campaign
But for Whom? Heads Buried Matteo Martignoni, Vice President,
International Human Powered
16 in the Sand Vehicle Association
A Breath of Fresh Air for Indonesia Karen Overton, Treasurer
18 New Titles
Michael Replogle, Secretary
31 Environmental Defense Fund
Peñalosa Lets it Ride Bulletin Board Ariadne Delon-Scott
22 Specialized
Zurich-Kunming Sister-City Project:: Greg Guenther
Bus Rapid Transit Comes to China Paul Guitink
Transport Specialist
24 For complete photos credits, David Gurin
Notes from Agra: please consult the “Publications” University of Toronto
Selling Modern Rickshaws page of our website, Walter Hook
Executive Director, ITDP
John Howe
Professor, IHE Delft
would be much better for developing modes. We would rather see the money V. Setty Pendakur
countries to use either US or European going to water, (though with less of a Chairman, Global Committee on
type-approval standards for imported focus on privatization), to health care, International Planning and NMT
cars, or to simply require all imported and to affordable and accessible hous- Transportation Research Board,
used vehicles to have their emissions ing, an area that the World Bank could Professor, Univ. of British Columbia
tested and found in compliance with support much more. Elliott Sclar
domestic tailpipe emission standards. Despite the promising Global Road Professor, Columbia University
Governments are reluctant to do this Safety Initiative, little has been done, as Jay Townley
because they are affraid of making the corporate co-sponsors have been Bicycle Council
motorists pay for the emissions testing, unwilling to finance anything. All views expressed in the articles in this publica-
or they don't want to adopt or set up Many of the World Bank’s urban road tion are the views of the authors and not necessarily
the views of ITDP. Sustainable Transport welcomes
type approval standards. projects, like the Guangzhou Urban submissions of articles about non-motorized trans-
What about the World Bank? Has it Transport Loan, primarily funded inner portation and information about sustainable trans-
changed its ways as a result of both the urban ring roads that have dramatically portation activities worldwide.
general protests and also more targeted increased air pollution in central urban
efforts by ITDP? Thus far, the main areas. The World Bank has been increas- ITDP is a non-profit advocacy, research, and
transport sector effect of World Bank ingly using such loans to leverage pilot project-implementing agency which seeks to
promote the use of non-motorized vehicles (NMVs)
President Wolfensohn’s increasing focus bus rapid transit systems, bike lanes, and and the broader implementation of sustainable trans-
on poverty has been to increase lending traffic demand management measures, portation policies worldwide. ITDP is registered in the
for rural road projects. Overall road but too often, as in Guangzhou, these United States as a charitable agency eligible for tax-
deductible contributions under the Internal Revenue
lending increased dramatically relative positive elements remain unimplement- Service code. Members include bicycle activists,
to rail and public transit. The evidence ed, while the negative elements move transportation planners, economic development spe-
that rural road projects alleviate poverty forward. The World Bank and the other cialists, small businesspeople, environmentalists, and
other professionals, primarily but not exclusively
is weak. Beneficiaries tend to be wealthi- International Financial Institutions U.S. citizens.
er farmers who use trucks. Subsistance should simply not fund projects if an
farmers are usually dependent on head- environmental assessment makes it clear
Printed on
loading or wheelbarrows and carts, and that the project will drive areas into vio- Cover : Learning to ride in South Africa recycled
rural roads only marginally affect these continued on p.7 Photo by Paul White paper

Fall 2000 3
News Briefs
California Dreaming in China
Proves Lethal
While motor vehicle production in
China rose tenfold from 1990 to 2000,
period traffic related fatalities rose from
around 50,000 to over 100,000 during the
same period. Some 35% of the victims
were cyclists. A recent study by Dr. Li
Guohua and Dr. Susan P. Baker of Johns
Hopkins found that 39% of cycling acci-
dents were fatal, seven times the US rate.
Head injuries were responsible for 79%
of fatal accidents. Roughly 95% of
cycling injuries came from collisions
with trucks and buses.
Bicycle helmets, virtually unknown in
China, would help. But helmet laws
force the costs of traffic safety onto the
victims. A study entitled “Safer Front
Truck Design” (Chawla, Sharma, Used cars for sale in Quito, Ecuador. A movement is under way to overturn Ecuador’s
Mohan, and Kajzer; 1998) indicates that law banning imports of polluting used vehicles.
re-engineering truck and bus front- end
designs can drastically reduce fatalities.
Until now, truck and bus manufacturers Chronicle Zang Xinmin, a high-ranking Quito Expands Bus Rapid
Shanghai official, stated, “We are start- Transit System
ing a trend, common in Western coun-
tries, for rich people to move out of Quito, Ecuador’s capital, is about to
“We are starting a trend, downtown, buy a car, and move to the open another 4.9km line on its Eco-Via
suburbs. In the future, it will be common trolley-bus rapid transit system. At
common in Western for people to drive 60 miles to work, just 25km, the new line will give Quito the
countries, for rich people like in California.” second most extensive bus rapid transit
–San Francisco Chronicle system in Latin America, after Curitiba,
to move out of downtown, Brazil. Meanwhile, Cuenca, Ecuador’s
Ford to Market Electric Bikes third largest city, recently imposed tight
buy a car, and move to the restrictions on motorized traffic in its his-
suburbs. In the future, it will This past July Ford Motor Company torical core, which was recently designat-
announced a new partnership with ed a World Cultural Heritage Site by
be common for people to Currie Technologies, Inc. to market UNESCO. On the outskirts of Cuenca,
Currie’s new electric bicycles in the the local police have created a team of
drive 60 miles to work, just Asian market. With more Asian cities officers manning 30 bicycles to better
like in California.” cracking down on heavily polluting patrol the 11 parks that line the city. At
motorcycles, Ford is hoping that a niche the same time, however, a movement is
-Zang Xinmin, Shanghai exists for an electric bicycle. Ford also under way to overturn Ecuador’s law
hopes that consumers of its electric bikes banning imports of polluting used vehi-
will eventually want its cars, as incomes cles, despite recent studies indicating that
rise. Electric bikes have met a less than Quito suffers US$28.7 million annually in
have not agreed to the proposed modifi- joyous reception in the US. Eighty per- productivity and health losses from poor
cations because they would increase cent of retailers are lukewarm, reporting urban air quality. –Lloyd Wright
their production costs. With motor vehi- that sales are flat (1-2 e-bikes a month).
cle use in China exploding, road acci- High cost, upwards of $1000, and cum- Car Free Day Held in
dents will reach epidemic proportions. If bersome weight have inhibited sales.
China enters the WTO, automobile The Ford/Currie prototype is due out
Santiago de Chile
import tariffs will drop from 80% to this fall and will cost between $400, for In June, private cars on six major arteri-
25%, and foreign car companies will be the basic model, and $1200 for the als in Santiago were banned for a day.
allowed to make consumer loans. In the deluxe. “The idea was to increase a 30-minute
May 18, 2000 issue of the San Francisco –Wall Street Journal car drive to 60 minutes and decrease a

4 SustainableTransport 11
40-minute bus journey to 20 minutes,”
said Gianni Lopez, Head of the National
Environment Commission’s Santiago
bureau. Twenty-five percent of car own-
ers did not drive that day. Ciclistas
Furiosos has also begun to organize
monthly critical mass bicycle rides.
Concern about air pollution is growing
among Santiago’s 5 million inhabitants
as children are painting brown skies in
art class, Placido Domingo is canceling
concerts, and schools are banned from
holding physical education classes. With
one million automobiles in a geographi-
cal location that traps smog over the city,
residents dubbed the city “Santiasco”

Bangladesh Bans Two-Stroke

U.S. public transit ridership posts biggest increase since 1960
Engine Motorcycle Rickshaw
Imports front-end style delivery bikes with 200 Tax Relief for Transit Riders
On June 8, 2000 Bangladesh’s Finance pound capacities. The vehicles were Boosts Ridership
Minister S.A.M.S. Kibria banned imports designed and built by the Center for
of three-wheeled vehicles with two- Appropriate Transport in Eugene, Maryland recently passed the biggest
stroke engines. The ban has helped Oregon. PE also offers businesses a mail tax credit for transit riders in the US. For
induce India’s Bajaj, maker of the most every $60 a month in transit passes given
popular motorcycle rickshaws, to to each employee, businesses can get $30
announce an end to its production of in tax credits. The Maryland State tax
two-stroke three wheelers, and in July break is additional to 1998 Federal tax
they released a four-stroke model that breaks that gave businesses three ways
runs on compressed natural gas. to encourage clean commuting. The first
Dhaka’s 50,000 two-stroke auto rick- allows up to $780/year of an employees’
shaws, most used as taxis, are responsi- gross wages to be used for mass transit
ble for 35% of particulate and 50% of and ridesharing expenses. This results in
hydrocarbon emissions in the city. Mr. a $300/year savings for some employ-
Kibria suggested that bank loans would ees, and employers save on payroll
be made available to auto rickshaw own- taxes. Businesses can supply or reim-
ers to convert their rigs to run on com- burse commuters with $65/month in
pressed natural gas. He also said that the tax-free transit passes or vouchers. Also,
Bangladeshi ban was incited by “a employees who receive free or subsi-
strong demand by the civil society for dized parking can “cash-out” the benefit
protecting the people from serious envi- in exchange for taxable income ($2-
ronmental pollution.” This decision 3/day) or employee-provided transit
comes on the heels of a Thai move to passes.
phase out two-stroke engines within the Maryland’s new legislation follows
next year. –Sustran Network News Pedal Express organic food delivery the successes of Minnesota’s 30% tax
credit, and Washington State’s 10% tax
Pedal Express Co-op Begins pick-up and delivery service as well as credit. In Minnesota, the tax break
local book delivery from Cody’s, an inde- helped shift 12.5% of commuters out of
Organic Food Delivery pendent bookstore in Berkeley. Everyone driving their cars alone. According to
Berkeley, California—Last March, puts in 15-20 hours of riding a week, and Michael Replogle of the Environmental
Pedal Express (PE) formed a partnership after about 6 months/360 hours of riding Defense Fund, who helped push the bill
with Berkeley Youth Alternatives to dis- employees become part owners of the through, “the Maryland Commuter
tribute organic produce cultivated on company. The business is run by infor- Choice bill cuts traffic and pollution,
Photos: top, Paul S. White; bottom, Pedal Express

urban lots by local youths in zero-pollu- mal consensus, and wages and duties are boosts the use of transit, and adds to
tion vehicles. PE, a worker-owned co-op divided equally among owners and employee benefits, at a low cost to the
dedicated to zero-emission delivery, workers. “Nobody is making a killing,” employer. It especially benefits those
requires employees to walk or ride to says Scheridan, but through its partner- with low wages that are more dependent
work. The company even used work- ship with local groups like Berkeley on transit and ridesharing and least able
bikes when moving its office. For the Youth Alternatives and Cody’s book- to afford their commute.”
produce delivery, PE uses three cargo store, PE has proven itself as a viable, These tax breaks, along with new
bikes, a recumbent flatbed tri-hauler ecologically sustainable company. discounts for multiple rides in New
with an 800 pound capacity, and two –In Business Magazine York City pushed through by the

Fall 2000 5
travel centers” along the network. A

News Briefs
pilot travel center in Frome, Somerset,
will facilitate ride-sharing in private cars
and taxis, travel planning for individuals
and organizations, real-time public
transport information, and safe route
information for pedestrians and cyclists.
continued from p. 5 Cameroon, said that structures have –Sustran National Cycle Network News
Straphangers Campaign, contributed to been set to ensure that 80% of Chad’s oil
a 4.5% national increase in public transit revenues go to the poor, and the Bank Activists Beaten in Public
ridership over the last year, the biggest has insisted on setting up a “first-of-its-
increase since 1960. kind” program in Chad to track the pro-
Hearing on Indian Mega-Highway
–Environmental Defense ject’s progress as it is implemented. Yavanika, Bangalore—On July 5 police
Experts from Harvard are skeptical. violently arrested over 30 activists dur-
World Bank to Lay Pipe in They claim that both countries lack the ing a “public hearing” concerning the
necessary transparency or institutional Bangalore-Mysore Infrastructure
Cameroon structures to ensure an equitable distrib- Corridor, a proposed mega-highway
On June 6th the Executive Directors of ution of oil revenues. project in southern India. The super-
the World Bank approved a $193 million –Bretton Woods Update highway cum real estate development,
loan paratially funding 300 oil wells in which will displace over 168 farming
Chad and a 660-mile oil pipeline to the Britain Opens National communities and appropriate 13,000
Cameroon coast. The decision was unan- acres of farmland, is to be constructed by
imous, save the Italian delegate’s absten-
Bicycle Network the U.S. firm SAB International and the
tion. The loan leverages an additional 3.6 Britain’s National Cycle Network was Indian Kalyani Group. H.S. Doreswamy,
billion in private financing from Exxon- officially opened on June 21st with 5,000 a well-known Ghandian, was arrested
Mobil, Chevron, and Petronas, the miles of trails and bike lanes. The net- after asking why information about the
Malaysian state oil company. work is expected to double in length in environmental and social impact of the
Friends of the Earth, together with the next five years. It grew out of a $66 super-highway had not been disclosed
Codebabik, an indigenous rights group, million grant from the Millennium to affected populations. Siremane
and Planet Survey, an environmental Commission, funded by the national lot- Nagaraj and activists from the pro-
organization, joined by 18 other Chadian farmer grassroots organization
NGOs, have sought to delay the project. Karnataka Vimochana Ranga (KVR)
They are not opposed to oil extraction were also arrested. District Commission-
per se, only the way it has been handled. er Sanaulla ordered the Special Striking
They fear the pipeline endangers Forces to arrest the activists, brutally
Cameroon’s tropical rainforest by open- kicking and dragging them to the
ing land to logging and poaching. Viveknagar Police Station. Leo Saldanha
Potential spills also endanger river sys- of Environment Support Group was
tems and coastal fisheries. Indigenous injured in the melee. The Environment
groups complain they have been exclud- Support Group has since petitioned the
ed from the planning process, and there Karnataka region’s Chief Minister to dis-
are claims of unfair compensation for miss Commissioner Sanaulla and with-
land acquisition. The project has also hold approval of the project until infor-
increased tensions between the Bagyeli mation and good-faith public hearings
Pygmies and neighboring Bantus. have been held.
The World Bank’s approval came –Sustran Network News
despite reports of intimidation in Chad.
Amnesty International has reported Old Buses Banned in Delhi
hundreds of unexplained civilian deaths
in the Chadian oil regions, and threats This April, the Supreme Court of India
by military officials against pipeline banned buses over eight years old from
opponents are commonplace. One Cyclists on Britain’s National Cycle Network operating in New Delhi. Over 4000 vehi-
Member of Parliament who spoke out cles were affected by the ban. While
against the project was jailed for seven tery, and another $242 million in match- some 1000 vehicles were replaced by
months. ing donations. The network is graced new compressed natural gas buses, the
Meanwhile, Cameroon has been with over 40 works of art by local artists remaining gap in service created chaos
named the world’s most corrupt country that serve as benches, drinking foun- for communters. Bus companies com-
for two years straight by Transparency tains, mileposts, earthworks, lights, and plained that the ban based on vehicle age
International. Cameroon, which bears entry gateways. was arbitrary and they preferred con-
the brunt of the ecological dangers, The network was designed to facilitate forming to Euro II standards, but propo-
Photo: Sustrans Network

stands to make $20 million yearly; while safe access to schools, train stations, and nents point out that monitoring is weak.
Chad may see up to $100 million a year city centers, and to create bypasses In other Indian mass-transit news, the
at peak production—half its annual bud- around dangerous intersections. Plans first phase of the Metro Bus Project in
get. The World Bank’s Eric Chinje, from are also underway to develop “rural Bangalore will add 600 Volvo buses to

6 SustainableTransport 11
the city’s fleet of 2,200. The Indian gov- Trans-Siberian Highway and mafrost, and mountain passes at 2,600
ernment will ask the Swedish Pipeline Threaten Snow Leopard meters elevation, will incur astronomical
Development Agency to fund the pur- construction and maintenance costs.
chase of the buses, which carry up to 270 Siberian government officials voted The Siberian Wilderness Campaign
passengers and use 3 articulated com- this March to build a highway and gas (, or
partments. According to reports, pipeline through the ecologically impor- is looking for experts
Bangalore’s already crowded roads can- tant and sensitive Ukok Plateau that with experience in evaluating
not handle more than 2,500 buses. connects southern Siberia with China. the environmental impacts of such
–Sustran Network News “It will be the end of the Ukok,” said road projects.
Mikhail Shishin, President of the –Sustran Network News
Metro Manila Phases Out Russian Fund for 21st Century Altai.
The high plateau hosts a complete
Leaded Gasoline sequence of altitudinal vegetation zones, Ho Chi Minh Highway
The phase out date for leaded gasoline and also supports many of the world’s Threatens 5000 Homes and a
in Metro Manila was pushed up to April endangered species, including the snow National Park
of this year, a full nine months before leopard, one of the world’s least studied
the date mandated in the new Philippine large predators. Sacred to a host of In May, the Vietnam Forum of
Clean Air Act of June 1999. The phase indigenous peoples, and home to Environmental Journalists voiced its
out was spearheaded by the Manila- numerous archaeological sites, it was concern that the Ho Chi Minh Highway
based Lead Free Coalition, which said declared a UNESCO World Heritage project will do damage to the Cuc
that positive support from local oil com- Site in 1998. The road’s construction will Phuong National Park in a forum in
panies and the Philippine Department of violate the Ukok Plateau’s status as a May. Financed by the Japan Bank for
the Environment were critical to the suc- “Quiet Zone” under the laws of the Altai International Cooperation, the $309 mil-
cess. Resistance came from tricycle taxi Republic. lion highway will link National
drivers, who argued that the switch to Russian scientists and environmental Highway 1 with several Ho Chi Minh
unleaded gasoline was not suitable for groups are calling for stronger laws to City streets and with Hanoi Highway.
their engines and would cause accelerat- protect the Ukok, and have written let- Slated for completion in April 2005, the
ed breakdown of their parts. In the end ters of protest to the “Siberian Accord,” six-lane, 21.4km-long highway has
their threatened restraining order, the league of government officials spon- already come under fire for the 5,214 Ho
injunction, and strike never material- soring the road-pipeline plan. In addi- Chi Minh City houses it will demolish.
ized. Airborne causes irreversible neuro- tion to being an environmental threat, –Sustran Network News
logical damage in children. protestors say, the project, running
–Sustran Network News through highland marshes, tundra, per- ♦ ♦ ♦

On the other hand, though World ing a pilot cycle rickshaw modernization
Bank spending on projects for non- project in Bangladesh, but it doesn’t
Letter motorized transport remains marginal,
some projects have been real successes.
seem to be going anywhere.
The World Bank and the IMF have
continued from p. 3 Plans to scale up non-motorized trans- also played an important positive role in
lation of ambient air standards. port pilot projects in Senegal and Guinea encouraging an increase in fuel prices to
Environmental assessment should not be are very encouraging. Bank staff has market levels. Most NGOs and govern-
based on the unlikely assumption that argued forcefully for the need to retain ments are unwilling to support fuel price
a battery of non-mandatory mitiga- good bike facilities in China, despite gov- increases, despite the disasterous long
tion measures will somehow be ernment opposition. They supported the term ecological and equity ramifications.
implemented. Global Environmental Facility (GEF)- (see Howe, this issue). In short, the
The World Bank’s pro-privatization funded pilot bikeway project in World Bank, other development banks,
ideology continues to create a barrier to Marakina, a city within Manila, the and particularly regional trade associa-
increased lending in the public transit Philippines, the first GEF project to sup- tions, remain useful forums for policy
and rail sectors. Tellingly, the most suc- port NMT since ITDP managed to get the advocacy by environmental and social
cessful public transit system improve- GEF eligibility rules changed. The World justice groups. Fighting globalization
ments in the developing world in the last Bank’s bike promotion projects in Lima, and global institutions per se is a
few years have been the Quito, Ecuator Peru, and Tamale, Ghana, have proven dead end.
bus rapid transit system (see last issue) successful. With Dutch trust funds, the Finally, advocacy groups should not
and the Kunming, China bus rapid tran- World Bank also sponsored traffic calm- let the UN implementing agencies escape
sit system (see this issue). The Quito ing pilot projects in Dar es Salaam and criticism. A review of the UNDP’s trans-
improvements resulted from a public Morogoro in Tanzania, and Nairobi and port portfolio indicates that over 60% of
sector takeover of a very badly run pri- Eldoret in Kenya, which have been par- its projects went to civil aviation; hardly
vate bus system. As such, it would never tially implemented. Some sidewalks and consistent with its mission to ‘alleviate
have been eligible for World Bank fund- non-motorized vehicle lanes have also poverty’. Meanwhile, getting even mini-
ing. Both projects were made possible been included in several other urban mal information on UNDP-funded pro-
only through bi-lateral support (Quito transport sector loans around the world, jects is virtually impossible, and com-
from Spain and Kunming from notably in Indonesia, but they tend to be pares very unfavorably to the World
Switzerland). small in scale. The Bank is also sponsor- continued on p.23

Fall 2000 7
rom the small village of
Chyne, the Prague skyline is
clearly visible over a few miles
of farmland. Surrounded by
the rusting hulks of farming
machinery, we talked to a
farmer who lives opposite a
dozen American-style single
family homes recently built on
the village edge. The new fami-
lies don’t know their neighbors,
commute to Prague by car, and
have trim lawns and large
garages rather than vegetable
beds and tractor sheds.
“My ancestors have lived in this vil- one side of the freeway to the other, “We Must Make Your Mistakes”
lage for 4 centuries,” the farmer says. some 200 meters away. Unlike many of To Americans, this story seems depress-
“What’s going on here now is a para- the new megamalls, Zlichin is connected ingly familiar. It is far from obvious that
dox.” The farmer makes a living grow- to Prague by public transport, but most CEE countries will avoid the mistakes of
ing hops and animal feed on 300 shoppers drive. Of the twenty people we elsewhere. One regional planner told us:
hectares of land he regained under the interviewed, only one couple came by “Czechoslovakia was an advanced
restitution process after the 1989 “Velvet bus (their car was being repaired). country before the war, but our economy
Revolution.” A member of the Village Adjacent to the shopping complex is a was depressed for 40 years. Now the
Council, he recently voted to approve new cluster of office buildings, economy is a top priority. We have
another larger new housing develop- alongside the nearly complet- to recapture our standing at
ment, on land sold by the Church to a ed Prague Outer Ring the level of Western
developer, that will more than double Road. Further out along Europe, and these
the size of this 600 person village. He the D5, and along [hypermarket] pro-
hopes the new development will bring many other Czech jects bring in the
roads and schools, and richer people highways, logistics investments to fuel
from the city. Yet he insists that he and warehousing that. We can’t get to
wants to live in a village, not a suburb of centers are pro- a Western standing
Prague. He likes the quiet, the green. Yet liferating. without making
already the local village shops are clos- The first out-of - Western mistakes.”
ing, unable to compete with the new town hypermarket in Restraining sprawl
shopping mall in nearby Zlichin, their the Czech Republic still seems anathema
owners now working as cashiers in the wasn’t built until 1997, at to the Republic’s post-
hypermarkets. Other villagers, he tells Cerny Most, east of Prague. 1989 anticommunist val-
us, are less optimistic about the changes In 1998, only 4% of Czech fami- ues, where notions of political
and vigorously oppose the new devel- lies used hypermarkets. In two short freedom are rarely distinguished from
opment. “Our village is more divided years, the figure has risen to 25%. Now, private ownership,
now than we were under the commu- the Czech Republic has 53 hypermar- consumer choice, and energetic entrepre-
nists, when we all hated the same kets, and the figure is projected to dou- neurship. Decades of Soviet rule left
thing.” ble again in two more years. Close on Czechs with a distaste for top-down
The Zlichin shopping complex is on their heels are new office complexes, government restrictions. Czech spatial
the first out-of-town interchange along piecemeal or do-it-yourself construction planning, as a result, is increasingly
the D5 highway to Plzen (towards of new suburban homes, and soon, per- decentralized and driven by the
Germany). It already houses a Globus haps, more ambitious out-of-town demands of the private sector and
All photos by Yaakov Garb

food market and Kentucky Fried residential developments. These

Chicken drive-through on one side of changes are dramatically accelerating a Photo above: An almost completed
the highway, and a Tesco and IKEA on decade-long 33% decrease in public western section of Prague’s “outer ring
the other. Without driving, it is nearly transit use, and a 50% increase in road,” near Zlichin. Zlichin will be even
more accessible once this is completed.
impossible to cross from the shops on car ownership.

8 SustainableTransport 11
The regional planner’s goal of finding harmony between
economy, culture, and nature has receded, replaced by
the growing power of private investors.
foreign investors. land titles are clearer and there is less family homes, as the purchasing power
Karl Maier of the bureaucracy. According to one intervie- and taste for this kind of lifestyle
Czech University of wee, remains unproven, and some projects
Technology in Prague “A typical project in Prague could have not performed well. European mid-
illustrates the conse- require 35 different permits. Compared dle class tastes are different from those
quences of “demand- to Prague itself, getting these in the sur- in the United States, and a larger home
driven planning.” He rounding villages is a piece of cake. with a garden may not be sufficient to
holds up a map of There, everyone is motivated to make it attract some families away from a still
Prague, with the retail happen, everyone knows each other, it’s vibrant city like Prague. Said one cos-
areas suggested by easy to solve everything. In Prague, peo- mopolitan real estate professional,
principles of good city ple will use your project as a way of “Living in the city is normal here.
planning marked in fighting each other.” How can you go home after work to get
black. On top of this, Localized regulation, the disappear- changed before going out to the opera or
he places an overlay, ance of guiding principles, a lack of pub- for a drink with friends if you have to
with the out-of-town lic investment, and the private control of drive for 40 minutes each way? Living
megastores that have the data necessary for regional planning outside the city center is very limiting.”
appeared in the last are symptomatic of what
few years colored in Maier calls the “destatiza-
pink. The patches of pink form a rough tion” of planning. The
circle where Prague’s radial highways regional planner’s goal of
meet the municipal area’s edge, and bear finding harmony between
little relation to the black markings on economy, culture, and
the map underneath. nature has receded, replaced
Planning in the Czech Republic is by the growing power of
increasingly limited to local government private investors.
control over building permits. Prague
has a Master Plan, but outside of Prague Factors Inhibiting
there are scores of separate municipali- Sprawl
ties, and in the Brno region there are 136. There are, however, several
Developers, perhaps through middle- remaining checks on sprawl.
men, approach the town hall and town Agricultural zoning still
council of one of these municipalities to places some limits on the
buy land and approve building permits. conversion of farm land to
The developer might promise to provide other uses, though this
some new infrastructure for the sur- varies from municipality to
rounding area, such as new access roads, municipality. Banks, still
or the maintenance of a kindergarten. unable to foreclose on home
Like elsewhere in the world, they may equity loans in default, New American-style single family homes in the former
also offer bribes. If the town council remain reluctant mortgage agricultural fields of Chyne, 15 Kilometers from Prague
agrees, the local plan is modified to lenders, and interest rates
include the proposed development. remain high. In the meanwhile, few peo- Central and Eastern Europeans also
Then it is considered by the Ministry of ple can afford to pay cash for their have a traditional alternative to the sub-
Regional Development (formerly the homes. As a result, people tend to build urban commuting lifestyle: the country
Ministry of Industry). If approved, the their own houses bit by bit over time on cabin (chalupy in Czech). Every Friday
project enters the corresponding regional small parcels of suburban land, or small afternoon, roads are jammed with many
plan, receives a permit, and can begin entrepreneurs raise a 30% down pay- of the 30% of Prague families that main-
construction. ment from 3 or 4 people, buy land, and tain a rudimentary country cabin.
With Mayors desperate for increased build 3 or 4 homes near a village. Today’s busy urban professionals are
employment, and increased revenues Many people are also reluctant to visiting these country cabins less, but
from taxes and land sales, developers leave their rent-controlled apartments in most are unwilling to sell them, either
can play competing municipalities the city, though rent-control laws were for sentimental reasons or lack of a mar-
against one another. If Prague hesitates declared unconstitutional by the courts ket. Some are being converted to full
to approve a hypermarket just inside city in July 2000, and they may soon be time homes by retired people, who then
boundaries, developers can put it out- repealed. rent out their Prague apartments. Those
side, a hundred meters away, in the Developers also remain wary of devel- country cabins in commuting distance of
jurisdiction of a village. Outside Prague, oping large projects of suburban single continued on p.10

Fall 2000 9

Small shop owners are being devastated by

the influx of big box retail, but are poorly organized.
An organizing push on this front could make a big difference.
continued from p. 9 while the problems of sprawl are similar for the most offensive proposed hyper-
cities could constitute a reservoir of to the US, the mechanisms for fighting it markets. These are generating the most
properties easily converted to single- will have to be different. In the US, most local hostility, are the most visible
family suburban homes. of the suburban land being developed is expression of unregulated foreign capi-
private land, while in the CEEC much of tal, and the companies, which are mostly
A New Anti-Sprawl Initiative it is public. While tightening land use based in Western Europe or North
With the imminent explosion of chaotic regulation in the U.S. is politically diffi- America, are the most sensitive to nega-
suburban real estate investment, ITDP, cult, the resulting decrease in land val- tive publicity.
working with the Clean Air Action ues will be incurred by private land Key allies in this struggle will be envi-
Group in Hungary (CAAG), the Polish owners. In the CEEC, local governments, ronmental NGOs, small shop owners,
Ecological Transport Campaign (TET), desperate for funds, are unlikely to regu- and sympathetic government officials.
and several groups in the Czech late land use in a way that undermines Ambient air quality standards, currently
Republic, has begun a three year anti- the sale price they can receive for the being adopted as part of the process of
sprawl campaign, thanks to support land. accession to the EU, may create legal
from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. Rule of law is more robust in the U.S. options that, if nothing, else will under-
Czech groups working on sprawl-related Some new real estate developments have score the problems with this kind of
issues include the Czech and Slovak been blocked by demonstrating that they development. In a few select cases we
Traffic Club, The Independent will drive an area into violation of ambi- will explore whether these mega-devel-
Environmental and Social Movement, ent air quality standards. CAAG tried to opments do indeed generate sufficient
Oziveni (Renewing Communities stop the Aucham shopping center on the traffic to violate ambient air quality stan-
Through Greenways and Heritage outskirts of Budapest using similar legal dards, and, if so, such evidence will be
means, but the Hungarian used to help environmental ministries
courts proved to be insuffi- enforce the air standards, and to support
ciently insulated from any necessary lawsuits.
countervailing political Government officials are facing esca-
influences. In Poland, simi- lating infrastructure costs, and could
lar legal considerations save taxpayers money by adopting com-
were no match to the pact city guidelines similar to those
appeal of cash. A new recently adopted in the UK. Since about
shopping center in 1993, projects proposed for out-of-town
Krakow, Carrefur, was greenfield locations can only be
blocked by the approved if they have demonstrated that
Municipality on the all other potential sites closer in have
grounds that the capacity been exhausted. Prague has centrally
of existing roads was located brownfield sites that remain
insufficient to handle the underused, and may be able to employ
projected traffic increases. mechanisms for limiting out-of-town
In the end, however, the developments, such as refusing access to
public official was the water, sewerage, and other utilities
removed, the shopping under municipal control. Small shop
center was built, and now owners are being devastated by the
the developer is demand- influx of big box retail, but are poorly
ing that the city widen the organized. An organizing push on this
IKEA and other large retail shops as road. front could make a big difference.
viewed from the parking lot of Baumarkt The mechanism of tradable develop- Greater region-wide coordination of
supermarket, across the D5 Highway, on ment rights has been used to some effect planning could also help counter the
the outskirts of Prague. in the US to compensate land owners localized fragmentation in which this
who’s land values would be compro- kind of development flourishes.
Trails), Green Circle, Center for mised by development restrictions. In Allies may also include some banks
Transport and Energy, Czech Union of Central Europe this might also be tried, and bank regulators. Because the explo-
Nature Conservationists and the VIA but with much of the land in public sion of real estate development is
Foundation for Local Initiatives. hands, public-sector versions of this already outstripping demand, the risk of
CAAG and TET have already been mechanism would need to be developed. a collapse in overall real estate prices is
involved in fighting sprawl for some The first push of the campaign will be increasing. A collapse in real estate
years, and their experience indicates that focused on generating negative publicity prices could create a banking crisis in the

10 SustainableTransport 11
easily staunch this flow of illicit Making hypermarkets accountable for
funds, and efforts in this direc- their full environmental and social costs
tion are underway by the is only the first step. Other kinds of
Financial Analysis Unit (FAU) sprawl are intimately related, and immi-
in the Czech Ministry of nent. To counter these trends, financial,
Finance. legal, and political obstacles to city cen-
Allies may also include some ter revitalization and to brownfield use
of the more respectable interna- will also have to be overcome, and the
tional hypermarket chains real needs for improved livable housing
themselves. For example, the will have to be addressed
Swedish/Dutch/Danish home The problem of sprawl in the CEEC is
furnishings company IKEA, massive, the vested interests powerful,
active in the CEE, has worked to and our ability to influence them
reduce pollution related to the modest. But inaction at this critical time
production of their products, risks locking Central Europe into a US-
KFC at Zlichin Mall: Deep-fried hypermarket and even the transport and dis- style automobile dependency that will
tribution consequences of a devastate the environment for decades
already fragile CEEC banking system business running over 150 stores in to come. ♦
similar to the savings and loan debacle approximately 30 countries. But they
in the US. The better run private banks, have not yet been called to task for the Dr. Yaakov Garb (
and honest bank regulators, would like environmental and social impact of pre- is heading up the Anti-Sprawl
to avoid this. The real estate bubble is dominantly locating their stores in ex- Campaign for ITDP. He is also
being further inflated by black marke- urban areas. It would seem a natural affiliated with the Institute for Urban
teers using real estate developments to extension of their concerns to think of and Regional Studies, Hebrew
launder illegally-earned cash. Certain retailing alternatives that bolster, rather University, Jerusalem
provisions in the banking laws could than sap, city center vitality.

EBRD Assists Flood of

Hypermarkets into CEE Countryside

n recent years, the European Bank for Reconstruction their shareholders that they are indeed growth orientated.
and Development (EBRD) has pumped an astonish- Of course developers and contractors are more than
ing $3.2 billion into the Central and Eastern happy... As a result, you have too many groups trying to
European real estate market, with 1999 representing attack the region. Rapidly trying to penetrate the market
a five-fold increase over 1998. The loans are going mainly and buy-up market share are 6 well capitalized interna-
to financial services firms like Heitman Financial and tional big-box/hypermarket groups, some 6 well capital-
Trizek Hahn of Chicago, Pioneer Group of Boston, and ized international (down from 10!) multiplex operators,
Doughty Hanson of London which in turn make equity and some 5 well capitalized international DIY operators.
investements into diversified real estate holdings. They “For retail operators, there is some rationale for jump-
are also directly funding chain food superstores, like the ing in and getting established, even though the immediate
Turkish Ramstore, which has moved heavily into Bulgaria profit outlook is weak. Local authorities are beginning to
and Russia. The EBRD invested in the Polus Center and wake up to the fact that the rapid retail expansion is
the West End City Center in Budapest, and the massive threatening traditional retailers and their city-centers, and
Polus Center in Brattislava. Some of these projects have the concern is that getting zoning and building permission
been criticized for encouraging suburban sprawl and play- may get as strict as it is in some Western Europe countries
ing little attention to rational land use planning, and all of (ie. Germany) – so the idea is to jump in before the plan-
them are threatening small businesses. According to one ning door shuts.”
industry insider: That the EBRD is now be investing in an overheated real
“There is indeed a need for improved retail in the estate property market with equity investments should
region; however, the pace of expansion has been too fast, cause some concern among their Board of Directors, as
driven by reasons other than investment economics. This real estate investments are notoriously volatile. The fact
rapid expansion is mainly driven by big-box/hypermar- that these investments are also encouraging unsustainable
ket and multiplex operators with the outlook to establish urban sprawl and killing many small Central European
long-term market share in a new market...many retailers private sector businesses would also seem at odds with
and distributors are pouring into CE in order to show the overall goals of this ‘development’ bank.

Fall 2000 11
by Paul Steely White

Since December 1998, ITDP’s Afribike project has mobilized over 1,000 Southern Africans
with bicycles and training. What’s more, Afribike has successfully communicated the
An Afribike Update experiences of its beneficiaries to decision makers, marshaling new and unprecedented
support for pro-bicycle projects from national, provincial, and local African governments, and
from industry and international lending institutions.
In January 2000 Afribike established itself as an independent non-profit organization based
in Johannesburg, South Africa. ITDP continues to provide support and technical assistance to
Afribike as it undertakes advocacy and project work throughout Southern and Western Africa.
Funding for Afribike was made possible by the support of the International Foundation,
Alternative Gifts International, the Marcia Brady Tucker Foundation, the Roy A. Hunt
Foundation, and the Members of ITDP.

Mobilizing South Africa’s tances within the urban and peri-urban The Pioneering Mzobe Brothers
Stranded Students townships are shorter than in rural The relative efficiency of bicycles vs.

ecause their only option is to locales, student attendance and perfor- public transport and walking begs the
walk, most primary and sec- mance is in these areas is similarly ham- question: Why aren’t students cycling to
ondary school children in South pered. school already? Indeed, a few already
Africa arrive to school late and tired. In partnership with V3, an engineer- are. Despite hilly terrain, brothers
Many do not arrive at all. In some areas ing firm, and local and provincial gov- Richard Mzobe and Lindo Mzobe, two
it is common for children to walk 10km ernments, Afribike is currently imple- teenage secondary school students in
each way. In the KwaZulu-Natal menting several projects that will mobi- rural KwaZulu-Natal, ride their bicycles
province, 37% of secondary school stu- lize a total of 2,000 students by provid- to school every day. Richard, 18, began
dents walk further than 5.5 kilometers ing subsidized bicycles. The projects will cycling to school in February of 1999
each way. That is over six miles per day simultaneously 1) train the students in after he purchased a used mountain
of walking, a significant time and calorie riding, maintenance, and repair, 2) bike. After witnessing his big brother’s
expenditure that, according to school implement concurrent infrastructure success, Lindo bought a used BMX bicy-
principals in the province, fatigues 70% improvements to improve the safety of cle. Today, Richard and Lindo each save
of the students so much that learning is the new cyclists, and 3) establish a local about 1.5 hours per day that they used
significantly compromised. bicycle economy, creating sustainable to spend walking. That leaves more time
According to the KwaZulu-Natal local jobs in bicycle sales, repair, and and energy for studies. Both are set on
Rural Mobility Study, “The most eco- related services. going to college.
nomic form of intervention would be in Two of these student bicycle projects Richard and Lindo overcame many
the form of supplying bicycles to assist are based in Ugu and Uthekela, rural obstacles. They saved up for several
scholars [students] in traveling to regions in KwaZulu-Natal. Another is in months, then took an expensive mini-
school.” Indeed, at 1,000 Rand (US$147) Ivory Park, an urban township located bus taxi trip to Port Shepston (46km
per year (or about 10% of average annu- about 25km north of downtown away) where the nearest bike shop is
al household income for one student) it Johannesburg and near South Africa’s located. After purchasing their used
is cost prohibitive for most families to fastest growing suburb, Midrand, which bicycles (about US$50) they then had to
send their children to school by public also happens to be the site of ITDP’s pay extra to fasten their bicycles to the
transport or mini-bus taxis. As a result, 1997 Workbike Demonstration Project. top mini-bus taxi for the return trip.
89% of secondary students and 98% of (See “Making Bikes Work For South Richard and Lindo share one set of
primary students walk. While trip dis- Africa”, Sustainable Transport #8) 3mm, 4mm and 6mm Allen wrenches,

12 SustainableTransport 11
tools that are rare in their community. In Upon graduation from the course stu- for cyclists’ rights, safety, and infrastruc-
addition to enabling them to perform dents will receive a voucher that entitles ture advocacy. Lastly, the dealerships
many of their own repairs, the wrenches them to receive a bicycle, but only after give the cycling industry a real incentive
double as a makeshift bike lock: each 1) contributing R50 towards purchase to participate in the project, as new deal-
day they use their tools to lock their and, 2) finishing 10 hours of “sweat erships to them are outlets to sell their
handlebars into an unrideable position, equity” in the local Afribike dealership. products.
effectively deterring thieves. The busy After the sweat equity as been complet- In short, the dealerships represent a
highway that cuts through their com- ed, the student may redeem their vouch- departure from previous bicycle promo-
munity is the only route to school. The er at their local Afribike dealership. tion projects that have ignored these
author, who rides daily from Brooklyn issues and simply provided free, subsi-
to Manhattan, was aghast at the total Afribike’s Containerized Dealerships dized or micro financed bicycles in isola-
lack of a shoulder, high traffic speeds, Afribike dealerships are franchised bicy- tion from private sector stakeholders. In
and blind curves as he rode with them. cle retail outlets that are owned and 2000, Afribike plans to roll out three con-
Richard and Lindo hugged the edge of managed by local entrepreneurs selected tainerized dealerships, with 15 more
the road and pushed on as the author and trained by Afribike. Dealership planned for 2001.
sweated. entrepreneurs are trained by profession-
Affordability; access to bicycles, tools, al bicycle mechanics and bicycle shop Improving Safety with “Shova Lula”
and spare parts; security, and unsafe owners and operators like Archie Sipoyo Promoting cycling goes beyond the sus-
routes must be addressed to enable of Archie’s Bike Tech in Soweto. (Mr. tainable provision of bicycles and related
more students to ride to school. Some skills. Safe and comfortable “cycling habi-
past efforts to mobilize students with tats”, especially in urban areas, are vital.
bicycles have yielded limited success In Ivory Park, where urban traffic condi-
because only bicycles were provided. In tions are unsafe for cyclists, this includes
time, the bicycles fell into disrepair. the construction of dedicated cycle paths.
Simply injecting bicycles into the com- “Shova Lula”, which means “Push Easy”
munity is not sustainable. Seeking to in the Tswana language is colloquial for
improve on past efforts, Afribike is pro- cycling and the name of this planned
viding skills training, establishing local bicycle infrastructure component.
dealerships, and improving safety. Maikel Lieuw Kie Song, Afribike’s
Projects Director, designed these cycle
The Afribike Skills Course paths under the auspices of the Research
Students are selected for the program Centre for Employment Creation in
based on the distance they travel to An Afribike dealership–a converted Construction of Wits University and the
school and on their household’s income. shipping container Interface for Cycling Expertise (Jeroen
Those eligible to receive subsidized bicy- Buis) from the Netherlands. These lanes
cles will first complete the Afribike Sipoyo also serves on Afribike’s Board are designed to offer cyclists a safe rid-
Training Course. The course, led by of Directors) Afribike dealerships, which ing environment and access to the most
Afribike Master Mechanic, Sam Soni, include workshop and retail space, are important destinations in Ivory Park,
teaches preventative maintenance, rid- housed in converted 20 foot shipping such as schools, clinics, the main taxi sta-
containers. tion, municipal offices, and the soccer
In addition to investing and keeping stadium. Getting the network built has
more project dollars within the commu- proven difficult, as politicians and even
nity, the dealerships solve many prob- some community members are skittish
lems encountered with previous bicycle about embarking on an unproven con-
hardware promotion projects. First, cept. To overcome these obstacles,
from a project point of view the dealer- Afribike and ITDP are pursuing several
ships provide a recognizable and locally strategies. An alliance with Slagment, a
controlled framework for project promo- local producer of low-energy cement,
tion, training, implementation and mon- has agreed to provide half of the cement
itoring. Second, the dealership provides required for the network.
a sustainable mechanism to deliver The first draft of the cycle path design
ongoing service and spare parts, vital to calls for approximately 4.6 km of bicycle
Afribike Master Mechanic, Sam Soni keep new cyclists on the road. Third, the paths, and it includes accommodations
dealership provides a financially sus- for future expansions into surrounding
ing in traffic, group riding techniques tainable mechanism to meet future areas like Tembisa Township. The rec-
and basic repairs. Mr. Soni will also help demand. Fourth, the dealership address- ommended design is for a 3m wide, con-
the students identify safe routes to es the issue of job creation in areas crete, two-way dedicated cycle lane with
school, and lead morning and afternoon where unemployment approaches 50%. raised crossings at important intersec-
“bicycle buses” (group rides to and from Fifth, the dealership establishes an tions. Local contractors will employ-
school) which will further instill safe invested and sustainable local con- ment-intensive methods and low-energy
and effective riding techniques. stituency and an organizational capacity continued on p.14

Fall 2000 13
Afribike Update

continued from p. 13 riding and bicycle maintenance while able on ITDP’s website.)
cement to construct the lanes. The esti- Marko Ludeking and Erik Rouwette, In July 2000, Afribike will begin to
mated cost of the project is 1.4 million two Dutch exchange students at the implement projects in Senegal and
Rand, approximately US$200,000. University of the Witwatersrand, helped Guinea with local NGO partners. The
In rural KwaZulu Natal, Afribike has out. Ghana project will start soon thereafter.
partnered up with V3 Consulting The mobilization of these first 25 The projects include a number of innov-
Engineers, who will assess the current rangers in the Ndumo is the first stage of ative aspects including the sourcing of
infrastructure in the region and provide a larger program in which Afribike new bicycles based on technical input
recommendations to improve accessibili- hopes to mobilize 200 rangers in Ndumo from local users, significant involve-
ty and safety. Dedicated bicycle infra- and Umfolozi game reserves, both locat- ment of private-sector bicycle compa-
structure is not yet in the cards for ed in South Africa’s KwaZulu Natal nies, widespread micro financing of
KwaZulu Natal; the current goals are to province. The larger program will also bicycles via local NGOs and credit insti-
improve accessibility and safety at cross- entail an outreach component in the tutions, and in the case of Senegal, con-
ings of streams and major roads, and local communities surrounding the current labor-based bicycle infrastruc-
increase the visibility and awareness of reserves, where bicycles could enable ture construction. The projects in
cyclists with reflective material access to markets, services and schools. Senegal, Guinea and Ghana are being
and signage. financed by respective national govern-
Afribike Senegal, Guinea and Ghana ments through loan agreements with the
Afribiking to Save the Black Rhino Afribike is currently expanding the World Bank. ♦
South Africa’s game reserves are home geographical focus of its work to the
to several endangered and rare species West African countries of Senegal,
including the black and white rhino, the Guinea, and Ghana. Prior to project
rare mammal species of suni, samango implementation, Afribike undertook a Raymond Motshwane
monkey, the pangofin and the 22 December 1974 - 7 August 2000
shy red duiker. In order to pro-
tect these species from poachers Raymond Motshwane, captain of the
and monitor important biologi- Lotus/IBM Afribike cycling team, was
cal indicators dedicated field struck from behind and killed by a hit-
rangers patrol the parks bound- and-run motorist during a routine
aries and sensitive habitat sites. training ride near Johannesburg.
Most rangers, bereft of trans- Raymond’s body was discovered face
portation, walk several kilome- down a few yards beyond the shoul-
ters per day executing their der of the road in some tall grass.
daily duties. Friends and police suspect that
Bicycles were identified as a Raymond fell victim to an aberrant
crucial component in the fight mini-bus taxi.
to save endangered species, as When he wasn’t cycling, Ray was
they could provide rangers and working in “the mines”. In March
wardens with a much- 2000 Raymond expressed an interest
improved ability to patrol the in quitting the gold mines and joining
park perimeter, as well as his fellow team members on Afribike’s
enable timely access to “prob- mechanic training staff before taking
lem areas” where poachers typ- South Africa’s professional team up
ically enter the reserves. on their offer to join them in 2001, a
Bicycling is better than walking first for a black South African.
because rangers are 3-4 times At a recent cycling event in Port
faster and enable a more active Elizabeth, Thibos Mashigo, Ray’s close
presence along reserve bound- friend and teammate, recalls Ray say-
aries. ing:
From June 18-21, 2000 “I want to be the first black South
Afribike provided 25 bicycles to African cyclist to participate in inter-
25 game rangers of the Ndumo national events. I do not want to be
game reserve, home to the just another participant in a race, I
endangered Black Rhino. The Load carrying by bike in Ghana want to be considered as a serious
bikes were donated by Royal competitor…Cycling is not just a
Mail, the United Kingdom’s Post Office, one-week Afribike Training Course (for sport; it is a way of life.”
which is donating its old stock to local project partners), and a one-week Our condolences go out to Ray’s
Afribike via Re-Cycle, a bicycle recycling scouting mission to meet with local family and friends who continue to
NGO based in the UK. Sam Soni, stakeholders, gather information, and ride on South Africa’s dangerous
Afribike’s Master Mechanic and appren- devise strategies to increase cycling. streets for both necessity and joy.
tice Kehn Hlagala trained the rangers in (The reports of these missions are avail-

14 SustainableTransport 11
Manila Makes Way
for Bikeways, But for Whom?
by Ramon Fernan

nce completed, the Marikina Bikeways Network will be by bike. This relatively high incidence of utilitarian cycling,
the first 50 kilometers of cycle paths in Manila. With coupled with the fact that the majority of Marikina’s popula-
some legs already completed or under construction, the tion is low-income, would suggest a network design targeting
network is a part of the City of Marikina’s campaign to existing and potential low-income utilitarian cyclists.
‘increase livability’. In a broader context, the network is a pilot Unfortunately, the network is already in danger of becoming
project within the national government’s Metro Manila Urban an expensive frill, primarily serving a minority of relatively
Transport Integration Project, which includes a World Bank- wealthy recreational users. Construction to date has targeted
funded study of possible transport facility improvements in only scenic paths along the river, and it is still not clear if pedi-
the metro area. The network is also
receiving funding via a Global
Environmental Facility (GEF) grant, an
The bike network is already in danger of becoming
unprecedented first in accordance with an expensive frill, primarily serving a minority of
GEF’s new funding guidelines. As the
network emerges, however, there are relatively wealthy recreational users.
indications that it may not meet its stated
environmental and social objectives, thus damaging the per- cab operators will be allowed to use the network upon its pro-
ceived efficacy of bike projects in general. jected completion in 2003. If a goal of the project is to reduce
In 1998 the City of Marikina, one of the oldest cities within present and future greenhouse gas emissions, then the cycling
the fifteen-city confederation that comprises Metro Manila, network should connect popular and pragmatic destinations
began its ‘livable city’ campaign. So far, this beautification ini- that are of economic import to the majority of present and
tiative has focused on relocating street vendors and inhabitants future users.
of informal settlements, but it has also passed ordinances to The initial planning team lacked prior bicycle planning
clear pedestrian walkways and promote walking. A center- experience, and only one is a practicing cyclist (the author). A
piece of the campaign is a park that extends along the recent metro-wide urban transport study undertaken by the
Marikina River. Within the park is the central vein of the city’s Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC)
emerging bikeways network. missed a crucial opportunity to collect new baseline data on
Marikina is not as congested as other cities within Metro non-motorized trips, and recommended spending billions of
Manila. Private car ownership stands at 15%, compared to 20% dollars on more roads.
citywide. Cycle trips comprise only 1.1% of total trips, yet The new design team has international expertise but input
among factory workers 10% of commuting trips are executed from cyclists themselves has been minimal. Focus groups con-
vened to provide input about the network wanted to increase
Ramon Fernan is a Bicycle Advocate working with Bayk Aksyon the safety of cycling, redress the taboo against female cyclists,
and The Firefly Brigade, citizen’s action groups in the be kept abreast of developments, and be consulted throughout
Philippines promoting bicycling, clean air and habitable people- the design and implementation phases.
friendly urban environments. Bayk Aksyon conducts research
and policy advocacy in support of its agenda to promote greater

bicycling. The Firefly Brigade organizes the Tour of the Fireflies, learly, a physical network designed in isolation will not
an annual festive bicycle ride around Metro Manila for clean air lead to significant increases in cycling. A pragmatic, com-
and sustainable transportation, with hundreds of participants. munity-informed design approach, clear mechanisms for
The Firefly Brigade also has a Recycle-A-Bicycle program to pro- community participation, and other measures including
vide bicycles to those who cannot afford them. Traffic Demand Measures (TDM) will be necessary to help
ensure popular use of Marikina’s bikeways. ♦

Sustainable Transport is now only published annually.

Because of the growing use of electronic media, we are
publishing an on-line magazine, TransportActions, which
appears on our web site ( three times a year.
All issues of Sustainable Transport are also online.

Fall 2000 15
A Breath of Fresh Air
for Indonesia
The International Conference on Sustainable UPC (Urban Poor Consortium), YLBH (legal aid society), ICJ
Transportation and Clean Air in Jakarta, Indonesia (Institute for Social Work Jakarta), and a dozen other organi-
The sudden collapse of the Soeharto dictatorship and the zations.
return of democracy in 1999 created a political opportunity to In preparation for the Conference, a small grant from Swiss
fundamentally change Indonesian transportation and environ- Contact helped Info-Trans organize 4 preparatory workshops
mental policies. After twenty-five years of using transport poli- on transport and environment issues. ITDP and SwissContact
cy to maximize the wealth of the President and his cronies, a both gave presentations at these workshops, which were
democratically elected coalition government has come to attended by more than 50 people each. Out of these work-
power, headed by the widely respected Abdurrahman Wahid, shops, Info-Trans developed a well-articulated NGO position
with the popular Megawati Sukarnoputri (the daughter of paper that was presented at the plenary and circulated among
Indonesia’s first President, Sukarno) as Vice President. the press. The organization of the conference also created a
While economic health and investor confidence have yet to rare opportunity for cooperation and communication among
rebound, the changes in Indonesia are profound. Government the donor community, many of whom were working on relat-
officials to whom ‘public participation’ meant informing the ed issues but whose efforts prior to the conference were not
public after a decision was already made, are now responding well coordinated.
to an NGO community that is poised to make a major impact
on transport and environmental policy. The Conference
The Conference was held from May 29 to May 31. It was
ITDP and Swiss Contact Join Forces opened by the Vice Governor, the Deputy Minister of
ITDP teamed up with SwissContact to plan a major conference Environment, and the head of US AEP. Some 225 people from
in Indonesia in the spring of 2000, a time when the new gov- 23 countries, a dozen government ministries and 12 interna-
ernment would be looking for coherent transport policies. tional agencies, participated in the conference. Initially
With a proven track record in more traditional transport and Indonesian government officials resisted the participation of
environment regulatory issues like vehicle inspection and some Indonesian NGOs involved in the becak issue, but ulti-
maintenance systems, SwissContact provided a good balance mately ITDP and our project partners LPIST were able to stage
to ITDP’s strengths in NGO advocacy and transport policy an entire plenary on non-motorized transport at which LPIST
reform. Together, we provided the necessary seed money to called for an end to the becak ban in Jakarta. The conference
attract additional funding from the U.S. Asian Environmental also helped to encourage the Municipality of Jakarta to devel-
Partnership (US AEP), the World Bank, U.S. AID, the DFID op a pilot Non-Motorized Transport Project for Jakarta, which
(UK), Canada, the Asian Development they presented. Some Indonesian NGOs
Bank (ADB), Swiss Agency for also used the Conference to hold a small,
Development Cooperation, and GTZ peaceful rally by becak drivers.
(Germany). We also secured the political The Conference made a set of concrete
support from the Ministry of recommendations which prioritized the
Communications (transport), the Ministry phase out of leaded gasoline, tightening
of Environment, and the Jakarta emissions standards and inspection sys-
Metropolitan Government. tems, the improvement of public trans-
ITDP agreed to co-finance the confer- portation, the promotion of non-motorized
ence in order to provide a forum for transportation, and sustainable land use.
NGOs to discuss planned transport poli- The conference helped to persuade the
cies and investments. Indonesian NGOs Indonesian government to re-establish their
formed themselves into a new sustainable lapsed committment to a 2003 phase out of
transport coalition called Info-Trans leaded gasoline. The NGOs used the oppor-
which participated fully in organizing the tunity to engage government officials as
conference, spoke at several plenary ses- well as representatives of the World Bank,
sions, and set up exhibitions on becak Asian Development Bank, JICA (Japanese
(cycle rickshaw) rights and other issues. International Cooperation Agency), GTZ
Hosted by Pelangi, Info-Trans’ other key (German Technical Assistance), on specific
coalition partners include LPIST (Institute projects which these international agencies
of Strategic Initiatives for Transform- were funding.
ation), YLKI (the Indonesian consumers Conference follow-up continues, includ-
Photo: Walter Hook

association), Walhi-Jakarta, Bandung and ing non-motorized transport advocacy in

Surabaya, LEMKOHI (Green Con- Indonesian women cyclists struggling both Jakarta and Surabaya, and the phase
sumers), ICEL (environmental lawyers), alongside a van out of leaded gasoline as promised by US

16 SustainableTransport 11
Participants in the Third SUSTRAN General Assembly, Jakarta, Indonesia, June 1, 2000

AEP and US AID, which is proceeding with a World Bank Air in Jakarta on May 31. On June 5, GTZ received the
commitment to focusing on the restructuring of oil and gas approval of the Regional Governor to proceed with the pilot
sector loans to make this possible. GTZ will continue to focus project. While these developments are encouraging, ITDP and
on their pilot bus corridors in Jakarta and Surabaya and a very its partners will continue to work with the relevant politicians,
good Traffic Demand Management plan for Jakarta. Swiss agencies and municipal offices until the pilot project is actually
Contact will continue to focus on I/M systems. We hope that implemented.
continuing support for Indonesian NGOs will also be forth-
coming. The Third SUSTRAN General Assembly
As the International Conference on Sustainable Transportation
The Surabaya Non-Motorized Transportation (NMT) and Air Pollution convened NGOs from all over the region, the
Improvement Project SUSTRAN Steering Committee used the opportunity to hold
ITDP was asked by GTZ, the German technical assistance the Third SUSTRAN General Assembly. Info-Trans agreed to
agency, to develop a non-motorized trans-
port pilot project for their sustainable urban
transport project in Surabaya, on the West More than 60% of very short trips are made
coast of Java. Working with LPIST, ITDP
selected two pilot areas with extensive walk- by motor vehicle in Surabaya, while only 15%
ing, bicycling, and becak trips. We did a full
array of trip surveys and traffic counts,
of trips of the same length are made by motor
mapped the few existing non-motorized
transport facilities, and suggested priority
vehicle in Germany.
improvements. The data collection led to
some surprising conclusions. host the event. Info-Trans used the SUSTRAN meeting to hold
More than 60% of very short trips are made by motor vehicle a press conference where several leading international experts
in Surabaya, while only 15% of trips of the same length are from SUSTRAN spoke on behalf of the issues prioritized by
made by motor vehicle in Germany. (This in a country with Info-Trans. Dr. Geetam Tewari of the Indian Institute of
incomes less than 1/50 of what they are in Germany.) As a Technology/TRIPP and SUSTRAN-Delhi, Anwar Fazal of
result, the poor families in Surabaya spend upwards of 20% of UNDP’s Urban Management Program and President of SUS-
their income on motorized trips, virtually all of which could be TRAN, Dr. Walter Hook of ITDP, Dr. Paul Barter of SUSTRAN,
made for virtually nothing if non-motorized trips were safe. and Dr. Bambang Susantono of Info-Trans/Pelangi, all spoke
We also estimated that if the share of trips under 3 km made to television and news media at length. The focus of the talk
by cycling and walking were the same in Surabaya as in was on removing the ban on becaks, improving conditions for
Germany, for these two small areas, the poor families in the pedestrians and cyclists, and promoting lower cost alternatives
pilot areas would save $250,000 a year in bus fares and motor- to the metro project, (e.g. Curitiba-style express buses).
cycle operating costs, and CO2 emissions would be reduced by At the SUSTRAN meeting, memberships agreed to coordi-
680 tons per year. nate efforts on several initiatives, including input into the new
Working with civil engineer Dino Teddyputra, we develop- ADB transport policy and the World Bank Urban Transport
ing a fully developed set of technical recommendations. LPIST Policy, coordination of NGO advocacy efforts at the United
formed a task force of government officials, NGOs, and inter- Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (CSD) in
ested parties to participate in the further refinement of the 2001 in New York, cooperation with UNCHS on the establish-
plans and to provide focal persons for implementation of the ment of an ‘early warning system’ for families threatened with
plan. Three workshops were held with Task Force members, in relocation by major transport projects, and other projects.
March, April, and May, 2000. The preliminary plan was com- Finally, Pelangi, on behalf of Info-Trans, agreed to take over
pleted by May 26, 2000, and the results were presented at the the Secretariat from the Sustran Resource Center in Malaysia.
International Conference on Sustainable Transport and Clean continued on p.27

Fall 2000 17
Bogotá’s Mayor Stakes
by Sarah Donaldson His Legacy on
Sustainable Transport

ince by law a Bogotá mayor may them to also hold car-free days. The congestion, the bicycle can cover those
serve only one term, Mayor “Bogotá team” (@World staff and local short trips (up to 10 kilometers) at the
Enrique Peñalosa has had only planners) beat out 44 other environmen- same speed a car can, or faster. Finally, a
three years to implement the most ambi- tal projects to win the prestigious vibrant bicycle racing culture in the city
tious sustainable transport plan in Latin Stockholm Challenge Award this June. adds to the acceptability and visibility of
America. Last February 24, Mayor As media coverage of the car-free day cyclists.
With Bogotá’s murder rate double that
of New York, and air pollution the 4th
For one Thursday, Bogotá’s citizens worst in Latin America, Peñalosa’s
promise to make the city livable won
forsook over 800,000 private cars, opting him a three-year term, and the glib label
“quixotic” in the popular press. A lover
instead to walk, cycle, skate, or take of cycling, Peñalosa campaigned in 1997
as a progressive urbanist who would
the bus to work and school transform the class-conscious, car-infest-
ed city into a space that fostered cross-
Peñalosa banned all private automobiles was cast around the world, Bogotá class interaction and civic pride. Last
from the city for the day to build popu- assumed a leadership role among Latin February 24, the mayor proudly led a
lar support for an array of ambitious American countries willing to experi- diverse entourage of cyclists on a morn-
measures (such as a planned $198 mil- ment with transportation alternatives.
lion bikeway system). For one Thursday, Increased car ownership and flagrant
Bogotá’s citizens forsook over 800,000 violation of traffic laws have made
private cars, opting instead to walk, Bogotá’s center city a frightening place
cycle, skate, or take the bus to work and to be during rush hour. The city’s roads
school. This car-free day, “Bogotá Sin Mi are poorly maintained, and buses, taxis,
Carro,” was the first ever to occur in a and over 700,000 privately owned cars
major third world city. Facilitated by move through them at a snail’s pace
French-based @World Car Free Day every morning and evening. In the mid-
Forum, the Bogota car-free day went fur- dle of the city’s traffic jams, some of
ther than a series of European car-free Latin America’s worst, tempers often
Photo source: Corporate Image Office URBAN DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE

days in Paris, Amsterdam, Munich and flare; Bogotá’s drivers have become so
Rome. aggressive that the city’s last mayor
Despite rain, Bogotá’s daylong respite employed miming actors to try to calm
from the automobile proved a resound- them.
ing success. For the first day in decades, Despite the threat Bogotá’s cars pose
there were no traffic-related deaths in to cyclists, the flat city, perched high in
the city. Noontime pollution levels the Andes, is welcoming to the bicycle.
dropped 22 percent. Polled by the Bogotá’s climate is mild, and 77 percent
Bogotá daily El Tiempo, 80 percent of of all daily trips in Bogotá cover fewer
Bogotá residents judged the day a suc- than 11 kilometers. Because of traffic
cess and favored regular car-free days in
the future. The success of the Bogotá Cyclists using the first phase of Bogota’s
experiment fueled a “Bogotá challenge” planned bike network
to other third-world cities, encouraging

18 SustainableTransport 11
A lover of cycling, Mayor Peñalosa campaigned
in 1997 as a progressive urbanist who would
transform the class-conscious, car-infested city
into a space that fostered cross-class
interaction and civic pride.
mixing wealthy bikers from posh north- designed and implemented the pilot sec-
ern Bogotá with poorer riders journey- tion of the bike network along with
ing from southern neighborhoods. Colombian firm Restrepo y Uribe (RyU),
Though the car-free Sundays have exist- concluded that the $178 million spent on
ed since 1982 and were expanded by Peñalosa’s entire 300-km project will
ing tour of the city, and the world took Peñalosa’s predecessor, the current return a benefit of over $1 billion by
notice. Mayor has drawn attention to Ciclovia 2009. This amount, due to reduced need
Bogotá’s auto-free day is a small part by expanding its hours and making for road maintenance and parking facili-
of Mayor Peñalosa’s agenda. It also much of the civic mixing it fosters. ties, reduced congestion, cleaner air,
involves a sidewalk widening project, a Also well-received has been the $117 improved traffic safety, and reduced cost
very successful daily odd/even license million Transmilenio project, promised to users, would produce a cost-benefit
plate rotation, an urban greening tree before Peñalosa leaves office at the end ratio of 1:7. But this begs the question of
replacement program, a “Transmilenio” of 2000. The project will consolidate why it should cost so much.
public transit makeover, extended hours Bogotá’s buses into one publicly owned Further, I-ce admits that RyU did not
and mileage during the city’s car-free system consisting of 470 buses and cov- sufficiently study Bogotá’s traffic condi-
Sundays, a traffic safety education initia- ering 41 kilometers. Through dedicated tions before the path and bike parking
tive, a project to increase public park bus lanes, installation of stops every 500 facilities were installed.
space, and a Dutch-advised plan for 300 meters, and fixed salaries for bus dri- Still, the Mayor has done a lot to pro-
kilometers of bicycle paths throughout vers, the project seeks to increase bus mote an alternative vision of Bogotá in a
the city. safety, speed, and convenience, and to difficult political climate. When Peñalosa
Some of these ambitious plans are far cut the average daily bus commute time leaves office at year’s end, it’s anyone’s
from implemented, and their fate after by an hour. guess what will become of this vision for
Mr. Peñalosa leaves office this fall is far Other measures, however, have been Bogotá.
from clear. Moreover, their implementa- less popular. Last year, irate motorists During this February’s car-free day,
tion has drawn criticism from both left and shopkeepers launched an impeach- former Colombian Senator Carlos
and right. Resistencia, a Marxist periodi- ment campaign against the Mayor after Moreno de Caro, a mayoral hopeful,
cal, called the mayor a “neoliberal vote- he erected concrete barriers to keep dri- chose to link himself to the Peñalosa
grabber” who cares more about the vers from parking on sidewalks. administration by leading more than
beauty of public spaces than the needs of Environmentalists also take issue with twenty supporters on a rush hour cam-
his constituents. The renovation of the Mayor’s proposed network of bike paign ride through the city. He was not
downtown Bogotá’s Plaza San Victorino paths, because the plan requires hun- taking much of a risk, after all. “Bogotá
relocated a convenient flea market to dreds of trees to be cut down. An edito- Sin Mi Carro” is one of the most widely
another part of the city, installing sculp- rialist for the Colombian financial daily accepted initiatives in Peñalosa’s pro-
tures by Colombian sculptor Edgar La Republica labeled the $178 million bike gram, and the Mayor has rebounded
Negret. His administration has also plan “an extravagant waste of money” from earlier, rockier political times (he
sponsored a draconian crackdown on that would take resources from city was named 1999 Man of the Year by two
poor street vendors. Peñalosa’s proposal streets desperately needing repair. leading Colombian newsmagazines).
to buy an exclusive north Bogotá coun- Indeed, the price tag, roughly half the Caro’s gesture suggests that Peñalosa’s
try club and transform it into a public total amount the U.S. spends annually agenda may be viewed as a viable alter-
park created political opposition from on cycling infrastructure, seems extraor- native to much of the chaos that plagues
the other side, and more than a few citi- dinary. The high price tag results from the capitol’s comings and goings.
zens said the mayor’s zeal had carried the fact that the plan conspicuously Eric Britton, of EcoPlan International,
him too far when he dug up a cemetery avoids taking lane capacity away from said recently: “We have had a lot of the-
to install a public soccer field. cars, creating all new parallel infrastruc- ory and posturing on all this (the “car-
The Mayor’s transport initiatives have ture. What’s more, the only piece actual- free city”) for many years - but the team
received mixed responses, as well. The ly constructed thus far was incorporated in Bogotá is actually moving actively
Sunday “Ciclovia” (“Cycling Way”), into a road-widening project around a and with deliberation in that direction.”
where the city closes 70 kilometers of park. The path is not located in an area No mistake about it: the Andean city has
main roads for cyclists, skaters, and with much cycling, and is little used. plunged into a daring experiment with
pedestrians, has been very popular. In Using certain heroic assumptions, ana- little apology. Call him demagogue or
good weather, Ciclovia brings up to a lysts from IBC Utrecht and the Institute quixotic, this mayor has made his three
million cyclists into Bogotá’s streets, for Cycling Enterprise (I-ce) in 1997 years count. ♦

Fall 2000 19

Oil Running Out,

Heads Buried in the Sand
by John Howe

il is a slippery subject, but ignored at our peril. In October

of 1998, The Economist predicted that oil would drop to $5
a barrel. Foreign Affairs claimed that low oil prices would
be a major economic problem in the new millennium.
Then prices rose to over $29 a barrel this year, and even
The Economist admits it was hopelessly wrong.
Oil prices are difficult to predict largely because they are driven by
politics, rather than economics. A recent GTZ study of 160 countries by
Gerhard Metschies (See New Titles) shows that while motor vehicle
prices vary by a factor of 2:1, national oil prices vary by a factor of 100: 1.
Fuel prices today bear only a weak relationship to underlying conditions
of supply and demand. Eventually, however, prices will be forced to
comply with underlying production conditions.
Curiously, the World Bank’s seminal 1996 Sustainable Transport:
Priorities for Policy Reform never discusses the sustainability of existing
transport fuel sources. It does argue that fuel prices should cover both
the costs of its production and the externalities that its consumption gen-
erates, and is generally supportive of increasing fuel taxation, but the
risks to developing countries of increasing fuel scarcity are largely
ignored, as if the magic hand of the market will solve its own problems.
But the irrational array of pricing practices demonstrates that politics
rather than markets primarily drive oil prices. Hence, any self-correcting
market mechanism is unlikely to function. The economies of more and
more countries are becoming exposed to the risks of fuel price volatility,
and low-income countries are the most at risk.
The robust oil depletion model of US geologist King Hubbard, devel-
oped in the 1940s, recalibrated by Mackenzie of the World Resources
Institute, suggests that growing world demand will meet declining sup-
ply somewhere between 2007 and 2019. Campbell and Laherrere, in the
Photo source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy

March 1998 edition of Scientific American, indicated 2010 as a more pre-

cise date for the inevitable scarcity-driven increase in oil prices. Such
predictions are complicated by the unknown scale of undiscovered oil
reserves and the volatility of growing oil demand, but declining oil
reserves will eventually drive prices up until alternative energy sources
are developed. While ultimately vehicle fleets are likely to switch to nat-
ural gas and/or hydrogen fuel cells, from the perspective of developing
countries, the crucial issue is the cost and the political economy of this
Europe’s energy networks are already reasonably integrated and the
gaps could quite easily be filled. Some of the densely populated and
wealthy countries of Asia might also be brought together without too
much difficulty. But there are many poor countries that could be devas-
tated by either a rapid increase in the price of oil or a mandated energy
alternative. They simply could not quickly develop an alternative distri-

20 SustainableTransport 11
Fuel subsidies mainly benefit wealthy motorists.
Price increases are politically difficult, but not impossible,
when introduced gradually.
bution network. With their financial and industrial weakness, lightly almost as though it was still a major producer.
the gestation period to do so is likely to be a decade or more. Where fuel prices are subsidized, the possibility for smug-
This implies that they should have already started. Instead, the gling also emerges. Nigeria’s five immediate neighbors charge
problem is not even being discussed. between 3 and 6 times as much per unit. The result, massive
None of the alternatives will be either quick or cheap to smuggling out of Nigeria and an inability to meet its own fuel
introduce. All imply the replacement, or at least substantial needs. In June this drove Nigerian fuel prices up by 50%,
conversion, of existing vehicle fleets, and the creation of a new resulting in a general strike across the southwestern part of the
fuel distribution system. According to the Umwelt Bundesamt, country. Similarly, fuel prices in Indonesia are about 1/5 of
the enormous cost of hydrogen fuel storage and distribution what they are in neighboring Singapore. Indonesia’s debt is
makes it a much more attractive option for stationery energy increasing by $4 billion a year because its fuel prices are cur-
consumers such as electric power and home heating than for rently well below production costs. Despite domestic oil sup-
motor vehicles. If few developing countries have indigenous plies, the state oil company Pertamina lacks the refining capac-
motor vehicle manufacturing and oil refining capacity, even ity to meet domestic demand, so it imports refined oil from
fewer will have the capacity to manufacture motor vehicles Singapore and resells it at a loss. As a result, motor vehicle use
driven by hydrogen fuel cells, or the fuel cells themselves. The and fuel consumption did not decrease in Indonesia in the last
indigenous knowledge to repair such vehicles is also likely to three years despite a collapse in per capita income from $1200
be in short supply. The current degradation in the quality of a year to $400 a year. To make matters worse, some black mar-
spare parts that occurs in most devel- ket businessmen are making
oping countries, and the weakness of millions buying oil from
roadworthiness testing systems, Pertamina and re-exporting
could have disastrous safety conse- it to Singapore. In short,
quences for hydrogen-powered vehi- Indonesia’s taxpayers and
cles. Then there is the issue of where debtors are not only subsi-
you get the hydrogen. The most like- dizing fuel consumption in
ly source is natural gas, which has Indonesia, they are subsidiz-
issues of its own. ing fuel consumption
For a country like Kenya, that is throughout Southeast Asia.
entirely dependent on imported oil Once introduced, govern-
for its transport sector, converting to ments are understandably
gas would at least utilize known and reluctant to reduce fuel sub-
relatively simple technology. Setting aside the discomforting sidies. The governments of Ecuador, Indonesia, Nigeria
fact that much of the world’s supplies of gas are under the con- (twice), Zimbabwe, Yemen and Venezuela, and arguably some
trol of Russia and Iran, there remains the problem of distribu- European governments as well, have either fallen as a result of
tion. Bulk import requires a $100 million refrigerated tanker proposed fuel price increases, or withdrawn the proposed
able to handle liquefied gas. And one may not be enough. increase. While study after study shows that the majority of
Then there is shore-side infrastructure to handle and store the fuel subsidies are captured by the wealthiest minority, the fact
gas, before the thorny and expensive problems of countrywide that price increases are also passed on to the poor through
distribution and fleet conversion are tackled. higher travel costs and food price inflation makes the removal
Thus, while wealthy countries can probably afford this con- of fuel subsidies politically difficult, but not impossible.
version, for low-income countries without either wealth or a Metchies points out that when fuel prices are increased incre-
significant industrial base, the situation is far more uncertain. mentally, to stay at world market rates, at no more than 10% of
Reducing dependency on oil now should be a matter of the the pump price, there has rarely been a political disturbance.
utmost urgency in developing countries. The 14 countries of the CFA Franc Zone in Western and
Currently, fuel prices are actually below the cost of produc- Central Africa incrementally adjusted fuel prices to market lev-
tion and distribution in some rich (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia) and els in the midst of a 50% devaluation of their currencies with
in some poor and indebted countries (Belarus, Iran, Iraq, minimal political disturbance.
Indonesia, Nigeria, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). NGOs and anti-poverty groups are generally unwilling to
Fuel prices with very high premiums can also be found among speak out in support of fuel price increases because of adverse
both very rich (Norway, Switzerland) and very poor (Burundi, impacts on the poor. The official position of Info-Trans, the
Central African Republic, Rwanda, Uganda) countries. Thus, new sustainable transport coalition in Indonesia, is that fuel
fuel prices bear no relation to the level of wealth of the country prices would not have to increase if the corruption at
concerned, and can only partially be explained by whether it Pertamina were removed. While this is clearly untrue, (fuel
is, or was, an oil producer. The USA, for example, which cur- prices are currently more than $5 a barrel below the
rently imports in excess of 50% of its needs, continues to tax oil continued on p.28

Fall 2000 21
Zurich-Kunming Sister-City Project:

Bus Rapid Transit Comes to Ch

by Ernst Joos

he city of Kunming is implement-
ing a series of progressive land use
and urban transportation changes
unprecedented in China. Kunming’s
‘Public Transport Masterplan’, with ded-
icated bus lines, new trams and clus-
did not mature for a decade, when influ-
ential Kunming planners witnessed
Zurich’s efficient public transport sys-
tem firsthand. Shortly thereafter, the
Kunming planners partnered with their
Swiss counterparts to launch the
tered development arose via the Kunming “Public Transport Master
Kunming-Zurich Sister City partnership. Plan”. The plan aimed to solve
One element is a dedicated bus lane, Kunming’s growing transportation and
which opened in April 99 and boosted environmental crises, but also sought,
operating speeds by 68%. with funding from the Swiss Central
Kunming is the capital of the south- Government and Zurich’s provincial
western Chinese province of Yunnan. government, to establish Kunming as a
Home to 3.7 million inhabitants, the model for all of Asia.
economy of the Greater Kunming Area The 3-step Master Plan began by
has surged, like most of urban China administering a transport questionnaire
during the past two decades. Kunming’s from which transport patterns for the
exports and transborder trade with years 2000 and 2020 were forecasted for
Vietnam, Laos, and Burma are exploding different user groups. In the second step,
at 8% per year, but air and water quality possible solutions were tested and dis-
is deteriorating rapidly. Sulphur dioxide cussed, particularly the Metro, Elevated
from the burning of coal and diesel LRT, Modern Tram (LRT grade) and
makes Kunming’s air dangerously caus- modern bus systems. It was found that
tic. Dianchi Lake, a once a popular the best solution combined a system of
swimming destination, is today an infec- modern tram and modern bus, eventual-
tious cesspool. ly augmented later with a “Rapid Short
Kunming, like most Chinese cities, Range Passenger Railway”, running on
began vigorously promoting motorcars improved tracks of the State-run rail-
in the 1990’s, with new highways, way. Kunming’s bus stop and intersection designs
sprawling suburbs, bike bans and man- In the third step, a pre-feasibility overcame problems experienced in China’s
dated pedestrian-free intersections. study was undertaken for the first line of other bus lane experiments.
Scarce arable land was being chewed up the suggested 11km modern tram sys-
by new low-density development, and tem and a “Demonstration Bus Line”
the use of private motor vehicles—on provided the public with an idea of a Public Transport Master Plan were pre-
average 10 times more polluting than a “high-quality-and-low cost” transit. The sented and discussed.
typical European car—skyrocketed. Public Transport Master Plan was hand- The “Aims and Rules of a Modern
Given the almost exclusive focus on pro- ed over to the city government in April Transport Policy” consisted of transit-
moting motorcars, it was no surprise 1996. Many elected officials remained oriented land-use principles, pro-walk-
when Kunming’s public transport sys- sceptical of the plan, as did Kunming’s ing and pro-bicycle policy guidelines,
tem quickly deteriorated. private taxi operators, who almost unan- and ‘efficiency first’ transportation plan-
Through the Sister City project with imously opposed the plan but stopped ning strategies.
Zurich, however, Kunming changed short of active opposition.
direction. Zurich helped show Kunming Site Visits Key to Mustering
that a alternative, transit oriented ‘Aims and Rules of a Modern Political Will
‘vision’ would yield 11% more fertile Transport Policy’ The most powerful leader in Kunming is
land available for agriculture, 30%-50% Two seminars were held at two Sino- the Party Secretary, so gaining his sup-
less air pollution and 25% cost savings as Swiss Symposiums co-organised by the port was key. The prospects did not look
compared to the ‘trend development’ or Chinese Ministry of Construction. In good: half a year before construction was
sprawl scenario. (Feiner et al. 2000) attendance were representatives from scheduled to begin on the dedicated bus
the Ministry of Railways and several lanes he was still against it. After the
Following Zurich’s Sister Act: A institutes and academies from 15 major Party Secretary visited Zurich, however,
Master Plan Materializes Chinese cities. At the first forum (1996) he was able to make the connections
Zurich and Kunming’s ‘Sister Cities’ drafts of “The Aims and Rules of a between transport policy and economic,
relationship was brokered in 1982, but Modern Transport Policy” and the ecological and social success. After this

22 SustainableTransport 11
China visit the dam was broken.
Three hundred new buses
were purchased and con-
for the visitors. Consequently, 2000 will
see the construction of three additional
demo lines. When completed, these new
3. New modern structures are
allowed, but they have to follow the
existing typology (especially concerning
struction began. lines will comprise the core of a modern, the number of floors).
In addition to Zurich, high-speed bus network. 4. New buildings must be integrated
Kunming’s leaders visited Ridership on the demonstration line as thoroughly as possible.
several other European increased 13% since its inception. Four months after finishing the his-
cities to experience modern Average passenger handling time at toric town protection plan the city gov-
trams, modern bus sys- stops decreased 59%, from 56 seconds to ernment ordered an interdiction for
tems, inter-city heavy rail, 23 seconds, while operating speed demolishing any old buildings in the
protected historical areas increased by 68%, from 9.6km/h to section of the historic town. An ensuing
and pedestrianised city 15.2km/h. The city saved a lot of money “Methodical Protection Manual” was
centres. In short, they saw because they could now serve the same drafted, serving the newly planned
several modern cities oper- number of passengers with 48% fewer “Historic Town Protection Bureau” as a
ating efficiently with mini- buses. guidebook. This bureau will profit from
mal reliance on the private The project also includes a strategy to the experiences of other Chinese cities,
motorcar. preserve historic areas of Kunming and and will engender the preservation of
to mitigate increasing suburban sprawl. Kunming’s cultural heritage.
Kunming’s First
Dedicated Bus Line Preserving Historic Areas
After building the neces- Historic areas, along with the central Transportation Development
sary political support, a business district, central business axis, and China’s Future
“Demonstration Bus Line” and pedestrian zones, were identified as The Kunming Railway Bureau is also
was established in the primary organizing element around encouraging the development of new
Kunming in April 1999. which a public transport, bicycle, and satellite towns along one line, and a
The bus line was designed pedestrian friendly city would emerge. Rapid Short Range Passenger Transport
for easy future conversion For the healthy preservation of each one System may be added.
into a tramline; reserved of these elements, a corresponding trans- The “Kunming Model” is showing
lanes in the middle of the portation solution was identified. cities throughout China and Asia how
street, stop islands, and In order to preserve the historic areas, public transit improvements do not
bus priority at traffic lights it was stressed that streets and places require massive capital investments.
were all included. Modern had to keep their narrow shape, and Seeing Zurich, capital of the richest
vehicles and a new time- pedestrian paths (hutongs) shall retain country in the world, it was clear to
saving ticketing system are their function. Concerning buildings, Kunming’s planners that the most effi-
also part of the package. four main categories, with four respec- cient and modern cities are supported
The demo line connects the airport tive protection schemes, were defined: by strong, efficient surface public trans-
and some densely populated residential 1. Preservation as a whole port systems complemented with conve-
areas with the city centre. During the 2. Structure and appearance have to be nient pedestrian facilities, provisions for
1999 International Horticultural Fair it preserved, to protect the appearance of bicycle traffic, and efforts at historical
was the primary means of transportation the open space of the street. preservation. ♦

Letter industry. These projects are increasingly

undertaken in cooperation with large
development institutions and the human
world. But shipping used bikes did not
create a sustainable commercial supply
of low cost vehicles in poor countries.
continued from p. 7 powered vehicle industry. Finally, we The costs of collecting, storing, shipping,
Bank, where extensive project documen- have begun to work directly on some customs, handling, distributing, and
tation is now readily available. NMT infrastructure and safety planning maintaining the vehicles, when added
projects. (See Indonesia Article) up, were higher than the costs of ship-
ITDP Shifts Gears ping new bikes in bulk. Because the used
For several years, ITDP has been shifting Strengthening the bicycle stream is inconsistent, the recipi-
away from reforming the international Non-Motorized Vehicle ent didn’t really know what they were
development institutions as an end in Industry in Developing Countries getting, so they didn’t want to pay for
itself, and moving towards the goal of product. For the same reason, larger
improving transport and land use gover- Africa funding agencies don’t like to deal in
nance in the CEEC and developing Since the poor don’t have access to vehi- used product. Hence, none of the pro-
countries. We have also been shifting cles, roads are not enough to alleviate jects were ever replicated on a large
away from shipping used bicycles from poverty. Since 1985, ITDP has provided scale. As grant money and the energy for
the U.S. to developing countries, free or low-cost used bicycles to tens of volunteerism dry up, so too ends the
towards projects which develop and thousands of women, men and children supply of vital spares and bicycles.
strengthen the human powered vehicle in rural and urban areas throughout the continued on p.27

Fall 2000 23
Notes from Agra:
Selling Modern The following was adapted from W. Hook’s
report on his recent trip to Agra, India for the
Cycle Rickshaw Improvement Project, a project
of ITDP and AITD funded by U.S. AID and

Rickshaws the Changing Horizons Fund. This report

focuses on Agra, where ITDP has been working
with Tri Chakra, (an NGO), Strategic
Alliance, (an integrated marketing and com-
munications company), and Lokayan, a social
by Walter Hook organization.

fter five years of effort, on Agra model, after extensive field trials, By early August, Ramesh was turning
August 8, 2000, Sunil Kumar, design refinement, and market testing, out two high quality vehicles a day. We
the owner of Hari Om Cycle was commercially viable. It was cost now had a competitor for Hari Om, but
Mart, finally began to produce our competitive with the old vehicle, yet at his volume was not nearly enough to
newly designed modern cycle rickshaws. 55kg weighed 30% less, had multiple reach our target of 500 vehicles sold by
The assembly wasn’t perfect, but all ten gears, a much more comfortable seat, September 30. And, like everyone else in
were produced in a single day. As the and a fully operational canopy. The Agra, he depended on Hari Om for com-
largest cycle rickshaw assembler in the gearing and lighter weight made it 20% ponents. Suddenly Ramesh found there
Agra region, producing some 3000 vehi- to 30% easier to pedal. This translates was a shortage of critical parts.
cles a year, getting Hari Om to shift his directly into less calories burned by the Until Ramesh teamed up with one of
production was key to project success. operator. In the Agra context, this often the financial middleman who control the
Getting there hasn’t been easy. means less hunger. Field trials showed market, he couldn’t hope to compete. In
The name Hari Om comes first from that the owners earned at least 20% more 1999 the Agra Development Authority,
Hari, Sunil’s uncle, and Om is from with the vehicle, and attract a quarter of (DUDA) had promised to finance 200 of
Sunil’s father, a kind and down to earth their passengers away from polluting the new vehicles, but responsibility for
man. Both Hari and Om shared our motorized modes. Further, we had this was turned over to a “Social
enthusiasm for producing a better cycle developed with Mr. Gupta of Shivati Organization”. The “Social Organiza-
rickshaw. Mr. Om died this past sum- bicycles a mass-produced chassis that tion” rounded up some 60 eligible appli-
mer, and we will miss him. Sunil, his could be shipped at minimal cost all cants, but instead of financing the new
son, has been more skeptical. He had the over the country. vehicles, they decided to subsidze 60 of
most to gain, but also the most to lose, The launch of the first 75 vehicles at the traditional cycle rickshaws.
from the project’s success. the end of 1999 had attracted an enor- To keep the buying and selling at
Hari Om mainly sells cycle rickshaws mous amount of press. Leading public arms length from the project, we con-
through financial middlemen coming officials threw in their support, promis-
from nearby towns who buy in bulk and ing financing and subsidies for 200
pay cash. He doesn’t assemble for the vehicles. U.S. AID was convinced that
Agra market; this is done by small scale the new vehicles would spread all over
assemblers who are also involved in the India without any further work on our
risky though lucrative business of part. But four months later, no one had
financing, charging as much as 50% jumped into commercial production.
interest. Sunil makes money from them The frame manufacturers wanted
as a near-monopoly supplier of their orders from assemblers, the assemblers
components. wanted orders from the financial mid-
While we liked the distinctive decora- dlemen (or maleks), and the maleks
tive steel plating, at 80kg Hari Om’s were divided. One malek wasn’t con-
cycle rickshaws were too heavy. With vinced the new vehicles would be pop-
only a single speed, pedaling a couple of ular. Another also owned a business
tourists back from the Taj Mahal is a bru- that made the vinyl that covered the
tal trip. An ultra-light titanium frame chairs in the traditional vehicles, which
and Dura-Ace gear system would be aren’t used in the new design. He
great, but too expensive. Still, if they didn’t want to see the new designs take
could get more passengers, we knew the off. Others were on the fence.
owners would be willing to pay a little Hari Om had been given twelve
more for a better vehicle. frames, but he wasn’t assembling. He
By April of 2000, our design team, needed a push from a competitor. Our
Matteo Martignoni and G. Shyam had shop steward, Ramesh Kumar, decided
developed an ‘Agra’ model, and AITD to turn entrepreneur, and began assem-
had developed a “Delhi” model. The bling the vehicles on his own account.

24 SustainableTransport 11
tracted an integrated marketing and pro- programs come and go, and require their hands could they dictate terms to
motion company called Strategic proof of residence, and if the wallah or the assemblers.
Alliance to do the public relations and anyone in his family had defaulted Fortunately, SA had a marketing
promotion for the vehicles. They had before, they are ineligible, permanently. strategy. They started to organize highly
been responsible for the avalanche of Self-help groups could take loans collec- publicized events. They organized an
publicity that the project had received. tively,but cycle rickshaw wallahs in event in Mathura, the birthplace of
Strategic Alliance (SA) quickly learned Agra were reluctant to form such Krishna, where a sample of the new
that marketing cycle rickshaws in Agra groups. For many, renting or borrowing vehicle was demonstrated to govern-
is not like marketing new cars or soap. from a malek is the only option. ment officials, maleks, and wallahs. PR
Many of the potential buyers were illiter- We knew the maleks had to have a work ensured good press coverage. One
ate, and few owned televisions or read stake in the new vehicle, or they would of the financers bought the demonstra-
newspapers. Professional marketing and undermine the project. Similar efforts to tion vehicle, and two days later pur-
PR folks were not used to dealing with modernize the cycle rickshaw in chased two more and placed an order
this strata of society, and it took some Bangladesh had failed because the pro- for a fleet of 20. This prompted another
time to adjust and develop new tech- ject had tried to use new
niques. designs to simultane-
Initially, SA planned to avoid the ously undermine the
large fleet owners and financial middle- power of these local
men called maleks, who are often vilified maleks. Lokayan, a
in policy circles. Charging often very social organization
high interest rates or daily rental fees, which had worked in
maleks are often blamed for the poverty the cycle rickshaw com-
of the cycle rickshaw drivers. We had munity for years,
managed to get the cost of the new vehi- advised that fighting the
cle down to Rp.4300, compared to maleks was counterpro-
roughly Rp. 4000 for a traditional vehi- ductive. Many cycle
cle, but sold through a financial middle- rickshaw operators do
man, the cost would be as much as not want to own the
Rp.5500 if repaid in 8 months. To a cer- vehicle, for fear of theft
tain extent this is the cost of giving credit or other reasons. For
to this highly transient community. those that do, interest
Certainly, competition exists between rates are high, but credit
these financial middlemen. Private is available. The maleks
banks were unwilling to lend to cycle also provide a certain amount of political local financer, a competitor, to buy one
rickshaw operators without a 300% protection from the police and hostile and place an order of ten.
guarantee from the project. Government government officials. It is this last func- They planned a much bigger event in
tion which ultimately convinced Agra to correspond to my visit. They
Lokayan of the need for cooperation had me personally invite the
with the maleks, rather than confronta- Commissioner, the Chief Development
tion. Besides, if the maleks feel threat- Officer, the Mayor, the District
ened, they could kill the project. Magistrate, and the Lead Bank Manager,
So, the project team decided to all of whom agreed to turn up. SA want-
encourage them to participate, while ed at least thirty vehicles on display at
exploring other financing options as the event, so they could be sold immedi-
well. In mid-July, SA was contacted by ately. We knew Ramesh could produce
their first interested financial middle- ten at the most.
man. He happened to be Sunil Kumar’s With the big event planned in two
nephew. The nephew agreed to take the days time, we visited Sunil Kumar. SA
whole lot of nineteen vehicles, and to asked Hari Om to assemble 20 vehicles
pay in fifteen days. The nephew also in two days. He already had 12 frames,
wanted Ramesh to increase production, and we would send the rest that day. SA
and he agreed to send two of his work- guaranteed the sale of all twenty, if he
ers to Ramesh’s shop the next day. could produce. Sunil smiled and shook
Ramesh reluctantly agreed. We were on it. That night, he turned up at the
uneasy. Somehow, Sunil Kumar still shop and gave us the names of a half
held the project in his pocket. Only if SA dozen other maleks who he said had
had concrete orders with financing in been reluctant before but were now con-
vinced. Hari Om’s vehicles turned up in
the late evening the night before the cer-
The Commisioner of Agra and the District emony; eight in all, not the promised
Magistrate inspect the new designs continued on p.26

Fall 2000 25
Selling ModernRickshaws

Seven hundred of the new vehicles were supposed to have been

sold by September 30. Even if we hit the target, the project was likely
to end. It was Independence Day in India, and maybe for us too.
twenty. The assembly was not of the best sign them and hand them over to the rel- production targets Hari Om would have
quality, but he had covered our plain evant banks. Some forty cycle rickshaw to assemble some of their vehicles, like it
wooden floorboards with the beautiful wallahs and owners came to the event, or not.
sheet-metal design work that gave the and all told, SA managed to place all the Back in Delhi, we drove to a poor area
Agra cycle rickshaw its distinctive fla- vehicles we had, and take orders for in the Northeast. Here the streets are
vor. another 50 or 60.
The event was held at the Mayur The next day, we went to
Hotel Complex the next day, and was Bharatpur, where Dr. Anand, the
attended by the Mayor, the head of the Grameen Bank said
Commissioner, the District Magistrate, his bank was ready to take 5 vehi-
cles next week, and
another 5 at a ceremony
which SA would
arrange for early
September. Bharatpur
has a world renowned
bird sanctuary where
motor vehicles are not
allowed, and all cycle
rickshaw operators
have to be registered
with the Forestry
Department. The
Grameen Bank would pay us Sunil Kumar, Mr. Om, Matteo Martignoni,
for the vehicles and he would and Mr. Hari
collect the money from the
wallahs who only had to pay crowded with rickshaws hand-painted
15% down, and the rest in in floral designs. We met with three
installments over an 18 month maleks, one of whom owned a whole
period at 15% interest. He said warehouse full of cycle rickshaws. He
he’d like to replace the entire had bought ten frames of the Agra
fleet at the bird sanctuary of model directly from Shivati, and had
105 vehicles within two years begun his own assembly. He’d even
time. made some further improvements in the
Then we went by to see the axle. “Eventually,” he said, “your new
rickshaw wallahs at the bird models will spread all over India. But it
sanctuary itself. They showed cannot be rushed. It will take a little bit
us a 100kg, monstrous two- of time.”
headed cycle rickshaw ‘inno- Time we didn’t have. The next day, I
vation’ that Hari Om had sold would meet with US AID. Seven hun-
to them. When they saw what dred of the new vehicles were supposed
Ramesh Kumar (left) in the shop the new designs looked like, they crowd- to have been sold by September 30. Even
ed around and 70 placed orders for the if we hit the target, the project was likely
new vehicles. “This will put Hari Om to end. It was Independence Day in
and the Lead Bank Manager, among oth- out of business!” they said gleefully. India, and maybe for us too. On the road
ers. The new Chief Development Officer, They asked us to tie up with a local back, the children were standing on the
Photos: left, Matteo Martignoni; right, Walter Hook

Mr. Bhuvnesh Kumar, had agreed to assembler, and took us to meet him. The roofs of half-built houses flying kites.
provide a 15% subsidy and loans for the man operated a bicycle repair facility Embedded in the kite strings were bits of
balance for 300 vehicles specifically for next to the central Bajaj stand in central glass. The game is to twist your kite
vehicles generated by our project. Bharatpur. His shop was a two-meter around another, so the glass cuts the
Furthermore, he said, he would person- square shipping crate with a tent flap in string of your neighbor. For three years,
ally oversee the process, give the forms front for shade. He agreed to maintain US AID support has kept our kite aloft.
only to a person appointed by us as a the vehicles, and be trained how to do If that string were cut now, would the
formal liaison, and after we have collect- this, and was interested in exploring effort to modernize the cycle rickshaw
ed the completed forms will personally assembly. But I knew to make US AID’s fly on its own, or fall to the ground? ♦

26 SustainableTransport 11
small business survival by giv-
ing the retailers easier access to
Letter credit, increased buying power
with suppliers, and name
continued from p. 23 recognition (which builds
Rarely was a viable for-profit bike busi- buyer confidence). Afribike has
ness left behind. We should have real- begun to set up bike shops in
ized it would not be that simple. Even in converted shipping containers
the wealthy US, 80% of new businesses that will eventually become
fail in the first few years. In low-income for-profit franchisees owned
communities in developing countries, and operated by local bike
surviving as a start-up small business is mechanics. On August 8, the
incredibly difficult. Lacking capital, they first franchise opened in Kwa- Gustav Erlank of Afribike and Susanne Holste of the World Bank
find it difficult to get credit from banks, Zulu Natal, and later this fall a answering questions outside of Tamale, South Africa
or generous payment terms from suppli- second franchise will open in
ers. Their clientele are relatively poor. Ivory Park. (See Article, p. 12)
Sometimes they lack business skills, To help these businesses succeed, we guarantees to bike suppliers who will be
technical skills, or relationships with have established much closer ties with paid back eventually by the franchisees.
suppliers. Until recently, we had not the bike industry. Jay Townley, an We will also provide 50% credit guaran-
developed relationships with the bicycle industry stalwart who is involved with tees for buyers of the bicycles who join
industry to understand what it would numerous bicycle industry and advoca- self-help groups, and will directly subsi-
take to make these start-up bike busi- cy associations, and Greg Guenther, pre- dize some low-income women beneficia-
nesses survive. viously the CEO of Burley Design ries with funds from Alternative Gifts
Afribike is our best chance to over- Cooperative, have both joined Araidne International.
come some of these past failings. While Delon-Scott of Specialized on our Board,
we again capitalized a shop with donat- and have provided ITDP with all sorts of Asia
ed used bikes from the U.S. and industry-developed training materials ITDP’s Indian Cycle Rickshaw Project set
England, it is now ready to incubate about how to set up a successful bike out to modernize the cycle rickshaw
viable for-profit bike businesses all over shop. They have also provided us with design. Dozens of projects in the past
South Africa. Afribike is now an inde- key contacts within the bike industry, had developed new designs, but none
pendent NGO staffed by a diverse group notably Derby Cycle Corporation, which were ever commercially adopted. As of
of dedicated South Africans. Gustav operates Pro-Bike, a subsidiary in South today, the project has already succeeded
Erlank, Afribike’s Managing Director, Africa that has agreed to provide bikes in developing a design that two major
who came to Afribike via his own expe- at cost with generous terms to Afribike. bicycle manufacturers are making, two
rience in eco-friendly businesses, Instead of sending used bikes, we will be commercial assemblers are assembling,
hatched the idea of creating bike busi- using the generous support of the and over 200 cycle rickshaw wallahs
ness franchises. The franchise model International Foundation and the Tucker have purchased with their own money at
dramatically increases the chance of Foundation to provide the necessary continued on p.30

Indonesian NGOs feel that the addition- dent of ITDP support. Community mem-
Indonesia al funds going to Pertamina will only
disappear in corruption, and the poor
bers were happy with the service, and
with the added security that becaks
will end up paying more for public operating in the area were known and
continued from p. 17 transport. Until the oil and gas sector is registered locally. At the same time, talks
The move was supported unanimously restructured and rid of corruption, and were underway with the new Regional
by the Steering Council and the until a mechanism for direct subsidy of Parliament in Jakarta to rescind the law
Membership. The following day, Dr. public transport can insulate the poor banning becaks in Jakarta, at least within
Bambang Susantono met with Vice from fuel price increases, the NGO com- certain districts.
President Megawati Sukarnoputri on munity in Indonesia is unlikely to sup- Some strategic differences of opinion
behalf of the SUSTRAN Network and port the increase of fuel prices. arose between most of the Info-Trans
asked for her support on improving non- NGOs and the UPC (Urban Poor
motorized transport and seeking lower The Campaign for Becak Rights Consortium). UPC favored high-profile
cost alternatives to the metro, and other Meanwhile, advocacy to return becaks to rallies of becak drivers, while LPIST and
issues. Jakarta’s streets continued. In the winter others felt efforts should be channeled
Info-Trans and the NGO community of 1998, ITDP began cooperating with instead to more traditional lobbying to
in general could not agree on whether to LPIST to organize cycle rickshaw opera- convince the Regional Parliament to
support an increase in fuel prices, tors into associations in three pilot com- rescind the ban and local police not to
despite the fact that the SUSTRAN munities in Jakarta. The Urban Poor enforce it. However, most of the NGOs
Steering Committee supports the Consortium (UPC) had also built several joined UPC in organizing a major rally
increase in fuel prices in Indonesia. The associations around Jakarta, indepen- continued on p.28

Fall 2000 27
that they were legally valid. These activi- the local police to allow them to continue
ties antagonized the Governor, who then to operate.
continued from p. 27
called for a full crack down on becak
operators, to be implemented by
Ultimately, the enforcement of the ban
was again put off indefinitely, and today
February 28, 2000. On February 28, 2000, becaks continue to operate in Jakarta.
with President Wahid, who, it was a demonstration of becak drivers orga- ITDP and LPIST are trying to end the
believed, would ask the regional parlia- nized by UPC turned into a riot, and political log-jam over this issue by
ment to rescind the ban. As it turned out, UPC head Wardah Hafidz was jailed for grounding it in a broader debate about
the unpredictable President said the ban 3 days. the efficiency and safety of short-dis-
should be enforced, but that the becak In the three districts where the becak tance transport in general, and about the
drivers should receive compensation unions organized by LPIST were opera- decentralization of decision-making. ♦
when their vehicles were taken away. tional, however, there were no troubles,
At this point, demonstrations turned as an agreement had been reached with
ugly. UPC initiated an international let-
ter-writing campaign with support from
ITDP, SUSTRAN, and the US-based world’s vehicles consuming petrol and
Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
EDF took the lead, and over 2000 letters
Energy Crisis fully 52% of those using diesel as a fuel.
China, Indonesia, and India, three of the
were sent to the President and the continued from p.21 world’s most populous countries, also
have extremely low fuel prices and
international market price), the fact that rapidly increasing motor vehicle use.
the revenues generated by fuel price In these conditions, a major energy
increases are unlikely to benefit the crisis appears inevitable, with the
poor, and may well be stolen, makes world’s poorest countries again the
fuel price increases politically unpalat- main victims. The issue will not go away
able. Removal of subsidies is thus linked simply by ignoring it. The world’s
to the complex issue of oil and development organizations can no
gas sector reforms. In India longer ignore the fact that
as well, anti-poverty the likely disruption of
activists have been oil supplies is now well
vocal opponents of within the lifetime of
fuel price increas- any major infra-
es, though some structure invest-
environmental- ment, threatening
ists have sup- benefit streams
ported increases and loan repay-
in heavily subsi- ment schedules.
dized diesel Nor should the
prices. NGOs, in good
NGOs are un- faith, continue to
likely to come down provide political cover
on the same side as the for the rich who benefit
much-vilified IMF and the from the current system,
World Bank. The IMF and the while at the same time allowing
World Bank have frequently included in the IMF and the World Bank to take the
structural adjustment lending a condi- political heat for increasing fuel prices.
tion requiring fuel price increases and Even heavily conditional support for
the restructuring (i.e. privatization) of fuel price increases could play a positive
A hapless pedestrian avoiding a recently the oil and gas sectors. Many residents role in ending the irresponsible political
improved sidewalk in Surabaya in developing countries resent these logjam that continues to steer many
institutions and argue that if a govern- developing countries closer to the eco-
Governor asking them to rescind the ment chooses to subsidize fuel then nomic and environmental precipice.
ban. At the same time, UPC was employ- that’s its business. Two steps are therefore essential to
ing increasingly confrontational tactics. However, aggregate world demand is avoid this possibility. First, we must rec-
It organized a demonstration blockading clearly the sum of its parts. Aggregate ognize the impending energy problem
the Regional Parliament, which antago- fuel consumption, and the aggregate and the need to timetable the introduc-
nized the Parliamentarians and the environmental effects of fuel consump- tion of alternatives. Second, we need a
police. UPC also issued illicit operating tion such as global warming, are clearly worldwide pricing agreement to con-
licenses to the becak operators within increased by the countries with low oil serve existing supplies of oil for as long
their associations. This greatly antago- prices. The USA, for example, together as possible so as to create a sensible tran-
nized local authorities and also angered with Canada, Mexico, and current sition period. An additional gain from
many of the becak drivers, as a sec- Russia, charge only between a fifth and such actions is that profligate consump-
ondary market developed for these a third of the price of the top group of tion makes no environmental sense
licenses under the mistaken assumption countries, but account for 35% of the either. ♦

28 SustainableTransport 11
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economic Benefits of Cycling. Interface for Investment in Transportation Infrastructure
Economy’s Green Book: The Environmental Cycling Expertise, 2000. 1985-1995. European Conference of
Guide to Cars and Trucks, Model Year 2000. Predikherenstraat 17, 3512 TL Utrecht, Ministers of Transportation, 2000. 19 rue
John DeCicco, Jim Kliesch, and Martin The Netherlands. Tel. +31 30 230 45 21. de Franqueville, F-750126, Paris, France.
Thomas, 2000. American Council for an email: Tel. 33 (0) 1 45 24 81 67.
Energy-Efficient Economy, 1001
Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 801, Edu-Bike Africa—Learner’s Workbook.
Washington, D.C. 20036. Althea Kemp, edited by Andrew Leisure Traffic-Unlimited Growth? Swiss
Tel. (202)429-0063 Hofmeyr. Education Africa, Private Bag National Science Foundation, NFP41, X13, Pinegowrie, 2123, Gauteng, South CHF 29. FAX +41 31 325 5058.
Africa. Tel. (011)888-6043. email: mail-
Automatic Fare Collection. International
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2000. Doriano ANGOTZI, Sales of Engineering-Economic Analysis of Service. International Association of
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1160 Bruxelles, Belgium. DeCicco, 2000. American Council for an Advertising Officer, UITP, avenue
Tel. ++32 02 663 66 46. Energy-Efficient Economy, 1001 Herrmann-Debroux 17, B-1160 Bruxelles,
email: Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 801, Belgium. Tel. ++32 02 663 66 46.
Washington, D.C. 20036. email:
Can Rail Pay? Light Rail Transit and Urban Tel. (202)429-0063.
email: Online Transportation Demand
Redevelopment with Value Capture Funding
Management (TDM) Encyclopedia.
and Joint Development Mechanisms. Jan
The European Investment Bank: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2000.
Scheurer, Peter Newman, Jeff
Accountable Only to the Market?
Kenworthy with Thomas Gallagher, .
A Report by the CEE Bankwatch
Institute for Sustainability and Passenger Information. International
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Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Association of Public Transport (UITP),
Heinrich Böll Foundation, Brussels
Perth Australia. 2000. Doriano Angotzi, Sales of
Office, 1999. 28, rue le Titien, B-1000 Publications and Advertising Officer,
Brussels. Tel. +32-2-7434100.
lightrail/istp.html UITP, avenue Herrmann-Debroux 17, B-
email: 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium. Tel. ++32 02 663
Car Free Cities. J.H. Crawford, 2000.
66 46. email:
International Books.
External Costs of Transport: Accident,
email: Pollution Lineup: An Environmental
Environmental and Congestion Costs in Ranking of Automakers. Candace Morey,
Western Europe. UIC, Paris, 2000.
FAX +33 1 4449 2029. Roland Hwang, Jim Kliesch, and John
Cleaner Cars-Fleet Renewal and Scrappage DeCicco, 2000. American Council for an
Schemes. European Conference of Faring Badly: The Gender Aspects of Energy-Efficient Economy, 1001
Ministers of Transportation, 2000. 19 rue Travelling. Teena Gill, 1999. PANOS Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 801,
de Franqueville, F-75026, Paris, France. News Service. Washington, D.C. 20036. Tel. (202)429-
Tel. 33 (0) 1 45 24 81 67. panos/news/35nov99.htm 0063. email:
Fuel Prices and Taxation. Gerhard P. Productive and Livable Cities—Guidelines
CO2 Emissions from Transport. Metschies, 1999. Deutsche Gesellschaft for Pedestrian and Bicycle Traffic in African
European Conference of Ministers of für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). Cities. Compiled by Marius de Langen
Transportation, 2000. 19 rue de and Rustica Tembele, 2000. email:
Franqueville, F-75026, Paris, France. kli@IHE.NL
Tel. 33 (0) 1 45 24 81 67 Human Power—Technical Journal of the IHPVA. International Human Powered Rural Accessibility Planning Tool. 2000.
Vehicle Association, 2000. IHPVA, P.O. Helps communities and local organiza-
Cutting Your Car Use. Anna Semlyen, Box 1307, San Luis Obispo, CA. 93406- tions identify their access problems and
cartoons by Andy Singer, 2000. 1307. Tel. (805)545-9003. propose solutions. Dr. Fatemeh Ali- email: Nejadfard, Senior Technical Advisor,
Access and Rural Employment,
Divorce Your Car–Ending the love affair Improving Conditions for Non Motorized ILO/ASIST, P.O. Box 210, Harare,
with the automobile. Katie Alvord, 2000. Transport in Surabaya, Indonesia. GTZ, Zimbabwe. FAX +263 4 759427.
New Society Publishers, P.O. Box 189, ITDP, LPIST, 2000. The Institute for email:
Gabriola Island, B.C. VOR 1X0, Canada. Transportation and Development Policy. email: continued on p.30

Fall 2000 29
continued from p. 29 Guide to People-Centred, Equitable and International Association of Public
Sustainable Urban Transport. Written and Transport (UITP), 1999. Doriano
Safe Routes to School—Step by Step. Ellen
compiled by A. Rahman Paul Barter and ANGOTZI, Sales of Publications and
Cavanagh, 2000. Transportation
Tamim Raad, 2000. SUSTRAN Network. Advertising Officer, UITP, avenue
Alternatives, 115 W. 30th Street, Suite
P.O. Box 11501, Kuala Lumpur 50748, Herrmann-Debroux 17, B-1160 Bruxelles,
1207, New York, NY 10001.
Malaysia. Tel. +(60 3) 2274 2590. Belgium. Tel. ++32 02 663 66 46.
Tel. (212)629-8080.
email: email:
Transportation for Livable Cities. Vukan R. Urban Structural and Modal Split.
Safety In Road Traffic for Vulnerable Users.
Vuchic,1999. Center for Urban Policy International Association of Public
European Conference of Ministers of
Research, 33 Livingston Avenue, Suite Transport (UITP), 1998. Doriano
Transportation, 2000. 19 rue de
400, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1982. ANGOTZI, Sales of Publications and
Franqueville, F-750126, Paris, France.
Tel. (732)932-3133 x.555. Advertising Officer, UITP, avenue
Tel. 33 (0) 1 45 24 81 67.
email: Herrmann-Debroux 17, B-1160 Bruxelles,
Transportation Research Board Publications. Belgium. Tel. ++32 02 663 66 46.
Street Design Guidelines for Healthy email:
TRB’s catalogue of publications runs the
Neighborhoods. Dan Burden, 2000. Center
gamut from “Enforcement of Urban Transportation and Traffic Policies:
for Livable Communities.
Environmental Mitigation Commitments The Challenge of Coexistence in Developing
Tel. (800)290-8202.
in Transportation Projects: A Survey of Countries. Eduardo A. Vasconcellos.
Sustainable Transport Policies. European Federal and State Practice” to “Travel Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 54,
Conference of Ministers of Transport, Behavior and Passenger Travel Demand Winter 2000, Washington, D.C.
2000. 2, Rue Andre Pascal, 78778 Paris Forecasting.” For a full catalogue go to: You Don’t Always Get What You Pay
Cedex 16, France. For–The Economics of Privitization. Elliott
email: bookstore/ D. Sclar, 2000. Century Foundation
TAKING STEPS: A Community Action Urban Public Transport Funding. Books.

Republic. (See article on the Czech ners around the world grew even faster.
Letter Republic) The local advocacy groups
there have developed sophisticated
ITDP would like to welcome Dr. Yaakov
Garb, who joins ITDP to oversee much
continued from p. 27 methods for fighting for sustainable of our Anti-Sprawl Campaign in Central
a price which returned a profit to the transport policy, but have asked ITDP to Europe; John Ernst, who oversees our
producers. Commercial adoption has help develop mechanisms to deal with Asia programs; Lloyd Wright, who has
thus already begun, and we hope it will the massive influx of Western-style agreed to represent ITDP from Quito,
reach a scale of over 700 vehicles com- shopping centers and office parks. Ecuador, and Noah Budnick, who joins
mercially bought and sold in Agra and ITDP has also initiated work in South us as Administrative Director. ITDP also
Delhi by the fall. (See Article, p. 24) China. Thanks to another generous grant welcomes Jon Orcutt, of the Tri-State
Towards the end of 2000, ITDP plans from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Trasnportation Campaign, who became
to initiate a project to replicate the Indian ITDP began working this spring with the our new President in January. A heart-
success in Jogjakarta, Indonesia, in coop- Guangdong Consumers Association and felt thanks to Dr. V. Setty Pendakur who
eration with Institute for the Support of the Guangzhou Urban Transport will remain on our Board. A big wel-
Strategic Initiatives (LPIST) and Gadjah Planning Research Institute to build come to Jay Townley, of the Bicycle
Mada University. Partial funding has public support for a set of traffic demand Retailers Education Conference and the
been secured for this from Jay Harris, management measures that grew out of National Bicycle Dealers Association,
and we hope the New Land Foundation the World Bank loan for the Guangzhou who joined our Board this year. A heart-
will also support this. Again, direct work inner ring road. We will focus initially felt thanks to Keith Oberg, who left the
with the local cycle rickshaw manufac- on pedestrian improvements in work- Board this year to become Vice President
turers and the Indonesian bike industry shops this fall. We also researched the of Pedals for Progress. Keith put in more
is critical to the project’s success. Some implementation of that loan and found than 10 years as both a President and
continuation in India is also not out of the very dangerous precedent that the Board Member of ITDP, and his insights
the question. loan went ahead despite the clear impact and leadership gave ITDP much of its
of driving the city of Guangzhou into moral compass over the years. Support
Improving Transport and Land further violation of Chinese national from individual contributors remains
Use Governance ambient air quality standards. We are our pride and joy. Thanks also to the
ITDP’s work with sustainable transport completing a case study that will make Rockefeller Brothers Fund, U.S. AID-
advocacy groups continues to focus on specific proposals to the World Bank India, the Umwelt Bundesamt, GTZ, the
Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. directors which would avoid these prob- International Foundation, the Tucker
The enclosed article on Indonesia gives a lems in the future. Foundation, the Changing Horizons
thorough update of our efforts there. In Trust of the Tides Foundation,
Central Europe, ITDP has just initiated a Concluding Comments Alternative Gift Markets, the World
major anti-sprawl campaign with the ITDP grew very fast over the last year, Bank, the New Land Foundation, the
Hungarian Clean Air Action Group, the with our projects and committments Roy A. Hunt Foundation, the Seattle
Polish Society for Ecological Transport, roughly doubling in size, and the funds Foundation, the Maine Community
and several groups in the Czech we were able to leverage for our part- Foundation. ♦

30 SustainableTransport 11
Interbike - Las Vegas, Nevada, US, 24-27 September 2000. 4th International Workshop: Tansportation Planning &
International bicycle industry’s annual exposition. Implmentation Methodologies for Developing
Tel. (949)376-6161/FAX (949)497-9502. Countries—Transportation Infrastructure - Bombay, India,
5-7 December 2000. email:,
BTAC Bike Show - Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1-4 October
2000. Tel. (514)393-1132/FAX (514)393-9513
Australia Walking the 21st Century—An International
Environmentally Sustainable Transport - Vienna, Austria, 4-6 Walking Conference - Perth, Western Australia, 20-22 February
October 2000. Futures, strategies, and best practices. 2001. John Seaton, Tel. +61 8 9313 8680/FAX +61 8 9320 9497 email:

Railvolution - Denver, Colorado, US, 4-8 October 2000. bike-on - Frankfurt, Germany, 27 February-2 March 2001.
Annual rail conference. Another meeting point for the international bicycle industry. Tel.
+49 (0) 69 75 75 - 5896/FAX +49 (0) 69 75 75 - 6533.
CABDA - Rosemont, Illinois, US, 6-8 October 2000. World email:
Cycling Exposition. Tel. (708)798-2004/FAX (708)798-2208
Managing Your Road Assets - Melbourne, Australia, 19-21
Cities for Cyclists Annual Meeting - Gent, Belgium, 12-13 March 2001. Margaret Husslebee, ARRB Transport Research Ltd,
October 2000. Cities for Cyclists Secretariat c/o Dansk Cyklist Tel. +61 3 9881 1578/FAX +61 3 9887 8104,
Forbund, att. Tanja Gronvall, FAX +45 33 32 76 83
email: International Exhibition of Public Transport—City
Transport 2001 - London, England, 21-24 May 2001.
UITP Melbourne 2000 Public Transport Conference Event -
Merlbourne, Australia, 8-13 October 2000. Includes both
International Union of Public Transport (UITP) Light Rail 54th UITP International Congress - London, England, 20-25
Conference and the Asia/Pacific Congress and City Transport May 2001. UITP, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 17, B-1160
Exhibition. Brussels, Belgium. Tel. (32-2) 660 1072.
Bicycling Australia Show 2000 - Melbourne, Australia, 13-15
October 2000. Bicycle industry trade show. Tel. 61-2-4225- Transed 2001: Towards Safety, Independence and
9111/FAX (61-2-4225-7422. Security - Warsaw, Poland, 2-5 July 2001. 9th International
Conference on Mobility and Transportation for Elderly and
Smart Urban Transport—Using Transitways and Busways - Disabled People. email:
Brisbane, Australia, 17-20 October 2000.
Tel. +617-38541611/FAX +617-38541507 9th World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR) -
email: Seoul, South Korea, 22-27 July 2001. The Korean Transport
Institute, 2311 Daehwa-Dong, Ilsan-Gu, Koyang-city, Kyonggi-
Port Cities and Sustainable Development: 7th Cities and Do, 411-410, Korea. email:,
Ports International Conference - Marseilles, France, 6-9
November 2000. Denis Davoult, International Association of
Cities and Ports, 45, rue Lord Kitchener, 76600 LE HARVE, Velo-City - Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland, 17-21
France. Tel. (33) 2 35 42 21 94 email: September 2001. Tel. 0141 287 9039,

Regional Policy Seminar on Transport and Communication Fourth Conference of the Eastern Asian Society for
Challenges for Urban Local Governments in the 21st Transportation Studies (EASTS) - Hanoi, Vietnam, 24-26
Century - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 8-10 November 2000. October 2001. email:,

XI Pan-American Conference in Traffic and Transportation Carfree Institute - by train from Amsterdam to Venice,
Engineering - Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 19-23 September or October 2001. Hosted by the Carfree Institute.
November 2000. Dr. Luis Antonio Lindau Tel. +55 51 316 email:,
3596/FAX +55 51 316 4007, email:,

Fall 2000 31
Your tax-deductible contribution, now more than ever, sustains
ITDP’s youth bicycle projects in South Africa and Haiti; funds
workbike procurement and training for rural women in
Mozambique; advances ITDP transport policy initiatives in
Central and Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia and the Americas.
Additionally, your gift to ITDP helps convince larger donors to
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